4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → MN‍ → MN 10 → MN‍ 10ma    🔝
 MN‍ 10ma 0 – MN 10 MA: Tv root commentary
MN‍ 10ma 1 - Kāy-ānu-passanā: Observing the Body
MN‍ 10ma 2 - Vedan-ānu-passanā: Observing the sensations
MN‍ 10ma 3 - Citt-ānu-passanā: Observing the Mind
MN‍ 10ma 4 - Dhamm-ānu-passanā: Observing dharmas

detailed TOC

 MN‍ 10ma 0 – MN 10 MA: Tv root commentary
    MN‍ 10ma 0.1 - kammasdamma
    MN‍ 10ma 0.2 - ekayano
    MN‍ 10ma 0.3 - ayana: way
    MN‍ 10ma 0.4 - story: 30 monks silent retreat, tigers eat them
    MN‍ 10ma 0.5 - story: pitamalla the wrestler
    MN‍ 10ma 0.6 - For the attainment of Nibbana
    MN‍ 10ma 0.7 - for purification of beings
    MN‍ 10ma 0.8 - why 4sp not more or less?
    MN‍ 10ma 0.9 - gloss bhikkhu
    MN‍ 10ma 0.10 - kāya rÅ«pa physical body
    MN‍ 10ma 0.11 - gloss viharati, sampajano, satima
    MN‍ 10ma 0.12 - another method of interpreting ‘seeing body as body’
    MN‍ 10ma 0.13 - remaining 4sp same pattern as ‘body as body’
MN‍ 10ma 1 - Kāy-ānu-passanā: Observing the Body
    MN‍ 10ma 1.1 Kāy-ānu-passanā-ānāpāna-pabba: rememberfulness of Breathing
    MN‍ 10ma 1.2 Kāy-ānu-passanā-iriyāpatha-pabba: The Postures
    MN‍ 10ma 1.3 Kāy-ānu-passanā-sampajāna-pabba: lucid-discerning
    MN‍ 10ma 1.4 Kāy-ānu-passanā-paá¹­ikÅ«lamanasikāra-pabba: Focusing on the Repulsive
    MN‍ 10ma 1.5 Kāy-ānu-passanā-dhātumanasikāra-pabba: Focusing on the Elements
    MN‍ 10ma 1.6 Kāy-ānu-passanā-navasivathika-pabba: The Charnel Ground Contemplations
MN‍ 10ma 2 - Vedan-ānu-passanā: Observing the sensations
MN‍ 10ma 3 - Citt-ānu-passanā: Observing the Mind
MN‍ 10ma 4 - Dhamm-ānu-passanā: Observing dharmas
    MN‍ 10ma 4.1 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-nÄ«varaṇa-pabba: The Hindrances
    MN‍ 10ma 4.2 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-khandha-pabba: The Aggregates
    MN‍ 10ma 4.3 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-āyatana-pabba: The Sense Fields
    MN‍ 10ma 4.4 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-bojjhaṅga-pabba: The Awakening Factors
    MN‍ 10ma 4.5 Dhammānupassanāsacca-pabba: The Truths

0 – MN 10 MA: Tv root commentary



Pali
Soma thera - english
105.Evaṃ me sutanti satipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ.
Evam me sutam = "Thus have I heard" the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness [Satipatthana Sutta].
Tattha kurūsu viharatīti kurunāmakā jānapadino rājakumārā, tesaṃ nivāso ekopi janapado ruḷhīsaddena kurūti vuccati, tasmiṃ kurūsu janapade.
Ekam samayam bhagava Kurusu viharati = "At one time the Blessed One was living in the (country of the) Kurus." Although the territory of the Kuru Princes, their homeland, was a single contiguous domain, by taking into consideration its many villages and market-towns, it was commonly referred to by the use of the plural form "Kurus. "
Aṭṭhakathācariyā panāhu – mandhātukāle tīsu dīpesu manussā jambudīpo nāma buddhapaccekabuddhamahāsāvakacakkavattipabhutīnaṃ uttamapurisānaṃ uppattibhūmi uttamadīpo atiramaṇīyoti sutvā raññā mandhātucakkavattinā cakkaratanaṃ purakkhatvā cattāro dīpe anusaṃyāyantena saddhiṃ āgamaṃsu.
In the time of the legendary king Mandhatu, say the commentators, inhabitants of the three continents, Pubba Videha, Apara Goyana, and Uttara Kuru, having heard that Jambudipa,[1] the birthplace of Sammasambuddhas,[2] Paccekabuddhas,[3] the Great Disciples of the Buddhas, Universal Monarchs and other beings of mighty virtue, was an exceedingly pleasant, excellent continent, came to Jambudipa with the Universal Monarch Mandhatu who was making a tour of all the continents, in due order, preceded by his Wheel Treasure.
Tato rājā pariṇāyakaratanaṃ pucchi –
"Atthi nu kho manussalokato ramaṇīyataraṃ ṭhāna"nti?
"Kasmā deva evaṃ bhaṇasi?
"Kiṃ na passasi candimasūriyānaṃ ānubhāvaṃ?
"Nanu etesaṃ ṭhānaṃ ito ramaṇīyatara"nti?
Rājā cakkaratanaṃ purakkhatvā tattha agamāsi.
Cattāro mahārājāno "mandhātumahārājā āgato"ti sutvāva "mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo rājā na sakkā yuddhena paṭibāhitu"nti sakarajjaṃ niyyātesuṃ.
So taṃ gahetvā puna pucchi – "atthi nu kho ito ramaṇīyataraṃ ṭhāna"nti.
Athassa tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ kathayiṃsu – "tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ, deva, ramaṇīyataraṃ, tattha sakkassa devarañño ime cattāro mahārājāno paricārakā dovārikabhūmiyaṃ tiṭṭhanti.
Sakko devarājā mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo.
Tassimāni pana upabhogaṭṭhānāni, yojanasahassubbedho vejayantapāsādo, pañcayojanasatubbedhā sudhammā devasabhā, diyaḍḍhayojanasatiko vejayantaratho, tathā erāvaṇo hatthī, dibbarukkhasahassapaṭimaṇḍitaṃ nandanavanaṃ cittalatāvanaṃ phārusakavanaṃ missakavanaṃ.
Yojanasatubbedho pāricchattako koviḷāro, tassa heṭṭhā saṭṭhiyojanāyāmā paṇṇāsayojanavitthatā pañcadasayojanubbedhā jayasumanapupphavaṇṇā paṇḍukambalasilā, yassā mudutāya sakkassa nisīdato upaḍḍhakāyo anupavisatī"ti.
Taṃ sutvā rājā tattha gantukāmo cakkaratanaṃ abbhukkiri.
Taṃ ākāse patiṭṭhāsi saddhiṃ caturaṅginiyā senāya.
Atha dvinnaṃ devalokānaṃ vemajjhato cakkaratanaṃ otaritvā pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāsi saddhiṃ pariṇāyakaratanappamukhāya caturaṅginiyā senāya.
Rājā ekakova tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ agamāsi.
Sakko "mandhātā āgato"ti sutvāva tassa paccuggamanaṃ katvā – "svāgataṃ te, mahārāja, sakaṃ te, mahārāja.
Anusāsa, mahārājā"ti vatvā saddhiṃ nāṭakehi rajjaṃ dvebhāge katvā ekaṃ bhāgamadāsi.
Rañño tāvatiṃsabhavane patiṭṭhitamattasseva manussabhāvo vigacchi, devabhāvo pāturahosi.
And at last when Mandhatu bodily translated himself by means of his psychic virtue to the Tavatimsa devaloka, the heaven of the Thirty-three,
Tassa kira sakkena saddhiṃ paṇḍukambalasilāyaṃ nisinnassa akkhinimisamattena nānattaṃ paññāyati.
Taṃ asallakkhentā devā sakkassa ca tassa ca nānatte muyhanti.
So tattha dibbasampattiṃ anubhavamāno yāva chattiṃsa sakkā uppajjitvā cutā, tāva rajjaṃ kāretvā atittoyeva kāmehi tato cavitvā attano uyyāne patiṭṭhito vātātapena phuṭṭhagatto kālamakāsi.
Cakkaratane pana pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhite pariṇāyakaratanaṃ suvaṇṇapaṭṭe mandhātuupāhanaṃ likhāpetvā idaṃ mandhāturajjanti rajjamanusāsi.
Tepi tīhi dīpehi āgatamanussā puna gantuṃ asakkontā pariṇāyakaratanaṃ upasaṅkamitvā "deva mayaṃ rañño ānubhāvena āgatā, idāni gantuṃ na sakkoma, vasanaṭṭhānaṃ no dehī"ti yāciṃsu.
the people of the three continents who accompanied him to Jambudipa begged of his son for territory to live in, as they said they had come carried by the great power of Mandhatu, and were now unable by themselves to return to their own continents.
So tesaṃ ekekaṃ janapadamadāsi.
Their prayer was heard and lands were granted to each of the groups of people of the three continents.
Tattha pubbavidehato āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso tāyeva purimasaññāya videharaṭṭhanti nāmaṃ labhi.
The settlement of people from Pubba Videha came to be known as Videha,
Aparagoyānato āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso aparantajanapadoti nāmaṃ labhi.
of those from Apara Goyana, as Aparanta,
Uttarakuruto āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso kururaṭṭhanti nāmaṃ labhīti.
and of those from Uttara Kuru as Kururattha.
Bahuke pana gāmanigamādayo upādāya bahuvacanena voharīyati.
Tena vuttaṃ "kurūsu viharatī"ti.

0.1 - kammasdamma

Kammāsadhammaṃnāma kurūnaṃ nigamoti.
Kammasadammam nama Kurunam nigamo = "At Kammasadamma, a market-town of the Kuru people."
Kammāsadhammanti ettha keci dha-kārassa da-kārena atthaṃ vaṇṇayanti.
Some explain the word Kammasadamma, here, spelling it with a "dh" instead of a "d."
Kammāso ettha damitoti kammāsadammo.
Since Kammasa was tamed here it was called Kammasadamma, the place of the taming of Kammasa.
Kammāsoti kammāsapādo porisādo vuccati.
Kammasa refers to the cannibal of Kammasapada, the one with the speckled, black and white or gray colored foot.
Tassa kira pāde khāṇukena viddhaṭṭhāne vaṇo ruhanto cittadārusadiso hutvā ruhi, tasmā kammāsapādoti paññāyittha.
It is said that a wound on his foot, caused by a stake, healed, having become like a piece of wood with lines of fibre of a complex pattern [cittadaru sadiso hutva].Therefore, he became well-known as Kammasapada, Speckled Foot.
So ca tasmiṃ okāse damito porisādabhāvato paṭisedhito.
was Speckled Foot tamed
Kena?
By whom?
Mahāsattena.
By the Great Being, the Bodhisatta.
Katarasmiṃ jātaketi?
In which Birth-story [Jataka] is it stated?
Mahāsutasomajātaketi eke.
Certain commentators say: "In the Sutasoma Birth-story."
Ime pana therā jayaddisajātaketi vadanti.
But the elders of the Great Minister at Anuradhapura, the Maha Vihara, say that it is stated in the Jayaddisa Birth-story.
Tadā hi mahāsattena kammāsapādo damito.
Kammasapada was tamed, weaned of his cannibalism, by the Great Being, in the circumstances mentioned in the Jayaddisa Birth-story.
Yathāha –
The following statement occurs in that story:
"Putto yadā homi jayaddisassa,
When born as very son of the king, Jayaddisa,
Pañcālaraṭṭhādhipatissa atrajo;
Pañcala's sovran chief,
Cajitvāna pāṇaṃ pitaraṃ pamocayiṃ,
To free my sire did I renounce my life,
Kammāsapādampi cahaṃ pasādayi"nti.
And make even Speckled Foot have faith in me. [4]
Keci pana dha-kāreneva atthaṃ vaṇṇayanti.
Some [keci] however explain spelling the word thus: Kammasadhamma.
Kururaṭṭhavāsīnaṃ kira kuruvattadhammo tasmiṃ kammāso jāto, tasmā taṃ ṭhānaṃ kammāso ettha dhammo jātoti kammāsadhammanti vuccati.
It is said that the traditional Kuru virtuous practice [Kuruvattadhamma] became (black or diversified or) stained [kammaso jato] in that place. Therefore, it was called Kammasadhamma.
Tattha niviṭṭhanigamassāpi etadeva nāmaṃ.
The market-town established there, too, got the same name.
Bhummavacanena kasmā na vuttanti?
Why was it not said Kammasadamme Kurunam nigame using the locative?
Avasanokāsato.
Bhagavato kira tasmiṃ nigame vasanokāso koci vihāro nāhosi.
Because, it is said, there was no monastery (or dwelling place) at which the Blessed One could stay, in that market-town.
Nigamato pana apakkamma aññatarasmiṃ udakasampanne ramaṇīye bhūmibhāge mahāvanasaṇḍo ahosi.
Away from the market-town, however, there was a huge dense jungle in a delightful region, watered well.
Tattha bhagavā vihāsi.
In that jungle, the Blessed One lived,
Taṃ nigamaṃ gocaragāmaṃ katvā, tasmā evamettha attho veditabbo "kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo, taṃ gocaragāmaṃ katvā"ti.
making the market-town his place for gathering alms.
Uddesavārakathāvaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

Uddesa: synopsis

0.2 - ekayano

106.Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggoti.
Ekayano ayam bhikkhave maggo = "This is the only way, O bhikkhus."
Kasmā bhagavā idaṃ suttamabhāsi?
Why did the Blessed One teach this Discourse?
Kururaṭṭhavāsīnaṃ gambhīradesanāpaṭiggahaṇasamatthatāya.
Because of the ability of the people of the Kurus to take in deep doctrine.
Kururaṭṭhavāsino kira bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo utupaccayādisampannattā tassa raṭṭhassa sappāyautupaccayasevanena niccaṃ kallasarīrā kallacittā ca honti.
The inhabitants of the Kuru country — bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, upasakas, upasikas — by reason of their country being blessed with a perfect climate, and through their enjoyment of other comfortable conditions, were always healthy in body and in mind.
Te cittasarīrakallatāya anuggahitapaññābalā gambhīrakathaṃ pariggahetuṃ samatthā honti.
They, happy with healthy minds and bodies, and having the power of knowledge, were capable of receiving deep teachings.
Tena tesaṃ bhagavā imaṃ gambhīradesanāpaṭiggahaṇasamatthataṃ sampassanto ekavīsatiyā ṭhānesu kammaṭṭhānaṃ arahatte pakkhipitvā idaṃ gambhīratthaṃ satipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ abhāsi.
Therefore, the Blessed One, perceiving their ability to appreciate this profound instruction, proclaimed to them this Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness, which is deep in meaning, having set up the subject of meditation, in arahantship, in twenty-one places.
Yathā hi puriso suvaṇṇacaṅkoṭakaṃ labhitvā tattha nānāpupphāni pakkhipeyya, suvaṇṇamañjūsaṃ vā pana labhitvā sattaratanāni pakkhipeyya, evaṃ bhagavā kururaṭṭhavāsiparisaṃ labhitvā gambhīradesanaṃ desesi.
For even as a man, having got a golden basket should fill it with divers flowers, or indeed having got a golden casket should fill it with precious jewels of the seven kinds, the Blessed One, having got a following of the Kuru-land people, dispensed, it is said, deep doctrine.
Tenevettha aññānipi gambhīratthāni dīghanikāye mahānidānaṃ mahāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ imasmiṃ majjhimanikāye sāropamaṃ rukkhūpamaṃ raṭṭhapālaṃ māgaṇḍiyaṃ āneñjasappāyanti aññānipi suttāni desesi.
Likewise, on that very account, there, in the Kurus, the Blessed One, taught other deep teachings: the Maha-nidana Sutta, Maha-satipatthana Sutta, Saropama Sutta, Rukkhupama Sutta, Ratthapala Sutta, Magandiya Sutta, and the Aneñjasappaya Sutta.
Apica tasmiṃ janapade catasso parisā pakatiyāva satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānuyogamanuyuttā viharanti, antamaso dāsakammakaraparijanāpi satipaṭṭhānappaṭisaṃyuttameva kathaṃ kathenti.
Further, in that territory of the Kuru people,[5] the four classes — bhikkhu, bhikkhuni, upasaka, upasika — generally by nature were earnest in the application of the Arousing of Mindfulness to their daily life. At the very lowest, even servants, usually, spoke with mindfulness.
Udakatitthasuttakantanaṭṭhānādīsupi niratthakakathā nāma na pavattati.
At wells or in spinning halls useless talk was not heard.
Sace kāci itthī "amma tvaṃ kataraṃ satipaṭṭhānabhāvanaṃ manasikarosī"ti pucchitā "na kiñcī"ti vadati.
If some woman asked of another woman, "Mother, which Arousing of Mindfulness do you practice?" and got the reply, "None at all,"
Taṃ garahanti "dhiratthu tava jīvitaṃ, jīvamānāpi tvaṃ matasadisā"ti.
then that woman who replied so was reproached thus: "Your life is shameful; though you live you are as if dead,"
Atha naṃ "mā dāni puna evamakāsī"ti ovaditvā aññataraṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ uggaṇhāpenti.
and was taught one of the kinds of Mindfulness-arousing.
Yā pana "ahaṃ asukaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ manasikaromī"ti vadati.
But on being questioned if she said that she was practicing such and such an Arousing of Mindfulness,
Tassā "sādhu sādhū"ti sādhukāraṃ datvā "tava jīvitaṃ sujīvitaṃ, tvaṃ nāma manussattaṃ pattā, tavatthāya sammāsambuddho uppanno"tiādīhi pasaṃsanti.
then she was praised thus: "Well done, well done! Your life is blessed; you are really one who has attained to the human state; for you the Sammasambuddhas have come to be."{1}
Na kevalañcettha manussajātiyāyeva satipaṭṭhānamanasikārayuttā, te nissāya viharantā tiracchānagatāpi.
Tatridaṃ vatthu – eko kira naṭako suvapotakaṃ gahetvā sikkhāpento vicarati.
So bhikkhunupassayaṃ upanissāya vasitvā gamanakāle suvapotakaṃ pamussitvā gato.
Taṃ sāmaṇeriyo gahetvā paṭijaggiṃsu.
Buddharakkhitotissa nāmaṃ akaṃsu.
Taṃ ekadivasaṃ purato nisinnaṃ disvā mahātherī āha – "buddharakkhitā"ti?
Kiṃ ayyeti.
Atthi koci tava manasikāroti?
Natthi ayyeti.
Āvuso, pabbajitānaṃ santike vasantena nāma vissaṭṭhaattabhāvena bhavituṃ na vaṭṭati, kocideva manasikāro icchitabbo, tvaṃ pana aññaṃ na sakkhissasi "aṭṭhi aṭṭhī"ti sajjhāyaṃ karohīti.
So theriyā ovāde ṭhatvā "aṭṭhi aṭṭhī"ti sajjhāyanto carati.
Taṃ ekadivasaṃ pātova toraṇagge nisīditvā bālātapaṃ tapamānaṃ eko sakuṇo nakhapañjarena aggahesi.
So "kiri kirī"ti saddamakāsi.
Sāmaṇeriyo sutvā "ayye buddharakkhito sakuṇena gahito, mocema na"nti leḍḍuādīni gahetvā anubandhitvā mocesuṃ.
Taṃ ānetvā purato ṭhapitaṃ therī āha –
"Buddharakkhita, sakuṇena gahitakāle kiṃ cintesī"ti?
Na ayye aññaṃ cintesiṃ, "aṭṭhipuñjova aṭṭhipuñjaṃ gahetvā gacchati, katarasmimpi ṭhāne vippakirissatī"ti evaṃ ayye aṭṭhipuñjameva cintesinti.
Sādhu sādhu, buddharakkhita, anāgate bhavakkhayassa te paccayo bhavissatīti.
Evaṃ tattha tiracchānagatāpi satipaṭṭhānamanasikārayuttā, tasmā nesaṃ bhagavā satipaṭṭhānabuddhimeva janento idaṃ suttaṃ abhāsi.
Tattha ekāyanoti ekamaggo.
"The only way" = The one way [Ekayanoti ekamaggo].
Maggassa hi –
"Maggo pantho patho pajjo, añjasaṃ vaṭumāyanaṃ;
Nāvā uttarasetū ca, kullo ca bhisisaṅkamo"ti. (cūḷani. 101) –

0.3 - ayana: way

Bahūni nāmāni.
There are many words for "way."
Svāyaṃ idha ayananāmena vutto.
The word used for "way" here is "ayana" ("going" or road).
Tasmā ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggoti ettha ekamaggo ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo, na dvedhāpathabhūtoti evamattho daṭṭhabbo.
Therefore, "This is the only way, O bhikkhus [ekayano ayam bhikkhave maggo]" means here: "A single way ("going" or road), O bhikkhus, is this way; it is not of the nature of a double way [ekamaggo ayam bhikkhave maggo na dvedhapathabhuto]. "
Atha vā ekena ayitabboti ekāyano.
Or it is "the only way" because it has to be trodden by oneself only [ekeneva ayitabbo]. {2}
Ekenāti gaṇasaṅgaṇikaṃ pahāya vūpakaṭṭhena pavivittacittena.
The state of being companionless is twofold: without a comrade, after abandoning contact with the crowd, and in the sense of being withdrawn (or secluded) from craving, through tranquillity of mind.
Ayitabboti paá¹­ipajjitabbo.
Ayanti vā etenāti ayano, saṃsārato nibbānaṃ gacchantīti attho.
Ekassa ayano ekāyano, ekassāti seṭṭhassa.
Or it is called "ekayana" because it is the way of the one [ekassa ayana].
Sabbasattānaṃ seṭṭho ca bhagavā, tasmā bhagavatoti vuttaṃ hoti.
"Of the one" = of the best; of all beings the Blessed One is best. Therefore, it is called the Blessed One's Way.
Kiñcāpi hi tena aññepi ayanti, evaṃ santepi bhagavatova so ayano tena uppāditattā.
Although others too go along that way, it is the Buddha's because he creates it.
Yathāha "so hi, brāhmaṇa, bhagavā anuppannassa maggassa uppādetā"tiādi (ma. ni. 3.79).
Accordingly it is said: "He, the Blessed One, is the creator of the uncreated path, O Brahman. "
Ayatīti vā ayano, gacchati pavattatīti attho.
Ekasmiṃ ayanoti ekāyano, imasmiṃyeva dhammavinaye pavattati, na aññatrāti vuttaṃ hoti.
It proceeds (or exists) only in this Doctrine-and-discipline and not in any other.
Yathāha "imasmiṃ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo upalabbhatī"ti (dī. ni. 2.214).
Accordingly the Master declared: "Subhadda, only in this Doctrine-and-discipline is the Eightfold Way to be found. "
Desanābhedoyeva heso, attho paneko.
Apica ekaṃ ayatīti ekāyano.
And further, "ekayana" means: It goes to the one [ekam ayati] — that is, it (the way) goes solely to Nibbana.
Pubbabhāge nānāmukhabhāvanānayappavattopi aparabhāge ekaṃ nibbānameva gacchatīti vuttaṃ hoti.
Although in the earlier stages this method of meditation proceeds on different lines, in the latter, it goes to just the one Nibbana.
Yathāha brahmā sahampati –
And that is why Brahma Sahampati said:
"Ekāyanaṃ jātikhayantadassī,
Whose mind perceiving life's last dying out
Maggaṃ pajānāti hitānukampī;
Vibrates with love, he knows the only way
Etena maggena tariṃsu pubbe,
That led in ancient times, is leading now,
Tarissanti ye ca taranti ogha"nti. (saṃ. ni. 5.409);
And in the future will lead past the flood.[6] {3}
Keci pana "na pāraṃ diguṇaṃ yantī"ti gāthānayena yasmā ekavāraṃ nibbānaṃ gacchati.
Some [keci], however, construing according to the stanza beginning with the words, "They do not go twice to the further shore [na param digunam yanti]"[7] say, "One goes to Nibbana once,
Tasmā "ekāyano"ti vadanti, taṃ na yujjati.
therefore it is ekayana. " This explanation is not proper.
Imassa hi atthassa sakiṃ ayanoti iminā byañjanena bhavitabbaṃ.
Yadi pana ekaṃ ayanamassa ekā gati pavattīti evamatthaṃ yojetvā vucceyya, byañjanaṃ yujjeyya, attho pana ubhayathāpi na yujjati.
Kasmā?
Idha pubbabhāgamaggassa adhippetattā.
Because in this instruction the earlier part of the Path is intended to be presented,
Kāyādicatuārammaṇappavatto hi pubbabhāgasatipaṭṭhānamaggo idha adhippeto, na lokuttaro.
the preliminary part of the Way of Mindfulness proceeding in the four objects of contemplation is meant here, and not the supramundane Way of Mindfulness.
So ca anekavārampi ayati, anekañcassa ayanaṃ hoti.
And that preliminary part of the Path proceeds (for the aspirant) many times; or it may be said that there is many a going on it, by way of repetition of practice.{4}
Pubbepi ca imasmiṃ pade mahātherānaṃ sākacchā ahosiyeva.
Regarding "the only way" there is the following account of a discussion that took place long ago.
Tipiṭakacūḷanāgatthero "pubbabhāgasatipaṭṭhānamaggo"ti āha.
The Elder Tipitaka Culla Naga said: "The Way of Mindfulness-arousing (as expounded in our Discourse) is the (mundane) preliminary part (of the Eightfold Way). "
Ācariyo panassa tipiṭakacūḷasumatthero "missakamaggo"ti āha.
His teacher the Elder Culla Summa said: "The Way is a mixed one (a way that is both mundane and supramundane). "
Pubbabhāgo bhanteti.
The pupil: "Reverend Sir, it is the preliminary part. "
Missako āvusoti.
The teacher: "Friend, it is the mixed Way. "
Ācariye punappunaṃ bhaṇante appaṭibāhitvā tuṇhī ahosi.
As the teacher was insistent, the pupil became silent.
Pañhaṃ avinicchinitvāva uṭṭhahiṃsu.
They went away without coming to a decision.
Athācariyatthero nhānakoṭṭhakaṃ gacchanto "mayā missakamaggo kathito, cūḷanāgo pubbabhāgoti ādāya voharati, ko nu kho ettha nicchayo"ti suttantaṃ ādito paṭṭhāya parivattento "yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta vassānī"ti imasmiṃ ṭhāne sallakkhesi, lokuttaramaggo uppajjitvā satta vassāni tiṭṭhamāno nāma natthi, mayā vutto missakamaggo na labbhati, cūḷanāgena diṭṭho pubbabhāgamaggova labbhatīti ñatvā aṭṭhamiyaṃ dhammassavane saṅghuṭṭhe agamāsi.
On the way to the bathing place the teacher considered the matter. He recited the Discourse. When he came to the part where it is said: "O bhikkhus, should any person maintain the Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for seven years," he concluded that after producing the consciousness of the Supramundane Path there was no possibility of continuing in that state of mind for seven years, and that his pupil, Culla Naga, was right. On that very day, which happened to be the eighth of the lunar fortnight
Porāṇakattherā kira piyadhammassavanā honti.
Saddaṃ sutvāva "ahaṃ paṭhamaṃ, ahaṃ paṭhama"nti ekappahāreneva osaranti.
Tasmiñca divase cūḷanāgattherassa vāro.
, it was the elder Culla Naga's turn to expound the Dhamma.
Tena dhammāsane nisīditvā vījaniṃ gahetvā pubbagāthāsu vuttāsu therassa āsanapiṭṭhiyaṃ ṭhitassa etadahosi "raho nisīditvā na vakkhāmī"ti.
When the exposition was about to begin, the Elder Culla Summa went to the Hall of Preaching and stood behind the pulpit. After the pupil had recited the preliminary stanzas the teacher spoke to the pupil in the hearing of others,
Porāṇakattherā hi anusūyakā honti, na attano rucimeva ucchubhāraṃ viya evaṃ ukkhipitvā vicaranti, kāraṇameva gaṇhanti, akāraṇaṃ vissajjenti.
Thus the Elders of old were not envious and did not go about holding up only what they liked as though it were a bundle of sugar-cane. They took up what was rational; they gave up what was not.
Tasmā thero "āvuso cūḷanāgā"ti āha.
saying, "Friend, Culla Naga."
So ācariyassa viya saddoti dhammaṃ ṭhapetvā "kiṃ bhante"ti āha.
The pupil heard the voice of his teacher and replied: "What is it, Reverend Sir?"
Āvuso cūḷanāga mayā vutto missakamaggo na labbhati, tayā vutto pubbabhāgasatipaṭṭhānamaggova labbhatīti.
The teacher said this: "To say, as I did, that the Way is a mixed one is not right. You are right in calling it the preliminary part of the Way of Mindfulness-arousing."
Thero cintesi "amhākaṃ ācariyo sabbapariyattiko tepiṭako sutabuddho, evarūpassapi nāma bhikkhuno ayaṃ pañho āluḷeti, anāgate mama bhātikā imaṃ pañhaṃ āluḷessantīti suttaṃ gahetvā imaṃ pañhaṃ niccalaṃ karissāmī"ti paṭisambhidāmaggato "ekāyanamaggo vuccati pubbabhāgasatipaṭṭhānamaggo –
Thereupon, the pupil, realising that on a point on which experts of the Dhamma like his learned teacher had floundered, fellows of the holy life in the future were more likely to be unsure, thought: "With the authority of a citation from the Discourse-collection, I will settle this question." Therefore, he brought out and placed before his hearers the following statement from the Patisambhida Magga: "The preliminary part of the Way of Mindfulness-arousing is called the only way."{6}
"Maggānaṭṭhaṅgiko seṭṭho, saccānaṃ caturo padā;
"The Excellent Way is the Eightfold way; four are truths;
Virāgo seṭṭho dhammānaṃ, dvipadānañca cakkhumā.
dispassion is the best of things belonging to the wise;
Eseva maggo natthañño, dassanassa visuddhiyā;
besides that Way there is no other for the purifying of vision.
Etañhi tumhe paṭipajjatha, mārasenappamaddanaṃ;
Walk along that Way so that you may confound Death,
Etañhi tumhe paṭipannā, dukkhassantaṃ karissathā"ti. (dha. pa. 273-275) –
and put an end to suffering."[9]
Suttaṃ āharitvā ṭhapesi.
Maggoti kenaá¹­á¹­hena maggo?
Nibbānagamanaṭṭhena nibbānatthikehi magganiyaṭṭhena ca.
Sattānaṃ visuddhiyāti rāgādīhi malehi abhijjhāvisamalobhādīhi ca upakkilesehi kiliṭṭhacittānaṃ sattānaṃ visuddhatthāya.
Sattanam visuddhiya = "For the purification of beings." For the cleansing of beings soiled by the stains of lust, hatred and delusion, and by the defilements of covetise, called lawless greed and so forth.
Tathā hi imināva maggena ito satasahassakappādhikānaṃ catunnaṃ asaṅkhyeyyānaṃ upari ekasmiññeva kappe nibbatte taṇhaṅkaramedhaṅkarasaraṇaṅkaradīpaṅkaranāmake buddhe ādiṃ katvā sakyamunipariyosānā aneke sammāsambuddhā anekasatā paccekabuddhā gaṇanapathaṃ vītivattā ariyasāvakā cāti ime sattā sabbe cittamalaṃ pavāhetvā paramavisuddhiṃ pattā.
All reach the highest purity after abandoning mental taints.
Rūpamalavasena pana saṃkilesavodānapaññattiyeva natthi.
By way of physical taints, however, there is no cleansing of impurities taught in the Dhamma.
Tathā hi –
Rūpena saṃkiliṭṭhena, saṃkilissanti māṇavā;
That through bodily taints men become impure,
Rūpe suddhe visujjhanti, anakkhātaṃ mahesinā.
Or by the washing of the body they become pure - By the Great Seer it was not said.
Cittena saṃkiliṭṭhena, saṃkilissanti māṇavā;
That through mental taints men become impure,
Citte suddhe visujjhanti, iti vuttaṃ mahesinā.
And through the cleansing of the mind they become pure. By the Great Seer it was declared.
Yathāha "cittasaṃkilesā, bhikkhave, sattā saṃkilissanti, cittavodānā visujjhantī"ti (saṃ. ni. 3.100).
Accordingly it is said: "Mental taints soil beings; mental cleansing sanctifies them. "[10]
Tañca cittavodānaṃ iminā satipaṭṭhānamaggena hoti.
Tenāha "sattānaṃ visuddhiyā"ti.
Sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāyāti sokassa ca paridevassa ca samatikkamāya, pahānāyāti attho.
Sokaparidevanam samatikkamaya = "For the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation."
Ayañhi maggo bhāvito santatimahāmattādīnaṃ viya sokasamatikkamāya, paṭācārādīnaṃ viya ca paridevasamatikkamāya ca saṃvattati.
If this Way is developed it will lead to the casting out of sorrow similar to that experienced by the Minister Santati, and the casting out of lamentation similar to that of Patacara.
Tenāha "sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāyā"ti.
Kiñcāpi hi santatimahāmatto –
"Yaṃ pubbe taṃ visodhehi, pacchā te māhu kiñcanaṃ;
Purge out the things belonging to the past; Let there be naught in the world to rise in future times.
Majjhe ce no gahessasi, upasanto carissasī"ti. (su. ni. 955);
If what's twixt past and future you don't grasp, You will be one who wanders forth serene.[11]
Imaṃ gāthaṃ sutvā saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ patto.
With analytical knowledge did Santati reach arahantship after hearing this stanza (above).
Paṭācārā –
Patacara
"Na santi puttā tāṇāya, na pitā nāpi bandhavā;
For one who is by death oppressed there is No safety seen in children, father, friends Or others close to one.
Antakenādhipannassa, natthi ñātīsu tāṇatā"ti. (dha. pa. 288);
A shelter true Amongst one's kinsfolk one does never find.[12]
Imaṃ gāthaṃ sutvā sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhitā.
reached the fruition of the first stage of arahantship after hearing the following (above).
Yasmā pana kāyavedanācittadhammesu kañci dhammaṃ anāmasitvā bhāvanā nāma natthi, tasmā tepi imināva maggena sokaparideve samatikkantāti veditabbā.
Since there is nothing called spiritual development [bhavana] without laying hold on something whatsoever in material form, feeling, consciousness and mental objects [kaya vedana citta dhammesu kiñci dhammam anamasitva] they (Santati and Patacara) too overcame sorrow and lamentation just by this Way of Mindfulness.{7}
Dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāyāti kāyikadukkhassa ca cetasikadomanassassa cāti imesaṃ dvinnaṃ atthaṅgamāya, nirodhāyāti attho.
Dukkha domanassanam atthangamaya = "For the destruction of suffering and grief. " For the cessation of bodily suffering and mental grief.
Ayañhi maggo bhāvito tissattherādīnaṃ viya dukkhassa, sakkādīnaṃ viya ca domanassassa atthaṅgamāya saṃvattati.
This way maintained by contemplation is conducive to the destruction of suffering similar to that of the Elder Tissa, and of grief similar to that of Sakka.
Tatrāyaṃ atthadīpanā – sāvatthiyaṃ kira tisso nāma kuṭumbikaputto cattālīsa hiraññakoṭiyo pahāya pabbajitvā agāmake araññe viharati.
Tissa, the head of a family at Savatthi, renouncing forty crores of gold, became a homeless one, and dwelt in a forest far from other human beings.
Tassa kaniṭṭhabhātubhariyā "gacchatha naṃ jīvitā voropethā"ti pañcasate core pesesi.
His sister-in-law sent a robber band of five hundred to scour the forest in order to find him, and ordered them to kill him when he was found. {She sent him, it is said, in five batches of a hundred each in succession.}
Te gantvā theraṃ parivāretvā nisīdiṃsu.
After entering the forest and searching for the elder they in due course came to the place in which he lived and sat round him.
Thero āha "kasmā āgatattha upāsakā"ti?
When the robbers surrounded him, the elder spoke thus: "Lay disciples, why have you come?"
Taṃ jīvitā voropessāmāti.
They replied: "To kill you."
Pāṭibhogaṃ me upāsakā gahetvā ajjekarattiṃ jīvitaṃ dethāti.
Then the elder said: "On a security, give me my life for just this one night."
Ko te, samaṇa, imasmiṃ ṭhāne pāṭibhogo bhavissatīti?
Said the robbers: "O recluse, who will stand surety for you in a place like this?"
Thero mahantaṃ pāsāṇaṃ gahetvā dve ūruṭṭhīni bhinditvā "vaṭṭati upāsakā pāṭibhogo"ti āha.
The elder, thereupon, took a big stone, broke the bones of his legs and said: "Lay disciples, is the security of value?"
Te apakkamitvā caṅkamanasīse aggiṃ katvā nipajjiṃsu.
They, leaving the elder, went to the end of the ambulatory and lighting a fire lay on the ground.
Therassa vedanaṃ vikkhambhetvā sīlaṃ paccavekkhato parisuddhaṃ sīlaṃ nissāya pītipāmojjaṃ uppajji.
The elder contemplating on the purity of his conduct, after suppressing his pain,
Tato anukkamena vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhento tiyāmarattiṃ samaṇadhammaṃ katvā aruṇuggamane arahattaṃ patto imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
attained arahantship, at dawn, having fulfilled the recluse's regimen in the three watches of the night. Giving expression to his feelings he said:
"Ubho pādāni bhinditvā, saññapessāmi vo ahaṃ;
"A surety let me raise breaking both my legs:
Aṭṭiyāmi harāyāmi, sarāgamaraṇaṃ ahaṃ.
To die with lustful mind I loathe and shrink.
Evāhaṃ cintayitvāna, yathābhūtaṃ vipassisaṃ;
Having thought thus I saw things as they are,
Sampatte aruṇuggamhi, arahattamapāpuṇi"nti.
And with the dawn I reached the arahant's domain. "

