4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸MN‍MN 19    🔝
 MN 19 - MN 19 dve-dhā-vitakka: two-sorts-of-thinking
    MN 19.1 (divide thoughts into 2 groups, good and bad)
    MN 19.2 (how to handle 3 types of wrong thoughts)
    MN 19.3 (how to handle 3 types of good thoughts)
    MN 19.4 (code phrase for successful entry into 4 jhānas)
    MN 19.5 (Buddhist redefinition of Brahmin 3 Vedas (te-vijja))
    MN 19.6 (simile: mara wants to kill deer, buddha wants to lead them to safety)

detailed TOC

 MN 19 - MN 19 dve-dhā-vitakka: two-sorts-of-thinking
    MN 19.1 (divide thoughts into 2 groups, good and bad)
        MN 19.1.1 (bad: 3 counterparts of right resolve)
        MN 19.1.2 (good: 3 parts of right resolve)
    MN 19.2 (how to handle 3 types of wrong thoughts)
        MN 19.2.1 (kāma vitakko)
        MN 19.2.2 (byāpāda vitakko)
        MN 19.2.3 (vihiṃsā vitakko)
        MN 19.2.10 (V&V quality of thinking “bends” mind into habit)
        MN 19.2.11 (simile of cowherd busy)
    MN 19.3 (how to handle 3 types of good thoughts)
        MN 19.3.1 (renunciation in opposition to kāma/lust)
        MN 19.3.1.3 (first jhāna blocked by tired body)
        MN 19.3.1.5 (code phrase for “attempt 4 jhānas”)
        MN 19.3.2 (non ill will in opposition to ill will)
        MN 19.3.3 (non harm in opposition to harm)
        MN 19.3.10 (reiteration: quality of V&V thinking “bends” mind into habit)
        MN 19.3.11 (simile of cowherd relaxed in jhāna)
    MN 19.4 (code phrase for successful entry into 4 jhānas)
        MN 19.4.1 (STED 4 jhānas)
    MN 19.5 (Buddhist redefinition of Brahmin 3 Vedas (te-vijja))
        MN 19.5.1 (STED 6ab#4: recollection of past lives)
        MN 19.5.2 (STED 6ab#5: divine eye: sees where beings are reborn according to kamma)
        MN 19.5.3 (STED 6ab#6: arahantship)
    MN 19.6 (simile: mara wants to kill deer, buddha wants to lead them to safety)

19 - MN 19 dve-dhā-vitakka: two-sorts-of-thinking


MN 19 dve-dhā---vitakka-suttaṃ
MN 19 Two Sorts of Thinking
(cst4)
(derived from Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu‍ and B. Sujato‍ .)
♦ 206. evaṃ me sutaṃ —
I have heard that
ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā
on one occasion the Blessed One
sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane
was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove,
anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.
tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi —
There he addressed the monks:
“bhikkhavo”ti.
“Monks!”
“bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ.
“Yes, lord,” the monks responded to him.
bhagavā etadavoca —
The Blessed One said,

19.1 (divide thoughts into 2 groups, good and bad)


♦ “pubbeva me, bhikkhave, sambodhā
“Monks, before my self-awakening,
anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva
when I was still just an unawakened bodhisatta,
sato etadahosi —
the thought occurred to me:
‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ dvidhā katvā dvidhā katvā vitakke vihareyyan’ti.
‘Why don’t I keep dividing my thinking into two sorts?’

19.1.1 (bad: 3 counterparts of right resolve)


so kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave,
So I made
yo cāyaṃ kāma-vitakko
thinking imbued with sensuality,
yo ca byāpāda-vitakko
thinking imbued with ill will,
yo ca vihiṃsā-vitakko —
& thinking imbued with harmfulness
imaṃ ekaṃ bhāgamakāsiṃ;
one sort,

19.1.2 (good: 3 parts of right resolve)

(2💭 ) from 👑8☸ )
yo cāyaṃ nekkhamma-vitakko
and thinking imbued with renunciation,
yo ca abyāpāda-vitakko
thinking imbued with non-ill will,
yo ca avihiṃsā-vitakko —
& thinking imbued with harmlessness
imaṃ dutiyaṃ bhāgamakāsiṃ.
another sort.