0.4 - story: 30 monks silent retreat, tigers eat them

Aparepi tiṃsa bhikkhū bhagavato santike kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā araññavihāre vassaṃ upagantvā "āvuso, tiyāmarattiṃ samaṇadhammova kātabbo, na aññamaññassa santikaṃ āgantabba"nti vatvā vihariṃsu.
There is another story. Thirty bhikkhus taking the subject of meditation from the Blessed One went into residence, during the rains, in a forest-dwelling, agreeing amongst themselves to practice the duty of the recluse, during all the three watches of the night, and to avoid one another's presence.
Tesaṃ samaṇadhammaṃ katvā paccūsasamaye pacalāyantānaṃ eko byaggho āgantvā ekekaṃ bhikkhuṃ gahetvā gacchati.
One by one those monks who began to doze early in the morning after doing the recluse's duty during the three watches of the night were carried away by a tiger.
Na koci "maṃ byaggho gaṇhī"ti vācampi nicchāresi.
Not one of those carried away did even utter the words: "I am taken by a tiger."
Evaṃ pañcasu dasasu bhikkhūsu khāditesu uposathadivase "itare, āvuso, kuhi"nti pucchitvā ñatvā ca "idāni gahitena, gahitomhīti vattabba"nti vatvā vihariṃsu.
When thus fifteen bhikkhus had been devoured, on uposatha day (the day of the Meeting of the Order for recitation of the Rules), after it was asked (by the elder) "Friends, where are the others? " and it became known that they had been devoured by a tiger. It was agreed that anyone seized by the tiger, thereafter, should utter the words: "I am taken."
Atha aññataraṃ daharabhikkhuṃ purimanayeneva byaggho gaṇhi.
Then a certain young bhikkhu was seized by the tiger in the same circumstances in which the others were seized earlier.
So "byaggho, bhante"ti āha.
That young bhikkhu said: "Tiger, Reverend Sir."
Bhikkhū kattaradaṇḍe ca ukkāyo ca gahetvā mocessāmāti anubandhiṃsu.
The other bhikkhus carrying sticks and torches went in pursuit of the tiger.
Byaggho bhikkhūnaṃ agatiṃ chinnataṭaṭṭhānaṃ āruyha taṃ bhikkhuṃ pādaṅguṭṭhakato paṭṭhāya khādituṃ ārabhi.
The tiger, having taken the young bhikkhu up to a rocky place, a broken edge over a hollow spot inaccessible to the bhikkhus, began to devour its prey from the feet upwards.
Itarepi "idāni, sappurisa, amhehi kattabbaṃ natthi, bhikkhūnaṃ viseso nāma evarūpe ṭhāne paññāyatī"ti āhaṃsu.
The pursuing bhikkhus said: "Good man, there is nothing that can be done by us. The extraordinary spiritual attainment of bhikkhus is to be seen in such a place (as that in which you are)."
So byagghamukhe nipannova taṃ vedanaṃ vikkhambhetvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhento yāva gopphakā khāditasamaye sotāpanno hutvā, yāva jaṇṇukā khāditasamaye sakadāgāmī, yāva nābhiyā khāditasamaye anāgāmī hutvā, hadayarūpe akhāditeyeva saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ patvā imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
That bhikkhu, even prostrate in the tiger's mouth, suppressed his pain and developing the wisdom of insight attained the four paths and fruits of sanctitude together with analytical knowledge. Then he uttered this ecstatic utterance:-
"Sīlavā vatasampanno, paññavā susamāhito;
Virtuous was I keeping to my vows And wise with growing insight was my mind That had to concentration well attained.
Muhuttaṃ pamādamanvāya, byagghenoruddhamānaso.
Yet, because I slacked for just a while, A tiger
Pañjarasmiṃ gahetvāna, silāya uparīkato;
took my frame of flesh and blood. Unto a hill and then my mind did quake.
Kāmaṃ khādatu maṃ byaggho, bhakkho kāyo amittānaṃ;
Devour me as you please, o tiger, eat This body of mine which is bereft of thought;
Paṭiladdhe kammaṭṭhāne, maraṇaṃ hehiti bhaddaka"nti.
Within the thought of quiet strongly held A blessing will my death become to me.

0.5 - story: pitamalla the wrestler

Aparopi pītamallatthero nāma gihikāle tīsu rajjesu paṭākaṃ gahetvā tambapaṇṇidīpaṃ āgamma rājānaṃ disvā raññā katānuggaho ekadivasaṃ kilañjakāpaṇasāladvārena gacchanto "rūpaṃ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṃ, taṃ pajahatha, taṃ vo pahīnaṃ dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya bhavissatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 3.33-34) natumhākavaggaṃ sutvā cintesi "neva kira rūpaṃ attano, na vedanā"ti.
And then there is the story of the elder Pitamalla who in the time he was a layman took the pennon for wrestling in three kingdoms. He came to Tambapanni Isle, had audience of the king and received royal assistance. Once while going through the entrance to the Screened Sitting Hall he heard the following passage from the "Not-yours" chapter of Scripture: "Material form, o bhikkhus, is not yours; renounce it. That renunciation will, for a long time, be for your welfare and happiness. " And he thought: "Neither material form, indeed, nor feeling is one's own,"
So taṃyeva aṅkusaṃ katvā nikkhamitvā mahāvihāraṃ gantvā pabbajjaṃ yācitvā pabbajito upasampanno dvemātikā paguṇaṃ katvā tiṃsa bhikkhū gahetvā gabalavāliyaaṅgaṇaṃ gantvā samaṇadhammamakāsi.
and making just that thought a goad, he renounced the world. At the Great Minister, the Maha Vihara, at Anuradhapura, he was, in due course, given the lower ordination and the higher. When he had mastered the two Codes of Discipline [Dve Matika], he went to the Gavaravaliya Shrine with thirty other bhikkhus and did the duty of the recluse.
Pādesu avahantesu jaṇṇukehi caṅkamati.
While meditating in the open at night there once, he was moving on his knees on the ambulatory when his feet were unable to carry him,
Tamenaṃ rattiṃ eko migaluddako migoti maññamāno sattiyā pahari.
and a hunter mistaking him for a deer struck him with a spear.
Satti vinivijjhitvā gatā.
the spear had gone deep into the body
So taṃ sattiṃ harāpetvā pahāramukhāni tiṇavaṭṭiyā pūrāpetvā pāsāṇapiṭṭhiyaṃ attānaṃ nisīdāpetvā okāsaṃ kāretvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ patvā ukkāsitasaddena āgatānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ byākaritvā imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
The elder removed [it] and, stopping the wound with a wad of grass, sat down on a flat stone. Making of his misfortune an opportunity for setting energy afoot, he developed insight and attained arahantship with analytical knowledge. After he had reached the state of arahantship, in order to apprise his fellow-bhikkhus of his achievement, he made a sign by clearing his throat and uttered this saying of joy at final liberation from suffering:
"Bhāsitaṃ buddhaseṭṭhassa, sabbalokaggavādino;
The world of the Fully Awakened Man, the Chief, Holder of Right Views in all the world is this:
Na tumhākamidaṃ rūpaṃ, taṃ jaheyyātha bhikkhavo.
Give up this form, disciples; it is not yours.
Aniccā vata saṅkhārā, uppādavayadhammino;
Fleeting truly are component things, Ruled by laws of growth and decay;
Uppajjitvā nirujjhanti, tesaṃ vūpasamo sukho"ti.
What is produced, to dissolution swings; Happy it is when things at rest do stay.
Atha naṃ bhikkhū āhaṃsu "sace, bhante, sammāsambuddho arogo abhavissā, addhā te muddhamatthake hatthaṃ pasāretvā sīsaṃ parāmaseyyā"ti.
Then those fellow-monks of the Elder Pitamalla who had come to see him said: "Reverend Sir, if the Buddha were living he would have expressed his approval of your effort, by stretching out his hand over the ocean and stroking your head."{8}
Ettāvatā ayaṃ maggo tissattherādīnaṃ viya dukkhassa atthaṅgamāya saṃvattati.
So, in this manner, this way is conducive to the destruction of suffering of those like the Elder Tissa.
Sakko pana devānamindo attano pañcavidhaṃ pubbanimittaṃ disvā maraṇabhayasantajjito domanassajāto bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamitvā pañhaṃ pucchi.
Sakka, king of the gods, after seeing the five portents, afraid of death and grief-stricken, came to the Buddha and asked a question; at the close of the answering of that question by the Buddha, Sakka was established in the first stage of arahantship.
So upekkhāpañhavissajjanāvasāne asītisahassāhi devatāhi saddhiṃ sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhāsi.
Eighty thousand other gods were established together with Sakka in the same stage of sanctity.
Sā cassa upapatti puna pākatikāva ahosi.
And the life of Sakka again was restored to just its original state through his rebirth once more as the king of the gods.
Subrahmāpi devaputto accharāsahassaparivāro saggasampattiṃ anubhoti, tattha pañcasatā accharāyo rukkhato pupphāni ocinantiyo cavitvā niraye upapannā.
Further it is said that Subrahma the god was partaking of the delights of paradise in the company of a thousand heavenly nymphs. There, five hundred of the nymphs, while picking flowers from a tree, died and were reborn in a state of woe.
So "kiṃ imā cirāyantī"ti upadhārento tāsaṃ niraye nibbattabhāvaṃ disvā "kittakaṃ nu kho mama āyū"ti upaparikkhanto attanopi āyuparikkhayaṃ viditvā tattheva niraye nibbattanabhāvaṃ disvā bhīto ativiya domanassajāto hutvā "imaṃ me domanassaṃ satthā vinayissati na añño"ti avasesā pañcasatā accharāyo gahetvā bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamitvā pañhaṃ pucchi –
He, having seen their rebirth in a state of woe and having understood that the end of his own life was approaching and that he too would at death be reborn in that very state of woe, was frightened. Then he went to the Buddha with his five hundred remaining nymphs and said this to the Lord:
"Niccaṃ utrastamidaṃ cittaṃ, niccaṃ ubbiggidaṃ mano;
The heart is always in a state of fear, And is always full of anguish drear,
Anuppannesu kicchesu, atho uppatitesu ca;
Concerning things that have now taken place, All things which shortly I shall have to face.
Sace atthi anutrastaṃ, taṃ me akkhāhi pucchito"ti. (saṃ. ni. 1.98);
If there's a place that's free from ev'ry fear, That fear-free place wilt thou to me make clear?[13]
Tato naṃ bhagavā āha –
The Blessed One replied to him as follows:
"Nāññatra bojjhā tapasā, nāññatrindriyasaṃvarā;
Besides the wakening factors of the truth, Besides the virtues of the holy state, Besides restraint and relinquishment full,
Nāññatra sabbanissaggā, sotthiṃ passāmi pāṇina"nti. (saṃ. ni. 1.98);
I see nothing that can bless living beings.[14]
So desanāpariyosāne pañcahi accharāsatehi saddhiṃ sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhāya taṃ sampattiṃ thāvaraṃ katvā devalokameva agamāsīti.
At the end of the instruction, Subrahma and his five hundred nymphs were established in the first stage of awakening, and he, it is said, returned to his paradise, having made firm the heavenly fortunate state of life that was his before.
Evamayaṃ maggo bhāvito sakkādīnaṃ viya domanassassa atthaṅgamāya saṃvattatīti veditabbo.
It should be understood that this way developed in this manner is conducive to the destruction of grief of those like Sakka.
Ñāyassa adhigamāyāti ñāyo vuccati ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, tassa adhigamāya, pattiyāti vuttaṃ hoti.
ñayassa adhigamaya = "For reaching the right path. " The Noble Eightfold Path is called the right path.
Ayañhi pubbabhāge lokiyo satipaṭṭhānamaggo bhāvito lokuttarassa maggassa adhigamāya saṃvattati.
This preliminary, mundane Way of the Arousing of Mindfulness maintained (grown or cultivated) is conducive to the realisation of the Supramundane Way.
Tenāha "ñāyassa adhigamāyā"ti.

0.6 - For the attainment of Nibbana

Nibbānassa sacchikiriyāyāti taṇhāvānavirahitattā nibbānanti laddhanāmassa amatassa sacchikiriyāya, attapaccakkhatāyāti vuttaṃ hoti.
Nibbanassa sacchikiriyaya = "For the attainment of Nibbana. " It is said as follows: For the attainment, the ocular experience by oneself, of the deathless which has got the name "Nibbana" by reason of the absence in it of the lust [vana, literally, sewing, weaving, from the root va, to weave] called craving [tanha].{9}
Ayañhi maggo bhāvito anupubbena nibbānasacchikiriyaṃ sādheti.
This way maintained, effects the attainment of Nibbana, gradually.
Tenāha "nibbānassa sacchikiriyāyā"ti.

0.7 - for purification of beings

Tattha kiñcāpi "sattānaṃ visuddhiyā"ti vutte sokasamatikkamādīni atthato siddhāneva honti, ṭhapetvā pana sāsanayuttikovide aññesaṃ na pākaṭāni, na ca bhagavā paṭhamaṃ sāsanayuttikovidaṃ janaṃ katvā pacchā dhammaṃ deseti.
Although by the phrase, "For the purification of beings," the things meant by the other phrases which follows it are attained, the significance of those other phrases that follow the first, is not obvious except to a person familiar with the usage of the Dispensation [sasana yutti kovido]. Since the Blessed one does not at first make people conversant with the usage of the Dispensation and after that teach the Doctrine to them,
Tena teneva pana suttena taṃ taṃ atthaṃ ñāpeti.
and as he by various discourses sets forth various meanings,
Tasmā idha yaṃ yaṃ atthaṃ ekāyanamaggo sādheti, taṃ taṃ pākaṭaṃ katvā dassento "sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāyā"tiādimāha.
he explained the things which "the only way" effects, with the words "For the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation," and so forth.
Yasmā vā yā sattānaṃ visuddhi ekāyanamaggena saṃvattati, sā sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamena hoti, sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamo dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamena, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamo ñāyassādhigamena, ñāyassādhigamo nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya.
Or it may be said that the Master explained the things accomplished by "the only way," in this manner, in order to show that every thing which leads to the purification of beings by the "only way" is dependent on the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation; that this overcoming is dependent on the destruction of suffering and grief; and that the destruction of suffering and grief is dependent on the reaching of the right path which is in turn dependent on the attainment of Nibbana.{10}
Tasmā imampi kamaṃ dassento "sattānaṃ visuddhiyā"ti vatvā "sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāyā"tiādimāha.
Apica vaṇṇabhaṇanametaṃ ekāyanamaggassa.
Further, this is an expression of praise of "the only way."
Yatheva hi bhagavā "dhammaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsessāmi, yadidaṃ chachakkānī"ti (ma. ni. 3.420) chachakkadesanāya aṭṭhahi padehi vaṇṇaṃ abhāsi, yathā ca ariyavaṃsadesanāya "cattārome, bhikkhave, ariyavaṃsā aggaññā rattaññā vaṃsaññā porāṇā asaṃkiṇṇā asaṃkiṇṇapubbā na saṃkīyanti, na saṃkīyissanti, appaṭikuṭṭhā samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhī"ti (a. ni. 4.28) navahi padehi vaṇṇaṃ abhāsi, evaṃ imassapi ekāyanamaggassa sattānaṃ visuddhiyātiādīhi sattahi padehi vaṇṇaṃ abhāsi.
Just as the Blessed One by way of eight characteristics expressed praise in the Cha Chakka Sutta, and by way of nine characteristics in the Ariyavamsa Sutta, just in the same way he expressed praise of this "only way," through the seven characteristics contained in the words "For the purification of beings," and so forth.
Kasmā iti ce?
Why did he utter talk of praise of this kind?
Tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ ussāhajananatthaṃ.
For the purpose of bringing out the interest of these bhikkhus.
Vaṇṇabhāsanañhi sutvā te bhikkhū "ayaṃ kira maggo hadayasantāpabhūtaṃ sokaṃ, vācāvippalāpabhūtaṃ paridevaṃ, kāyikaasātabhūtaṃ dukkhaṃ, cetasikaasātabhūtaṃ domanassanti cattāro upaddave hanati, visuddhiṃ ñāyaṃ nibbānanti tayo visese āvahatī"ti ussāhajātā imaṃ dhammadesanaṃ uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ dhāretabbaṃ vācetabbaṃ, imañca maggaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ maññissanti.
The Blessed One thought: "Having heard the utterance of praise, these bhikkhus will believe that his way casts out the four onrushings [cattaro upaddave harati], namely sorrow produced by distress of heart [hadaya santapabhutam sokam], lamentation characterised by confused talk [vaca vipallabhutam paridevam], suffering produced by disagreeable bodily feeling [kayikam asatabhutam dukkham], and grief produced by disagreeable thought [cetasikam asatabhutam domanassam] and that it brings the three extraordinary spiritual attainments of purity, knowledge, and Nibbana [visuddhim ñanam Nibbananti tayo visese avahati] and will be convinced that this instruction should be studied (imam dhammadesanam uggahetabbam], mastered [pariyapunnitabbam], borne in mind [dharetabbam], and memorized [vacetabbam], and that this way should be cultivated [imañca maggam bhavetabbam]."{11}
Iti tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ ussāhajananatthaṃ vaṇṇaṃ abhāsi, kambalavāṇijādayo kambalādīnaṃ vaṇṇaṃ viya.
Yathā hi satasahassagghanikapaṇḍukambalavāṇijena kambalaṃ gaṇhathāti ugghositepi asukakambaloti na tāva manussā jānanti.
Kesakambalavālakambalādayopi hi duggandhā kharasamphassā kambalātveva vuccanti.
Yadā pana tena gandhārako rattakambalo sukhumo ujjalo sukhasamphassoti ugghositaṃ hoti, tadā ye pahonti, te gaṇhanti.
Ye na pahonti, tepi dassanakāmā honti, evamevaṃ "ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo"ti vuttepi asukamaggoti na tāva pākaṭo hoti.
Nānappakārakā hi aniyyānamaggāpi maggātveva vuccanti.
"Sattānaṃ visuddhiyā"tiādimhi pana vutte "ayaṃ kira maggo cattāro upaddave hanati, tayo visese āvahatī"ti ussāhajātā imaṃ dhammadesanaṃ uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ dhāretabbaṃ vācetabbaṃ, imañca maggaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ maññissantīti vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanto "sattānaṃ visuddhiyā"tiādimāha.
Yathā ca satasahassagghanikapaṇḍukambalavāṇijopamā, evaṃ rattajambunadasuvaṇṇaudakappasādakamaṇiratanasuvisuddhamuttāratanadhotapavāḷādivāṇijūpamādayopettha āharitabbā.
Yadidanti nipāto, ye imeti ayamassa attho.
Cattāroti gaṇanaparicchedo, tena na tato heṭṭhā na uddhanti satipaṭṭhānaparicchedaṃ dīpeti.
Satipaṭṭhānāti tayo satipaṭṭhānā satigocaropi, tidhā paṭipannesu sāvakesu satthuno paṭighānunayavītivattatāpi, satipi.
"Catunnaṃ, bhikkhave, satipaṭṭhānānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha - pe -.
Ko ca, bhikkhave, kāyassa samudayo?
Āhārasamudayā kāyasamudayo"tiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 3.408) hi satigocaro satipaṭṭhānanti vuccati.
Tathā "kāyo paṭṭhānaṃ, no sati.
Sati paṭṭhānañceva sati cā"tiādīsupi (paṭi. ma. 3.35).
Tassattho – patiṭṭhāti asminti paṭṭhānaṃ.
Kā patiṭṭhāti?
Sati.
Satiyā paṭṭhānaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ.
Padhānaṭṭhānanti vā paṭṭhānaṃ.
Satiyā paṭṭhānaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ, hatthiṭṭhānaassaṭṭhānādīni viya.
"Tayo satipaṭṭhānā, yadariyo sevati, yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahatī"ti (ma. ni. 3.311) etthāpi tidhā paṭipannesu sāvakesu satthuno paṭighānunayavītivattatā "satipaṭṭhāna"nti vuttā.
Tassattho – paṭṭhapetabbato paṭṭhānaṃ, pavattayitabbatoti attho.
Kena paá¹­á¹­hapetabbatoti?
Satiyā.
Satiyā paṭṭhānaṃ satipaṭṭhānanti.
"Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrentī"tiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 5.989) pana satiyeva "satipaṭṭhāna"nti vuccati.
Tassattho – patiṭṭhātīti paṭṭhānaṃ, upaṭṭhāti okkantitvā pakkhanditvā pavattatīti attho.
Satiyeva paṭṭhānaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ.
Atha vā saraṇaṭṭhena sati, upaṭṭhānaṭṭhena paṭṭhānaṃ.
Iti sati ca sā paṭṭhānañcātipi satipaṭṭhānaṃ.
Idamidha adhippetaṃ.
Yadi evaṃ, kasmā "satipaṭṭhānā"ti bahuvacanaṃ?
Satibahuttā.
Ārammaṇabhedena hi bahukā etā satiyo.
Atha maggoti kasmā ekavacanaṃ?
Maggaṭṭhena ekattā.
Catassopi hi etā satiyo maggaṭṭhena ekattaṃ gacchanti.
Vuttañhetaṃ "maggoti kenaṭṭhena maggo?
Nibbānagamanaṭṭhena, nibbānatthikehi magganīyaṭṭhena cā"ti.
Catassopi cetā aparabhāge kāyādīsu ārammaṇesu kiccaṃ sādhayamānā nibbānaṃ gacchanti.
Ādito paṭṭhāya ca nibbānatthikehi maggīyanti, tasmā catassopi eko maggoti vuccanti.
Evañca sati vacanānusandhinā sānusandhikāva desanā hoti, "mārasenappamaddanaṃ vo, bhikkhave, maggaṃ desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha - pe - katamo ca, bhikkhave, mārasenappamaddano maggo?
Yadidaṃ sattabojjhaṅgā"tiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 5.224) viya hi yathā mārasenappamaddanoti ca sattabojjhaṅgāti ca atthato ekaṃ, byañjanamevettha nānaṃ.
Evaṃ ekāyanamaggoti ca cattāro satipaṭṭhānāti ca atthato ekaṃ, byañjanamevettha nānaṃ.
Tasmā maggaṭṭhena ekattā ekavacanaṃ, ārammaṇabhedena satibahuttā bahuvacanaṃ veditabbaṃ.

0.8 - why 4sp not more or less?

Kasmā pana bhagavatā cattārova satipaṭṭhānā vuttā anūnā anadhikāti?
Why did the Buddha teach just Four Arousings of Mindfulness and neither more nor less?
Veneyyahitattā.
By way of what was suitable for those capable of being trained.
Taṇhācaritadiṭṭhicaritasamathayānikavipassanāyānikesu hi mandatikkhavasena dvedhā dvedhā pavattesu veneyyesu mandassa taṇhācaritassa oḷārikaṃ kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa sukhumaṃ vedanānupassanaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ.
In regard to the pair of the dull-witted and the keen-witted minds among tamable persons of the craving type and the theorizing type, pursuing the path of quietude [samatha] or that of insight [vipassana] in the practice of meditation, the following is stated: For the dull-witted man of craving type the Arousing of Mindfulness through the contemplation of the gross physical body is the Path to Purity; for the keen-witted of this type, the subtle subject of meditation on the feeling.
Diṭṭhicaritassāpi mandassa nātippabhedagataṃ cittānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa atippabhedagataṃ dhammānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ.
And for the dull-witted man of the theorizing type the Path to Purity is the Arousing of Mindfulness through a subject not too full of distinctions, namely, consciousness [citta]; for the keen-witted of this type, the subject which teems with distinctions, namely the contemplation on things of the mind — mental objects [dhammanupassana].
Samathayānikassa ca mandassa akicchena adhigantabbanimittaṃ paṭhamaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa oḷārikārammaṇe asaṇṭhahanato dutiyaṃ.
For the dull-witted man, pursuing quietude, the First Arousing of Mindfulness, body-contemplation, is the Path to Purity, by reason of the feasibility of getting at the mental reflex; for the keen-witted of this type, because he does not continue to stay in the coarse, the second Arousing of Mindfulness, the contemplation on feeling, is the Path to Purity.
Vipassanāyānikassapi mandassa nātippabhedagatārammaṇaṃ tatiyaṃ, tikkhassa atippabhedagatārammaṇaṃ catutthaṃ.
And for the dull-witted man pursuing the path of insight, the subject of meditation without many distinctions, the contemplation on consciousness, is the Path to Purity; and for the keen-witted of this type the contemplation on mental objects which is full of distinctions.
Iti cattārova vuttā anūnā anadhikāti.
Or it may be said that these Four Arousings of Mindfulness are taught
Subhasukhaniccaattabhāvavipallāsapahānatthaṃ vā.
for casting out the illusions [vipallasa] concerning beauty, pleasure, permanence, and an ego.
Kāyo hi asubho, tattha ca subhavipallāsavipallatthā sattā, tesaṃ tattha asubhabhāvadassanena tassa vipallāsassa pahānatthaṃ paṭhamaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ vuttaṃ.
The body is ugly. There are people led astray by the illusion that it is a thing of beauty. In order to show such people the ugliness of the body and to make them give up their wrong idea, the First Arousing of Mindfulness is taught.
Sukhaṃ niccaṃ attāti gahitesupi ca vedanādīsu vedanā dukkhā, cittaṃ aniccaṃ, dhammā anattā, tesu ca sukhaniccaattavipallāsavipallatthā sattā, tesaṃ tattha dukkhādibhāvadassanena tesaṃ vipallāsānaṃ pahānatthaṃ sesāni tīṇi vuttānīti evaṃ subhasukhaniccaattabhāvavipallāsapahānatthaṃ vā cattārova vuttā anūnā anadhikāti veditabbā.
Feeling is suffering. There are people subject to the illusion that it gives pleasure. In order to show such people the painfulness of feeling and to make them give up their wrong idea, the Second Arousing of Mindfulness is taught. Consciousness is impermanent. There are people who, owing to an illusion, believe that it is permanent. To show them the impermanence of consciousness and to wean them of their wrong belief, the Third Arousing of Mindfulness is taught. Mental objects are insubstantial, are soulless, and possess no entity. There are people who believe by reason of an illusion that these mental things are substantial, endowed with an abiding core, or a soul, or that they form part of a soul, an ego or some substance that abides. To convince such errant folk of the fact of the soullessness or the insubstantiality of mental things and to destroy the illusion which clouds their minds, the Fourth Arousing of Mindfulness is taught.{12}
Na kevalañca vipallāsapahānatthameva, atha kho caturoghayogāsavaganthaupādānaagatipahānatthampi catubbidhāhārapariññatthañca cattārova vuttāti veditabbā.
Ayaṃ tāva pakaraṇanayo.
Aṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana saraṇavasena ceva ekattasamosaraṇavasena ca ekameva satipaṭṭhānaṃ ārammaṇavasena cattāroti etadeva vuttaṃ.
In the commentary it is said that by way of remembering and of meeting in one thing, the Arousing of Mindfulness is only one; and that it is fourfold when regarded as a subject of meditation.{13}
Yathā hi catudvāre nagare pācīnato āgacchantā pācīnadisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā pācīnadvārena nagarameva pavisanti, dakkhiṇato pacchimato uttarato āgacchantā uttaradisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā uttaradvārena nagarameva pavisanti, evaṃsampadamidaṃ veditabbaṃ.
To a city with four gates, men coming from the East with goods produced in the east enter by the east gate... men coming from the South... men coming from the West... and men coming from the North with goods produced in the north enter by the north gate.
Nagaraṃ viya hi nibbānamahānagaraṃ.
Nibbana is like the city.
Dvāraṃ viya aṭṭhaṅgiko lokuttaramaggo.
The Real Supramundane Eightfold Path is like the city-gate.
Pācīnadisādayo viya kāyādayo.
Body, mind, feelings and mental objects are like the four chief directions in space.
Yathā pācīnato āgacchantā pācīnadisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā pācīnadvārena nagarameva pavisanti, evaṃ kāyānupassanāmukhena āgacchantā cuddasavidhena kāyānupassanaṃ bhāvetvā kāyānupassanābhāvanānubhāvanibbattena ariyamaggena ekaṃ nibbānameva osaranti.
Like the people coming from the East with goods produced in the east are those who enter Nibbana by means of body-contemplation through the Real Supramundane Path produced by the power of body-contemplation practiced in the fourteen ways.
Yathā dakkhiṇato āgacchantā dakkhiṇadisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā dakkhiṇadvārena nagarameva pavisanti, evaṃ vedanānupassanāmukhena āgacchantā navavidhena vedanānupassanaṃ bhāvetvā vedanānupassanābhāvanānubhāvanibbattena ariyamaggena ekaṃ nibbānameva osaranti.
Like the people coming from the South... are those who enter... by means of feeling-contemplation... practiced in the nine ways. Like the people coming from the West... are those who enter... by means of consciousness-contemplation... practiced in the sixteen ways.
Yathā pacchimato āgacchantā pacchimadisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā pacchimadvārena nagarameva pavisanti, evaṃ cittānupassanāmukhena āgacchantā soḷasavidhena cittānupassanaṃ bhāvetvā cittānupassanābhāvanānubhāvanibbattena ariyamaggena ekaṃ nibbānameva osaranti.
Like the people coming from the North... are those who enter... by means of mental-object-contemplation... practiced in the five ways.{14}
Yathā uttarato āgacchantā uttaradisāya uṭṭhānakaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā uttaradvārena nagarameva pavisanti, evaṃ dhammānupassanāmukhena āgacchantā pañcavidhena dhammānupassanaṃ bhāvetvā dhammānupassanābhāvanānubhāvanibbattena ariyamaggena ekaṃ nibbānameva osaranti.
Evaṃ saraṇavasena ceva ekattasamosaraṇavasena ca ekameva satipaṭṭhānaṃ ārammaṇavasena cattārova vuttāti veditabbā.
Katamecattāroti kathetukamyatā pucchā.
Katame cattaro = "What are the four?" This is a question indicating the desire to expound the teaching.
Idhāti imasmiṃ sāsane.
Idha = "Here." In this Dispensation.

0.9 - gloss bhikkhu

Bhikkhaveti dhammapaṭiggāhakapuggalālapanametaṃ.
Bhikkhave = "Bhikkhus." This is a term for addressing persons who accept the teaching.
Bhikkhūti paṭipattisampādakapuggalanidassanametaṃ.
Bhikkhu[15] is a term to indicate a person who earnestly endeavors to accomplish the practice of the teaching.
Aññepi ca devamanussā paṭipattiṃ sampādentiyeva, seṭṭhattā pana paṭipattiyā bhikkhubhāvadassanato ca, "bhikkhū"ti āha.
Others, gods and men, too, certainly strive earnestly to accomplish the practice of the teaching, but because of the excellence of the bhikkhu-state by way of practice, the Master said: "Bhikkhu."
Bhagavato hi anusāsaniṃ sampaṭicchantesu bhikkhu seṭṭho, sabbappakārāya anusāsaniyā bhājanabhāvato, tasmā seṭṭhattā "bhikkhū"ti āha.
For amongst those who accept the teaching of the Buddha, the bhikkhu is the highest owing to fitness for receiving manifold instruction. Further, when that highest kind of person, the bhikkhu, is reckoned,
Tasmiṃ gahite pana sesā gahitāva honti rājagamanādīsu rājaggahaṇena sesaparisā viya.
the rest too are reckoned, as in regard to a royal procession and the like, when the king is reckoned, by the reckoning of the king, the retinue is reckoned.
Yo ca imaṃ paṭipattiṃ paṭipajjati, so bhikkhu nāma hotīti paṭipattiyā bhikkhubhāvadassanatopi "bhikkhū"ti āha.
Also the word "bhikkhu" was used by the Buddha to point out the bhikkhu-state through practice of the teaching in this way: "He who practices this practice of the Arousing of Mindfulness is called a bhikkhu."
Paṭipannako hi devo vā hotu manusso vā, "bhikkhū"ti saṅkhaṃ gacchatiyeva.
He who follows the teaching, be he a shining one [deva] or a human, is indeed called a bhikkhu.
Yathāha –
Accordingly it is said:
"Alaṅkato cepi samaṃ careyya,
"Well-dressed one may be,
Santo danto niyato brahmacārī;
but if one is calm, Tamed, humble, pure,
Sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍaṃ,
a man who does no harm To aught that lives,
So brāhmaṇo so samaṇo sa bhikkhū"ti. (dha. pa. 142);
that one's a brahman true. An ascetic and mendicant too."[16]

0.10 - kāya rūpa physical body

Kāyeti rūpakāye.
Kaye = "In the body." In the corporeal group.
Rūpakāyo hi idha aṅgapaccaṅgānaṃ kesādīnañca dhammānaṃ samūhaṭṭhena hatthikāyarathakāyādayo viya kāyoti adhippeto.
The group of big and small corporeal constituents, namely, things like hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, and teeth, in the sense of a collection [samuhatthena] similar to a herd of elephants, a concourse of chariots according to grammatical method [sadda nayena].{15}
Yathā ca samūhaṭṭhena, evaṃ kucchitānaṃ āyaṭṭhena.
And as in the sense of a collection, so also in the sense of the focus of what is filthy and therefore of what is disgusting is it "kaya."
Kucchitānañhi paramajegucchānaṃ so āyotipi kāyo.
For the body [kaya] is the birthplace [aya] of the disgusting, the exceedingly repellent.
Āyoti uppattideso.
The birthplace [aya] is the place of origin [uppattidesa].
Tatrāyaṃ vacanattho, āyanti tatoti āyo.
Since these originate from that place [ayanti tato] it is the place of origin [ayo].
Ke āyanti?
What originates?
Kucchitā kesādayo.
The repulsive things like hair of the head.
Iti kucchitānaṃ āyoti kāyo.
Therefore, the body is the place of origin of disgusting or contemptible things [kucchitanam ayoti kayo].
Kāyānupassīti kāyamanupassanasīlo, kāyaṃ vā anupassamāno.
Kayanupassi = "Contemplating the body." Possessed of the character of body-contemplation, or of observing the body.
"Kāye"ti ca vatvāpi puna "kāyānupassī"ti dutiyaṃ kāyaggahaṇaṃ asammissato vavatthānaghanavinibbhogādidassanatthaṃ katanti veditabbaṃ.
Why is the word "body" used twice in the phrase: "Contemplating the body in the body? " For determining the object and isolating it, and for the sifting out thoroughly [vinibbhoga] of the apparently compact [ghana] nature of things like continuity [santati].
Tena na kāye vedanānupassī vā, cittadhammānupassī vā, atha kho kāyānupassīyevāti kāyasaṅkhāte vatthusmiṃ kāyānupassanākārasseva dassanena asammissato vavatthānaṃ dassitaṃ hoti.
Because there is no contemplating of feeling, consciousness nor mental objects in the body, but just the contemplating of the body only, determination through isolation is set forth by the pointing out of the way of contemplating the body only in the property called the body.
Tathā na kāye aṅgapaccaṅgavimuttaekadhammānupassī, nāpi kesalomādivinimuttaitthipurisānupassī.
In the body there is no contemplation of a uniform thing, apart from the big and small members of the body, or of a man, or of a woman, apart from such things like the hair of the head and the hair of the body.
Yopi cettha kesalomādiko bhūtupādāyasamūhasaṅkhāto kāyo, tatthapi na bhūtupādāyavinimuttaekadhammānupassī, atha kho rathasambhārānupassako viya aṅgapaccaṅgasamūhānupassī, nagarāvayavānupassako viya kesalomādisamūhānupassī, kadalikkhandhapattavaṭṭivinibbhujanako viya rittamuṭṭhiviniveṭhako viya ca bhūtupādāyasamūhānupassīyevāti nānappakārato samūhavaseneva kāyasaṅkhātassa vatthuno dassanena ghanavinibbhogo dassito hoti.
There can be nothing apart from the qualities of primary and derived materiality, in a body. Indeed the character of contemplating the collection of the major and the minor corporeal members, is like the seeing of the constituents of a cart. The character of contemplating the collection of the hair of the head, the hair of the body and the like is comparable to the seeing of the component parts of a city; and the character of contemplating the collection of primary and derived materiality is comparable to the separation of the leaf covering of a plantain-trunk, or is like the opening of an empty fist. Therefore, by the pointing out of the basis called the body in the form of a collection in many ways, the sifting out thoroughly of the apparently compact is shown.
Na hettha yathāvuttasamūhavinimutto kāyo vā itthī vā puriso vā añño vā koci dhammo dissati, yathāvuttadhammasamūhamatteyeva pana tathā tathā sattā micchābhinivesaṃ karonti.
In this body, apart from the above mentioned collection, there is seen no body, man, woman or anything else. Beings engender wrong belief, in many ways, in the bare groups of things mentioned above.
Tenāhu porāṇā –
Therefore the men of old said:
"Yaṃ passati na taṃ diṭṭhaṃ, yaṃ diṭṭhaṃ taṃ na passati;
What he sees that is not (properly) seen; What is seen, that he does not (properly) see;
Apassaṃ bajjhate mūḷho, bajjhamāno na muccatī"ti. –
Not seeing (properly) he is shackled clean; And he, the shackled fool, cannot get free.{16}
Ghanavinibbhogādidassanatthanti vuttaṃ.
And here, by the passage: "For the determining of the object by isolating it, and for the sifting out thoroughly of the apparently compact nature of things like continuity,"
Ādisaddena cettha ayampi attho veditabbo – ayañhi ekasmiṃ kāye kāyānupassīyeva, na aññadhammānupassī.
this too should be understood: This person contemplates in this body only the body; he does not contemplate anything else.
Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti?
What does this mean?
Yathā anudakabhūtāyapi marīciyā udakānupassino honti, na evaṃ aniccadukkhānattaasubhabhūteyeva imasmiṃ kāye niccasukhaattasubhabhāvānupassī, atha kho kāyānupassī aniccadukkhānattaasubhākārasamūhānupassīyevāti.
In this definitely transient, suffering, soulless body, that is unlovely, he does not see permanence, pleasure, a soul, nor beauty, after the manner of those animals which see water in a mirage. Body-contemplation is only the contemplation of the collection of qualities of transiency, suffering, soullessness, and unloveliness.
Atha vā yvāyaṃ parato "idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā - pe - so satova assasatī"tiādinā nayena assāsapassāsādicuṇṇikajātaaṭṭhikapariyosāno kāyo vutto, yo ca "idhekacco pathavikāyaṃ aniccato anupassati āpokāyaṃ tejokāyaṃ vāyokāyaṃ kesakāyaṃ lomakāyaṃ chavikāyaṃ cammakāyaṃ maṃsakāyaṃ ruhirakāyaṃ nahārukāyaṃ aṭṭhikāyaṃ aṭṭhimiñjakāya"nti paṭisambhidāyaṃ (paṭi. ma. 3.35) kāyo vutto, tassa sabbassa imasmiṃyeva kāye anupassanato "kāye kāyānupassī"ti evampi attho daṭṭhabbo.
Atha vā kāye ahanti vā mamanti vā evaṃ gahetabbassa yassa kassaci ananupassanato tassa tasseva pana kesālomādikassa nānādhammasamūhassa anupassanato kāye kesādidhammasamūhasaṅkhātakāyānupassīti evamattho daṭṭhabbo.
Because there is no contemplating of the body with reference to a self or to anything belonging to a self, owing to the contemplating even of collections of things like the hair of the head, there is the character of contemplating, in the body, the body which is a collection of things like the hair of the head.

seeing body as body as it actually is

Apica "imasmiṃ kāye aniccato anupassati, no niccato"tiādinā nayena paṭisambhidāyaṃ āgatanayassa sabbasseva aniccalakkhaṇādino ākārasamūhasaṅkhātassa kāyassānupassanatopi "kāye kāyānupassī"ti evampi attho daṭṭhabbo.
The meaning should be understood thus too: "contemplating the body in the body" is the seeing of the body as a group of all qualities beginning with impermanence, step by step, as taught in the passage of the Patisambhida which begins with: "In this body he contemplates according to impermanence and not permanence. "
Tathā hi ayaṃ kāye kāyānupassanāpaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno bhikkhu imaṃ kāyaṃ aniccānupassanādīnaṃ sattannaṃ anupassanānaṃ vasena aniccato anupassati, no niccato.
The bhikkhu sees the body in the body, (1) as something impermanent;
Dukkhato anupassati, no sukhato.
(2) as something subject to suffering;
Anattato anupassati, no attato.
(3) as something that is soulless;
Nibbindati, no nandati.
(4) by way of turning away from it and not by way of delighting in it;
Virajjati, no rajjati.
(5) by freeing himself of passion for it;
Nirodheti, no samudeti.
(6) with thoughts making for cessation and not making for origination;
Paṭinissajjati, no ādiyati.
(7) and not by way of laying hold of it, but by way of giving it up.
So taṃ aniccato anupassanto niccasaññaṃ pajahati, dukkhato anupassanto sukhasaññaṃ pajahati, anattato anupassanto attasaññaṃ pajahati, nibbindanto nandiṃ pajahati, virajjanto rāgaṃ pajahati, nirodhento samudayaṃ pajahati, paṭinissajjanto ādānaṃ pajahatīti veditabbo.

0.11 - gloss viharati, sampajano, satima

Viharatīti iriyati.
Viharati = "Lives. "
Ātāpīti tīsu bhavesu kilese ātāpetīti ātāpo, vīriyassetaṃ nāmaṃ.
Atapi = "Ardent. " What burns the defilement of the three planes of becoming is ardour. Ardour is a name for energy.{17}
Ātāpo assa atthīti ātāpī.
Sampajānoti sampajaññasaṅkhātena ñāṇena samannāgato.
Sampajano = "Clearly comprehending." Endowed with knowledge called circumspection [sampajañña].{18}
Satimāti kāyapariggāhikāya satiyā samannāgato.
Satima = "Mindful." Endowed with mindfulness that lays hold of the body as a subject of meditation,
Ayaṃ pana yasmā satiyā ārammaṇaṃ pariggahetvā paññāya anupassati, na hi sativirahitassa anupassanā nāma atthi.
because this yogavacara (the man conversant with contemplative activity) contemplates with wisdom after laying hold of the object with mindfulness. There is nothing called contemplation without mindfulness.
Tenevāha "satiñca khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sabbatthikaṃ vadāmī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.234).
Therefore the Master said: "Mindfulness is necessary in all circumstances, O bhikkhus, I declare. "[17]{19}
Tasmā ettha "kāye kāyānupassī viharatī"ti ettāvatā kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānakammaṭṭhānaṃ vuttaṃ hoti.
To point out the things by the influence of which the meditation of the yogi prospers, is the purpose of the words, "Ardent, clearly comprehending, and mindful."
Atha vā yasmā anātāpino antosaṅkhepo antarāyakaro hoti, asampajāno upāyapariggahe anupāyaparivajjane ca sammuyhati, muṭṭhassati upāyāpariccāge anupāyāpariggahe ca asamattho hoti, tenassa taṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ na sampajjati, tasmā yesaṃ dhammānaṃ ānubhāvena taṃ sampajjati.
To the non-ardent state of mind there is the obstacle of mental lassitude. The state of mind that is not clearly comprehending commits blunders of judgment in the business of choosing the right means and in avoiding the wrong. The state of mind which is inattentive — the mental state of absence of mindfulness — is incapable of laying hold of the right means and of rejecting the wrong means. When the yogi is not ardent, not clearly comprehending, and not mindful, he does not succeed in accomplishing his object. To point out the things by the influence of which the meditation of the yogi prospers,
Tesaṃ dassanatthaṃ "ātāpī sampajāno satimāti idaṃ vutta"nti veditabbaṃ.
is the purpose of the words, "Ardent, clearly comprehending, and mindful."{20}
Iti kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ sampayogaṅgañcassa dassetvā idāni pahānaṅgaṃ dassetuṃ vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassanti vuttaṃ.
After the pointing out of the things that make up the condition connected with the Arousing of Mindfulness through body-contemplation, there is the pointing out of the things that make up the condition which should be abandoned in this practice with the words, "having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief" = Vineyya loke abhijjhadomanassam.{21}
Tattha vineyyāti tadaṅgavinayena vā vikkhambhanavinayena vā vinayitvā.
Loketi tasmiṃyeva kāye.
"In this world. " In just this body.
Kāyo hi idha lujjanapalujjanaṭṭhena lokoti adhippeto.
Here the body [kaya] is the world [loka], in the sense of a thing crumbling.
Yasmā panassa na kāyamatteyeva abhijjhādomanassaṃ pahīyati, vedanādīsupi pahīyatiyeva, tasmā "pañcapi upādānakkhandhā loko"ti vibhaṅge (vibha. 362) vuttaṃ.
As covetousness and grief are abandoned in feeling, consciousness, and mental objects, too, the Vibhanga says: "Even the five aggregates of clinging are the world. "
Lokasaṅkhātattā vā tesaṃ dhammānaṃ atthuddhāranayenetaṃ vuttaṃ.
Yaṃ panāha "tattha katamo loko?
Sveva kāyo loko"ti.
Ayamevettha attho, tasmiṃ loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ vineyyāti evaṃ sambandho daṭṭhabbo.
Yasmā panettha abhijjhāgahaṇena kāmacchando, domanassaggahaṇena byāpādo saṅgahaṃ gacchati, tasmā nīvaraṇapariyāpannabalavadhammadvayadassanena nīvaraṇappahānaṃ vuttaṃ hotīti veditabbaṃ.
Covetousness stands for sense desire; and grief, for anger. As sense desire and anger are the principal hindrances, the abandoning of the hindrances is stated by the overcoming of covetousness and grief.
Visesena cettha abhijjhāvinayena kāyasampattimūlakassa anurodhassa, domanassavinayena pana kāyavipattimūlakassa virodhassa, abhijjhāvinayena ca kāye abhiratiyā, domanassavinayena kāyabhāvanāya anabhiratiyā, abhijjhāvinayena kāye abhūtānaṃ subhasukhabhāvādīnaṃ pakkhepassa, domanassavinayena ca kāye bhūtānaṃ asubhāsukhabhāvādīnaṃ apanayanassa ca pahānaṃ vuttaṃ.
With covetousness are abandoned the satisfaction rooted in bodily happiness, delight in the body, and the falling into erroneous opinion which takes as real the unreal beauty, pleasure, permanence and substantiality of the body. With the overcoming of grief are abandoned the discontent rooted in bodily misery, the non-delight in the culture of body-contemplation, and the desire to turn away from facing the real ugliness, suffering, impermanence and insubstantiality of the body.
Tena yogāvacarassa yogānubhāvo yogasamatthatā ca dīpitā hoti.
By the instruction dealing with the overcoming of covetousness and grief, yogic power and yogic skill are shown.{22}
Yogānubhāvo hi esa, yadidaṃ anurodhavirodhavippamutto aratiratisaho abhūtapakkhepabhūtāpanayanavirahito ca hoti.
Freedom from satisfaction and discontent in regard to bodily happiness and misery, the forbearing from delighting in the body, the bearing-up of non-delight in the course of body-contemplation,
Anurodhavirodhavippamutto cesa aratiratisaho abhūtaṃ apakkhipanto bhūtañca anapanento yogasamattho hotīti.
the state of being not captivated by the unreal, and the state of not running away from the real — these, when practiced produce yogic power; and the ability to practice these is yogic skill.

0.12 - another method of interpreting ‘seeing body as body’

Aparo nayo "kāye kāyānupassī"ti ettha anupassanāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ vuttaṃ.
There is another method of interpretation of the passage: (A bhikkhu) lives contemplating the body in the body, ardent, and so forth. "Contemplating" refers to the subject of meditation.
"Viharatī"ti ettha vuttavihārena kammaṭṭhānikassa kāyapariharaṇaṃ.
"Lives": lives protecting the subject of meditation which here is the body.
"Ātāpī"tiādīsu ātāpena sammappadhānaṃ, satisampajaññena sabbatthikakammaṭṭhānaṃ, kammaṭṭhānapariharaṇūpāyo vā, satiyā vā kāyānupassanāvasena paṭiladdhasamatho, sampajaññena vipassanā, abhijjhādomanassavinayena bhāvanāphalaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
In the passage beginning with "ardent," Right Exertion [sammappadhana] is stated by energy [atapa]; the subject of meditation proper in all circumstances [sabbatthika kammatthana] or the means of protecting the subject of meditation [kammatthana pariharana upaya], is stated by mindfulness and clear comprehension [sati sampajañña]; or the quietude that is obtained [patiladdha samatha] by way of the contemplation on the body [kayanupassana] is stated by mindfulness; insight [vipassana] by clear comprehension; and the fruit of inner culture [bhavana phala] through the overcoming of covetousness and grief [abhijjha domanassa vinaya].{23}
Vibhaṅge pana "anupassī"ti tattha katamā anupassanā?
Yā paññā pajānanā - pe - sammādiṭṭhi.
Ayaṃ vuccati anupassanā.
Imāya anupassanāya upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato upapanno sampanno samannāgato.
Tena vuccati anupassīti.
Viharatīti iriyati vattati pāleti yapeti yāpeti carati viharati.
Tena vuccati viharatīti.
Ātāpīti tattha katamo ātāpo?
Yo cetasiko vīriyārambho - pe - sammāvāyāmo.
Ayaṃ vuccati ātāpo.
Iminā ātāpena upeto hoti - pe - samannāgato.
Tena vuccati ātāpīti.
Sampajānoti tattha katamaṃ sampajaññaṃ?
Yā paññā pajānanā - pe - sammādiṭṭhi.
Idaṃ vuccati sampajaññaṃ.
Iminā sampajaññena upeto hoti - pe - samannāgato.
Tena vuccati sampajānoti.
Satimāti tattha katamā sati?
Yā sati anussati - pe - sammāsati.
Ayaṃ vuccati sati.
Imāya satiyā upeto hoti - pe - samannāgato.
Tena vuccati satimāti.
Vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassanti tattha katamo loko?
Sveva kāyo loko, pañcapi upādānakkhandhā loko.
Ayaṃ vuccati loko.
Tattha katamā abhijjhā?
Yo rāgo sārāgo anunayo anurodho nandī nandīrāgo cittassa sārāgo, ayaṃ vuccati abhijjhā.
Tattha katamaṃ domanassaṃ?
Yaṃ cetasikaṃ asātaṃ, cetasikaṃ dukkhaṃ, cetosamphassajaṃ asātaṃ - pe - dukkhā vedanā.
Idaṃ vuccati domanassaṃ.
Iti ayañca abhijjhā idañca domanassaṃ imamhi loke vinītā honti paṭivinītā santā vūpasantā samitā vūpasamitā atthaṅgatā abbhatthaṅgatā appitā byappitā sositā visositā byantīkatā, tena vuccati vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassanti (vibha. 356) evametesaṃ padānamattho vutto.
Tena saha ayaṃ aṭṭhakathānayo yathā saṃsandati, evaṃ veditabbo.
Ayaṃ tāva kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānuddesassa atthavaṇṇanā.

0.13 - remaining 4sp same pattern as ‘body as body’

Vedanāsu… citte… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati - pe - vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassanti ettha pana vedanānupassīti evamādīsu vedanādīnaṃ puna vacane payojanaṃ kāyānupassanāyaṃ vuttanayeneva veditabbaṃ.
Vedanasu Vedananupassi... citte cittanupassi... dhammesu dhammanupassi viharati = "He lives contemplating feeling in the feelings... the consciousness in consciousness... mental object in mental objects." Here the repetition of "feelings," "consciousness" and "mental objects" should be understood according to the reasons given for the repetition of the word "body" in body-contemplation.
Vedanāsu vedanānupassī, citte cittānupassī, dhammesu dhammānupassīti ettha pana vedanāti tisso vedanā, tā ca lokiyā eva.
"Feeling" = The three feelings: pleasurable, painful and the neither pleasurable nor painful. These are only mundane.{24}
Cittampi lokiyaṃ, tathā dhammā.
Consciousness is only mundane; and mundane, too, are mental objects.
Tesaṃ vibhāgo niddesavāre pākaṭo bhavissati.
This statement will be made evident in the analytically expository portion [niddesavara].{25}
Kevalaṃ panidha yathā vedanā anupassitabbā, tathā anupassanto vedanāsu vedanānupassīti veditabbo.
To be sure, in whatever way feeling is to be exclusively contemplated, here, the contemplating in that very way is the meaning of the word: "Contemplating feelings in the feelings" [kevalam panidha yatha vedana anupassitabba tatha anupassanto vedanasu vedananupassiti veditabbo].
Esa nayo cittadhammesupi.
In the contemplation of consciousness and mental objects too this is the method.
Kathañca vedanā anupassitabbāti?
"How should feeling be contemplated upon? " it is asked, further.
Sukhā tāva vedanā dukkhato, dukkhā sallato, adukkhamasukhā aniccato.
Pleasurable feeling because it is the stuff of suffering as suffering. Painful feeling because it is the condition of bringing out trouble and so forth, as a thorn. And the neither pleasurable nor painful feeling, because of non-mastery or dependence and so forth, as transiency.{26}
Yathāha –
Accordingly, the Master said:
"Yo sukhaṃ dukkhato adda, dukkhamaddakkhi sallato;
Who sees pleasure as suffering, Who sees pain as a thorn,
Adukkhamasukhaṃ santaṃ, adakkhi naṃ aniccato;
Who sees as a thing that is fleeting, The neutral peace that's shorn
Sa ve sammaddaso bhikkhu, upasanto carissatī"ti. (saṃ. ni. 4.253);
Of pleasure and pain; that bhikkhu will, Rightly, know; and live, become still. [18]{27}
Sabbā eva cetā dukkhātipi anupassitabbā.
Further, just all feelings should be contemplated with the thought: "These are suffering, indeed. " {28}
Vuttañhetaṃ "yaṃkiñci vedayitaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dukkhasminti vadāmī"ti (saṃ. ni. 4.259).
For this has been said by the Blessed One: "All that is felt is in suffering, I declare [yam kiñci vedayitam tam sabbam dukkhasminti vadami."{29}
Sukhadukkhatopi ca anupassitabbā.
And pleasure should also be contemplated upon as suffering.
Yathāha "sukhā vedanā ṭhitisukhā vipariṇāmadukkhā"ti (ma. ni. 1.464) sabbaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ.
All should be explained according as the arahant-nun Dhammadinna spoke (to her former husband Visakha, in the Cula-vedalla Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya): Pleasant feeling, friend Visakha, is agreeable while it lasts and is disagreeable when it changes; painful feeling is disagreeable while it lasts and agreeable when it changes; the neither pleasant nor painful feeling is agreeable when there is a knowledge of its existence and disagreeable when that knowledge is wanting.{30}
Apica aniccādisattānupassanāvasenapi anupassitabbā.
The feelings should also be seen according to the seven contemplations beginning with that of impermanence, mentioned above (p. 37).
Sesaṃ niddesavāreyeva pākaṭaṃ bhavissati.
The remaining division beginning with the worldly and spiritual feelings in the classification of pleasurable feeling and so forth, in feeling-contemplation, will become clear in the analytical exposition [niddesavara].
Cittadhammesupi cittaṃ tāva ārammaṇādhipatisahajātabhūmikammavipākakiriyādinānattabhedānaṃ aniccādisattānupassanānaṃ niddesavāre āgatasarāgādibhedānañca vasena anupassitabbaṃ.
Consciousness and mental objects, too, should be contemplated upon by way of the diversity of the division of object (arammana], dominance [adhipati], conascence [sahajata], plane [bhumi], causal action [kamma], result [vipaka], non-causative functional process [kriya], and so forth [adi], beginning with impermanence [aniccadinam anupassananam vesena] and by way of the division of consciousness that is with passion and so forth come down in the portion of analytical exposition [niddesavare agatasaragadi bhedañca vasena].{31}
Dhammā salakkhaṇasāmaññalakkhaṇānaṃ suññatadhammassa aniccādisattānupassanānaṃ niddesavāre āgatasantāsantādibhedānañca vasena anupassitabbā.
Mental objects should be contemplated upon by way of own characteristic [sallakkhana] of impression and the like [phusanadi]; by way of general characteristic [samañña lakkhana] of impermanence and the like [aniccatadi]; by way of phenomenon-emptiness [suññta dhamma], namely, by way of the void-nature called soullessness [anattata sankhata suññata sabhavassa] to explain which clearly, the instruction of the portion dealing with the void in the Abhidhamma proceeded by means of the statement beginning with "At that time indeed there are phenomena, there are aggregates [yam vibhavetum abhidhamme tasmim kho pana samaye dhamma honti khandha hantiti adina suññatavara desana pavatta], without any mention of a soul; by way of the seven contemplations of impermanence and so forth [aniccadi satta anupassananam]; and by way of the divisions of what is present and what is absent and so forth, in the analytical portion [niddesavare agata santasantadi bhedanañca vasena].
Sesaṃ vuttanayameva.
Kāmañcettha yassa kāyasaṅkhāte loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ pahīnaṃ, tassa vedanādilokesupi taṃ pahīnameva.
If, in the meditator's body, called the world, covetousness and grief are abandoned, in the worlds of his feelings and so forth too, these are abandoned owing to the earlier abandoning of these by the yogi [kamañcettha kayasankhate loke abhijjha domanassam pahinam vedanadi lokesu pi tam pahinameva pubbe pahinatta].
Nānāpuggalavasena pana nānācittakkhaṇikasatipaṭṭhānabhāvanāvasena ca sabbattha vuttaṃ.
Still, everywhere, the abandoning of the defilements has been stated by way of the different types of persons and by way of the diversity of the thought-unit, in which the development of the different subjects of the Arousing of Mindfulness takes place [nana puggalavasena pana nana cittakkhana satipatthana bhavanavasena ca sabbattha vuttam]. {32}
Yato vā ekattha pahīnaṃ sesesupi pahīnaṃ hoti.
The defilements abandoned in one object are abandoned in the remaining objects too [ekattha pahinam sesesu pi pahinam hoti].{33}
Tenevassa tattha pahānadassanatthampi evaṃ vuttanti veditabbanti.
Uddesavārakathāvaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Kāyānupassanāānāpānapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1 - Kāy-ānu-passanā: Observing the Body