19.2 (how to handle 3 types of wrong thoughts)

19.2.1 (kāma vitakko)


♦ 207. “tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave,
“And as I
evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato
remained thus assiduous, ardent, & resolute,
uppajjati kāma-vitakko.
thinking imbued with sensuality arose in me.
so evaṃ pajānāmi — ‘uppanno kho me ayaṃ kāma-vitakko.
I discerned that ‘Thinking imbued with sensuality has arisen in me;
so ca kho attabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati,
and that leads to my own affliction
parabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati,
or to the affliction of others
ubhayabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati,
or to the affliction of both.
paññā-nirodhiko
It obstructs discernment,
vighātapakkhiko
promotes vexation,
a-nibbāna-saṃvattaniko’ .
& does not lead to nirvana.’
‘attabyābādhāya saṃvattatī’tipi me, bhikkhave,
“As I noticed that it leads to my own affliction,
paṭisañcikkhato abbhatthaṃ gacchati;
it subsided.
‘parabyābādhāya saṃvattatī’tipi me, bhikkhave,
As I noticed that it leads to the affliction of others…
paṭisañcikkhato abbhatthaṃ gacchati;
...
‘ubhayabyābādhāya saṃvattatī’tipi me, bhikkhave,
to the affliction of both…
paṭisañcikkhato abbhatthaṃ gacchati;
...
‘paññā-nirodhiko
it obstructs discernment,
vighātapakkhiko
promotes vexation,
a-nibbāna-saṃvattaniko’tipi me, bhikkhave,
& does not lead to nirvana,
paṭisañcikkhato abbhatthaṃ gacchati.
it subsided.
so kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave,
Whenever
uppannuppannaṃ kāma-vitakkaṃ
thinking imbued with sensuality had arisen,
pajahameva
I simply abandoned it,
vinodameva
destroyed it,
byantameva
dispelled it,
naṃ akāsiṃ.
wiped it out of existence.

19.2.2 (byāpāda vitakko)


♦ 208. “tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave,
“And as I
evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato
remained thus assiduous, ardent, & resolute,
uppajjati byāpāda-vitakko ...
thinking imbued with ill will arose in me.
pe ...

(right effort removes this bad thought using same right view viveka insight method as in MN 192.1)




19.2.3 (vihiṃsā vitakko)


uppajjati vihiṃsā-vitakko.
...thinking imbued with cruelty arose…

(right effort removes this bad thought using same right view viveka insight method as in MN 192.1)



19.2.10 (V&V quality of thinking “bends” mind into habit)


Yaññadeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, tathā tathā nati hoti cetaso.
Whatever a monk frequently thinks about and ponders becomes their heart’s inclination.
Kāmavitakkañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, pahāsi nekkhammavitakkaṃ, kāmavitakkaṃ bahulamakāsi, tassa taṃ kāmavitakkāya cittaṃ namati.
If they often think about and consider sensual thoughts, they’ve given up the thought of renunciation to cultivate sensual thought. Their mind inclines to sensual thoughts.
Byāpādavitakkañce, bhikkhave … pe …
If they often think about and consider malicious thoughts … their mind inclines to malicious thoughts.
vihiṃsāvitakkañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, pahāsi avihiṃsāvitakkaṃ, vihiṃsāvitakkaṃ bahulamakāsi, tassa taṃ vihiṃsāvitakkāya cittaṃ namati.
If they often think about and consider cruel thoughts … their mind inclines to cruel thoughts.

19.2.11 (simile of cowherd busy)


seyyathāpi, bhikkhave,
“Just as,
vassānaṃ pacchime māse
(in) the-rains-period, following (the) last-month,
saradasamaye kiṭṭha-sambādhe
(in the) autumn-season, when the crops are ripening,
gopālako gāvo rakkheyya.
(a) cowherd, (his) cows (he) would look after:
so tā gāvo tato tato daṇḍena
on this side & that (with his) stick,
ākoṭeyya paṭikoṭeyya sannirundheyya sannivāreyya.
(he would) tap & poke & check & curb them.
taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
passati hi so, bhikkhave,
Because he foresees
gopālako tato-nidānaṃ
(the) cowherd (on) account-of [letting cows run amuck]
vadhaṃ vā bandhanaṃ vā
flogging or imprisonment or
jāniṃ vā garahaṃ vā.
a fine or public censure.