1.1 Kāy-ānu-passanā-ānāpāna-pabba: rememberfulness of Breathing

107.Idāni seyyathāpi nāma cheko vilīvakārako thūlakilañjasaṇhakilañjacaṅkoṭakapeḷāpuṭādīni upakaraṇāni kattukāmo ekaṃ mahāveṇuṃ labhitvā catudhā bhinditvā tato ekekaṃ veṇukhaṇḍaṃ gahetvā phāletvā taṃ taṃ upakaraṇaṃ kareyya, evameva bhagavā satipaṭṭhānadesanāya sattānaṃ anekappakāravisesādhigamaṃ kattukāmo ekameva sammāsatiṃ "cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.
The Blessed One's exposition of the Arousing of Mindfulness is similar to the action of a worker in mat and basket weaving who wishing to make coarse and fine mats, boxes, cases, and the like, should make those goods after getting a mammoth bamboo, splitting it into four, and reducing each of the parts to strips. He did that after dividing into four the one mindfulness that is right [ekameva sammasatim] by way of the contemplation on the body, on feelings, on consciousness, and on mental objects.
Katame cattāro?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharatī"tiādinā nayena ārammaṇavasena catudhā bhinditvā tato ekekaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā vibhajanto "kathañca bhikkhave"tiādinā nayena niddesavāraṃ vattumāraddho.
Now the Blessed One, desirous of bringing about diverse kinds of attainments of distinction in beings by the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness, began to teach the analytically explanatory portion [niddesavara] with the word "And how o bhikkhus. "
Tattha kathañcātiādi vitthāretukamyatā pucchā.
Ayaṃ panettha saṅkhepattho – bhikkhave, kena ca pakārena bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharatīti?
Esa nayo sabbapucchāvāresu.
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhūti, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ sāsane bhikkhu.
Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu = "Here, o bhikkhus, a bhikkhu. "
Ayañhettha idha-saddo sabbappakārakāyānupassanānibbattakassa puggalassa sannissayabhūtasāsanaparidīpano aññasāsanassa tathābhāvapaṭisedhano ca.
"Here": In this Dispensation of the Buddha which provides the basis for the person producing body-contemplation in all modes. By the word "here," dispensations other than the Buddha's are excluded as they do not teach body-contemplation in the complete way it is taught in the Buddhadhamma.
Vuttañhetaṃ "idheva, bhikkhave, samaṇo - pe - suññā parappavādā samaṇebhi aññehī"ti (ma. ni. 1.139).
For this is said: "Here is the recluse; untenanted by recluses are the other, opposing ways of thought." {1}
Tena vuttaṃ "imasmiṃ sāsane bhikkhū"ti.
"Araññagato vā - pe - suññāgāragato vā"ti idamassa satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānurūpasenāsanapariggahaparidīpanaṃ.
Araññagato va... suññagaragato va = "Gone to the forest... or to an empty place. " By this, here is the making clear of the getting of an abode appropriate to the meditator for the culture of mindfulness.
Imassa hi bhikkhuno dīgharattaṃ rūpādīsu ārammaṇesu anuvisaṭaṃ cittaṃ kammaṭṭhānavīthiṃ otarituṃ na icchati, kūṭagoṇayuttaratho viya uppathameva dhāvati, tasmā seyyathāpi nāma gopo kūṭadhenuyā sabbaṃ khīraṃ pivitvā vaḍḍhitaṃ kūṭavacchaṃ dametukāmo dhenuto apanetvā ekamante mahantaṃ thambhaṃ nikhaṇitvā tattha yottena bandheyya.
The mind of the meditator which for a long time (before he became a recluse) had dwelt on visual and other objects, does not like to enter the road of meditation and just like a wild young bull yoked to a cart, runs off the road. A cowherd wishing to tame a wild calf nourished entirely on the milk of a wild cow, ties that calf, after leading it away from the cow, to a stout post firmly sunk in the ground, at a spot set apart for it.
Athassa so vaccho ito cito ca vipphanditvā palāyituṃ asakkonto tameva thambhaṃ upanisīdeyya vā upanipajjeyya vā, evameva imināpi bhikkhunā dīgharattaṃ rūpārammaṇādirasapānavaḍḍhitaṃ duṭṭhacittaṃ dametukāmena rūpādiārammaṇato apanetvā araññaṃ vā rukkhamūlaṃ vā suññāgāraṃ vā pavesetvā tattha satipaṭṭhānārammaṇatthambhe satiyottena bandhitabbaṃ.
That calf, having jumped hither and thither, and finding it impossible to run away from here, will crouch down or lie down at that very post. Even so, must the bhikkhu who is desirous of taming the wild mind nourished long on the tasty drink of visible and other objects tie that mind to the post of the object of mindfulness-arousing with the rope of remembrance, after leading the mind from visible and other objects and ushering it into a forest, to the foot of a tree or into an empty place.
Evamassa taṃ cittaṃ ito cito ca vipphanditvāpi pubbe āciṇṇārammaṇaṃ alabhamānaṃ satiyottaṃ chinditvā palāyituṃ asakkontaṃ tamevārammaṇaṃ upacārappanāvasena upanisīdati ceva upanipajjati ca.
The mind of the bhikkhu will also jump hither and thither. Not obtaining the objects it had long grown used to, and finding it impossible to break the rope of remembrance and run away, it will finally sit or lie down at that every object by way of partial and full absorption.
Tenāhu porāṇā –
Therefore, the men of old said:
"Yathā thambhe nibandheyya, vacchaṃ damaṃ naro idha;
As one who wants to break a wild young calf Would tether it to stout stake firmly, here,
Bandheyyevaṃ sakaṃ cittaṃ, satiyārammaṇe daḷha"nti.
In the same way the yogi should tie fast To meditation's object his own mind.
Evamassa taṃ senāsanaṃ bhāvanānurūpaṃ hoti.
In this way this abode becomes appropriate in the meditator.
Tena vuttaṃ "idamassa satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānurūpasenāsanapariggahaparidīpana"nti.
Therefore, it is said, "This (namely, the passage beginning with the words, 'Gone to the forest...') is the making clear of an abode appropriate to the meditator for the culture of mindfulness. "{2}
Apica yasmā idaṃ kāyānupassanāya muddhabhūtaṃ sabbabuddhapaccekabuddhabuddhasāvakānaṃ visesādhigamadiṭṭhadhammasukhavihārapadaṭṭhānaṃ ānāpānassatikammaṭṭhānaṃ itthipurisahatthiassādisaddasamākulaṃ gāmantaṃ apariccajitvā na sukaraṃ sampādetuṃ, saddakaṇṭakattā jhānassa.
Agāmake pana araññe sukaraṃ yogāvacarena idaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ pariggahetvā ānāpānacatutthajjhānaṃ nibbattetvā tadeva jhānaṃ pādakaṃ katvā saṅkhāre sammasitvā aggaphalaṃ arahattaṃ pāpuṇituṃ.
Tasmāssa anurūpasenāsanaṃ dassento bhagavā "araññagato vā"tiādimāha.
Vatthuvijjācariyo viya hi bhagavā.
The Buddha is like a master of the science of building sites [vatthu vijjacariya]{3}
So yathā vatthuvijjācariyo nagarabhūmiṃ passitvā suṭṭhu upaparikkhitvā "ettha nagaraṃ māpethā"ti upadisati, sotthinā ca nagare niṭṭhite rājakulato mahāsakkāraṃ labhati, evameva yogāvacarassa anurūpaṃ senāsanaṃ upaparikkhitvā "ettha kammaṭṭhānaṃ anuyuñjitabba"nti upadisati.
As a master in the science of selecting building sites, after seeing a stretch of ground good for building a town, and after considering it well from all sides, advises: "Build the town here," and when the building of the town is happily completed receives high honor from the royal family, so the Buddha having well considered from all points the abode suitable for the meditator advises: "Here, should the subject of meditation be yoked on to."
Tato tattha kammaṭṭhānaṃ anuyuñjantena yoginā anukkamena arahatte patte "sammāsambuddho vata so bhagavā"ti mahantaṃ sakkāraṃ labhati.
When arahantship is gradually reached by the yogi, by the expression of the yogi's gratitude and admiration with the words: "Certainly, the Blessed One is the Supremely Awakened One," the Master, receives great honor.
Ayaṃ pana bhikkhu dīpisadisoti vuccati.
The bhikkhu indeed, is comparable to a leopard,{4}
Yathā hi mahādīpirājā araññe tiṇagahanaṃ vā vanagahanaṃ vā pabbatagahanaṃ vā nissāya nilīyitvā vanamahiṃsagokaṇṇasūkarādayo mige gaṇhāti, evameva ayaṃ araññādīsu kammaṭṭhānaṃ anuyuñjanto bhikkhu yathākkamena cattāro magge ceva cattāri ariyaphalāni ca gaṇhāti.
Just as a great king of leopards concealed in the forest in grass-bush, jungle-bush or hill-thicket, seizes wild buffaloes, elks, pigs and other beasts, this bhikkhu yoking himself to the subject of meditation gains the Four Real Paths and Fruits [cattaro magge ceva ariyaphalani ganhati] one after another, in succession;
Tenāhu porāṇā –
and therefore the men of old said:
"Yathāpi dīpiko nāma, nilīyitvā gaṇhatī mige;
As leopard in ambush lies and captures beasts, So does this son of the Awakened One,
Tathevāyaṃ buddhaputto, yuttayogo vipassako;
The striving man, the man of vision keen.
Araññaṃ pavisitvāna, gaṇhāti phalamuttama"nti.
Having into the forest gone seize therein Fruition that truly is supreme.
Tenassa parakkamajavayoggabhūmiṃ araññasenāsanaṃ dassento bhagavā "araññagato vā"tiādimāha.
And so the Blessed One, pointing out the forest abode, the fit place for speedy exertion in the practice of meditation, said "Gone to the forest," and so forth.
Ito paraṃ imasmiṃ tāva ānāpānapabbe yaṃ vattabbaṃ siyā, taṃ visuddhimagge vuttameva.
Tassa pana imesaṃ "dīghaṃ vā assasanto dīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti - pe - passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhatī"ti evaṃ vuttānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ vasena sikkhato assāsapassāsanimitte cattāri jhānāni uppajjanti.
Indeed, to that yogi training in respiration-mindfulness according to the method taught thus: "He, thinking 'I breathe in long,' understands when he is breathing in long... Calming the activity of the body... I breathe out, thinking thus, he trains himself" [digham va assasanto digham assasamiti pajanati... passambhayam kayasankharam passasissamiti sikkhati], the four absorptions [cattari jhanani] arise in the respiration sign [assasapassasanimitte uppajjanti].{5}
So jhānā vuṭṭhahitvā assāsapassāse vā pariggaṇhāti jhānaṅgāni vā.
Having emerged from the absorption, he lays hold of either the respiration body or the factors of absorption.
Tattha assāsapassāsakammiko "ime assāsapassāsā kiṃ nissitā, vatthuṃ nissitā, vatthu nāma karajakāyo, karajakāyo nāma cattāri mahābhūtāni upādārūpañcā"ti evaṃ rūpaṃ pariggaṇhāti, tato tadārammaṇe phassapañcamake nāmanti evaṃ nāmarūpaṃ pariggahetvā tassa paccayaṃ pariyesanto avijjādipaṭiccasamuppādaṃ disvā "paccayapaccayuppannadhammamattamevetaṃ, añño satto vā puggalo vā natthī"ti vitiṇṇakaṅkho sappaccayanāmarūpe tilakkhaṇaṃ āropetvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhento anukkamena arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti.
There the meditating worker in respiration [assasapassasa kammika] examines the body (rupa) thinking thus: Supported by what is respiration? Supported by the basis [vatthunissita]. The basis is the coarse body [karajja kaya]. The coarse body is composed of the Four Great Primaries and the corporeality derived from these [cattari mahabhutani upadarupañca]. {6} Thereupon, he, the worker in respiration, cognizes the mind (nama) in the pentad of mental concomitants beginning with sense-impression. The worker in respiration examines the mind and the body, sees the Dependent Origination of ignorance and so forth, and concluding that this mind and this body are bare conditions, and things produced from conditions, and that besides these there is neither a living being nor a person, becomes to that extent a person who transcends doubt.{7} And the yogi who has transcended doubt while cultivating insight, applies the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and soullessness, to the mind and body together with the conditions and gradually reaches arahantship [sappaccaya nama rupe tilakkhanam aropetva vipassanam vaddhento anukkamena arahattam papunati]. {8}
Idaṃ ekassa bhikkhuno yāva arahattā niyyānamukhaṃ.
Jhānakammikopi "imāni jhānaṅgāni kiṃ nissitāni, vatthuṃ nissitāni.
The worker in absorption, {namely, he who contemplates upon the factors of absorption}, also thinks thus: Supported by what are these factors of absorption? By the basis.
Vatthu nāma karajakāyoti jhānaṅgāni nāmaṃ, karajakāyo rūpa"nti nāmarūpaṃ vavatthapetvā tassa paccayaṃ pariyesanto avijjādipaccayākāraṃ disvā "paccayapaccayuppannadhammamattamevetaṃ, añño satto vā puggalo vā natthī"ti vitiṇṇakaṅkho sappaccayanāmarūpe tilakkhaṇaṃ āropetvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhento anukkamena arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti, idaṃ ekassa bhikkhuno yāva arahattā niyyānamukhaṃ.
The basis is the coarse body. The factors of absorption are here representative of the mind. The coarse body is the body. Having determined thus, he, searching for the reason of the mind and the body, seeks it in Conditions' Mode beginning with ignorance, concludes that this mind and the body comprise just conditions and things produced by conditions and that besides these there is neither a living being nor a person, and becomes to that extent a person who transcends doubt. And the yogi who transcends doubt thus, while cultivating insight, applies the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering and soullessness, to the mind and the body together with conditions and gradually reaches arahantship.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ attano vā assāsapassāsakāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally." This bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body in his own respiration body.{9}
Bahiddhā vāti parassa vā assāsapassāsakāye.
Bahiddha va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally." Or this bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body in another's respiration-body.{10}
Ajjhattabahiddhā vāti kālena attano, kālena parassa assāsapassāsakāye.
Ajjhatta-bahiddha va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally." At one time in his own and at another in another's respiration-body, he dwells in contemplation of the body.
Etenassa paguṇakammaṭṭhānaṃ aṭṭhapetvā aparāparaṃ sañcaraṇakālo kathito.
By this there is reference to the time when the yogi's mind moves repeatedly back and forth (internally and externally by way of object) without laying aside the familiar subject of meditation [kalena attano kalena parassa assasapassasakaye etenassa pagunakammatthanam atthapetva aparaparam sañcarana kalo kathito]. {11}
Ekasmiṃ kāle panidaṃ ubhayaṃ na labbhati.
Both cannot occur at once [eka kale pana idam ubbayam na labbhati]. {12}
Samudayadhammānupassī vāti yathā nāma kammārabhastañca gaggaranāḷiñca tajjañca vāyāmaṃ paṭicca vāto aparāparaṃ sañcarati, evaṃ bhikkhuno karajakāyañca nāsāpuṭañca cittañca paṭicca assāsapassāsakāyo aparāparaṃ sañcarati.
Samudaya-dhammanupassi va kayasamim viharati = "He lives contemplating origination-things in the body." Just as the air moves back and forth depending on the smith's bellows' skin, the bellows' spout, and appropriate effort, so, depending on the coarse body, nasal aperture, and the mind of the bhikkhu, the respiration-body moves back and forth.
Kāyādayo dhammā samudayadhammā, te passanto "samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharatī"ti vuccati.
The things beginning with the (coarse) body are origination (kayadayo dhamma samudayo]. The person who sees thus, is he who lives contemplating origination-things in the body.
Vayadhammānupassī vāti yathā bhastāya apanītāya gaggaranāḷiyā bhinnāya tajje ca vāyāme asati so vāto nappavattati, evameva kāye bhinne nāsāpuṭe viddhaste citte ca niruddhe assāsapassāsakāyo nāma nappavattatīti kāyādinirodhā assāsapassāsanirodhoti evaṃ passanto "vayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharatī"ti vuccati.
Vayadhammanupassi va kayasmim viharati = "Or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body." In whatever way, the air does not proceed when the bellows' skin is taken off, the bellows' spout is broken, and the appropriate exertion is absent, even in that same way, when the body breaks up, the nasal aperture is destroyed, and the mind has ceased to function, the respiration-body does not go on. Thus through the ending of the coarse body, the nasal aperture and the mind there comes to be the ending of the respirations [kayadi-nirodha assasapassasa-nirodho]. The person who sees in this way, is he who lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body.
Samudayavayadhammānupassī vāti kālena samudayaṃ, kālena vayaṃ anupassanto.
Samudaya-vaya-dhammanupassi va kayasmim viharati = "Or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body." He lives contemplating origination at one time and dissolution at another [kalena samudayam kalena vayam anupassanto].{13}
Atthi kāyoti vā panassāti kāyova atthi, na satto, na puggalo, na itthī, na puriso, na attā, na attaniyaṃ, nāhaṃ, na mama, na koci, na kassacīti evamassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Atthi kayoti va panassa sati paccupatthita hoti = "Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established, with the thought: 'The body exists.'" Mindfulness is established for the yogi through careful scrutiny. He thinks: There is the body, but there is no being, no person, no woman, no man, no soul, nothing pertaining to a soul, no "I," nothing that is mine, no one, and nothing belonging to anyone [kayoti ca attli, na satto, na puggalo, na itthi, na puriso, na atta, na attaniyam naham, na mama, na koci, na kassaciti evam assa sati paccupatthita hoti].
Yāvadevāti payojanaparicchedavavatthāpanametaṃ.
Yavadeva = "To the extent necessary." It denotes purpose.
Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yā sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, sā na aññatthāya.
This is said: The mindfulness established is not for another purpose. What is the purpose for which it is established?
Atha kho yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya aparāparaṃ uttaruttari ñāṇapamāṇatthāya ceva satipamāṇatthāya ca, satisampajaññānaṃ vuḍḍhatthāyāti attho.
Nanamattaya patissatimattaya = "For just knowledge and remembrance." That is just for the sake of a wider and wider, or further and further measure of knowledge and of mindfulness [aparaparam uttaruttari ñanapamanatthaya ceva satipamanattha-yaca]. For the increase of mindfulness and clear comprehension is the meaning.{14}
Anissito ca viharatīti taṇhānissayadiṭṭhinissayānaṃ vasena anissito viharati.
Anissito ca viharati = "And he lives independent." He lives emancipated from dependence on craving and wrong views.{15}
Na ca kiñci loke upādiyatīti lokasmiṃ kiñci rūpaṃ vā - pe - viññāṇaṃ vā "ayaṃ me attā vā attaniyaṃ vā"ti na gaṇhāti.
Na ca kiñci loke upadiyati = "And clings to naught in the world." In regard to no visible shape... or consciousness, does he think: this is my soul; or this belongs to my soul.
Evampīti upariatthaṃ upādāya sampiṇḍanattho pikāro.
Evampi = "Thus also." With this expression ("Thus also") the Blessed One wound up the instruction on the section on breathing.
Iminā pana padena bhagavā ānāpānapabbadesanaṃ niyyātetvā dasseti.
In this section on breathing, the mindfulness which examines the respirations is the Truth of Suffering.
Tattha assāsapassāsapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccaṃ, tassā samuṭṭhāpikā purimataṇhā samudayasaccaṃ, ubhinnaṃ appavatti nirodhasaccaṃ, dukkhaparijānano samudayapajahano nirodhārammaṇo ariyamaggo maggasaccaṃ.
The pre-craving which brings about that mindfulness is the Truth of Origination. The non-occurrence of both is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path which understands suffering, abandons origination, and takes cessation as object, is the Truth of the Way.
Evaṃ catusaccavasena ussakkitvā nibbutiṃ pāpuṇātīti idamekassa assāsapassāsavasena abhiniviṭṭhassa bhikkhuno yāva arahattā niyyānamukhanti.
Thus having endeavored by way of the Four Truths, a person arrives at peace. This is the portal to emancipation of the bhikkhu devoted to meditation on breathing.
Ānāpānapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Iriyāpathapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1.2 Kāy-ānu-passanā-iriyāpatha-pabba: The Postures

108.Evaṃ assāsapassāsavasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni iriyāpathavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
The Buddha, after dealing in the aforesaid manner with body-contemplation in the form of respiration-meditation, in detail, said: "And further," in order to deal exhaustively with body-contemplation, here, according to the meditation on the modes of deportment [iriyapatha].
Tattha kāmaṃ soṇasiṅgālādayopi gacchantā "gacchāmā"ti jānanti.
Gacchanto va gacchamiti pajanati = "When he is going (a bhikkhu) understands: 'I am going. '" In this matter of going, readily do dogs, jackals and the like, know when they move on that they are moving.
Na panetaṃ evarūpaṃ jānanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.
But this instruction on the modes of deportment was not given concerning similar awareness,
Evarūpañhi jānanaṃ sattūpaladdhiṃ na pajahati, attasaññaṃ na ugghāṭeti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā vā na hoti.
because awareness of that sort belonging to animals does not shed the belief in a living being, does not knock out the percept of a soul, and neither becomes a subject of meditation nor the development of the Arousing of Mindfulness.{16}
Imassa pana bhikkhuno jānanaṃ sattūpaladdhiṃ pajahati, attasaññaṃ ugghāṭeti, kammaṭṭhānañceva satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā ca hoti.
But the knowledge of this meditator sheds the belief in a living being, knocks out the idea of a soul, and is both a subject of meditation and the development of the Arousing of Mindfulness.
Idañhi "ko gacchati, kassa gamanaṃ, kiṃ kāraṇā gacchatī"ti evaṃ sampajānanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.
Indeed, who goes, whose going is it, on what account is this going? These words refer to the knowledge of the (act of) going (the mode of deportment) of the meditating bhikkhu.
Ṭhānādīsupi eseva nayo.
Tattha ko gacchatīti na koci satto vā puggalo vā gacchati.
In the elucidation of these questions the following is said: Who goes? No living being or person whatsoever.
Kassa gamananti na kassaci sattassa vā puggalassa vā gamanaṃ.
Whose going is it?Not the going of any living being or person.
Kiṃ kāraṇā gacchatīti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena gacchati.
On account of what does the going take place? On account of the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity.
Tasmā esa evaṃ pajānāti "gacchāmī"ti cittaṃ uppajjati, taṃ vāyaṃ janeti, vāyo viññattiṃ janeti, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena sakalakāyassa purato abhinīhāro gamananti vuccati.
Because of that this yogi knows thus: If there arises the thought, "I shall go," that thought produces the process of oscillation; the process of oscillation produces expression (the bodily movement which indicates going and so forth). The moving on of the whole body through the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called going.
Ṭhānādīsupi eseva nayo.
The same is the method of exposition as regards the other postures: standing and so forth.
Tatrāpi hi "tiṭṭhāmī"ti cittaṃ uppajjati, taṃ vāyaṃ janeti, vāyo viññattiṃ janeti, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena sakalakāyassa koṭito paṭṭhāya ussitabhāvo ṭhānanti vuccati.
There, too, the yogi knows thus: If there arises the thought, "I shall stand," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The raising upright of the whole body from below owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called standing.
"Nisīdāmī"ti cittaṃ uppajjati, taṃ vāyaṃ janeti, vāyo viññattiṃ janeti, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena heṭṭhimakāyassa samiñjanaṃ uparimakāyassa ussitabhāvo nisajjāti vuccati.
If there arises the thought "I shall sit," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The bending of the lower part of the body and the raising upright of the upper part of the body owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called sitting.
"Sayāmī"ti cittaṃ uppajjati, taṃ vāyaṃ janeti, vāyo viññattiṃ janeti, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena sakalasarīrassa tiriyato pasāraṇaṃ sayananti vuccatīti.
If there arises the thought, "I shall lie down," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The straightening or the spreading of the whole body horizontally or across, owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation, is called lying down.{17}
Tassa evaṃ pajānato evaṃ hoti "satto gacchati satto tiṭṭhatī"ti vuccati.
He who knows (that by the diffusion of this process of oscillation born of mental activity take place going, standing, sitting and lying down) pursues the line of thinking (called investigation) in the following manner: "A living being goes," "A living being stands," (according to the false belief of those unacquainted with the reality of the matter or according to conventional speech),
Atthi pana koci satto gacchanto vā ṭhito vā natthi.
but there is no living being going or standing.
Yathā pana "sakaṭaṃ gacchati sakaṭaṃ tiṭṭhatī"ti vuccati, na ca kiñci sakaṭaṃ nāma gacchantaṃ vā tiṭṭhantaṃ vā atthi.
This talk of a living being going or standing is similar to speech in the following way: "A cart goes." "A cart stands." In fact there is no going cart and no standing cart.
Cattāro pana goṇe yojetvā chekamhi sārathimhi pājente "sakaṭaṃ gacchati sakaṭaṃ tiṭṭhatī"ti vohāramattameva hoti, evameva ajānanaṭṭhena sakaṭaṃ viya kāyo.
When with bulls (tied to a cart) a skilled driver is driving, one conventionally speaking says: "A cart goes" or "A cart stands." In the sense of a thing not able to go of itself, the body is like the cart.
Goṇā viya cittajavātā.
Mind-born oscillation are like the bulls.
Sārathi viya cittaṃ.
Mind is like the driver.
Gacchāmi tiṭṭhāmīti citte uppanne vāyodhātu viññattiṃ janayamānā uppajjati, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena gamanādīni pavattanti.
When the thought, "I go," or the thought "I stand," arises, the process of oscillation producing expression comes to existence. By the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, going and the other modes of deportment take place,
Tato "satto gacchati, satto tiṭṭhati, ahaṃ gacchāmi, ahaṃ tiṭṭhāmī"ti vohāramattaṃ hotīti.
and then there are these forms of conventional speech: "A living being goes," "A living being stands," "I go," "I stand."
Tenāha –
Therefore the commentator said:
"Nāvā mālutavegena, jiyāvegena tejanaṃ;
Just as a ship goes on by winds impelled, Just as a shaft goes by the bowstring's force,
Yathā yāti tathā kāyo, yāti vātāhato ayaṃ.
So goes this body in its forward course Full driven by the vibrant thrust of air.
Yantaṃ suttavaseneva, cittasuttavasenidaṃ;
As to the puppet's back the dodge-thread's tied So to the body-doll the mind is joined
Payuttaṃ kāyayantampi, yāti ṭhāti nisīdati.
And pulled by that the body moves, stands, sits.
Ko nāma ettha so satto, yo vinā hetupaccaye;
Where is the living being that, without conditions that give it support
Attano ānubhāvena, tiṭṭhe vā yadi vā vaje"ti.
can stand, or walk, by force of its own inner strength?
Tasmā evaṃ hetupaccayavaseneva pavattāni gamanādīni sallakkhento esa gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti, ṭhito vā, nisinno vā, sayāno vā sayānomhīti pajānātīti veditabbo.
Accordingly this yogi, who considers by way of causes and conditions, the states of going, standing and so forth, knows well that he is going, when he is in the state of going, that he is standing when he stands, that he is sitting when he sits, and that he is lying down when he lies down, as it is told in the passage in the discourse beginning with the words: "When he is going, a bhikkhu understands: 'I am going.'"
Yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānātīti sabbasaṅgāhikavacanametaṃ.
Yatha yatha va panassa kayo panihito hoti tatha tatha nam pajanati = "Or just as his body is disposed so he understands it."
Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yena yena vā ākārena tassa kāyo ṭhito hoti, tena tena naṃ pajānāti.
Gamanākārena ṭhitaṃ gacchatīti pajānāti.
Ṭhānanisajjāsayanākārena ṭhitaṃ sayānoti pajānātīti.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ attano vā catuiriyāpathapariggaṇhanena kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam va = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body, examining his own four modes of deportment.
Bahiddhā vāti parassa vā catuiriyāpathapariggaṇhanena.
Bahiddha va = "Or externally." Or examining the four modes of deportment of another.
Ajjhattabahiddhā vāti kālena attano, kālena parassa catuiriyāpathapariggaṇhanena kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Ajjhatta-bahiddha va = "Or internally and externally." Or examining at one time his own four modes of deportment and at another time another's four modes of deportment, he lives.
Samudayadhammānupassī vātiādīsu pana "avijjāsamudayā rūpasamudayo"tiādinā (paṭi. ma. 1.49) nayena pañcahākārehi rūpakkhandhassa samudayo ca vayo ca nīharitabbo.
Samudaya-dhammanupassi = "Contemplating origination-things." Also dissolution-things are included here. Origination and dissolution should be dwelt upon by way of the fivefold method beginning with the words: "He, thinking 'the origination of materiality comes to be through the origination of ignorance,' in the sense of the origin of conditions, sees the arising of the aggregate of materiality."{18}
Tañhi sandhāya idha "samudayadhammānupassī vā"tiādi vuttaṃ.
Atthi kāyoti vā panassātiādi vuttasadisameva.
Atthi kayoti va panassa, sati paccupatthita hoti = "Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists. '" The exposition of this is to be done in the manner already stated in the preceding section.
Idha pana catuiriyāpathapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccaṃ, tassā samuṭṭhāpikā purimataṇhā samudayasaccaṃ, ubhinnaṃ appavatti nirodhasaccaṃ, dukkhaparijānano samudayapajahano nirodhārammaṇo ariyamaggo maggasaccaṃ.
Here, the mindfulness which examines the four modes of deportment is the Truth of Suffering. The pre-craving which brings about that mindfulness is the Truth of Origination. The non-occurrence of either is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path which understands suffering, abandons origination, and takes cessation as object, is the Truth of the Way.
Evaṃ catusaccavasena ussakkitvā nibbutiṃ pāpuṇātīti idamekassa catūiriyāpathapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno yāva arahattā niyyānamukhanti.
The yogi having endeavored thus by way of the Four Truths, arrives at peace. This is the portal to emancipation up to arahantship of the bhikkhu occupied with the four modes of deportment.
Iriyāpathapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1.3 Kāy-ānu-passanā-sampajāna-pabba: lucid-discerning