(right effort, right view, ardency, vigor, is dominant here in trying for first jhāna)


evameva kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, addasaṃ
In the same way, monks, I foresaw
a-kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ
(in) un-skillful qualities
ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃ-kilesaṃ,
drawbacks, degradation, & defilement,
kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ
(and I foresaw in) skillful qualities
nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodāna-pakkhaṃ.
renunciation (related) awards, & {promoting}-cleansing.

19.3 (how to handle 3 types of good thoughts)

19.3.1 (renunciation in opposition to kāma/lust)


♦ 209. “tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave,
“And as I,
evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato
thusly assiduous, ardent, resolute (I) remained,
uppajjati nekkhamma-vitakko.
(there) arose renunciation-thinking.
so evaṃ pajānāmi —
This I discerned -
‘uppanno kho me ayaṃ nekkhamma-vitakko.
‘arisen in me, this renunciation-thinking.
so ca kho nev-atta-byābādhāya saṃvattati,
and that leads neither to my own affliction,
na para-byābādhāya saṃvattati,
nor to the affliction of others,
na ubhaya-byābādhāya saṃvattati,
nor to the affliction of both.
paññā-vuddhiko
discernment (it) fosters,
A-vighāta-pakkhiko
lack (of) vexation (it) promotes,
nibbāna-saṃvattaniko’.
(to) Nirvana (it) leads.
rattiṃ cepi naṃ, bhikkhave,
even for a night
anu-vitakkeyyaṃ anu-vicāreyyaṃ,
(if I should) excessively-think (and) excessively-ponder,
neva tatonidānaṃ bhayaṃ samanupassāmi.
I do not envision any danger that would come from it,
divasaṃ cepi naṃ, bhikkhave,
even for a day
anu-vitakkeyyaṃ anu-vicāreyyaṃ,
(if I should) excessively-think (and) excessively-ponder,
neva tatonidānaṃ bhayaṃ samanupassāmi.
I do not envision any danger that would come from it,

19.3.1.3 (first jhāna blocked by tired body)


Rattin-divaṃ cepi naṃ, bhikkhave,
even for a day & night,
anu-vitakkeyyaṃ anu-vicāreyyaṃ,
(if I should) excessively-think (and) excessively-ponder,
neva tatonidānaṃ bhayaṃ samanupassāmi.
I do not envision any danger that would come from it,
api ca kho me aticiraṃ anu-vitakkayato anu-vicārayato
except that thinking & pondering a long time
kāyo kilameyya.
would tire the body.
kāye kilante VAR cittaṃ ūhaññeyya.
When the body is tired, the mind is disturbed;
ūhate citte ārā cittaṃ samādhimhāti.
(and a) disturbed mind (is) far (from a) mind (in) undistractable-lucidity.’

19.3.1.5 (code phrase for “attempt 4 jhānas”)


so kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave,
So I,
ajjhattameva cittaṃ
internally (my) mind
saṇṭhapemi sannisādemi
steadied (and) settled,
ekodiṃ karomi VAR
unified (I) made (it),
samādahāmi.
(I made it) undistractable-&-lucid.
taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
‘mā me cittaṃ ūhaññī’ti VAR.
So that my mind would not be disturbed.

19.3.2 (non ill will in opposition to ill will)


“tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato
as I meditated…
uppajjati abyāpāda-vitakko ... pe ...
thoughts of non-ill will arose…

(handle in same way as renunciation thoughts from MN 193.1 through MN 193.1.5)






















19.3.3 (non harm in opposition to harm)


uppajjati avihiṃsā-vitakko.
thinking imbued with harmlessness arose in me…

(handle in same way as renunciation thoughts from MN 193.1 through MN 193.1.5)



19.3.10 (reiteration: quality of V&V thinking “bends” mind into habit)


Yaññadeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, tathā tathā nati hoti cetaso.
Whatever a monk frequently thinks about and considers becomes their heart’s inclination.
Nekkhammavitakkañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, pahāsi kāmavitakkaṃ, nekkhammavitakkaṃ bahulamakāsi, tassaṃ taṃ nekkhammavitakkāya cittaṃ namati.
If they often think about and consider thoughts of renunciation, they’ve given up sensual thought to cultivate the thought of renunciation. Their mind inclines to thoughts of renunciation.
Abyāpādavitakkañce, bhikkhave … pe …
If they often think about and consider thoughts of non-ill will … their mind inclines to thoughts of non-ill will.
avihiṃsāvitakkañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu bahulamanuvitakketi anuvicāreti, pahāsi vihiṃsāvitakkaṃ, avihiṃsāvitakkaṃ bahulamakāsi, tassa taṃ avihiṃsāvitakkāya cittaṃ namati.
If they often think about and consider thoughts of non-cruelty … their mind inclines to thoughts of non-cruelty.

19.3.11 (simile of cowherd relaxed in jhāna)


seyyathāpi, bhikkhave,
“Just as (in the)
gimhānaṃ pacchime māse
hot-season, (in the) last month,
sabba-sassesu gāmanta-sambhatesu
(when) all-crops (into the) village-(they've been)-stored-up,
gopālako gāvo rakkheyya,
a cowherd {would look after} (his) cows:
tassa rukkha-mūla-gatassa vā
While resting under the shade of a tree or
abbhokāsa-gatassa vā
out in the open,
\xED\xA0\xBD\xED\xB0\x98 sati-karaṇīyam-eva hoti — ‘etā VAR gāvo’ti.
\xED\xA0\xBD\xED\xB0\x98 he simply keeps himself remembering ‘those cows.’
evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave,
In the same way,
\xED\xA0\xBD\xED\xB0\x98 sati-karaṇīyam-eva ahosi — ‘ete dhammā’ti.
\xED\xA0\xBD\xED\xB0\x98 I simply kept myself remembering ‘those Dhammas.’

19.4 (code phrase for successful entry into 4 jhānas)

(slight variation on 7sb☀️ awakening factors)

“āraddhaṃ kho pana me, bhikkhave,
“aroused indeed in me, monks
(7sb → 3. 🏹) vīriyaṃ ahosi a-sallīnaṃ,
(7sb → 3. 🏹), vigor was un-flagging,
(7sb → 1. 🐘) upaṭṭhitā sati a-sam-muṭṭhā,
(7sb → 1. 🐘) established remembering [of which ☸Dhamma to do], not-forgetful,
(7sb → 5. 🌊) passaddho kāyo a-sāraddho,
(7sb → 5. 🌊) Pacified body, un-aroused,
(7sb → 6. 🌄) samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ek’aggaṃ.
(7sb → 6. 🌄) Undistractability-and-lucidity (of) mind (with) singular-preoccupation.


19.4.1 (STED 4 jhānas)

(first jhāna j1🌘 )
🚫💑 vivicc’eva kāmehi
Judiciously-secluded from desire for five cords of sensual pleasures,
🚫😠 vivicca a-kusalehi dhammehi
Judiciously-secluded from unskillful ☸Dharmas,
(V&V💭) sa-vitakkaṃ sa-vicāraṃ
with directed-thought and evaluation [of those verbal ☸Dharma thoughts],
😁🙂 viveka-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
with [mental] rapture and [physical] pleasure born from judicious-seclusion,
🌘 paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in first jhāna.


(second jhāna j2🌗 )
Vitakka-vicārānaṃ vūpasamā
with the subsiding of directed-thought and evaluation [of those verbal ☸Dharma thoughts],
ajjhattaṃ sam-pasādanaṃ
with internal purity and self-confidence,
🌄 cetaso ekodi-bhāvaṃ
his mind becomes singular in focus.
🚫(V&V💭) a-vitakkaṃ a-vicāraṃ
Without directed-thought and evaluation, [mental processing is now subverbal,]
🌄😁🙂 samādhi-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
[mental] rapture and [physical] pleasure is born from undistractible-lucidity,
🌗 dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in second jhāna.