109.Evaṃ iriyāpathavasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni catusampajaññavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
1. Clear comprehension in going forwards and backwards After explaining body-contemplation in the form of the meditation on the four modes of deportment, the Master said, "And further," to explain body-contemplation by way of the four kinds of clear comprehension [catu sampajañña]. {19}
Tattha abhikkante paṭikkanteti ettha tāva abhikkantaṃ vuccati gamanaṃ.
Abhikkante patikkante = "In going forwards (and) in going backwards." Here, the meaning is as follows: — Going forwards is called going.
Paṭikkantaṃ nivattanaṃ.
Going backwards is called turning back.
Tadubhayampi catūsu iriyāpathesu labbhati.
Both these are to be found in all the four modes of deportment.{20}
Gamane tāva purato kāyaṃ abhiharanto abhikkamati nāma.
First, in going, carrying the body to a position in front — bringing the body along — is called going forwards.
Paṭinivattento paṭikkamati nāma.
Turning back — returning thence — is called turning back.
Ṭhānepi ṭhitakova kāyaṃ purato onāmento abhikkamati nāma.
And in standing, one just standing and bending the body to a position in front does what is called going forwards,
Pacchato apanāmento paṭikkamati nāma.
and one bending away behind — drawing back — does what is called going backwards.
Nisajjāyapi nisinnakova āsanassa purimaaṅgābhimukho saṃsaranto abhikkamati nāma.
In sitting down, one sitting and moving on — creeping on, sliding on — to front portion comprising the frame and so forth of the seat, i. e. , chair, stool or similar thing, does going forwards;
Pacchimaaṅgappadesaṃ pacchā saṃsaranto paṭikkamati nāma.
and one moving away — sliding back — to the parts comprising the frame and so forth at the back of the chair or stool does what is called turning back.
Nipajjāyapi eseva nayo.
In lying down too the explanation is to be done according to the method stated above.
Sampajānakārī hotīti sampajaññena sabbakiccakārī, sampajaññameva vā kārī.
Sampajanakari = "Practicing clear comprehension." Doing without fail all actions with clear comprehension [sampajaññena sabba kicca kari]. Or the doing of only clear comprehension [sampajaññasseva va kari]. {21}
So hi abhikkantādīsu sampajaññaṃ karoteva, na katthaci sampajaññavirahito hoti.
For the yogi practices only clear comprehension and is nowhere bereft of clear comprehension, in going forwards and going backwards.
Tattha sātthakasampajaññaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ gocarasampajaññaṃ asammohasampajaññanti catubbidhaṃ sampajaññaṃ.
There are these four kinds of comprehension: clear comprehension of purpose [satthaka sampajañña], of suitability [sappaya sampajañña], of resort [gocara sampajañña], and of non-delusion [asammoha sampajañña].{22}
Tattha abhikkamanacitte uppanne cittavaseneva agantvā "kiṃ nu me ettha gatena attho atthi natthī"ti atthānatthaṃ pariggaṇhitvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ.
Among these four kinds of clear comprehension, the clear comprehension of purpose is the comprehension of (a worthy) purpose after considering what is worthy and not worthy, with the thought, "Is there any use to one by this going or is there not?" One does this not having gone immediately, just by the influence of the thought, at the very moment the thought of going forwards is born.
Tattha ca atthoti cetiyadassanabodhidassanasaṅghadassanatheradassanaasubhadassanādivasena dhammato vaḍḍhi.
In this context, purpose is growth according to the Dhamma, by way of visiting a relic shrine, Tree of Enlightenment (Bodhi Tree), the Sangha, the elders, and a place where the dead are cast (a cemetery) for seeing the unlovely (a corpse, a skeleton and the like).
Cetiyaṃ vā bodhiṃ vā disvāpi hi buddhārammaṇaṃ saṅghadassanena saṅghārammaṇaṃ pītiṃ uppādetvā tadeva khayavayato sammasanto arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti.
By visiting a relic shrine, a Bodhi Tree, or the Sangha, for producing spiritual interest, and by meditating on the waning of that interest one could reach arahantship;
There disvā tesaṃ ovāde patiṭṭhāya asubhaṃ disvā tattha paṭhamajjhānaṃ uppādetvā tadeva khayavayato sammasanto arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti.
by visiting elders and by getting established in their instruction one could reach arahantship; and by visiting a place where the dead are cast, by seeing a corpse there and by producing the first absorption (pathamajjhana] in that unlovely object, one could reach arahantship.
Tasmā etesaṃ dassanaṃ sātthakaṃ.
So the visiting of these is purposeful.{23}
Keci pana "āmisatopi vaḍḍhi atthoyeva, taṃ nissāya brahmacariyānuggahāya paṭipannattā"ti vadanti.
Some [keci] however say: Increase by way of material gain, too, is (a worthy) purpose, since material gain is helpful for the holy life.{24}
Tasmiṃ pana gamane sappāyāsappāyaṃ pariggaṇhitvā sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ.
Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering what is suitable and not.
Seyyathidaṃ, cetiyadassanaṃ tāva sātthakaṃ.
For instance, the visiting of a relic shrine could be quite (worthily) purposeful.
Sace pana cetiyassa mahāpūjāya dasadvādasayojanantare parisā sannipatanti.
But when a great offering is made to a relic shrine, a multitude of people in a ten or twelve yojana area gather,
Attano vibhavānurūpaṃ itthiyopi purisāpi alaṅkatappaṭiyattā cittakammarūpakāni viya sañcaranti.
and men and women according to their position go about adorned like painted figures.
Tatra cassa iṭṭhe ārammaṇe lobho, aniṭṭhe paṭigho, asamapekkhane moho uppajjati, kāyasaṃsaggāpattiṃ vā āpajjati, jīvitabrahmacariyānaṃ vā antarāyo hoti, evaṃ taṃ ṭhānaṃ asappāyaṃ hoti.
And if in that crowd greed could arise for the bhikkhu in an attractive object, resentment in a non-attractive one, and delusion through prejudice; if he could commit the offence of sexual intercourse; or if harm could come to the holy life of purity; then, a place like that relic shrine would not be suitable.
Vuttappakāraantarāyābhāve sappāyaṃ.
When there could be no such harm it would be suitable.{25}
Bodhidassanepi eseva nayo.
Saṅghadassanampi sātthaṃ.
The visiting of the Sangha is a purpose of worth.
Sace pana antogāme mahāmaṇḍapaṃ kāretvā sabbarattiṃ dhammassavanaṃ kārentesu manussesu vuttappakāreneva janasannipāto ceva antarāyo ca hoti, evaṃ taṃ ṭhānaṃ asappāyaṃ.
Still when there is all-night preaching in a big pandal in the inner village and there are crowds and one could possibly come to hurt and harm in the way mentioned earlier, that place of preaching is not suitable to go to.
Antarāyābhāve sappāyaṃ.
When there is no hurt or harm possible one may go there as it would then be suitable.
Mahāparisaparivārānaṃ therānaṃ dassanepi eseva nayo.
In visiting elders who are surrounded by a large following suitability and non-suitability should also be determined in the way stated above.
Asubhadassanampi sātthaṃ.
To visit a place where the dead are cast for beholding a corpse is fit,
Tadatthadīpanatthañca idaṃ vatthu – eko kira daharabhikkhu sāmaṇeraṃ gahetvā dantakaṭṭhatthāya gato.
and to explain the meaning of this the following story has been told: It is said that a young bhikkhu went with a novice to get wood for tooth-cleaners.
Sāmaṇero maggā okkamitvā purato gacchanto asubhaṃ disvā paṭhamajjhānaṃ nibbattetvā tadeva pādakaṃ katvā saṅkhāre sammasanto tīṇi phalāni sacchikatvā uparimaggatthāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ pariggahetvā aṭṭhāsi.
The novice getting out of the road proceeded in front to a place in search of wood and saw a corpse. Meditating on it he produced the first absorption, and making the factors of the absorption a basis for developing insight realized the first three fruitions of arahantship, while examining the conformations [sankhare sammasanto], and stood having laid hold of the subject of meditation for realizing the path of full arahantship.
Daharo taṃ apassanto "sāmaṇerā"ti pakkosi.
The young bhikkhu not seeing the novice called out to him.
So "mayā pabbajitadivasato paṭṭhāya bhikkhunā saddhiṃ dve kathā nāma na kathitapubbā.
The novice thought thus: From the day I took up the homeless life I have endeavored to let me never be called twice by a bhikkhu,
Aññasmimpi divase uparivisesaṃ nibbattessāmī"ti cintetvā "kiṃ, bhante"ti paṭivacanaṃ adāsi.
so, I will produce the further distinction (of full arahantship) another day, and replied to the bhikkhu with the words: "What's the matter, reverend sir?"
Ehīti ca vutte ekavacaneneva āgantvā "bhante, iminā tāva maggena gantvā mayā ṭhitokāse muhuttaṃ puratthābhimukho ṭhatvā olokethā"ti āha.
"Come," said the bhikkhu and the novice returned. The novice told the bhikkhu as follows: "Go first by this way: then stand facing north, at the place I stood, for a while and look."
So tathā katvā tena pattavisesameva pāpuṇi.
The young bhikkhu followed the novice's instruction and attained just the distinction reached by the novice.
Evaṃ ekaṃ asubhaṃ dvinnaṃ janānaṃ atthāya jāyati.
Thus the same corpse became profitable to two people.
Evaṃ sātthampi panetaṃ purisassa mātugāmāsubhaṃ asappāyaṃ.
For the male the female corpse is not suitable,
Mātugāmassa ca purisāsubhaṃ sabhāgameva sappāyanti evaṃ sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ nāma.
and vice versa. Only a corpse of one's own sex is suitable. Comprehension of what is suitable in this way is called the clear comprehension of suitability.
Evaṃ pariggahitasātthasappāyassa pana aṭṭhatiṃsāya kammaṭṭhānesu attano cittarucitakammaṭṭhānasaṅkhātaṃ gocaraṃ uggahetvā bhikkhācāragocare taṃ gahetvā gamanaṃ gocarasampajaññaṃ nāma.
Further, the going on the alms round of that one who has thus comprehended purpose and suitability after leaving and taking up just that resort — among the thirty-eight subjects of meditation — called the subject of meditation after his own heart is clear comprehension of resort.{26}
Tassāvibhāvatthaṃ idaṃ catukkaṃ veditabbaṃ.
For making manifest this clear comprehension of resort the following set of four should be understood:
Idhekacco bhikkhu harati na paccāharati, ekacco na harati paccāharati, ekacco neva harati na paccāharati, ekacco harati ca paccāharati ca.
In the Dispensation of the Buddha a certain bhikkhu on the journey out for alms takes along with him in the mind the subject of meditation, but on the journey back from the work of alms-gathering he does not bring it along with him, having become unmindful of it. Another does not take it along with him on the outward journey, but returns from the alms-tour with the subject of meditation in his mind. Still another neither takes it along with him on the outward journey nor returns with it on the journey home. And, lastly, there is the fourth kind of bhikkhu who both takes the subject of meditation along with him on the journey out for alms and brings it back with him on the journey home.
Tattha yo bhikkhu divasaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhetvā tathā rattiyā paṭhamaṃ yāmaṃ majjhime yāme seyyaṃ kappetvā pacchimayāmepi nisajjācaṅkamehi vītināmetvā pageva cetiyaṅgaṇabodhiyaṅgaṇavattaṃ katvā bodhirukkhe udakaṃ abhisiñcitvā pānīyaṃ paribhojanīyaṃ paccupaṭṭhapetvā ācariyupajjhāyavattādīni sabbāni khandhakavattāni samādāya vattati.
Among these four kinds, there is a certain bhikkhu who lives thus: — By day he cleanses his mind of things that becloud — the hindrances [nivarana] — through meditation on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture. By night, likewise, on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture, through meditation, in the first watch, and in the last watch, he cleanses his mind of things that becloud, after sleeping in the middle watch. Quite early in the day having done the duties connected with the terraces of the relic-shrine and the Bhodhi-tree — sweeping and so forth — he sprinkles the Bodhi-tree with water, places water for drinking and washing and attends to the Khandhaka duties beginning with the duties connected with the teacher and the preceptor.
So sarīraparikammaṃ katvā senāsanaṃ pavisitvā dve tayo pallaṅke usumaṃ gāhāpento kammaṭṭhānaṃ anuyuñjitvā bhikkhācāravelāya uṭṭhahitvā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva pattacīvaramādāya senāsanato nikkhamitvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontova cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ gantvā sace buddhānussatikammaṭṭhānaṃ hoti, taṃ avissajjetvāva cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ pavisati.
Thereafter, having looked to the needs of his body ... he enters his dwelling and practices the subject of meditation begun that day [tadahe mula bhutam kammatthanam], at several sittings [dve tayo pallanke usumam gahapento = during two or three sittings while the body happens to be put into a state of warming up].{27} (One sits in meditation not for a long time at a stretch. There are short intervals of relaxation through brief changes of posture when the body gets warm or uncomfortable in the cross-legged sitting pose.) When it is time to wander for alms, he having got up from the sitting meditation-pose, and takes his bowl and robe with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind [kammatthana siseneva] leaves his dwelling, attending only to the thought of meditation [kammatthanam manasikarontova]. {28} If, when going to his alms collecting place, the bhikkhu's thought of meditation is contemplation on the Buddha's qualities [buddhanussati kammatthanam], he, on arriving at the relic-shrine, enters the shrine's precincts, without having put aside his thought of meditation on the Buddha.
Aññaṃ ce kammaṭṭhānaṃ hoti, sopānapādamūle ṭhatvā hatthena gahitabhaṇḍaṃ viya taṃ ṭhapetvā buddhārammaṇaṃ pītiṃ gahetvā cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ āruyha mahantaṃ cetiyaṃ ce, tikkhattuṃ padakkhiṇaṃ katvā catūsu ṭhānesu vanditabbaṃ.
But should his thought of meditation be something other than the Buddha-subject, he having stood at the foot of the stairway leading to the shrine-terrace, put by his thought of meditation as if it were goods hand-carried, and acquired the joy begotten of the Buddha-subject of meditation, goes up the stairway. If the relic-shrine is a big one, it should be worshipped at four places, when the bhikkhu has gone round it three times to the right.
Khuddakaṃ cetiyaṃ ce, tatheva padakkhiṇaṃ katvā aṭṭhasu ṭhānesu vanditabbaṃ.
If it is a small shrine, it should be worshipped by the meditator in eight places when he has gone round it three times to the right just as in the case of the big shrine.
Cetiyaṃ vanditvā bodhiyaṅgaṇaṃ pattenāpi buddhassa bhagavato sammukhā viya nipaccakāraṃ dassetvā bodhi vanditabbo.
By a bhikkhu who, having worshipped a relic-shrine, has reached a Bodhi-tree shrine even the Bodhi-tree should be worshipped. And he should worship the Bodhi-tree showing meek demeanour as though he were in the very presence of the Buddha, the Bhagava.
So evaṃ cetiyañca bodhiñca vanditvā paṭisāmitaṭṭhānaṃ gantvā paṭisāmitabhaṇḍakaṃ hatthena gaṇhanto viya nikkhittakammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā gāmasamīpe kammaṭṭhānasīseneva cīvaraṃ pārupitvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisati.
In this way, that monk, having worshipped relic-shrine and Boddhi-tree shrine, goes to the place where he had put by his first subject of meditation, namely, to the bottom of the stairway. There, having taken up the subject of meditation he had put by earlier, and robed himself (with the upper robe and the shoulder cloak held together and worn as one, that is, with the upper robe falling within the shoulder-cloak at all edges), near the village with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, he enters the village for alms.
Atha naṃ manussā disvā "ayyo no āgato"ti paccuggantvā pattaṃ gahetvā āsanasālāyaṃ vā gehe vā nisīdāpetvā yāguṃ datvā yāva bhattaṃ na niṭṭhāti, tāva pāde dhovitvā telena makkhetvā purato nisīditvā pañhaṃ vā pucchanti, dhammaṃ vā sotukāmā honti.
There, people, after seeing the bhikkhu, say: "Our venerable one has come," and having gone forward to meet the bhikkhu, taken his bowl, conducted him to the sitting-hall (hall where meals are served to the bhikkhus in a village) or to a house and made him take a seat, offer gruel to him. Thereafter, they wash and anoint his feet, and till rice is ready sit in front of him and ask him questions or become desirous of listening to a talk on the Dhamma from him.
Sacepi na kathāpenti, janasaṅgahatthaṃ dhammakathā nāma kātabbāyevāti aṭṭhakathācariyā vadanti.
Even if the people do not ask him to speak to them on the Dhamma, the commentators say that a talk on the Dhamma should be given to the people in order to help them. The bhikkhus should expound the Dhamma{29}
Dhammakathā hi kammaṭṭhānavinimuttā nāma natthi.
There is no Dhamma-talk separate from the thought of meditation.{30}
Tasmā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva dhammaṃ kathetvā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva āhāraṃ paribhuñjitvā anumodanaṃ katvā nivattiyamānehipi manussehi anugatova gāmato nikkhamitvā tattheva nivattetvā maggaṃ paṭipajjati.
Therefore, after expounding the Dhamma even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, after partaking of the food, with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind he leaves the village followed by the people who in spite of his requesting them to stop accompanying him. There, after turning back those who followed him, he takes the road to his dwelling-place.{31}
Atha naṃ puretaraṃ nikkhamitvā bahigāme katabhattakiccā sāmaṇeradaharabhikkhū disvā paccuggantvā pattacīvaramassa gaṇhanti.
Then, novices and young bhikkhus who had taken their meal outside the village, having left the village earlier than this bhikkhu see this bhikkhu coming. And they, after going forward to meet him, take his bowl and robe.
Porāṇā bhikkhū kira "na amhākaṃ upajjhāyo ācariyo"ti mukhaṃ ulloketvā vattaṃ karonti.
It is said that bhikkhus of old did this duty without looking at the face of the returning bhikkhu and thinking: (this is) our preceptor (or) our teacher.
Sampattaparicchedeneva karonti.
In ancient times, they did this duty according to the arriving-limit (the arriving division, section, or company).{32}
Te taṃ pucchanti "bhante, ete manussā tumhākaṃ kiṃ honti mātupakkhato sambandhā pitipakkhato"ti.
Those novices and young bhikkhus question the elder thus: "Reverend Sir, who are these people to you? Are they relatives on the maternal side? Are they relatives on the paternal side?"
Kiṃ disvā pucchathāti.
— "Having seen what, do you query?"
Tumhesu etesaṃ pemaṃ bahumānanti.
— "Their affection and respect for you."
Āvuso, yaṃ mātāpitūhipi dukkaraṃ, taṃ ete amhākaṃ karonti, pattacīvarampi no etesaṃ santakameva, etesaṃ ānubhāvena neva bhaye bhayaṃ, na chātake chātakaṃ jānāma, edisā nāma amhākaṃ upakārino natthīti tesaṃ guṇe kathento gacchati, ayaṃ vuccati harati na paccāharatīti.
— "Friends, what even parents find it hard to do these people do for us. Our very robes and bowls are just due to them. Owing to these people we know no fear on occasions of fear and know no lack of food on occasions of famine. There are no people so helpful to us as these folk." Speaking well of these people, thus, he goes. This bhikkhu is spoken of as a person who carries forth (takes along with him) the subject of meditation when he leaves his dwelling but does not return with the thought of meditation.
Yassa pana pageva vuttappakāraṃ vattapaṭipattiṃ karontassa kammajatejo pajjalati, anupādinnakaṃ muñcitvā upādinnakaṃ gaṇhāti, sarīrato sedā muccanti, kammaṭṭhānavīthiṃ nārohati, so pageva pattacīvaramādāya vegasāva cetiyaṃ vanditvā gorūpānaṃ nikkhamanavelāyameva gāmaṃ yāgubhikkhāya pavisitvā yāguṃ labhitvā āsanasālaṃ gantvā pivati.
If to a bhikkhu who performs the duties detailed above, betimes, (there arises an intense feeling of discomfort owing to hunger) if his kamma-produced caloricity becomes very strong (pajjalati, lit, flames up and lays hold of the derived, assimilated material of the body owing to the absence of undigested food in the stomach, if sweat exudes from his body and if he is unable to concentrate on his subject of meditation, he takes his bowl and the robe quite early in the morning, worships the relic shrine speedily, and enters the village to get gruel just when the village herds go out of their pens for pasturing. After he gets the gruel he goes to sitting-hall and drinks it.
Athassa dvattikkhattuṃ ajjhoharaṇamatteneva kammajatejo upādinnakaṃ muñcitvā anupādinnakaṃ gaṇhāti.
Then, with the swallowing of just two or three mouthfuls, the kamma-produced caloricity letting go the material of the body — i.e., the inner lining of the stomach [udara patalam] lays hold of the property of the food taken in.
Ghaṭasatena nhāto viya tejodhātupariḷāhanibbāpanaṃ patvā kammaṭṭhānasīsena yāguṃ paribhuñjitvā pattañca mukhañca dhovitvā antarābhatte kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikatvā avasesaṭṭhāne piṇḍāya caritvā kammaṭṭhānasīsena āhāraṃ paribhuñjitvā tato paṭṭhāya poṅkhānupoṅkhaṃ upaṭṭhahamānaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāva āgacchati, ayaṃ vuccati na harati paccāharatīti.
And that bhikkhu, having got to the assuagement of the distress of the caloric process like a man bathed with a hundred pots of cool water, having partaken of the (rest of the) gruel with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, washed bowl and mouth, attended to the subject of meditation till the later forenoon meal, wandered for alms in the remaining places — in the places where he got no gruel and so where he could still go for alms — and taken the meal with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, returns, having taken up just that subject of meditation which is thence forward present in his mind. This person is called the one who does not carry forth but returns with the thought of meditation.{33}
Edisā ca bhikkhū yāguṃ pivitvā vipassanaṃ ārabhitvā buddhasāsane arahattaṃ pattā nāma gaṇanapathaṃ vītivattā, sīhaḷadīpeyeva tesu tesu gāmesu āsanasālāyaṃ na taṃ āsanaṃ atthi, yattha yāguṃ pivitvā arahattappattabhikkhū natthīti.
And bhikkhus, like this one, who, after drinking gruel and exerting themselves in the development of insight, reached the state of arahantship in the Buddha's Dispensation are past all numbering (so many have they been). In the Island of the Lion Race, alone [sihala dipe yeva], there is not a seat of sitting-hall in the various villages which is not a place where a bhikkhu, having sat and drunk gruel, attained arahantship (tesu tesu gamesu asanasalaya na tam asanam atthi yattha yagum pivitva arahattam patta bhikkhu natthi].{34}
Yo pana pamādavihārī hoti nikkhittadhuro, sabbavattāni bhinditvā pañcavidhacetokhilavinibandhacitto viharanto "kammaṭṭhānaṃ nāma atthī"tipi saññaṃ akatvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisitvā ananulomikena gihisaṃsaggena saṃsaṭṭho caritvā ca bhuñjitvā ca tuccho nikkhamati, ayaṃ vuccati neva harati na paccāharatīti.
But a bhikkhu who is a loose liver [pamada vihari, lit. liver in negligence, carelessness or indolence], who is a slacker [nikkhitta dhuro, lit. One who has thrown away the yoke — or the burden of right exertion — and so is an irresponsible person], having broken all observances [sabba vattani bhinditva] whilst living spiritually frozen through the fivefold bondage of mind [pañca vidha ceto vinibandha baddha citto viharanto], having entered the village for alms without having even shown a sign of the fact that there is a thing called a subject of meditation (of contemplation), and having walked about and eaten his meal in unbefitting company, comes out of the village an empty fellow. This bhikkhu is called a person who neither carries forth nor returns with the thought of meditation.
Yo panāyaṃ harati ca paccāharati cāti vutto, so gatapaccāgatikavattavasena veditabbo.
Who is spoken of with the words "This one carries forth and carries back" must be known just through the means of the observance of carrying forth and carrying back (the subject of meditation from the beginning to the end of the journey to and from the village).{35}
Attakāmā hi kulaputtā sāsane pabbajitvā dasapi vīsampi tiṃsampi cattālīsampi paññāsampi satampi ekato vasantā katikavattaṃ katvā viharanti, āvuso, tumhe na iṇaṭṭhā na bhayaṭṭā na jīvikāpakatā pabbajitā, dukkhā muccitukāmā panettha pabbajitā, tasmā gamane uppannakilesaṃ gamaneyeva niggaṇhatha, ṭhāne, nisajjāyaṃ, sayane uppannakilesaṃ sayaneyeva niggaṇhathāti.
Men of good family, desirous of self-improvement, having become homeless ones in the Dispensation of the Buddha, when living in a group of ten, twenty, fifty or a hundred make a covenant of observance, with these words: "Friends, you renounced not because you were troubled by creditors, not because of fear of punishment from the king, and not because of difficulties of subsistence produced by famine and the like, but because you were desirous of release here. Therefore, you should restrain the defilement that is born when going (forwards or backwards) just in the process of going; you should restrain the defilement that is born when standing just in the process of standing; you should restrain the defilement that is born when sitting just in the process of sitting; and you should restrain the defilement that is born when lying down just in the process of lying down.
Te evaṃ katikavattaṃ katvā bhikkhācāraṃ gacchantā aḍḍhausabhausabhaaḍḍhagāvutagāvutantaresu pāsāṇā honti.
When after the making of such a covenant of observance they go on to a village for alms, if there are stones, by the road, at distances of half-an-usabha, one usabha and one gavuta,
Tāya saññāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontāva gacchanti.
these bhikkhus proceed attending to the subject of meditation with awareness of those stones.
Sace kassaci gamane kileso uppajjati, tattheva naṃ niggaṇhāti.
If in the course of going (for alms) a defilement of the mind arises in one, just in the course of going one restrains or suppresses it.
Tathā asakkonto tiṭṭhati.
If one fails to do so one stops.
Athassa pacchato āgacchantopi tiṭṭhati.
Then he who comes behind one stops too.
So "ayaṃ bhikkhu tuyhaṃ uppannavitakkaṃ jānāti, ananucchavikaṃ te eta"nti attānaṃ paṭicodetvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā tattheva ariyabhūmiṃ okkamati.
And one thinks: "This bhikkhu here knows the unclean thought that has arisen in you; unbecoming is that to you." Thus having reproved oneself and developed penetrative insight, one steps into the Plane of the Noble Ones (i.e., arahantship; so ayam bhikkhu tuyham uppanna vitakkam janati ananucchavikam te etanti paticcodetva vipas sanam vaddhetva tattheva ariyabhumim okkamati).
Tathā asakkonto nisīdati.
If one is not able to do that, one sits down
Athassa pacchato āgacchantopi nisīdatīti soyeva nayo.
and he who comes behind sits down too, it is said: that just is the method.
Ariyabhūmiṃ okkamituṃ asakkontopi taṃ kilesaṃ vikkhambhetvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontova gacchati.
Should one be not able to enter into the Plane of the Noble Ones, then, one having stopped the defilement, goes, attending to only the subject of meditation.
Na kammaṭṭhānavippayuttena cittena pādaṃ uddharati.
One does not raise the foot with mind bereft of the subject of meditation
Uddharati ce, paṭinivattetvā purimapadesaṃ yeva eti āḷindakavāsī mahāphussadevatthero viya.
but should one do so, one, having turned, gets back again even to the earlier step.{36} Like the elder Maha Phussa, the verandah-dweller.
So kira ekūnavīsativassāni gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento eva vihāsi.
It is said that this elder dwelt for nineteen years fulfilling the observance of "carrying forth and carrying back."
Manussāpi sudaṃ antarāmagge kasantā ca vapantā ca maddantā ca kammāni ca karontā theraṃ tathāgacchantaṃ disvā "ayaṃ thero punappunaṃ nivattitvā gacchati.
Plowmen, sowers, threshers of grain and other people having seen the elder go in this manner, said: "This elder goes having halted again and again.
Kiṃ nu kho maggamūḷho udāhu kiñci pamuṭṭho"ti samullapanti.
Why does he do so? Has he got confused about the way or has he forgotten something?"
So taṃ anādiyitvā kammaṭṭhānayuttacitteneva samaṇadhammaṃ karonto vīsativassabbhantare arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
The elder by just doing the recluse's duty, with mind yoked to the thought of meditation, without giving heed to the talk of the people, attained arahantship within twenty years.
Arahattappattadivaseyevassa caṅkamanakoṭiyaṃ adhivatthā devatā aṅgulīhi dīpaṃ ujjāletvā aṭṭhāsi.
On the very day be became an arahant, a deva who was living at the end of the elder's walking path, stood emitting a radiance that came from the fingers of the deva.
Cattāropi mahārājāno sakko ca devānamindo brahmā ca sahampati upaṭṭhānaṃ agamaṃsu.
The Four Regents of the Earth, Sakka the deva-king and Brahma Sahampati came to serve the elder.
Tañca obhāsaṃ disvā vanavāsīmahātissatthero taṃ dutiyadivase pucchi "rattibhāge āyasmato santike obhāso ahosi, kiṃ so obhāso"ti.
Maha Tissa the forest-dweller, also an elder, saw that radiance and inquired of the arahant the next day: "Last night, there was a radiance about your reverence; what was that? "
Thero vikkhepaṃ karonto "obhāso nāma dīpobhāsopi hoti maṇiobhāsopī"ti evamādimāha.
Diverting the talk, the arahant said: "Radiance is that of light, of gem and the like."
Tato paṭicchādetha tumheti nibaddho āmāti paṭijānitvā ārocesi kālavallimaṇḍapavāsī mahānāgatthero viya ca.
But on being pressed repeatedly with the words: "You are concealing," he acknowledged, saying, "Yes" and informed Tissa of his attainment. Like the elder Maha Naga of the Black Creeper Pavilion.
Sopi kira gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento paṭhamaṃ tāva bhagavato mahāpadhānaṃ pūjessāmīti satta vassāni ṭhānacaṅkamanameva adhiṭṭhāsi.
He, it is said, when fulfilling the observance of carrying forth and back the subject of meditation, resolved upon keeping to only the postures of standing and of walking for seven years, with the thought: "I will honor the Blessed One's great struggle."
Puna soḷasa vassāni gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūretvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
And after fulfilling for sixteen years again the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation, he attained arahantship.
So kammaṭṭhānayutteneva cittena pādaṃ uddharanto viyuttena uddhate paṭinivattanto gāmassa samīpaṃ gantvā "gāvī nu pabbajito nū"ti āsaṅkanīyapadese ṭhatvā cīvaraṃ pārupitvā kacchakantarato udakena pattaṃ dhovitvā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ karoti.
This is said of him: He (when going out for alms to the village) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the subject of meditation. If he raises with mind not yoked thus, he turns back again. After standing at such a distance from the village as would raise (in the mind of one looking from the village) the doubt: "Is it indeed a cow or a recluse? " and robing himself, he fills his mouth with a draught of water from the water-carrier slung over the shoulder and hanging under the armpit, having washed the bowl with water from the same source.
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
For what reason does he fill his mouth so?
Mā me bhikkhaṃ dātuṃ vandituṃ vā āgate manusse dīghāyukā hothāti vacanamattenāpi kammaṭṭhānavikkhepo ahosīti.
He does it thinking: "Let there be no distraction of the mind even by the uttering of the words: 'May you live long!' to people coming to worship me or give me alms."
Ajja, bhante, katimīti divasaṃ vā bhikkhugaṇanaṃ vā pañhe vā pucchito pana udakaṃ gilitvā ārocesi.
But when he is asked the question, "Reverend Sir, which stage of the half-month is today?" concerning the date, or when he is questioned about the number of monks, he answers, after swallowing the water.
Sace divasādipucchakā na honti, nikkhamanavelāya gāmadvāre niṭṭhubhitvāva yāti kalambatitthavihāre vassūpagatapaññāsabhikkhū viya.
If there is no questioning about the day and so forth, he having spat out the water, at the village gate, at the time of leaving, goes. Like the fifty bhikkhus who entered upon the rainy season residence, at the Monastery of the Galamba Landing Place.
Te kira āsāḷhīpuṇṇamāyaṃ katikavattaṃ akaṃsu "arahattaṃ appatvā aññamaññaṃ na ālapissāmā"ti.
On the full-moon day of July (asalha), they made this covenant of observance: — "Without attaining arahantship we shall not converse with one another."
Gāmañca piṇḍāya pavisantā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ katvā pavisiṃsu.
These bhikkhus used to enter the village for alms filling the mouth with a draught of water,
Divasādīsu pucchitesu vuttanayeneva paṭipajjiṃsu.
and when questioned about the date and so forth they acted just according to the method mentioned above.
Tattha manussā niṭṭhubhanaṃ disvā jāniṃsu, "ajjeko āgato, ajja dve"ti.
In that village people, having seen the spots on which mouthfuls of water had been spurted forth by the returning bhikkhus, said: "Today one came; today, two,"
Evañca cintesuṃ "kiṃ nu kho ete amhehiyeva saddhiṃ na sallapanti, udāhu aññamaññampi, yadi aññamaññaṃ na sallapanti, addhā vivādajātā bhavissanti, etha ne aññamaññaṃ khamāpessāmā"ti sabbe vihāraṃ gantvā paññāsāya bhikkhusu dvepi bhikkhū ekokāse nāddasaṃsu.
And those people thought: "What indeed is the reason that these bhikkhus neither talk with us nor with each other? If they do not speak with each other, surely, they are persons who have had a dispute amongst themselves," and saying: "Come, we must make them forgive one another," went — in a body — to the monastery. There, they saw that no two bhikkhus were in the same place.
Tato yo tesu cakkhumā puriso, so āha "na bho kalahakārakānaṃ okāso īdiso hoti, susammaṭṭhaṃ cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ bodhiyaṅgaṇaṃ, sunikkhittā sammajjaniyo, sūpaṭṭhapitaṃ pānīyaṃ paribhojanīya"nti.
Then a wise man in that crowd said: "Good people, a place which quarrelsome folk occupy is not like this. The relic-shrine and the Bodhi-shrine terraces are well swept. The brooms are well arranged. And water for drinking and water for washing are well set."
Te tatova nivattā, tepi bhikkhū antotemāseyeva arahattaṃ patvā mahāpavāraṇāya visuddhipavāraṇaṃ pavāresuṃ.
Then those people just turned back. And the bhikkhu of that monastery attained arahantship within three months and performed a Pure Pavarana ceremony.{37}
Evaṃ kālavallimaṇḍapavāsī mahānāgatthero viya kalambatitthavihāre vassūpagatabhikkhū viya ca kammaṭṭhānayutteneva cittena pādaṃ uddharanto gāmasamīpaṃ patvā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ katvā vīthiyo sallakkhetvā yattha surāsoṇḍadhuttādayo kalahakārakā caṇḍahatthiassādayo vā natthi, taṃ vīthiṃ paṭipajjati.
Thus like the elder Maha Naga dweller in the Black Creeper Pavilion and like the bhikkhus who went into rainy season at the Galamba Ford Monastery, the bhikkhu (who does the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the thought of meditation. Having reached the neighbourhood of the village, filled the mouth with a draught of water, and looked at the streets, he enters the street where there are no quarrelsome drunkards, gamesters and such folk or where there are no restive elephants, horses and the like.
Tattha ca piṇḍāya caramāno na turitaturito viya javena gacchati.
There, wandering for alms, he does not go speedily like one in a great hurry
Na hi javena piṇḍapātiyadhutaṅgaṃ nāma kiñci atthi.
since there is no ascetic practice of begging food, speedily.
Visamabhūmibhāgappattaṃ pana udakasakaṭaṃ viya niccalo hutvā gacchati.
He goes, rather, having become motionless, like a water cart on uneven ground.
Anugharaṃ paviṭṭho ca taṃ dātukāmaṃ vā adātukāmaṃ vā sallakkhetuṃ tadanurūpaṃ kālaṃ āgamento bhikkhaṃ gahetvā antogāme vā bahigāme vā vihārameva vā āgantvā yathāphāsuke patirūpe okāse nisīditvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikaronto āhāre paṭikūlasaññaṃ upaṭṭhāpetvā akkhabbhañjanavaṇalepanaputtamaṃsūpamāvasena naṃ paccavekkhanto aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ āhāraṃ āhāreti, neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya.
Entering into each house in order, spending such time as is suitable for concluding whether there is or not the tendency to offer alms (on the part of the occupants of each house), he receives alms, and comes to the inner village, outer village or even to the monastery. There he seats himself in a place pleasant and good (proper), attends to the thought of meditation with the setting up of the perception of loathsomeness in food, and reflects by way of the similes of axle-greasing, applying ointment to ulcer and feeding on own child's flesh, and eats the food fully followed with awareness of the eight attributes, (and) not for sport, intoxication, adornment or the filling up of those places of his body that have a deficiency of flesh.
Bhuttāvī ca udakakiccaṃ katvā muhuttaṃ bhattakilamathaṃ paṭippassambhetvā yathā purebhattaṃ, evaṃ pacchābhattaṃ.
And he, having eaten, washes. Then he rests for a while the body that is tired with the business of eating. He attends to just the thought of meditation, in the time after eating as in the time before eating,
Yathā purimayāmaṃ, evaṃ pacchimayāmañca kammaṭṭhānameva manasi karoti, ayaṃ vuccati harati ca paccāharati cāti.
and in the last watch of the night as in the first watch. This person is called one who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation.
Idaṃ pana haraṇapaccāharaṇasaṅkhātaṃ gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento yadi upanissayasampanno hoti.
The person who fulfills this observance of one who carries forth and carries back, called the carrying forth (of the thought of meditation) when going out for alms and the bringing back (of the thought of meditation) when returning from the alms-round, reaches arahantship even in the period of youth (i.e., early age or the first stage of life), if he is possessed of the sufficing condition,
Paṭhamavaye eva arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti.
the wherewithal to accomplish the destruction of ignorance and its defilements.
No ce paṭhamavaye pāpuṇāti, atha majjhimavaye.
If he fails to reach arahantship, in early age, then he reaches it in middle age;
No ce majjhimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha pacchimavaye.
if he fails in middle age,
No ce pacchimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha maraṇasamaye.
then at the time of death;
No ce maraṇasamaye pāpuṇāti, atha devaputto hutvā.
if he fails at the time of death, then, after becoming a deva;
No ce devaputto hutvā pāpuṇāti, anuppanne buddhe nibbatto paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti.
if he fails as a deva, then, at a time when no Buddha has appeared on earth, he is born as a man and realizes the truth as a Buddha who is not able to communicate the truth to others;
No ce paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti, atha buddhānaṃ sammukhībhāve khippābhiñño vā hoti seyyathāpi thero bāhiyo dārucīriyo, mahāpañño vā seyyathāpi thero sāriputto, mahiddhiko vā seyyathāpi thero mahāmoggallāno, dhutaṅgadharo vā seyyathāpi thero mahākassapo, dibbacakkhuko vā seyyathāpi thero anuruddho, vinayadharo vā seyyathāpi thero upāli, dhammakathiko vā seyyathāpi thero puṇṇo mantāṇiputto, āraññiko vā seyyathāpi thero revato, bahussuto vā seyyathāpi thero ānando, sikkhākāmo vā seyyathāpi thero rāhulo buddhaputtoti.
and if he fails to realize the truth in that way, then, immediately on meeting a Fully Enlightened Buddha he becomes a person who intuits quickly like the elder Bahiya Daruciriya, or a greatly wise one like the elder Sariputta, or one of great psychic power like the elder Mogallana the Great, or an exponent of ascetic practice like the elder Kassapa the Great, or one endowed with clairvoyant power like the elder Anuruddha, or an expert in discipline like the elder Upali or an expounder of the Dhamma like the elder Punna Mantaniputta, or a forest dweller like the elder Revata, or one of great learning like the elder Ananda, or one desirous of training like the elder Rahula, the Buddha's son.
Iti imasmiṃ catukke yvāyaṃ harati ca paccāharati ca, tassa gocarasampajaññaṃ sikhāpattaṃ hoti.
Amongst these four that form the set, he who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation reaches the crest of the clear comprehension of resort.
Abhikkamādīsu pana asammuyhanaṃ asammohasampajaññaṃ.
Further, non-confusion in going forwards and so forth is the clear comprehension of non-delusion.
Taṃ evaṃ veditabbaṃ – idha bhikkhu abhikkamanto vā paṭikkamanto vā yathā andhaputhujjanā abhikkamādīsu "attā abhikkamati, attanā abhikkamo nibbattito"ti vā "ahaṃ abhikkamāmi, mayā abhikkamo nibbattito"ti vā sammuyhanti.
That should be understood in the following way: — In this Dispensation, a monk, without confusing himself, like a blinded worldling who, while going forwards or backwards, becomes muddle-headed, and believes thus: "The soul (or self) goes forward" or "The act of going forwards is produced by the soul," or "I go forwards" or "The act of going forwards is produced by me," and the like,
Tathā asammuyhanto "abhikkamāmī"ti citte uppajjamāne teneva cittena saddhiṃ cittasamuṭṭhānā vāyodhātu viññattiṃ janayamānā uppajjati, iti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravasena ayaṃ kāyasammato aṭṭhisaṅghāto abhikkamati, tassevaṃ abhikkamato ekekapāduddharaṇe pathavīdhātu āpodhātūti dve dhātuyo omattā honti mandā, itarā dve adhimattā honti balavatiyo, tathā atiharaṇavītiharaṇesu.
thinks: "When there is the arising in one of the thought 'I am going forwards,' just with that thought, appears the process of oscillation originating from mind which brings to birth bodily expression (or intimation). Thus by the way of the diffusion of the process of oscillation due to mental activity, this skeleton called the body goes forward." In raising up the foot A [paduddharane] two processes [dhatuyo]: extension [pathavi] and cohesion [apo], are low, weak [omatta honti dubbala], and the other two processes: caloricity [tejo] and oscillation [vayo] are high, powerful [adhimatta honti balavatiyo]; so, too, in stretching out the foot B [atiharane] and in shifting away the foot C [vitiharane].
Vossajjane tejovāyodhātuyo omattā honti mandā, itarā dve adhimattā honti balavatiyo.
But in dropping down the raised foot D [vossajjane], the first two processes are high and powerful and the second, low and weak
Tathā sannikkhepanasannirumbhanesu.
and likewise in keeping the foot on the ground E [sannikkhepane] and in pressing the foot against the ground F [sannirumbhane]
Tattha uddharaṇe pavattā rūpārūpadhammā atiharaṇaṃ na pāpuṇanti.
There, the material and mental phenomena in A do not occur in B;
Tathā atiharaṇe pavattā vītiharaṇaṃ, vītiharaṇe pavattā vossajjanaṃ, vossajjane pavattā sannikkhepanaṃ, sannikkhepane pavattā sannirumbhanaṃ na pāpuṇanti.
those in B do not occur in C; those in C do not occur in D; those in D do not occur in E; those in E do not occur in F.
Tattha tattheva pabbaṃ pabbaṃ sandhi sandhi odhi odhi hutvā tattakapāle pakkhittatilāni viya paṭapaṭāyantā bhijjanti.
These phenomena after coming into existence in the form of several sections, links, and parts, break quickly just in those places, crackling like sesamum seeds thrown into a heated pan.
Tattha ko eko abhikkamati?
In this matter, who is the one that goes forward,
Kassa vā ekassa abhikkamanaṃ?
or whose going forward is there?
Paramatthato hi dhātūnaṃyeva gamanaṃ, dhātūnaṃ ṭhānaṃ, dhātūnaṃ nisajjanaṃ, dhātūnaṃ sayanaṃ, tasmiṃ tasmiñhi koṭṭhāse saddhiṃ rūpena –
In the highest sense (paramatthato) what takes place is the going, the standing, the sitting down and the lying down of the processes. With material form in the several divisions (groups or parts),
Aññaṃ uppajjate cittaṃ, aññaṃ cittaṃ nirujjhati;
One conscious state arises And quite another ceases,
Avīcimanusambandho, nadīsotova vattatīti.
In sequence, like a river's flow, These states (of mind and matter) go. {38}
Evaṃ abhikkamādīsu asammuyhanaṃ asammohasampajaññaṃ nāmāti;
Niṭṭhito abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hotīti padassa attho;