(third jhāna j3🌖 )
🚫😁 pītiyā ca virāgā
With [mental] rapture fading,
👁 upekkhako ca viharati
he lives equanimously observing [☸Dharmas with subverbal mental processing].
(S&S🐘💭) sato ca sam-pajāno,
remembering [and applying relevant ☸Dharma], he lucidly discerns.
🙂🚶 sukhañca kāyena paṭi-saṃ-vedeti,
He experiences pleasure with the [physical] body.
yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti —
The Noble Ones praise this [stage of jhāna in particular because they expect this to be the normal state of the average monk in all postures at all times]:
‘upekkhako satimā sukha-vihārī’ti
"He lives happily with pleasure, Equanimously observing and remembering [to engage in relevant ☸Dharma]."
🌖 tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in third jhāna.


(fourth jhāna j4🌕 )
sukhassa ca pahānā
With the abandoning of [physical] pleasure
dukkhassa ca pahānā
and pain,
pubbeva so-manassa-do-manassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
with the previous abandoning of elated and distressed mental states,
A-dukkham-a-sukhaṃ
experiencing [physical] sensations of neither pain nor pleasure,
👁🐘 Upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ
his equanimous observation and his remembering [and application of relevant ☸Dharma] is purified.
🌕 catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati
he attains and lives in fourth jhāna.




19.5 (Buddhist redefinition of Brahmin 3 Vedas (te-vijja))

(3 vedas are the 3 higher knowledges of 6ab ⚡☸ )

19.5.1 (STED 6ab#4: recollection of past lives)


♦ 212. “so evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmesiṃ. so anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarāmi. seyyathidaṃ, ekampi jātiṃ ... pe ... iti sākāraṃ sauddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarāmi.
“When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of recollecting my past lives. I recollected my manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two… five, ten… fifty, a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand, many eons of cosmic contraction, many eons of cosmic expansion, many eons of cosmic contraction & expansion: ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus I remembered my manifold past lives in their modes & details.
ayaṃ kho me, bhikkhave, rattiyā paṭhame yāme paṭhamā vijjā adhigatā; avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato āloko uppanno; yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
“This was the first knowledge I attained in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose —as happens in one who is assiduous, ardent, & resolute.

19.5.2 (STED 6ab#5: divine eye: sees where beings are reborn according to kamma)


♦ 213. “so evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmesiṃ. so dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne upapajjamāne ... pe ... ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā ... pe ... iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāmi.
“When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the passing away & reappearance of beings. I saw—by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human—beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: ‘These beings—who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views—with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. But these beings—who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views—with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.’ Thus—by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human—I saw beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.
ayaṃ kho me, bhikkhave, rattiyā majjhime yāme dutiyā vijjā adhigatā; avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato āloko uppanno; yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
“This was the second knowledge I attained in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose—as happens in one who is assiduous, ardent, & resolute.

19.5.3 (STED 6ab#6: arahantship)


♦ 214. “so evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmesiṃ. so ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. ‘ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. tassa me evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ ahosi — ‘khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsiṃ.
“When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the ending of effluents. I discerned, as it had come to be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress… These are effluents… This is the origination of effluents… This is the cessation of effluents… This is the way leading to the cessation of effluents.’ My heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, was released from the effluent of sensuality, released from the effluent of becoming, released from the effluent of ignorance. With release, there was the knowledge, ‘Released.’ I discerned that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’
ayaṃ kho me, bhikkhave, rattiyā pacchime yāme tatiyā vijjā adhigatā; avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato āloko uppanno; yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
“This was the third knowledge I attained in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose—as happens in one who is assiduous, ardent, & resolute.