clear comprehension in looking towards and away

Ālokite vilokiteti ettha pana ālokitaṃ nāma purato pekkhanaṃ.
2. Clear comprehension in looking straight on and in looking away from the front Here, looking straight on [alokitam] = seeing in the direction in front of oneself [purato pekkhanam].{39}
Vilokitaṃ nāma anudisāpekkhanaṃ.
Looking away from the front [vilokitam] = Looking out in all other directions [anudisa pekkhanam].
Aññānipi heṭṭhā upari pacchato pekkhanavasena olokitaullokitāpalokitāni nāma honti, tāni idha na gahitāni.
And other kinds of seeing, by way of turning the eye in the direction above, in the direction beneath and in the direction behind are called looking upwards, looking downwards and looking backwards. Here those are not taken.
Sāruppavasena pana imāneva dve gahitāni, iminā vā mukhena sabbānipi tāni gahitānevāti.
But just these two — looking straight on and looking away from the front — are taken, by way of what is befitting. Or, by this method, it is said, all those are also taken. {40}
Tattha "ālokessāmī"ti citte uppanne cittavaseneva anoloketvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ.
Here, the comprehending of purpose (in looking straight on), without having just looked by the force of the thought, when the thought "I shall look straight on" arises, is clear comprehension of purpose.
Taṃ āyasmantaṃ nandaṃ kāyasakkhiṃ katvā veditabbaṃ.
That should be understood by making the venerable elder Nanda the example of a person who perceives through experience by the body [kaya sakkhi].[23]
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – "sace, bhikkhave, nandassa puratthimā disā āloketabbā hoti, sabbaṃ cetasā samannāharitvā nando puratthimaṃ disaṃ āloketi, evaṃ me puratthimaṃ disaṃ ālokayato na abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyunti iti so tattha sampajāno hoti, sace, bhikkhave, nandassa pacchimā disā, uttarā disā, dakkhiṇā disā, uddhaṃ, adho, anudisā āloketabbā hoti, sabbaṃ cetaso samannāharitvā nando anudisaṃ āloketi.
The following is stated in this connection: "Should looking straight on in the eastern direction become a thing that must be done, by Nanda, he looks straight on in the eastern direction, having reflected with all his mind thus: 'May no covetous, grief-producing, mean, unskillful mental phenomena flow upon (overcome) me while I am looking in the eastern direction.'
Evaṃ me anudisaṃ ālokayato - pe - sampajāno hotī"ti (a. ni. 8.9).
There, he becomes mindful, thus."
Apica idhāpi pubbe vuttacetiyadassanādivaseneva sātthakatā ca sappāyatā ca veditabbā.
Further, purposefulness and suitability, here, too, should be understood just according to the manner in which they are explained in connection with the worshipping of a relic shrine and so forth.{41}
Kammaṭṭhānassa pana avijahanameva gocarasampajaññaṃ.
Because clear comprehension of resort is just the keeping to the course of meditation,
Tasmā khandhadhātuāyatanakammaṭṭhānikehi attano kammaṭṭhānavaseneva, kasiṇādikammaṭṭhānikehi vā pana kammaṭṭhānasīseneva ālokanavilokanaṃ kātabbaṃ.
looking straight on and looking away from the front should be done just according to each person's meditation (on the aggregates, processes and bases or on a contemplation-device and so forth) with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind.
Abbhantare attā nāma āloketā vā viloketā vā natthi, ālokessāmīti pana citte uppajjamāne teneva cittena saddhiṃ cittasamuṭṭhānā vāyodhātu viññattiṃ janayamānā uppajjati.
Within, it is said, there certainly is no self or soul which looks straight on or looks away from the front. Still, at the arising of the thought "I shall look straight on," and with that thought the process of oscillation (vayo dhatu) originating from mind, [citta samutthana] bringing into being bodily expression [viññatti] arises.
Iti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravaseneva heṭṭhimaṃ akkhidalaṃ adho sīdati, uparimaṃ uddhaṃ laṅgheti, koci yantakena vivaranto nāma natthi, tato cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ sādhentaṃ uppajjatīti.
Thus owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity [cittakiriyavayodhatu vipphara], the lower eyelid goes down and the upper eyelid goes up. Surely there is no one who opens with a contrivance. Thereupon, eye-consciousness arises fulfilling the function of sight [tato cakkhu viññanam dassana kiccam sadhentam uppajjati], it is said.
Evaṃ sampajānanaṃ panettha asammohasampajaññaṃ nāma.
Clear comprehension of this kind here is indeed called the clear comprehension of non-delusion [evam sampajananam panettha asammoha sampajaññam nama].
Apica mūlapariññāāgantukatāvakālikabhāvavasenapettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Further, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be also understood, here, through accurate knowledge of the root (mula pariñña), through the casual state (agantuka bhava) and through the temporary state [tavakalika bhava].
Mūlapariññāvasena tāva –
First (is the consideration) by way of the accurate knowledge of the root: —
Bhavaṅgāvajjanañceva, dassanaṃ sampaṭicchanaṃ;
There is (first) the mental state of the life-continum, And (then) there are adverting, seeing, receiving,
Santīraṇaṃ voṭṭhabbanaṃ, javanaṃ bhavati sattamaṃ.
Considering, determining, and impulsion Which is seventh (in cognition's course).
Tattha bhavaṅgaṃ upapattibhavassa aṅgakiccaṃ sādhayamānaṃ pavattati, taṃ āvaṭṭetvā kiriyamanodhātu āvajjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ sādhayamānaṃ, tannirodhā vipākamanodhātu sampaṭicchanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā vipākamanoviññāṇadhātu santīraṇakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā kiriyamanoviññāṇadhātu voṭṭhabbapanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā sattakkhattuṃ javanaṃ javati.
There, in the course of cognition, the life-continum goes on fulfilling the function of a (main) factor of the rebirth-process [tattha bhavangam upapatti bhavassa anga kiccam sadhayamanam pavattati]; after the turning round of the life-continum, a barely active mind process, fulfilling the function of adverting or attending to an object at the sense-door of the eye, goes on [tam avattetva kiriya mano dhatu avajjana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, fulfilling the function of seeing, eye-consciousness goes on [tannirodha cakkhu viññanam dassana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind process, fulfilling the function of receiving, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano dhatu sampaticchanna kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of considering, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano viññana dhatu santirana kiccam sadhyamana]; from the cessation of that, a barely active mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of determining, goes on [tannirodha kiriya mano viññana dhatu votthapana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, an impulsion impels seven times [tannirodha sattakkhattum javanam javati].
Tattha paṭhamajavanepi "ayaṃ itthī, ayaṃ puriso"ti rajjanadussanamuyhanavasena ālokitavilokitaṃ na hoti.
Now, among the mental states of the life-continum and so forth or even in the mental state of the first impulsion, there is no looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hatred or ignorance by him who sees in any direction.
Dutiyajavanepi - pe - sattamajavanepi.
Also there is no such stained vision by him in the mental state of the second impulsion, the third, the fourth, the fifth, sixth or even in the seventh impulsion.
Etesu pana yuddhamaṇḍale yodhesu viya heṭṭhupariyavasena bhijjitvā patitesu "ayaṃ itthī, ayaṃ puriso"ti rajjanādivasena ālokitavilokitaṃ hoti.
But when, like soldiers in a battlefield, the mental states, after breaking-up gradually are fallen, one atop of another, there takes place looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hate and ignorance, accompanied by the discriminatory thought: "This is a woman," or "This is a man," much in the same way as the fallen are distinguished after a battle; for in the frenzy of fighting there is no room for recognition of the individuals engaged in the fray. [24]
Evaṃ tāvettha mūlapariññāvasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Thus here in the first instance, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the accurate knowledge of the root. {42}
Cakkhudvāre pana rūpe āpāthagate bhavaṅgacalanato uddhaṃ sakakiccaṃ nipphādanavasena āvajjanādīsu uppajjitvā niruddhesu avasāne javanaṃ uppajjati.
On an object falling within reach of consciousness at the eye-door, impulsion arises right at the very end when from the movement of the life-continum onwards, the states of adverting, seeing, receiving, considering and determining, having arisen, have ceased.
Taṃ pubbe uppannānaṃ āvajjanādīnaṃ gehabhūte cakkhudvāre āgantukapuriso viya hoti.
That impulsion is like a visitor, at the eyedoor which is comparable to a house belonging to the states of adverting and the rest mentioned above born there before the arising of impulsion.
Tassa yathā paragehe kiñci yācituṃ paviṭṭhassa āgantukapurisassa gehasāmikesu tuṇhīmāsinesu āṇākaraṇaṃ na yuttaṃ.
As it is not fit for a visitor who has arrived at a strange house for the purpose of getting some assistance from the owners of the house to do any kind of ordering when the owners themselves are silent,
Evaṃ āvajjanādīnaṃ gehabhūte cakkhudvāre āvajjanādīsupi arajjantesu adussantesu amuyhantesu ca rajjanadussanamuyhanaṃ ayuttanti evaṃ āgantukabhāvavasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
so it is unfit for impulsion to be involved in lust, hate and ignorance, at the eyedoor house of adverting and the other states of mind, when those states of mind are themselves not lusting, hating or bound up with ignorance. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should thus be known by way of the casual state.
Yāni pana tāni cakkhudvāre voṭṭhabbapanapariyosānāni cittāni uppajjanti, tāni saddhiṃ sampayuttadhammehi tattha tattheva bhijjanti, aññamaññaṃ na passantīti ittarāni tāvakālikāni honti.
At the eye-door, the mental states that close with the state of determining arise and break up together with associated phenomena, at just those places on which they arise. They do not see each other. Therefore the mental states that close with determining are brief and temporary.
Tattha yathā ekasmiṃ ghare sabbesu mānusakesu matesu avasesassa ekassa taṅkhaṇeññeva maraṇadhammassa na yuttā naccagītādīsu abhirati nāma, evameva ekadvāre sasampayuttesu āvajjanādīsu tattha tattheva matesu avasesassa taṅkhaṇeññeva maraṇadhammassa javanassāpi rajjanadussanamuyhanavasena abhirati nāma na yuttāti evaṃ tāvakālikabhāvavasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
There, as in a house of the dead, where here is one more to die just at that very instant, it is not proper for that one who is to die to be given to delight in dancing and singing and the like, even so, at a sense-door, when the states of adverting and the rest with associated phenomena have died just where they arose, it is not fit for the remaining impulsion that is to die shortly to take delight in anything by way of lust and the like. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood thus by way of the temporary state. {43}
Apica khandhāyatanadhātupaccayapaccavekkhaṇavasenapetaṃ veditabbaṃ.
And further this clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes and conditions.
Ettha hi cakkhu ceva rūpañca rūpakkhandho, dassanaṃ viññāṇakkhandho, taṃsampayuttā vedanā vedanākkhandho, saññā saññākkhandho, phassādikā saṅkhārakkhandho.
To be sure, here, eye and visible object are materiality-aggregate; seeing is consciousness-aggregate; feeling that is associated with seeing is feeling-aggregate; perceiving is perception-aggregate, and those beginning with sense-impression are formation-aggregate.
Evametesaṃ pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati.
Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these five aggregates.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi?
There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? {44}
Tathā cakkhu cakkhāyatanaṃ, rūpaṃ rūpāyatanaṃ, dassanaṃ manāyatanaṃ, vedanādayo sampayuttadhammā dhammāyatanaṃ.
In the same way, eye is eye-base; visible object is materiality-base; seeing is mind-base; feeling and so forth, the associated things, are thing-base.
Evametesaṃ catunnaṃ āyatanānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati.
Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four bases.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi?
There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front?
Tathā cakkhu cakkhudhātu, rūpaṃ rūpadhātu, dassanaṃ cakkhuviññāṇadhātu, taṃsampayuttā vedanādayo dhammadhātu.
Likewise, eye is eye-process; visible object is materiality-process; seeing is eye-consciousness-process; and the things beginning with feeling associated with eye-consciousness are mind-process.
Evametāsaṃ catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati.
Thus, looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four processes.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi?
There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front?
Tathā cakkhu nissayapaccayo, rūpaṃ ārammaṇapaccayo, āvajjanaṃ anantarasamanantarūpanissayanatthivigatapaccayo, āloko upanissayapaccayo vedanādayo sahajātapaccayo.
Exactly, in the manner already stated, eye is support-condition; visible object is object-condition; adverting is condition of proximity, contiguity, decisive-support, absence and disappearance; light is condition of decisive-support and those beginning with feeling are conascence-condition.
Evametesaṃ paccayānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati.
Thus looking straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these conditions.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketīti?
There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? {45}
Evamettha khandhāyatanadhātupaccayapaccavekkhaṇavasenapi asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Here, in this way, by reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes, and conditions, too, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood.
Samiñjite pasāriteti pabbānaṃ samiñjanapasāraṇe.
3. Clear comprehension in the bending and the stretching of limbs Sammiñjite pasarite = "in bending and in stretching." In the bending and the stretching of the joints.
Tattha cittavaseneva samiñjanapasāraṇaṃ akatvā hatthapādānaṃ samiñjanapasāraṇapaccayā atthānatthaṃ pariggahetvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ.
The consideration of purpose and lack of purpose in regard to any contemplated act of bending or stretching, and the taking up of that which is purposeful, after not bending and stretching according to merely the mind's inclination, is clear comprehension of purpose.
Tattha hatthapāde aticiraṃ samiñjetvā pasāretvā eva vā ṭhitassa khaṇe khaṇe vedanā uppajjanti, cittaṃ ekaggaṃ na labhati, kammaṭṭhānaṃ paripatati, visesaṃ nādhigacchati.
In this matter, a person who experiences pain every moment due to standing long with bent or stretched hands or feet does not get concentration of mind (mental one-pointedness), his subject of meditation entirely falls away, and he does not obtain distinction (absorption and so forth).
Kāle samiñjentassa kāle pasārentassa pana tā vedanā na uppajjanti, cittaṃ ekaggaṃ hoti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ phātiṃ gacchati, visesamadhigacchatīti evaṃ atthānatthapariggahaṇaṃ veditabbaṃ.
But he who bends or stretches his hands and feet for the proper length of time does not experience pain, gets concentration of mind, develops his subject of meditation and attains distinction. Thus the comprehension of purpose and non-purpose should be known.
Atthe pana satipi sappāyāsappāyaṃ pariggaṇhitvā sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ.
Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering the suitable and the non-suitable even in a matter that is purposeful.
Tatrāyaṃ nayo – mahācetiyaṅgaṇe kira daharabhikkhū sajjhāyaṃ gaṇhanti.
In this connection, the following is the method of explanation: It is said that on the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine, while young bhikkhus were rehearsing the doctrine,
Tesaṃ piṭṭhipasse daharabhikkhuniyo dhammaṃ suṇanti.
young bhikkhunis standing at the back of the bhikkhus were listening to the rehearsal.
Tatreko daharo hatthaṃ pasārento kāyasaṃsaggaṃ patvā teneva kāraṇena gihī jāto.
Then a young bhikkhu came into bodily contact with a bhikkhuni while stretching out his hand, and, by just that fact, became a layman.
Aparopi bhikkhu pādaṃ pasārento aggimhi pasāresi, aṭṭhiṃ āhacca pādo jhāyi.
Another bhikkhu in stretching his foot stretched it into fire and his foot got burnt to the bone.
Aparo vammike pasāresi, so āsīvisena daṭṭho.
Another stretched his foot on an ant-hill and was bitten in the foot by a poisonous snake.
Aparo cīvarakuṭidaṇḍake pasāresi, taṃ maṇisappo ḍaṃsi.
Another bhikkhu stretched out his hand till it rested on the pole of a robe-tent, a ribbon-snake on the pole bit the hand of that bhikkhu.
Tasmā evarūpe asappāye apasāretvā sappāye pasāretabbaṃ.
Therefore the stretching of one's limbs should be done in a suitable and not an unsuitable place.
Idamettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ.
This should be understood here as clear comprehension of suitability. {46}
Gocarasampajaññaṃ pana mahātheravatthunā dīpetabbaṃ – mahāthero kira divāṭṭhāne nisinno antevāsikehi saddhiṃ kathayamāno sahasā hatthaṃ samiñjetvā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā saṇikaṃ samiñjesi.
Clear comprehension of resort should indeed be illustrated by the story of the senior bhikkhu called Great Elder. It is said that Great Elder seated in his day-quarters bent his arm quickly whilst talking to his resident pupils and then after putting back his arm to the position in which it first was, bent it again slowly.
Taṃ antevāsikā pucchiṃsu "kasmā bhante sahasā hatthaṃ samiñjetvā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā saṇikaṃ samiñjayitthā"ti.
The resident pupils questioned him thus: "Reverend Sir, why, after bending the arm quickly, did you, having placed it in the position in which it first was, bend it slowly?"
Yato paṭṭhāyāhaṃ, āvuso, kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikātuṃ āraddho, na me kammaṭṭhānaṃ muñcitvā hattho samiñjitapubbo, idāni pana tumhehi saddhiṃ kathayamānena kammaṭṭhānaṃ muñcitvā samiñjito, tasmā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā samiñjesinti.
"Friends, until now I did not bend this arm with a mind separate from the subject of meditation ever since I began to attend to the subject of meditation. Therefore, having put back the arm in the place it was first in, I bent."
Sādhu, bhante, bhikkhunā nāma evarūpena bhavitabbanti.
"Good! Reverend Sir. A bhikkhu should be one who acts thus."
Evametthāpi kammaṭṭhānāvijahanameva gocarasampajaññanti veditabbaṃ.
Here, too, it should be understood that the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation is clear comprehension of resort. {47}
Abbhantare attā nāma koci samiñjento vā pasārento vā natthi.
Within there is no soul that bends or stretches.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena pana suttakaḍḍhanavasena dāruyantassa hatthapādalaḷanaṃ viya samiñjanapasāraṇaṃ hotīti evaṃ parijānanaṃ panettha asammohasampajaññanti veditabbaṃ.
By the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, bending and stretching occur. Indeed, here, it should be understood that the knowing in this way is clear comprehension of non-delusion.
Saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇeti ettha saṅghāṭicīvarānaṃ nivāsanapārupanavasena pattassa bhikkhāpaṭiggahaṇādivasena paribhogo dhāraṇaṃ nāma.
4. Clear comprehension in wearing shoulder-cloak and so forth Sanghati patta civara dharane = "In wearing the shoulder-cloak, the other (two) robes and the bowl."
Tattha saṅghāṭicīvaradhāraṇe tāva nivāsetvā pārupitvā ca piṇḍāya carato āmisalābho "sītassa paṭighātāyā"tiādinā nayena bhagavatā vuttappakāroyeva ca attho attho nāma.
In this connection, purpose is what accrues materially to one, on the almsround, and what is stated by the Blessed One according to the method beginning with the words, "for keeping out cold, for keeping out heat."
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Uṇhapakatikassa pana dubbalassa ca cīvaraṃ sukhumaṃ sappāyaṃ.
Suitable to one who is naturally warm-bodied is fine clothing, and that is suitable to one who is weak, too.
Sītālukassa ghanaṃ dupaṭṭaṃ.
To the susceptible to cold is suitable thick clothing made of two pieces of cloth laid one over the other and stitched together (called also a double cloth),
Viparītaṃ asappāyaṃ.
Non-suitable to these is clothing contrary to the kind mentioned above.
Yassa kassaci jiṇṇaṃ asappāyameva.
A worn-out robe is indeed not suitable
Aggaḷādidāne hissa taṃ palibodhakaraṃ hoti.
as that robe will even be hindrance-causing when one patches and sews or darns it.
Tathā paṭṭuṇṇadukūlādibhedaṃ lobhanīyacīvaraṃ.
Likewise, hindrance-causing are robes of silk, fine hemp and similar material that stimulate cupidity.
Tādisañhi araññe ekakassa nivāsantarāyakaraṃ jīvitantarāyakaraṃ vāpi hoti.
For, to the lone-dweller in the forest such robes are productive of loss of clothing and of life. {48}
Nippariyāyena pana yaṃ nimittakammādimicchājīvavasena uppannaṃ, yañcassa sevamānassa akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, taṃ asappāyaṃ.
The robe acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the robe which decreases the good and increases the bad in the one who wears it, are irreversibly not suitable. {49}
Viparītaṃ sappāyaṃ.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Here, from the foregoing, clear comprehension of the suitable and the non-suitable should be understood; as the holding fast to the line of meditative thought, by way of the non-abandoning of the line of contemplation which the commentator is going to state [vakkhamana kammatthanassa avijahana vasena], clear comprehension of resort should be understood.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci cīvaraṃ pārupanto natthi.
Within there is nothing called a soul that robes itself.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana cīvarapārupanaṃ hoti.
According to the method of exposition adopted already, only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity does the act of robing take place.
Tattha cīvarampi acetanaṃ, kāyopi acetano.
The robe has no power to think and the body too has not that power.
Cīvaraṃ na jānāti "mayā kāyo pāruto"ti.
The robe is not aware of the fact that it is draping the body,
Kāyopi na jānāti "ahaṃ cīvarena pāruto"ti, dhātuyova dhātusamūhaṃ paṭicchādenti paṭapilotikāya potthakarūpapaṭicchādane viya.
and the body too of itself does not think: "I am being draped round with the robe.," Mere processes clothe a process-heap, in the same way that a modelled figure is covered with a piece of cloth.
Tasmā neva sundaraṃ cīvaraṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ kātabbaṃ, na asundaraṃ labhitvā domanassaṃ.
Therefore, there is neither room for elation on getting a fine robe nor for depression on getting one that is not fine. {50}
Nāgavammikacetiyarukkhādīsu hi keci mālāgandhadhūmavatthādīhi sakkāraṃ karonti, keci gūthamuttakaddamadaṇḍasatthappahārādīhi asakkāraṃ, na te nāgavammikarukkhādayo somanassaṃ vā domanassaṃ vā karonti; evameva neva sundaraṃ cīvaraṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ kātabbaṃ, na asundaraṃ labhitvā domanassanti evaṃ pavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasena panettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Some honor an ant-hill where a cobra de capello lives, a tree-shrine, and so forth, with garlands, perfumes, incense, cloth, and similar things. Others maltreat these objects. Ant-hill, tree-shrine and the like are, however, neither elated by the good nor depressed by the bad treatment. Just in the same way there should be no elation on receiving a good robe or depression on getting a bad one. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, in this connection, as the proceeding of reflective thought, in this way.
Pattadhāraṇepi pattaṃ sahasāva aggahetvā imaṃ gahetvā piṇḍāya caramāno bhikkhaṃ labhissāmīti evaṃ pattagahaṇapaccayā paṭilabhitabbaatthavasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
And in using the bowl, clear comprehension of purpose should be understood, by way of the benefit obtainable through the action of one who takes the bowl unhurriedly and thinks: "Going out to beg with this I shall get alms."{51}
Kisadubbalasarīrassa pana garu patto asappāyo.
To one with a lean body which is weak a heavy bowl is not suitable.
Yassa kassaci catupañcagaṇḍikāhato dubbisodhanīyo asappāyova.
And not suitable is a damaged bowl that is tied with thread and stopped in four or five places and hard to wash properly.
Duddhotapatto hi na vaṭṭati, taṃ dhovantasseva cassa palibodho hoti.
A bowl that is hard to wash well, certainly, is not fit. There will be inconvenience caused to him who washes that kind of bowl. {52}
Maṇivaṇṇapatto pana lobhanīyo cīvare vuttanayeneva asappāyo.
A bright bowl which shines like a gem and therefore is capable of stimulating the cupidity of others is not suitable for the same reasons given in regard to robes of silk, fine hemp and so forth.
Nimittakammādivasena laddho pana yañcassa sevamānassa akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, ayaṃ ekantaasappāyova.
Just irreversibly unsuitable are the bowl acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the bowl by which good decreases and evils increase.
Viparīto sappāyo.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Through this explanation, clear comprehension of suitability in this connection should be understood. And by the fact even of the holding fast to the subject of meditation should clear comprehension of resort be understood.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci pattaṃ gaṇhanto natthi.
Within there is nothing called a self that is taking the bowl.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana pattaggahaṇaṃ nāma hoti.
As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, there is the taking of the bowl.
Tattha pattopi acetano, hatthāpi acetanā.
In this matter of taking the bowl, the bowl cannot think. Hands too cannot think.
Patto na jānāti "ahaṃ hatthehi gahito"ti.
The bowl does not cognize that it is taken by the hands.
Hatthāpi na jānanti "patto amhehi gahito"ti.
Hands do not cognize that the bowl is taken by them.
Dhātuyova dhātusamūhaṃ gaṇhanti saṇḍāsena aggivaṇṇapattaggahaṇe viyāti evaṃ pavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Just processes take a process-heap. It is comparable to the taking of a red-hot vessel with a pair of tongs. By way of the proceeding of reflective thought in this way, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood in bowl-taking.
Apica yathā chinnahatthapāde vaṇamukhehi paggharitapubbalohitakimikule nīlamakkhikasamparikiṇṇe anāthasālāyaṃ nipanne anāthamanusse disvā dayālukā purisā tesaṃ vaṇapaṭṭacoḷakāni ceva kapālādīhi ca bhesajjāni upanāmenti.
And further, it is like this: When kindly people see, in a refuge for the helpless, unfortunate persons, with hands and feet cut off, and with blood, pus, and many maggots in the open wounds, and give to the unfortunate persons bandages and medicine in containers,
Tattha coḷakānipi kesañci saṇhāni, kesañci thūlāni pāpuṇanti.
some of the miserable sufferers in the refuge may get thick bandages and containers not shapely;
Bhesajjakapālakānipi kesañci susaṇṭhānāni, kesañci dussaṇṭhānāni pāpuṇanti, na te tattha sumanā vā dummanā vā honti.
others may get thin bandages and shapely containers. None of the sufferers will feel elated or depressed about the kind of bandages and containers they receive.
Vaṇappaṭicchādanamatteneva hi coḷakena bhesajjapaṭiggahaṇamatteneva ca kapālakena tesamattho, evameva yo bhikkhu vaṇacoḷakaṃ viya cīvaraṃ, bhesajjakapālakaṃ viya pattaṃ, kapāle bhesajjamiva ca patte laddhaṃ bhikkhaṃ sallakkheti.
That is because they merely want cloth to cover their wounds and containers for keeping medicine. Now, the bhikkhu who regards the robe as a bandage, the bowl as a medicine-container, and alms-food as medicine in the bowl,
Ayaṃ saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe asammohasampajaññena uttamasampajānakārīti veditabbo.
through clear comprehension of non-delusion should be taken as a person endowed with the highest clear comprehension. {53}
Asitādīsu asiteti piṇḍapātabhojane.
Pīteti yāguādipāne.
Khāyiteti piṭṭhakhajjakādikhādane.
Sāyiteti madhuphāṇitādisāyane.
Tattha "neva davāyā"tiādinā nayena vutto aṭṭhavidhopi attho attho nāma.
5. Clear comprehension in the partaking of food and drink As to purpose, there is the eightfold purpose referred to with the words, "Not for sport" and so forth in the formula of reflection on the four requisites of a bhikkhu.
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
As such should clear comprehension of purpose be known.
Lūkhapaṇītatittamadhurādīsu pana yena bhojanena yassa aphāsu hoti, taṃ tassa asappāyaṃ.
Non-suitable to one is the food by which to that one there is discomfort, whatever the food may be in quality or taste: coarse or fine or bitter or sweet or anything else. {Suitable is food that does not cause discomfort.}
Yaṃ pana nimittakammādivasena paṭiladdhaṃ, yañcassa bhuñjato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, taṃ ekantaasappāyameva.
Just irreversibly non-suitable are these: the food acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the food by which good decreases and evils increase in one who partakes of it.
Viparītaṃ sappāyaṃ.
Food which is got by right means and food which does not cause decrease of good and increase of evil in the one taking it are suitable.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
In this matter of the partaking of food, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood according to the explanation given above, and the clear comprehension of resort should be understood by way of the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci bhuñjako natthi, vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravaseneva pana pattapaṭiggahaṇaṃ nāma hoti.
Within there is no eater called a self. As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the receiving of food in the bowl;
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva hatthassa patte otāraṇaṃ nāma hoti.
by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the descent of the hand into the bowl;
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva ālopakaraṇaṃ ālopauddharaṇaṃ mukhavivaraṇañca hoti.
and by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, the making of the food into suitable lumps, the raising of the lumps from the bowl, and the opening of the mouth take place.
Na koci kuñcikāya yantakena ca hanukaṭṭhīni vivarati, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva ālopassa mukhe ṭhapanaṃ, uparidantānaṃ musalakiccasādhanaṃ, heṭṭhādantānaṃ udukkhalakiccasādhanaṃ, jivhāya hatthakiccasādhanañca hoti.
No one opens the jaws with a key. No one opens the jaws with a contrivance. Just by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, take place the putting of a lump of food in the mouth, the pestle-action of the upper row of teeth, the mortar-work of the lower row of teeth, and the tongue's activity comparable to that of the hand collecting together material that is being crushed.
Iti taṃ tattha aggajivhāya tanukakheḷo mūlajivhāya bahalakheḷo makkheti.
Thus that lump of food in the mouth is mixed together with the thin saliva at the end of the tongue and the thick saliva at the root of the tongue.
Taṃ heṭṭhādantaudukkhale jivhāhatthaparivattitaṃ kheḷaudakatemitaṃ uparidantamusalasañcuṇṇitaṃ koci kaṭacchunā vā dabbiyā vā antopavesento nāma natthi, vāyodhātuyāva pavisati.
That food in the mortar of the lower teeth, turned by the tongue, moistened by the saliva, and ground fine by the pestle of the upper teeth is not put into the stomach by anyone with a ladle or a spoon. Just by the process of oscillation it goes on.
Paviṭṭhaṃ paviṭṭhaṃ koci palālasantharaṃ katvā dhārento nāma natthi, vāyodhātuvaseneva tiṭṭhati.
There is no one within who having made a straw mat is bearing each lump that goes in. Each lump stands by reason of the process of oscillation.
Ṭhitaṃ ṭhitaṃ koci uddhanaṃ katvā aggiṃ jāletvā pacanto nāma natthi, tejodhātuyāva paccati.
There is no one who having put up an oven and lit a fire is cooking each lump standing there. By only the process of caloricity the lump of food matures.
Pakkaṃ pakkaṃ koci daṇḍena vā yaṭṭhiyā vā bahi nīhārako nāma natthi, vāyodhātuyeva nīharati.
There is no one who expels each digested lump with a stick or pole. Just the process of oscillation expels the digested food.
Iti vāyodhātu atiharati ca vītiharati ca dhāreti ca parivatteti ca sañcuṇṇeti visoseti ca nīharati ca.
It is oscillation [vayodhatu] that does the taking onward, the moving away from side to side; and it is oscillation that bears, turns round, pulverizes, causes the removal of liquidity, and expels.
Pathavīdhātu dhāreti ca parivatteti ca sañcuṇṇeti ca visoseti ca.
Extension [pathavidhatu] also does bearing up, turning round, pulverizing and the removal of liquidity.
Āpodhātu sineheti ca allattañca anupāleti.
Cohesion (apodhatu] moistens and preserves wetness.
Tejodhātu antopaviṭṭhaṃ paripāceti.
Caloricity [tejodhatu] ripens or digests the food that goes in.
Ākāsadhātu añjaso hoti.
Space [akasadhatu] becomes the way for the entering of the food.
Viññāṇadhātu tattha tattha sammāpayogamanvāya ābhujatīti evaṃpavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Consciousness [viññanadhatu] as a consequence of right kind of action knows in any particular situation. According to reflection of this sort, should the clear comprehension of non-delusion be understood here.{54}
Apica gamanato pariyesanato paribhogato āsayato nidhānato aparipakkato paripakkato phalato nissandato sammakkhaṇatoti evaṃ dasavidhapaṭikūlabhāvapaccavekkhaṇatopettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Further, the clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood through reflection on the unpleasantness connected with food, in the following ten ways: By way of the need to go to get it (1), to seek it (2), the process of eating it (3), by way of the receptacle (in the form of secretion of bile, and so forth) (4), by way of the belly (5), by way of food that is undigested (6), by way of food that is digested (7), by way of the consequences of eating (8), by way of the trickling or oozing of food from the body's openings in the form of excretions (9), and by way of the pollution due to food (10).
Vitthārakathā panettha visuddhimagge āhārapaṭikūlasaññāniddesato gahetabbā.
The detailed exposition of the contemplation on the unpleasantness connected with food is given in the Path of Purity (and its commentary, The Casket of the Highest Thing, Paramattha Mañjusa).{55}