19.6 (simile: mara wants to kill deer, buddha wants to lead them to safety)


Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, araññe pavane mahantaṃ ninnaṃ pallalaṃ.
Suppose that in a forested wilderness there was an expanse of low-lying swampland,
Tamenaṃ mahāmigasaṅgho upanissāya vihareyya.
and a large herd of deer lived nearby.
Tassa kocideva puriso uppajjeyya anatthakāmo ahitakāmo ayogakkhemakāmo.
Then along comes a person who wants to harm, injure, and threaten them.
So yvāssa maggo khemo sovatthiko pītigamanīyo taṃ maggaṃ pidaheyya, vivareyya kummaggaṃ, odaheyya okacaraṃ, ṭhapeyya okacārikaṃ.
They close off the safe, secure path that leads to happiness, and open the wrong path. There they plant domesticated male and female deer as decoys
Evañhi so, bhikkhave, mahāmigasaṅgho aparena samayena anayabyasanaṃ āpajjeyya.
so that, in due course, that herd of deer would come to ruin and disaster.
Tasseva kho pana, bhikkhave, mahato migasaṅghassa kocideva puriso uppajjeyya atthakāmo hitakāmo yogakkhemakāmo.
Then along comes a person who wants to help keep the herd of deer safe.
So yvāssa maggo khemo sovatthiko pītigamanīyo taṃ maggaṃ vivareyya, pidaheyya kummaggaṃ, ūhaneyya okacaraṃ, nāseyya okacārikaṃ.
They open up the safe, secure path that leads to happiness, and close off the wrong path. They get rid of the decoys
Evañhi so, bhikkhave, mahāmigasaṅgho aparena samayena vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjeyya.
so that, in due course, that herd of deer would grow, increase, and mature.
Upamā kho me ayaṃ, bhikkhave, katā atthassa viññāpanāya.
I’ve made up this simile to make a point.
Ayaṃ cevettha attho—
And this is what it means.
mahantaṃ ninnaṃ pallalanti kho, bhikkhave, kāmānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘An expanse of low-lying swampland’ is a term for sensual pleasures.
Mahāmigasaṅghoti kho, bhikkhave, sattānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘A large herd of deer’ is a term for sentient beings.
Puriso anatthakāmo ahitakāmo ayogakkhemakāmoti kho, bhikkhave, mārassetaṃ pāpimato adhivacanaṃ.
‘A person who wants to harm, injure, and threaten them’ is a term for Māra the Wicked.
Kummaggoti kho, bhikkhave, aṭṭhaṅgikassetaṃ micchāmaggassa adhivacanaṃ, seyyathidaṃ—
‘The wrong path’ is a term for the wrong eightfold path, that is,
micchādiṭṭhiyā micchāsaṅkappassa micchāvācāya micchākammantassa micchāājīvassa micchāvāyāmassa micchāsatiyā micchāsamādhissa.
wrong view, wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, and wrong immersion.
Okacaroti kho, bhikkhave, nandīrāgassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘A domesticated male deer’ is a term for desire with relishing.
Okacārikāti kho, bhikkhave, avijjāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘A domesticated female deer’ is a term for ignorance.
Puriso atthakāmo hitakāmo yogakkhemakāmoti kho, bhikkhave, tathāgatassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa.
‘A person who wants to help keep the herd of deer safe’ is a term for the Realized One, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha.
Khemo maggo sovatthiko pītigamanīyoti kho, bhikkhave, ariyassetaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa adhivacanaṃ, seyyathidaṃ—
‘The safe, secure path that leads to happiness’ is a term for the noble eightfold path, that is:
sammādiṭṭhiyā sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvācāya sammākammantassa sammāājīvassa sammāvāyāmassa sammāsatiyā sammāsamādhissa.
right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right immersion.
Iti kho, bhikkhave, vivaṭo mayā khemo maggo sovatthiko pītigamanīyo, pihito kummaggo, ūhato okacaro, nāsitā okacārikā.
So, monks, I have opened up the safe, secure path to happiness and closed off the wrong path. And I have got rid of the male and female decoys.
Yaṃ, bhikkhave, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā.
Out of compassion, I’ve done what a teacher should do who wants what’s best for their disciples.
Etāni, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlāni, etāni suññāgārāni; jhāyatha, bhikkhave, mā pamādattha; mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti.
Here are these roots of trees, and here are these empty huts. Practice absorption, monks! Don’t be negligent! Don’t regret it later! This is my instruction to you.”
Idamavoca bhagavā.
That is what the Buddha said.
Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
Satisfied, the monks were happy with what the Buddha said.
(end of sutta⏹️)


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