excreting feces

Uccārapassāvakammeti uccārassa ca passāvassa ca karaṇe.
6. Clear comprehension of cleansing the body Uccara passavakamme = In defecating and in urinating" means: When the time is come, when the time is proper,
Tattha pattakāle uccārapassāvaṃ akarontassa sakalasarīrato sedā muccanti, akkhīni bhamanti, cittaṃ na ekaggaṃ hoti, aññe ca rogā uppajjanti.
if one does not defecate or urinate, then, one's body perspires, one's eyes reel, one's mind is not collected, and illness in the form of sharp pain, fistula, and so forth arise for one.
Karontassa pana sabbaṃ taṃ na hotīti ayamettha attho.
But to one who defecates and urinates at the proper time none of these discomforts, disadvantages, troubles and illnesses arise. This is the sense in which this matter should be understood,
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
and in this sense should clear comprehension of purpose in defecation and urination be taken.
Aṭṭhāne uccārapassāvaṃ karontassa pana āpatti hoti, ayaso vaḍḍhati, jīvitantarāyo hoti.
By defecating or urinating in an improper place, one commits disciplinary offences, one goes on getting a bad name, and one endangers one's life.{56}
Patirūpe ṭhāne karontassa sabbaṃ taṃ na hotīti idamettha sappāyaṃ.
But to one evacuating the bowels or the bladder in a place suitable for such evacuation those offences or troubles just mentioned above have no reference.
Tassa vasena sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
And by way of that fitness of place, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood. By the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation, clear comprehension of resort should be understood.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci uccārapassāvaṃ karonto natthi.
Within there is no doer of the act of defecation or urination.
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana uccārapassāvakammaṃ hoti.
Only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity defecation and urination occur, .
Yathā pana pakke gaṇḍe gaṇḍabhedena pubbalohitaṃ akāmatāya nikkhamati, yathā ca atibharitā udakabhājanā udakaṃ akāmatāya nikkhamati, evaṃ pakkāsayamuttavatthīsu sannicitā uccārapassāvā vāyuvegasamuppīḷitā akāmatāyapi nikkhamanti.
just as in a matured boil, by the bursting of the boil, pus and blood come out without any kind of wishing to come out and just as from an overfull water-pot water comes out without any desire for coming out, so too, the feces and urine accumulated in the abdomen and the bladder are pressed out by the force of the process of oscillation
So panāyaṃ evaṃ nikkhamanto uccārapassāvo neva tassa bhikkhuno attano hoti, na parassa.
Certainly this feces-and-urine coming out thus is neither that bhikkhu's own nor another's.
Kevalaṃ sarīranissandova hoti.
It is just bodily excretion.
Yathā kiṃ?
Yathā udakakumbhato purāṇaudakaṃ chaḍḍentassa neva taṃ attano hoti, na paresaṃ.
When from a water-vessel or calabash a person throws out the old water, the water thrown out is neither his nor other's.
Kevalaṃ paṭijagganamattameva hoti.
It simply forms parts of a process of cleansing.
Evaṃpavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ.
In the form of reflection proceeding in this way clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood.
Gatādīsu gateti gamane.
7. Clear comprehension of walking and so forth Now we come to the explanation of the instruction dealing with clear comprehension "in walking,
Ṭhiteti ṭhāne.
in standing in a place,
Nisinneti nisajjāya.
in sitting in some position,
Sutteti sayane.
in sleeping,
Jāgariteti jāgaraṇe.
Bhāsiteti kathane.
in speaking and

keeping silent

Tuṇhībhāveti akathane.
in keeping silence" = Gate thite nisinne sutte jagarite bhasite tunhibhave.
"Gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ṭhitomhīti pajānāti, nisinno vā nisinnomhīti pajānāti, sayāno vā sayānomhīti pajānātī"ti imasmiñhi ṭhāne addhānairiyāpathā kathitā.
By the words: "When he is going a bhikkhu understands 'I am going,'" and so froth, postures of long duration are indicated.
"Abhikkante paṭikkante ālokite vilokite samiñjite pasārite"ti imasmiṃ majjhimā.
And by the words, "in going forwards and backwards... in bending and in stretching," postures of middling duration;
"Gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite"ti idha pana khuddakacuṇṇikairiyāpathā kathitā.
and by the words, "in walking, in standing... In sleeping," postures of short, brief duration.
Tasmā etesupi vuttanayeneva sampajānakāritā veditabbā.
Therefore in these three parts of the instruction the practicing of clear comprehension should be known even by the triple method stated here.{57}
Tipiṭakamahāsīvatthero panāha – yo ciraṃ gantvā vā caṅkamitvā vā aparabhāge ṭhito iti paṭisañcikkhati "caṅkamanakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā"ti, ayaṃ gate sampajānakārī nāma.
The Elder Tipitaka Maha Siva indeed said: Who, after walking or exercising long in the ambulatory, stands and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of exercises on the ambulatory ended just there on the ambulatory," is called a doer of clear comprehension in walking.
Yo sajjhāyaṃ vā karonto pañhaṃ vā vissajjento kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikaronto ciraṃ ṭhatvā aparabhāge nisinno iti paṭisañcikkhati "ṭhitakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā"ti, ayaṃ ṭhite sampajānakārī nāma.
When, after standing for a long time in study or answering a question or minding a subject of meditation, sits and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of standing ended just at the time of standing," is called a doer of clear comprehension in standing.
Yo sajjhāyādikaraṇavaseneva ciraṃ nisīditvā aparabhāge nipanno iti paṭisañcikkhati "nisinnakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā"ti, ayaṃ nisinne sampajānakārī nāma.
Who, after sitting for a long time in study or other similar work, lies down and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed when sitting ended just at the time of sitting," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sitting.
Yo pana nipannako sajjhāyaṃ vā karonto kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikaronto niddaṃ okkamitvā aparabhāge vuṭṭhāya iti paṭisañcikkhati "sayanakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā"ti, ayaṃ sutte jāgarite ca sampajānakārī nāma.
Who, after lying down falls asleep, and, then, after getting up from his sleep, reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of sleep ended just during sleep," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sleeping and waking.{58}
Kiriyamayacittānañhi appavattaṃ suttaṃ nāma, pavattaṃ jāgaritaṃ nāmāti.
The non-occurrence of processes which make action or are made of action is sleep; the occurrence, waking. {59}
Yo pana bhāsamāno "ayaṃ saddo nāma oṭṭhe ca paṭicca dante ca jivhañca tāluñca paṭicca cittassa tadanurūpaṃ payogaṃ paṭicca jāyatī"ti sato sampajāno bhāsati, ciraṃ vā pana kālaṃ sajjhāyaṃ vā katvā dhammaṃ vā kathetvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā parivattetvā pañhaṃ vā vissajjetvā aparabhāge tuṇhībhūto iti paṭisañcikkhati "bhāsitakāle uppannā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā"ti, ayaṃ bhāsite sampajānakārī nāma.
He who whilst speaking thinks: "This sound arises dependent on the lips, teeth, tongue, palate, and the act of the mind that accords to that sound," speaks, mindful and clearly comprehending. He who for a long time has studied or expounded the Teaching or recited the words of the subject of meditation, or cleared a question, and later, on becoming silent, thinks: "The bodily and mental things which arose during the time of speaking ended just then," is called a doer of clear comprehension in speaking.
Yo tuṇhībhūto ciraṃ dhammaṃ vā kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikatvā aparabhāge iti paṭisañcikkhati "tuṇhībhūtakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā, upādārūpapavattiyā sati bhāsati nāma, asati tuṇhī bhavati nāmā"ti, ayaṃ tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī nāmāti.
He who, after remaining silent long considering the Teaching or his subject of meditation, thinks that the bodily and mental things that existed in the time of silence ended just then, that the occurrence of derived material qualities is speech, and that the non-occurrence of these is silence, is called a doer of clear comprehension in keeping silence.
Tayidaṃ mahāsīvattherena vuttaṃ asammohadhuraṃ imasmiṃ satipaṭṭhānasutte adhippetaṃ.
This dominance of non-delusion stated by the Elder Maha Siva is intended here in this Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness.
Sāmaññaphale pana sabbampi catubbidhaṃ sampajaññaṃ labbhati.
But in the Discourse on the Fruit of the Homeless Life (Samañña phala Sutta) even the entire fourfold clear comprehension is found.
Tasmā visesato ettha asammohasampajaññasseva vasena sampajānakāritā veditabbā.
Therefore in a special way, here, only by way of clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood the state of doing clear comprehension. {60}
Sampajānakārī sampajānakārīti ca sabbapadesu satisampayuttasseva sampajaññassa vasenattho veditabbo.
In all statements the meaning of the term "clear comprehension" should be understood by way of only clear comprehension that is endowed with mindfulness.
Vibhaṅgappakaraṇe pana, "sato sampajāno abhikkamati, sato sampajāno paṭikkamatī"ti (vibha. 523) evametāni padāni vibhattāneva.
Indeed in the Book of Classifications (Vibhangappakarana) these are put just in this way: "One goes forward, mindful and clearly comprehending; one goes backwards, mindful and clearly comprehending." [26]{61}
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ catusampajaññapariggahaṇena attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." Thus the bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body by way of the laying hold of the fourfold comprehension either in his own body or in another's body, or at one time in his own body, and in another's at another time.
Idha samudayavayadhammānupassītiādīsu rūpakkhandhasseva samudayo ca vayo ca nīharitabbo.
And, here too, "in contemplating origination" and so forth, the origin and the dissolution of only the materiality aggregate should, in the exposition, be taken out.
Sesaṃ vuttasadisameva.
The remainder is to be understood just by the method already stated by the commentator.
Idha catusampajaññapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccaṃ, tassā samuṭṭhāpikā purimataṇhā samudayasaccaṃ, ubhinnaṃ appavatti nirodhasaccaṃ, vuttappakāro ariyamaggo maggasaccaṃ.
Here, the Truth of Suffering is the mindfulness which lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension; the Truth of Origination is the pre-craving which originates that mindfulness; the non-occurrence of either is the Truth of Cessation; the Real Path already stated is the Way-truth.
Evaṃ catusaccavasena ussakkitvā nibbutiṃ pāpuṇātīti idamekassa catusampajaññapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno vasena yāva arahattā niyyānamukhanti.
Thus, the bhikkhu having striven by way of the Four Noble Truths reaches peace. This is indeed the means of deliverance up to arahantship of one who lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension.
Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1.4 Kāy-ānu-passanā-paṭikūlamanasikāra-pabba: Focusing on the Repulsive

110.Evaṃ catusampajaññavasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni paṭikūlamanasikāravasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
After explaining body-contemplation by way of the fourfold clear comprehension, to explain it by way of the reflection of repulsiveness, the Master said: "And further," and so forth.
Tattha imameva kāyantiādīsu yaṃ vattabbaṃ siyā, taṃ sabbaṃ sabbākārena vitthārato visuddhimagge kāyagatāsatikammaṭṭhāne vuttaṃ.
Everything that should be said in connection with the passage beginning with "On just this body" and so forth, is stated in detail, taking into consideration all aspects of the matter, in the Path of Purity, the Visuddhi Magga, and its commentary, The Casket of the Highest Thing, Paramattha Mañjusa; a summary of that account is given here.{62}
Ubhatomukhāti heṭṭhā ca upari cāti dvīhi mukhehi yuttā.
Nānāvihitassāti nānāvidhassa.
Idaṃ panettha opammasaṃsandanaṃ – ubhatomukhā putoḷi viya hi cātumahābhūtiko kāyo, tattha missetvā pakkhittanānāvidhadhaññaṃ viya kesādayo dvattiṃsākārā, cakkhumā puriso viya yogāvacaro, tassa taṃ putoḷiṃ muñcitvā paccavekkhato nānāvidhadhaññassa pākaṭakālo viya yogino dvattiṃsākārassa vibhūtākāro veditabbo.
The following is the application of the simile: Like the bag with the two openings is the body made up of the four great primaries, earth, water, fire and air. The thirty-two parts beginning with hair-of-the-head are like the various grains thrown into that bag after mixing them. Like a man with seeing eyes is the yogi. Comparable to the time when after loosening the bag the various grains become clear to one reflecting, is the time when the thirty-two parts become clear to the yogi.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ kesādipariggahaṇena attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in his body or in another's. Sometimes he contemplates the body in his own body, at other times in another's, by way of laying hold on things beginning with the hair of the head. From here the meaning should be known just in the way already stated by the commentator.
Kevalañhi idha dvattiṃsākārapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Here the mindfulness which lays hold of the thirty-two parts, is the Truth of Suffering. Having interpreted, thus, the portal to emancipation should be understood.
Sesaṃ purimasadisamevāti.
Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Dhātumanasikārapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1.5 Kāy-ānu-passanā-dhātumanasikāra-pabba: Focusing on the Elements

111.Evaṃ paṭikūlamanasikāravasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni dhātumanasikāravasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
The Master having explained body-contemplation in the form of reflection on the repulsiveness of the thirty-two parts of the body, said: "And further," now, to set forth body-contemplation by way of reflection on the modes (or elements) of materiality.
Tatrāyaṃ opammasaṃsandanena saddhiṃ atthavaṇṇanā – yathā koci goghātako vā tasseva vā bhattavetanabhato antevāsiko gāviṃ vadhitvā vinivijjhitvā catasso disā gatānaṃ mahāpathānaṃ vemajjhaṭṭhānasaṅkhāte catumahāpathe koṭṭhāsaṃ koṭṭhāsaṃ katvā nisinno assa, evameva bhikkhu catunnaṃ iriyāpathānaṃ yena kenaci ākārena ṭhitattā yathāṭhitaṃ, yathāṭhitattā ca yathāpaṇihitaṃ kāyaṃ – "atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu - pe - vāyodhātū"ti evaṃ paccavekkhati.
The elaboration of the meaning together with the application of the simile, in this connection, is as follows: Just as if some cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice, a man who works for his keep, having killed a cow and made it into parts, were sitting at a four-cross-road, just so, a bhikkhu reflects, by way of the modes, on the body, in any one of the four postures thus: "There are in this body the modes of extension, cohesion, caloricity, and oscillation."
Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yathā goghātakassa gāviṃ posentassāpi āghātanaṃ āharantassāpi āharitvā tattha bandhitvā ṭhapentassāpi vadhentassāpi vadhitaṃ mataṃ passantassāpi tāvadeva gāvīti saññā na antaradhāyati, yāva naṃ padāletvā bīlaso na vibhajati.
The cow-butcher does not get rid of the cow-percept while feeding the cow, driving it to the place of slaughter, tying it and putting it up there, killing it, and even when seeing the dead carcass of the cow; not until he cuts it up and divides it into parts does the perception of a cow disappear.
Vibhajitvā nisinnassa pana gāvīti saññā antaradhāyati, maṃsasaññā pavattati, nāssa evaṃ hoti "ahaṃ gāviṃ vikkiṇāmi, ime gāviṃ harantī"ti.
To that butcher sitting (with the meat before him) after cutting up the cow, however, the perception of a cow disappears, and the perception of flesh comes into being. To him, there is not this thought: "I am selling the cow; these people are taking away the cow."
Atha khvassa "ahaṃ maṃsaṃ vikkiṇāmi, ime maṃsaṃ haranti"cceva hoti, evameva imassāpi bhikkhuno pubbe bālaputhujjanakāle gihibhūtassāpi pabbajitassāpi tāvadeva sattoti vā puggaloti vā saññā na antaradhāyati, yāva imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ ghanavinibbhogaṃ katvā dhātuso na paccavekkhati.
But to him, indeed, there occurs this thought: "I am selling flesh; these people indeed, are taking away flesh." ... To the bhikkhu, similarly, the perception of a being or the perception of a person does not disappear as long as he does not reflect, by way of the modes of materiality, in this body as it is placed or disposed in whatsoever position, after sifting thoroughly the apparently compact aggregation.
Dhātuso paccavekkhato panassa sattasaññā antaradhāyati, dhātuvaseneva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati.
To him who reflects by way of the modes of materiality, however, the perception of a being disappears; the mind gets established by way of the modes of materiality.
Tenāha bhagavā – "imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati, atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātūti.
Therefore, the Blessed One declared: "A bhikkhu reflects on just this body according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the mode of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are, in this body, the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.'
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā - pe - vāyodhātū"ti.
O bhikkhus, in whatever manner, a clever cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice having slaughtered a cow and divided it by way of portions should be sitting at the junction of a cross-road, in the same manner, a bhikkhu reflects... thinking thus: 'There are, in this body, the mode of solidity... And the mode of oscillation.'
Goghātako viya hi yogī, gāvīti saññā viya sattasaññā, catumahāpatho viya catuiriyāpatho, bīlaso vibhajitvā nisinnabhāvo viya dhātuso paccavekkhaṇanti ayamettha pāḷivaṇṇanā, kammaṭṭhānakathā pana visuddhimagge vitthāritā.
The yogi is comparable to the cow-butcher; the perception of a being is comparable to the perception of a cow; the fourfold posture is comparable to the cross-road; and the reflection by way of the modes of materiality is comparable to the state of sitting with the cow's flesh in front after dividing the cow into parts. Here, this is the textual explanation. Details of the reflection on the modes of materiality as a subject of meditation, however, are given in the Path of Purity.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ catudhātupariggahaṇena attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." One dwells contemplating the body in the body thus by way of the laying hold of the four modes of materiality, in one's own or in another's body or at one time in one's own body and at another time in another's body.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on the exposition should be known just by the method already mentioned.
Kevalañhi idha catudhātupariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
The mindfulness which lays hold of the four modes of materiality is the Truth of Suffering. Thus the portal to deliverance should be known. {63}
Sesaṃ purimasadisamevāti.
Dhātumanasikārapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Navasivathikapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

1.6 Kāy-ānu-passanā-navasivathika-pabba: The Charnel Ground Contemplations

112.Evaṃ dhātumanasikāravasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni navahi sivathikapabbehi vibhajituṃ, puna caparantiādimāha.
After explaining body-contemplation in the form of the modes of materiality, the Master said, "And further," in order to explain body-contemplation through the nine cemetery contemplations.
Tattha seyyathāpi passeyyāti yathā passeyya.
Sarīranti matasarīraṃ.
Sivathikāya chaḍḍītanti susāne apaviddhaṃ.
Ekāhaṃ matassa assāti ekāhamataṃ.
Dvīhaṃ matassa assāti dvīhamataṃ.
Tīhaṃ matassa assāti tīhamataṃ.
Bhastā viya vāyunā uddhaṃ jīvitapariyādānā yathānukkamaṃ samuggatena sūnabhāvena uddhumātattā uddhumātakaṃ.
Uddhumatam = "Swollen." By reason of the swelled state of the corpse comparable to a pair of wind-filled bellows owing to the gradually uprising bloattedness after death.
Vinīlaṃ vuccati viparibhinnavaṇṇaṃ.
Vinilakam = "Blue" is stated to be the color of fully differing shades [viparibhinnavannam].
Vilīnameva vinīlakaṃ.
Paṭikūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vinīlanti vinīlakaṃ.
Maṃsussadaṭṭhānesu rattavaṇṇassa pubbasannicayaṭṭhānesu setavaṇṇassa yebhuyyena ca nīlavaṇṇassa nīlaṭṭhānesu nīlasāṭakapārutasseva chavasarīrassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Blue is that corpse which is reddish in the protuberantly fleshy parts, and whitish in the purulent parts, while, in those parts which are predominantly blue it seems to be as though covered with a blue mantle. This is the descriptive statement of the "blue" corpse.
Paribhinnaṭṭhānehi navahi vā vaṇamukhehi visandamānaṃ pubbaṃ vipubbaṃ.
Vipubbameva vipubbakaṃ, paṭikūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vipubbanti vipubbakaṃ.
Vipubbakaṃ jātaṃ tathābhāvaṃ gatanti vipubbakajātaṃ.
Vipubbakajatam = "Festering" is the corpse that is full of pus flowing from the broken parts or from the nine openings of the body.
So imameva kāyanti so bhikkhu imaṃ attano kāyaṃ tena kāyena saddhiṃ ñāṇena upasaṃharati upaneti.
So imameva kayam upasamharati ayampi kho kayo evam dhammo evam bhavi evam anatitoti = "He thinks of his own body thus:
Kathaṃ?
Ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatītoti.
'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that (dead) body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'"
Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – āyu, usmā, viññāṇanti imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ atthitāya ayaṃ kāyo ṭhānagamanādikhamo hoti imesaṃ pana vigamā ayampi evaṃdhammo evaṃpūtikasabhāvoyeva, evaṃbhāvī evaṃuddhumātādibhedo bhavissati, evaṃanatīto evaṃuddhumātādibhāvaṃ anatikkantoti.
This has been stated: By the existence of these three: life [ayu], warmth [usma], consciousness [viññanam], this body can endure to stand, to walk, and do other things; by the separation of these three however this body is indeed a thing like that corpse, is possessed of the nature of corruption, is going to become like that, will become swollen, blue and festering and cannot escape the state of being like that, cannot transcend the condition of swelling up, become blue and festering.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ uddhumātādipariggahaṇena attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." Thus by laying hold of the state of swelling and so forth, in regard to one's own body or another's, or at one time in regard to one's own and at another in regard to another's, one dwells contemplating the body in the body.
Khajjamānanti udarādīsu nisīditvā udaramaṃsaoṭṭhamaṃsaakkhikūṭādīni luñcitvā luñcitvā khādiyamānaṃ.
Khajjamanam = "Whilst it is being eaten": When crows and other creatures after sitting on the belly or another part of the corpse are eating the carcass by picking the flesh of the belly, of the lips, the corners of the eye and so forth.
Samaṃsalohitanti sesāvasesamaṃsalohitayuttaṃ.
Samamsalohitam = "Together with (some) flesh and blood": With the flesh and blood still remaining.
Nimaṃsalohitamakkhitanti maṃse khīṇepi lohitaṃ na sussati, taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ "nimaṃsalohitamakkhita"nti.
Nimmamsalohitam = "Blood-besmeared (skeleton) without flesh": When, though rid of flesh, the blood is still not dry.
Aññenāti aññena disābhāgena.
Aññena = "In a different place": In a different direction.
Hatthaṭṭhikanti catusaṭṭhibhedampi hatthaṭṭhikaṃ pāṭiyekkaṃ vippakiṇṇaṃ.
Hatthatthikam = "Bone of the hand": the sixty-four kinds of bones of the hand; when these are lying in different places separate from one another.
Pādaṭṭhikādīsupi eseva nayo.
In the explanation of the bone of the foot and so forth, the method is the same as this.
Terovassikānīti atikkantasaṃvaccharāni.
Terovassikani = "More than a year old": beyond a year in a state of exposure.
Pūtīnīti abbhokāse ṭhitāni vātātapavuṭṭhisamphassena terovassikāneva pūtīni honti.
Putini = "Rotten": just those in the open become rotten by being exposed to wind, sun and rain for over a year.
Antobhūmigatāni pana cirataraṃ tiṭṭhanti.
Bones buried in the earth last longer.
Cuṇṇakajātānīti cuṇṇaṃ cuṇṇaṃ hutvā vippakiṇṇāni.
Cunnakajatani = "Become dust": scattered in the form of powder.
Sabbattha so imamevāti vuttanayena khajjamānādīnaṃ vasena yojanā kātabbā.
Everywhere, according to the method already stated beginning: "He thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too is of the same nature as that (dead) body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body."
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ khajjamānādipariggahaṇena yāva cuṇṇakabhāvā attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally": Thus through the laying hold of the corpse from the state in which it is being eaten by crows and other creatures to the state when it is dust, one dwells contemplating the body in one's own body, or in another's or at one time in one's own body and at another time in another's body.
Idha pana ṭhatvā navasivathikā samodhānetabbā.
Further having stopped here one should put together the nine cemetery contemplations thus:
"Ekāhamataṃ vā"tiādinā nayena vuttā sabbāpi ekā, "kākehi vā khajjamāna"ntiādikā ekā, "aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ samaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandha"nti ekā, "nimaṃsalohitamakkhitaṃ nhārusambandha"nti ekā, "apagatamaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandha"nti ekā, "aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhānī"tiādikā ekā, "aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇapaṭibhāgānī"ti ekā, "puñjakitāni terovassikānī"ti ekā, "pūtīni cuṇṇakajātānī"ti ekā.
Ekahamatam va dvihamatam va tihamatam va = "A body dead one, two or three day." This is the first contemplation. Kakehi va khajjamanam = "Whilst it is being eaten by crows." This portion of the Discourse where the devouring of the body of various kinds of animals is stated refers to the second contemplation. Atthikasamkhalikam samamsalohitam naharusamban-dham = "A skeleton together with (some) flesh and blood held in by the tendons." This is the third contemplation. Nimmamsalohitamakkhitam naharusambandham = "A blood-smeared skeleton without flesh but held in by the tendons." This is the fourth. Apagatamamsalohitam naharusambandham = "A skeleton held in by the tendons but without flesh and not besmeared with blood." This is the fifth. Atthikani apagatasambandhani = "Bones gone loose, scattered in all directions." This is the sixth. Atthikani setani sankhavannupanibhani = "Bones white in color like a conch." This is the seventh. Atthikani puñjakitani terovassikani = "Bones more than a year old heaped together." This is the eighth. Atthikani putini cunnakajatani = "Bones gone rotten and become dust." This is the ninth.
Evaṃ kho, bhikkhaveti idaṃ navasivathikā dassetvā kāyānupassanaṃ niṭṭhapento āha.
Evam kho bhikkhave = "Thus, indeed, o bhikkhus." He said this bringing to an end body-contemplation after pointing out the nine cemetery contemplations.
Tattha navasivathikapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccaṃ, tassā samuṭṭhāpikā purimataṇhā samudayasaccaṃ, ubhinnaṃ appavatti nirodhasaccaṃ, dukkhaparijānano samudayapajahano nirodhārammaṇo ariyamaggo maggasaccaṃ.
The mindfulness which lays hold of the nine cemetery contemplations is the Truth of Suffering; the previous craving which originates that mindfulness is the Truth of Origin; the non-occurrence of both that mindfulness and the craving is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path that understands suffering, casts out the origin, and has cessation for its object is the Truth of the Way.
Evaṃ catusaccavaseneva ussakkitvā nibbutiṃ pāpuṇātīti idaṃ navasivathikapariggāhakānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ yāva arahattā niyyānamukhanti.
Endeavoring in this way by means of the Four Truths one arrives at peace. This is for the bhikkhu who lays hold of the nine cemetery contemplations the portal of deliverance up to arahantship.
Navasivathikapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Ettāvatā ca ānāpānapabbaṃ iriyāpathapabbaṃ catusampajaññapabbaṃ paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ navasivathikapabbānīti cuddasapabbā kāyānupassanā niṭṭhitā hoti.
Now, these are the fourteen portions which comprise body-contemplation: The section on breathing in and breathing out, on the postures, on the four kinds of clear comprehension, of reflection on repulsiveness, on the modes of materiality, and on the nine cemetery contemplations.
Tattha ānāpānapabbaṃ paṭikūlamanasikārapabbanti imāneva dve appanākammaṭṭhānāni.
There, only the sections on breathing in and breathing out and of the reflection on repulsiveness can become meditation-subjects of full absorption.
Sivathikānaṃ pana ādīnavānupassanāvasena vuttattā sesāni dvādasāpi upacārakammaṭṭhānānevāti.
As the cemetery contemplations are stated by way of consideration of disadvantages, dangers or evils, all the remaining twelve are only meditation-subjects of partial absorption.
Kāyānupassanā niṭṭhitā.
Vedanānupassanāvaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

2 - Vedan-ānu-passanā: Observing the sensations

113.Evaṃ bhagavā cuddasavidhena kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā idāni navavidhena vedanānupassanaṃ kathetuṃ kathañca, bhikkhavetiādimāha.
The Blessed One having in this way set forth the Arousing of Mindfulness through the fourteenfold method of body-contemplation, now said, "And now, o bhikkhus," in order to expound the ninefold method of contemplation of feeling.
Tattha sukhaṃ vedananti kāyikaṃ vā cetasikaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno "ahaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī"ti pajānātīti attho.
There, the meaning of "pleasant feeling" = sukham vedanam, is as follows: The bhikkhu when experiencing a bodily or mental pleasant feeling knows, "I experience a pleasant feeling."
Tattha kāmaṃ uttānaseyyakāpi dārakā thaññapivanādikāle sukhaṃ vedayamānā "sukhaṃ vedayāmā"ti pajānanti, na panetaṃ evarūpaṃ jānanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.
Certainly, while they experience a pleasant feeling, in sucking the breast and on similar occasions, even infants lying on their backs know that they experience pleasure. But this meditator's knowledge is different.
Evarūpaṃ jānanaṃ hi sattūpaladdhiṃ na jahati, sattasaññaṃ na ugghāṭeti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā vā na hoti.
Knowledge of pleasure possessed by infants lying on their backs and other similar kinds of knowledge of pleasure do not cast out the belief in a being, do not root out the perception of a being, do not become a subject of meditation and do not become the cultivation of the Arousing of Mindfulness.
Imassa pana bhikkhuno jānanaṃ sattūpaladdhiṃ jahati, sattasaññaṃ ugghāṭeti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ ceva satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā ca hoti.
But the knowledge of this bhikkhu casts out the belief in a being, uproots the perception of a being, is a subject of meditation and is the cultivation of the Arousing of Mindfulness.
Idañhi "ko vedayati, kassa vedanā, kiṃ kāraṇā vedanā"ti evaṃ sampajānavediyanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.
Indeed, the knowledge meant here is concerned with experience that is wisely understood through inquiry.
Tattha ko vedayatīti na koci satto vā puggalo vā vedayati.
Who feels? No being or person.
Kassa vedanāti na kassaci sattassa vā puggalassa vā vedanā.
Whose is the feeling? Not of a being or person.
Kiṃ kāraṇā vedanāti vatthuārammaṇāva panassa vedanā.
Owing to what is there the feeling? Feeling can arise with (certain) things — forms, sounds, smells and so forth — as objects.
Tasmā esa evaṃ pajānāti – "taṃ taṃ sukhādīnaṃ vatthuṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā vedanāva vedayati.
That bhikkhu knows, therefore, that there is a mere experiencing of feeling after the objectifying of a particular pleasurable or painful physical basis or of one of indifference.{1}
Taṃ pana vedanāpavattiṃ upādāya 'ahaṃ vedayāmī'ti vohāramattaṃ hotī"ti.
The words of the Discourse, "I experience (or feel)," form a conventional expression, indeed, for that process of impersonal feeling.
Evaṃ vedanāva vatthuṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā vedanāva vedayatīti sallakkhento esa "sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī"ti pajānātīti veditabbo.
It should be understood that the bhikkhu knows that with the objectification of a property or basis he experiences a feeling.
Cittalapabbate aññataro thero viya.
Thero kira aphāsukakāle balavavedanāya nitthunanto aparāparaṃ parivattati.
It is said that an Elder of Cittala Hill was sick, turning over from side to side, again and again, and groaning with great pain.
Tameko daharo āha "kataraṃ vo, bhante, ṭhānaṃ rujjatī"ti.
To him a young bhikkhu said: "Venerable Sir, which part of your body is painful?"
Āvuso, pāṭiyekkaṃ rujjanaṭṭhānaṃ nāma natthi, vatthuṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā vedanāva vedayatīti.
— "A specially painful place, indeed, there is not; as a result of taking certain things (such as forms, sounds etc.) for object there is the experiencing of painful feeling," replied the Elder.
Evaṃ jānanakālato paṭṭhāya adhivāsetuṃ vaṭṭati no, bhanteti.
"Venerable Sir, from the time one knows that, is not bearing up befitting?" said the young bhikkhu.
Adhivāsemi āvusoti.
"I am bearing up, friend," said the Elder.
Adhivāsanā, bhante, seyyāti.
"Bearing up is excellent, Venerable Sir," said the young bhikkhu.
Thero adhivāsesi.
The Elder bore up.
Tato vāto yāva hadayā phālesi, mañcake antāni rāsikatāni ahesuṃ.
Thereafter, the aerial humor caused injury right up to the heart. His intestines protruded out and lay in a heap on the bed.
Thero daharassa dassesi "vaṭṭatāvuso, ettakā adhivāsanā"ti.
The Elder pointed that out to the young bhikkhu and said: "Friend, is bearing up so far befitting?"
Daharo tuṇhī ahosi.
The young bhikkhu remained silent.
Thero vīriyasamataṃ yojetvā saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ pāpuṇitvā samasīsī hutvā parinibbāyi.
The Elder, having applied concentration with energy, attained arahantship with Analytical Knowledge and passed away into the final peace of Nibbana, {2} thus realizing the highest and passing away nearly at the same time.
Yathā ca sukhaṃ, evaṃ dukkhaṃ - pe - nirāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno "nirāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī"ti pajānāti.
Just as when experiencing a pleasant feeling, so too when experiencing a painful feeling... a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling he understands, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling."
Iti bhagavā rūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathento vedanāvasena kathesi.
Thus the Blessed One when expounding the non-corporeal subject of meditation after the corporeal subject of meditation, expounds it by way of feeling.
Duvidhañhi kammaṭṭhānaṃ rūpakammaṭṭhānañca arūpakammaṭṭhānañca.
For twofold is the subject of meditation: the subject of meditation of corporeality or materiality and the subject of meditation which is non-corporeal or non-material.
Rūpapariggaho arūpapariggahotipi etadeva vuccati.
This twofold subject of meditation is also spoken of as the laying hold of the mental and the laying hold of the material.
Tattha bhagavā rūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathento saṅkhepamanasikāravasena vā vitthāramanasikāravasena vā catudhātuvavatthānaṃ kathesi.
While the Blessed One is expounding the material subject of meditation by way of brief or lengthy reflection he expounds the discernment of the four modes (or elements) of materiality [dhatu].
Tadubhayampi sabbākārato visuddhimagge dassitameva.
Both those ways of reflection are pointed out fully, in the Path of Purity.
Arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ pana kathento yebhuyyena vedanāvasena katheti.
While expounding, however, the mental subject of meditation generally the Master expounds it by way of the contemplation on feeling.
Tividho hi arūpakammaṭṭhāne abhiniveso phassavasena vedanāvasena cittavasenāti.
Threefold, indeed, is the establishing in the mental subject of meditation: by way of sense-impression, feeling and mind.
Kathaṃ?
How?
Ekaccassa hi saṃkhittena vā vitthārena vā pariggahite rūpakammaṭṭhāne tasmiṃ ārammaṇe cittacetasikānaṃ paṭhamābhinipāto taṃ ārammaṇaṃ phusanto uppajjamāno phasso pākaṭo hoti.
To some meditator, indeed, when the material subject of meditation is laid hold of, when there is the first impact of mind-with-mental-characteristics on the object (or the first Apprehension of that object), the sense-impression that arises with the contacting of that object becomes clear.
Ekaccassa taṃ ārammaṇaṃ anubhavantī uppajjamānā vedanā pākaṭā hoti.
To another the feeling that arises with the experiencing of that object becomes clear.
Ekaccassa taṃ ārammaṇaṃ pariggahetvā vijānantaṃ uppajjamānaṃ viññāṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti.
To yet another the consciousness that arises with the knowing of that object becomes clear.
Tattha yassa phasso pākaṭo hoti, sopi "na kevalaṃ phassova uppajjati, tena saddhiṃ tadeva ārammaṇaṃ anubhavamānā vedanāpi uppajjati, sañjānanamānā saññāpi, cetayamānā cetanāpi, vijānanamānaṃ viññāṇampi uppajjatī"ti phassapañcamakeyeva pariggaṇhāti.
When sense-impression becomes clear, not only does sense-impression arise; together with that sense-impression, arise feeling, perception, volition and consciousness.
Yassa vedanā pākaṭā hoti.
When feeling becomes clear
So "na kevalaṃ vedanāva uppajjati, tāya saddhiṃ tadevārammaṇaṃ phusamāno phassopi uppajjati, sañjānanamānā saññāpi, cetayamānā cetanāpi, vijānanamānaṃ viññāṇampi uppajjatī"ti phassapañcamakeyeva pariggaṇhāti.
the other four too arise.
Yassa viññāṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti, so "na kevalaṃ viññāṇameva uppajjati, tena saddhiṃ tadevārammaṇaṃ phusamāno phassopi uppajjati, anubhavamānā vedanāpi, sañjānanamānā saññāpi, cetayamānā cetanāpi uppajjatī"ti phassapañcamakeyeva pariggaṇhāti.
Also when consciousness becomes clear the other four arise.
So "ime phassapañcamakā dhammā kiṃ nissitā"ti upadhārento "vatthuṃ nissitā"ti pajānāti.
The bhikkhu, on reflecting thus: "Dependent on what is this group of five things?" knows as follows: "Dependent on the (coarse) corporeal base (vatthu)."
Vatthu nāma karajakāyo, yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ "idañca me viññāṇaṃ ettha sitaṃ ettha paṭibaddha"nti (dī. ni. 1.234,235; ma. ni. 2.252).
That coarse body [karaja kaya] about which it is said: "And indeed this consciousness of mine is depending on, is bound up with this body," {that, in its actual nature consists of the four great physical things, the four great primaries, and the physical qualities sourcing from the four great primaries. These physical qualities are called derived materiality.}
So atthato bhūtāni ceva upādārūpāni ca.
Evamettha "vatthu rūpaṃ, phassapañcamakā nāma"nti nāmarūpamattameva passati.
Here, the bhikkhu sees mind and body, thinking, "The (coarse) corporeal base aforesaid is body; the five beginning with sense-impression are mind."
Rūpaṃ cettha rūpakkhandho, nāmaṃ cattāro arūpino khandhāti pañcakkhandhamattaṃ hoti.
In this connection there are the five aggregates because the body is the aggregate of materiality, and the mind, the four aggregates of non-material things.
Nāmarūpavinimuttā hi pañcakkhandhā, pañcakkhandhavinimuttañca nāmarūpaṃ natthi.
There is neither a fivefold aggregation separate from the mind and body nor a mind and body separate from the fivefold aggregation.
So "ime pañcakkhandhā kiṃ hetukā"ti upaparikkhanto "avijjādihetukā"ti passati.
The bhikkhu who tries to find out what the cause of these five aggregates is sees that these are due to ignorance, etc.
Tato paccayo ceva paccayuppannañca idaṃ, añño satto vā puggalo vā natthi, suddhasaṅkhārapuñjamattamevāti sappaccayanāmarūpavasena tilakkhaṇaṃ āropetvā vipassanāpaṭipāṭiyā "aniccaṃ dukkhaṃ anattā"ti sammasanto vicarati.
Henceforth the bhikkhu lives with thorough knowledge thinking that this thing, the fivefold aggregation, is only something conditioned and includes what is produced from conditioning. It is a congeries of bare formations, indeed, of bare processes. He applies to it, by way of the mind and body that exist together with conditions, according to the gradual succession of insight-producing knowledge, the words: "impermanent,," "subject-to-suffering," and "soulless."
So "ajja ajjā"ti paṭivedhaṃ ākaṅkhamāno tathārūpe divase utusappāya puggalasappāya bhojanasappāya dhammassavanasappāyaṃ labhitvā ekapallaṅkena nisinno vipassanaṃ matthakaṃ pāpetvā arahatte patiṭṭhāti.
After getting suitable weather conditions, a person of advantage to him spiritually, food that agrees with him, or fitting doctrinal instructions, the bhikkhu desirous of realization says, "Today, today," fixed in one posture, reaches the acme of insight and stands fast in the fruit of arahantship.
Evaṃ imesampi tiṇṇaṃ janānaṃ yāva arahattā kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathitaṃ hoti.
For the three kinds of persons aforesaid the subject of meditation up to arahantship is expounded, in this way.
Idha pana bhagavā arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathento vedanāvasena kathesi.
Here, however, the Blessed One speaking of the non-material or mental subject of meditation speaks by way of feeling.
Phassavasena vā hi viññāṇavasena vā kathīyamānaṃ na pākaṭaṃ hoti, andhakāraṃ viya khāyati.
While expounding by way of sense-impression or consciousness the subject of meditation does not become clear. It seems dark.
Vedanāvasena pana pākaṭaṃ hoti.
But by way of feeling it becomes clear.
Kasmā?
Why?
Vedanānaṃ uppattipākaṭatāya.
Because of the clearness of the arising of feeling.
Sukhadukkhavedanānañhi uppatti pākaṭā.
Indeed the arising of pleasant or painful feeling is clear.
Yadā sukhaṃ uppajjati, sakalasarīraṃ khobhentaṃ maddantaṃ pharamānaṃ abhisandayamānaṃ satadhotaṃ sappiṃ khādāpayantaṃ viya satapākatelaṃ makkhayamānaṃ viya ghaṭasahassena pariḷāhaṃ nibbāpayamānaṃ viya "aho sukhaṃ aho sukha"nti vācaṃ nicchārayamānameva uppajjati.
When pleasant feeling arises spreading through and flowing over the whole body, making one to utter the words: "Ah 'tis joy," it is like causing one to eat fresh clarified butter cooled in very cold water a hundred times after being melted again and again, also a hundred times; it is like causing one to be massaged with an emollient oil worth a hundred pieces; and it is like causing one to be cooled of a burning fever with a thousand pots of cold water.
Yadā dukkhaṃ uppajjati, sakalasarīraṃ khobhentaṃ maddantaṃ pharamānaṃ abhisandayamānaṃ tattaphālaṃ pavesentaṃ viya vilīnatambalohena āsiñcantaṃ viya sukkhatiṇavanappatimhi araññe dāruukkākalāpaṃ khipamānaṃ viya "aho dukkhaṃ aho dukkha"nti vippalāpayamānameva uppajjati.
When painful feeling arises spreading through and flowing over the whole body making one to bewail with the words, "Alas, what woe," it is like the applying on one of a heated plowshare; it is like the sprinkling upon one of molten copper; and it is comparable to the hurling into dried grass and trees, in the forest, of bundles of wood firebrands.
Iti sukhadukkhavedanānaṃ uppatti pākaṭā hoti.
Thus the arising of pleasant or painful feeling becomes clear,
Adukkhamasukhā pana duddīpanā andhakārāva avibhūtā.
but the arising of the neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling is dark, and unclear.
Sā sukhadukkhānaṃ apagame sātāsātappaṭikkhepavasena majjhattākārabhūtā adukkhamasukhā vedanāti nayato gaṇhantassa pākaṭā hoti.
The neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling becomes clear to one who grasps it methodically, thinking: "At the disappearance of pleasure and pain, the neutral neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling occurs, which is contrary to the pleasant and the unpleasant."
Yathā kiṃ?
To what is it comparable?
Yathā antarā piṭṭhipāsāṇaṃ ārohitvā palātassa migassa anupathaṃ gacchanto migaluddako piṭṭhipāsāṇassa orabhāgepi parabhāgepi padaṃ disvā majjhe apassantopi "ito āruḷho, ito oruḷho, majjhe piṭṭhipāsāṇe iminā padesena gato bhavissatī"ti nayato jānāti, evaṃ āruḷhaṭṭhāne padaṃ viya hi sukhavedanāya uppatti pākaṭā hoti.
To a deer hunter following the hoof marks of a deer which midway having gone up a flat rock is fleeing. The hunter after seeing the hoof marks on the hither and thither side of the rock, without seeing any trace in the middle, knows by inference: "Here the animal went up, and here, it went down; in the middle, on the flat rock, possibly it went through this part." Like the hoofmark at the place of going up the arising of pleasurable feeling becomes clear.
Oruḷhaṭṭhāne padaṃ viya dukkhavedanāya uppatti pākaṭā hoti.
Like the hoofmark at the place of descent the arising of painful feeling becomes clear.
"Ito āruyha ito oruyha majjhe evaṃ gato"ti nayato gahaṇaṃ viya sukhadukkhānaṃ apagame sātāsātappaṭikkhepavasena majjhattākārabhūtā adukkhamasukhā vedanāti nayato gaṇhantassa pākaṭā hoti.
Like the grasping through inference of the part traversed over the rock by the deer is the laying hold of the neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling methodically with the thought: "At the disappearance of pleasure and pain, the neutral neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling occurs, which is contrary to the pleasant and the unpleasant."
Evaṃ bhagavā paṭhamaṃ rūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā pacchā arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ vedanāvasena nibbattetvāva dassesi.
In this manner, the Blessed One having expounded at first the form subject of meditation, later, pointed out the formless subject of meditation, by way of feeling, having taken it out from the fivefold aggregation distinguishingly.
Na kevalañca idheva evaṃ dassesi, cūḷataṇhāsaṅkhaye, mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaye, cūḷavedalle, mahāvedalle, raṭṭhapālasutte, māgaṇḍiyasutte, dhātuvibhaṅge, āneñjasappāye, dīghanikāyamhi mahānidāne, sakkapañhe, mahāsatipaṭṭhāne, saṃyuttamhi cūḷanidānasutte, rukkhopame, parivīmaṃsanasutte, sakale vedanāsaṃyutteti evaṃ anekesu suttesu paṭhamaṃ rūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā pacchā arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ vedanāvasena nibbattetvā dassesi.
Not only here did he point it out thus. In the Cula Tanhasankkhaya, the Cula Vedalla, the Maha Vedalla, the Ratthapala, Magandiya, Dhatuvibhanga, and Aneñjasappaya of the Majjhima Nikaya; in the Maha Nidana, Sakkapañha, and Maha Satipatthana of the Digha Nikaya; in the Cula Nidana, Rukkhupama, and Parivimamsana Suttas of the Samyutta Nikaya; in the whole of the Vedana Samyutta of the same Nikaya; and in many other discourses did the Master point out the formless subject of meditation, by way of feeling, having taken out feeling from the fivefold aggregation, after first expounding the form subject of meditation.
Yathā ca tesu, evaṃ imasmimpi satipaṭṭhānasutte paṭhamaṃ rūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā pacchā arūpakammaṭṭhānaṃ vedanāvasena nibbattetvā dassesi.
Tattha sukhaṃ vedanantiādīsu ayaṃ aparopi pajānanapariyāyo – sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmīti pajānātīti sukhavedanākkhaṇe dukkhāya vedanāya abhāvato sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno "sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī"ti pajānāti.
This is another method of understanding: (He) understands, "I experience a pleasant feeling" = Sukham vedanam vediyamiti pajanati. By the absence of painful feeling at the moment of pleasant feeling, he knows, while experiencing a pleasant feeling: "I am experiencing a pleasant feeling."
Tena yā pubbe anubhūtapubbā dukkhā vedanā, tassā idāni abhāvato imissā ca sukhāya vedanāya ito paṭhamaṃ abhāvato vedanā nāma aniccā adhuvā vipariṇāmadhammā, itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.
By reason of that knowledge of the experiencing of pleasant feeling, owing to the absence now of whatsoever painful feeling that existed before and owing to the absence of this pleasant feeling, before the present time, feeling is called an impermanent, a not lasting, and a changeful thing. When he knows the pleasant feeling, in the pleasant feeling, thus, there is clear comprehension.
Vuttampi cetaṃ bhagavatā –
For it is said, in the 78th Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya, by the Blessed One:
"Yasmiṃ aggivessana samaye sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, neva tasmiṃ samaye dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, na adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, sukhaṃyeva tasmiṃ samaye vedanaṃ vedeti, yasmiṃ aggivessana samaye dukkhaṃ - pe - adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, neva tasmiṃ samaye sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, na dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti, adukkhamasukhaññeva tasmiṃ samaye vedanaṃ vedeti.
"When one experiences a pleasant feeling, Aggivessana, then one does not experience a painful feeling or a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling. Only the pleasant feeling does one then experience. When one experiences a painful feeling, Aggivessana, then one does not experience a pleasant or a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling. Only a painful feeling does one then experience. When one experiences a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling, then, one does not experience a pleasant or a painful feeling. Only a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling does one then experience.
Sukhāpi kho aggivessana vedanā aniccā saṅkhatā paṭiccasamuppannā khayadhammā vayadhammā virāgadhammā nirodhadhammā.
Pleasant feeling, indeed, Aggivessana, is a thing that is impermanent, put-together, dependently originating, decaying, passing away, fading and ceasing.
Dukkhāpi kho - pe - adukkhamasukhāpi kho aggivessana vedanā aniccā - pe - nirodhadhammā.
So is painful feeling, and the neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling.
Evaṃ passaṃ aggivessana sutavā ariyasāvako sukhāyapi vedanāya dukkhāyapi vedanāya adukkhamasukhāyapi vedanāya nibbindati, nibbindaṃ virajjati, virāgā vimuccati, vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti.
The learned, real disciple, Aggivessana, seeing thus, turns away from the pleasant feeling even as he does from the painful, and the neither-pleasant-nor-painful feelings. Turning away, he detaches himself; by absence of attachment, he frees himself; freed, he knows thus: "I am freed of craving.
'Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā'ti pajānātī"ti (ma. ni. 2.205).
Destroyed by me is rebirth; lived by me is the Highest Life of the Real Way; done by me is the work of developing the Real Way that must be developed; and (concerning the sixteen-fold work of the development of the Royal Way) there is no more work to be done by me."
Sāmisaṃ vā sukhantiādīsu sāmisā sukhā nāma pañcakāmaguṇāmisanissitā cha gehasitasomanassavedanā.
Pleasant worldly feeling refers to the six joyful feelings connected with the six sense-doors, and dependent on that which is tainted by defilements.
Nirāmisā sukhā nāma cha nekkhammasitasomanassavedanā.
Pleasant spiritual feeling refers to the six joyful feelings connected with the six sense-doors, and not dependent on sense-desire.
Sāmisā dukkhā nāma cha gehasitadomanassavedanā.
Painful worldly feeling refers to the six feelings of grief connected with the six sense-doors, and dependent on that which is tainted by defilements.
Nirāmisā dukkhā nāma cha nekkhammasitadomanassavedanā.
Painful spiritual feeling refers to the six feelings of grief connected with the six sense-doors, and not dependent on sense-desire.
Sāmisā adukkhamasukhā nāma cha gehasitaupekkhā vedanā.
Worldly neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling refers to the six feelings of indifference connected with the six sense-doors, and dependent on that which is tainted by defilements.
Nirāmisā adukkhamasukhā nāma cha nekkhammasitaupekkhā vedanā.
Spiritual neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling refers to the six feelings of indifference connected with the six sense-doors, and not dependent on sense-desire.
Tāsaṃ vibhāgo uparipaṇṇāsake pāḷiyaṃ āgatoyeva.
The division into pleasant worldly feeling and so forth is in the 137th Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ sukhavedanādipariggahaṇena attano vā vedanāsu, parassa vā vedanāsu, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.
Ajjhattam = "Internally": The bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in the feelings that are his own by laying hold of the pleasant, painful or neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling. Or he dwells contemplating feelings in the feelings of others by laying hold of the pleasant, painful or neither-pleasant-nor-painful feelings, in the way told above. Or at one time he contemplates his own feelings and at another time, another's.
Samudayavayadhammānupassī vāti ettha pana "avijjāsamudayā vedanāsamudayo"tiādīhi (paṭi. ma. 1.50) pañcahi pañcahi ākārehi vedanānaṃ samudayañca vayañca passanto samudayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, kālena samudayadhammānupassī vā, kālena vayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharatīti veditabbo.
Samudayadhammanupassi = "Contemplating origination-things." In this contemplation of feeling, the bhikkhu dwells seeing the origination and the dissolution of the aggregate of feeling or seeing the origination of feeling at one time and the dissolution of feeling at another time, by way of ignorance, craving and so forth, in the five ways mentioned in the Section on the Modes of Deportment. [32]
Ito paraṃ kāyānupassanāyaṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on it should be understood that the exposition is just according to the method followed in the explanation of body-contemplation.
Kevalañhi idha vedanāpariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā vedanāpariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Indeed, the mindfulness that lays hold of feeling is the Truth of Suffering. Thus the portal of deliverance for the bhikkhu who lays hold of feeling should be understood.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Vedanānupassanā niṭṭhitā.
Cittānupassanāvaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3 - Citt-ānu-passanā: Observing the Mind

114.Evaṃ navavidhena vedanānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā idāni soḷasavidhena cittānupassanaṃ kathetuṃ kathañca, bhikkhavetiādimāha.
After explaining the ninefold Arousing of Mindfulness in regard to feeling, the Master began the explanation of the contemplation of consciousness in the sixteenfold way with the words, "And, how, o bhikkhus."{1}
Tattha sarāganti aṭṭhavidhaṃ lobhasahagataṃ.
Saragam cittam = "The consciousness with lust." Karmically unwholesome eight conscious states of the plane of existence of sense-experience. These are together with greed in the sense of springing from it.
Vītarāganti lokiyakusalābyākataṃ.
Vitaragam cittam = "The consciousness without lust." Karmically wholesome and karmically neutral mundane states of consciousness.{2}
Idaṃ pana yasmā sammasanaṃ na dhammasamodhānaṃ, tasmā idha ekapadepi lokuttaraṃ na labbhati.
Sesāni cattāri akusalacittāni neva purimapadaṃ, na pacchimapadaṃ bhajanti.
Sadosanti duvidhaṃ dosasahagataṃ.
Sodosam cittam = "The consciousness with hate." The two conscious states, karmically unwholesome, accompanied, by grief (mentioned above).
Vītadosanti lokiyakusalābyākataṃ.
Vitadosam cittam = "The consciousness without hate." Karmically wholesome and karmically neutral mundane states of consciousness.
Sesāni dasākusalacittāni neva purimaṃ padaṃ, na pacchimaṃ padaṃ bhajanti.
The other ten karmically unwholesome conscious states of the plane of existence of sense-experience do not associate with either the consciousness-with-hate division or the consciousness-without-hate division.
Samohanti vicikicchāsahagatañceva uddhaccasahagatañcāti duvidhaṃ.
Samoham cittam = "The consciousness with ignorance." The conscious state, karmically unwholesome, linked to doubt (mentioned above), and the conscious state, karmically unwholesome, linked to agitation (mentioned above).
Yasmā pana moho sabbākusalesu uppajjati, tasmā tānipi idha vaṭṭantiyeva.
Because, indeed, ignorance arises in all karmically bad states, the other karmically bad states too should be mentioned, here.
Imasmiṃyeva hi duke dvādasākusalacittāni pariyādiṇṇānīti.
In just this division all the twelve karmically bad, unwholesome or unskillful conscious states are included.
Vītamohanti lokiyakusalābyākataṃ.
Vitamoham cittam = "The consciousness without ignorance." Karmically wholesome and karmically neutral mundane states of consciousness.
Saṃkhittanti thinamiddhānupatitaṃ, etañhi saṃkuṭitacittaṃ nāma.
Sankhittam cittam = "The shrunken state of consciousness." The conscious state fallen into sloth and torpor. That is called the shrivelled or contracted state of mind.
Vikkhittanti uddhaccasahagataṃ, etañhi pasaṭacittaṃ nāma.
Vikkhittam cittam = "The distracted state of consciousness." The conscious state accompanied by agitation. That is called the dissipated mind.
Mahaggatanti rūpārūpāvacaraṃ.
Mahaggatam cittam = "The state of consciousness become great." The conscious state of the sensuous-ethereal [rupavacara] plane of existence and of the purely ethereal [arupavacara] plane of existence.
Amahaggatanti kāmāvacaraṃ.
Amahaggatam cittam = "The state of consciousness not become great." The conscious state of the plane of existence of sense-experience.
Sauttaranti kāmāvacaraṃ.
Sauttaram cittam = "The state of consciousness with some other mental state superior to it." That refers to any conscious state belonging to the plane of sense-experience.
Anuttaranti rūpāvacarañca arūpāvacarañca.
Anuttaram cittam = "The state of consciousness with no other mental state superior to it." That refers to any conscious state belonging to the sensuous-ethereal [rupavacara] or the purely ethereal [arupavacara] plane.
Tatrāpi sauttaraṃ rūpāvacaraṃ, anuttaraṃ arūpāvacarameva.
Samāhitanti yassa appanāsamādhi upacārasamādhi vā atthi.
Samahitam cittam = "The quieted state of consciousness." It refers to the conscious state of him who has full or partial absorption.
Asamāhitanti ubhayasamādhivirahitaṃ.
Asamahitam cittam = "The state of consciousness not quieted." It refers to the conscious state without either absorption.
Vimuttanti tadaṅgavikkhambhanavimuttīhi vimuttaṃ.
Vimuttam cittam = "the freed state of consciousness." {3}
Avimuttanti ubhayavimuttivirahitaṃ, samucchedapaṭippassaddhinissaraṇavimuttīnaṃ pana idha okāsova natthi.
Avimuttam cittam = "The unfreed state of consciousness." That refers to any conscious state without either kind of temporary emancipation. In the mundane path [lokiya magga] of the beginner there is no place for the supramundane kinds of emancipation through extirpation [samuccheda], stilling [patipassaddha] and final release [nissarana].
Itiajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ sarāgādipariggahaṇena yasmiṃ yasmiṃ khaṇe yaṃ yaṃ cittaṃ pavattati, taṃ taṃ sallakkhento attano vā citte, parassa vā citte, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa citte cittānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The bhikkhu lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness by laying hold on the consciousness with lust and so forth when these states of consciousness proceed in his own flux or in another's flux or by laying hold of these conscious states at one time as they proceed in his own flux and at another time as they proceed in another's flux.
Samudayavayadhammānupassīti ettha pana "avijjāsamudayā viññāṇasamudayo"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.50) evaṃ pañcahi pañcahi ākārehi viññāṇassa samudayo ca vayo ca nīharitabbo.
Samudayavayadhammanupassi = "Contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things." Here, the arising of the aggregate of consciousness should be explained with the pointing out of the origination of consciousness from the origination of ignorance and so forth, in the five ways, according to the method shown in the Section on the Modes of Deportment. And the passing away of consciousness should also be explained in the same way as it is shown in the Section on the Modes of Deportment.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on there is nothing new in the method of explanation.
Kevalañhi idha cittapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā cittapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
The mindfulness which lays hold of consciousness is the Truth of Suffering. Thus, the portal of deliverance up to arahantship of the bhikkhu who lays hold of consciousness as a subject of meditation ought to be understood. {4}
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Cittānupassanāvaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Dhammānupassanā nīvaraṇapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

4 - Dhamm-ānu-passanā: Observing dharmas

4.1 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-nīvaraṇa-pabba: The Hindrances

115.Evaṃ soḷasavidhena cittānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ kathetvā idāni pañcavidhena dhammānupassanaṃ kathetuṃ kathañca, bhikkhavetiādimāha.
1. Sensuality After explaining the Arousing of Mindfulness of the sixteenfold contemplation of consciousness, the Master said: "And, how, o bhikkhus," in order to expound the fivefold contemplation of mental objects [dhamma], — things spiritual and material.
Apica bhagavatā kāyānupassanāya suddharūpapariggaho kathito, vedanācittānupassanāhi suddhaarūpapariggaho.
Further, the laying hold of pure corporeality or materiality was taught by the Blessed One in the instruction on body-contemplation, and in the instruction on the contemplation of feeling and consciousness, the laying hold of the purely spiritual.
Idāni rūpārūpamissakapariggahaṃ kathetuṃ "kathañca, bhikkhave"tiādimāha.
Now in order to teach the laying hold of a mixture of the material and the spiritual, he said, "And, how, o bhikkhus," and so forth.
Kāyānupassanāya vā rūpakkhandhapariggahova kathito, vedanānupassanāya vedanākkhandhapariggahova, cittānupassanāya viññāṇakkhandhapariggahovāti idāni saññāsaṅkhārakkhandhapariggahampi kathetuṃ "kathañca, bhikkhave"tiādimāha.
Or in the contemplation on the body the laying hold of the aggregate of corporeality or materiality was spoken of by the Master; in the contemplation on feeling, the laying hold of the aggregate of feeling; in the contemplation on mind, the laying hold of the aggregate of consciousness; and now in order to speak of even the laying hold of the aggregates of perception and formations, he said "And, how, o bhikkhus," and so forth.
Tattha santanti abhiṇhasamudācāravasena saṃvijjamānaṃ.
There, in the Discourse, the word, santam = "present." It means existing by way of occurrence, practice or repeated happening.
Asantanti asamudācāravasena vā pahīnattā vā avijjamānaṃ.
Asantam = "not present." Not existing, by way of non-occurrence or because of rejection from the mind by way of reflection or concentration.
Yathā cāti yena kāraṇena kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti.
Tañca pajānātīti tañca kāraṇaṃ pajānāti.
Iminā nayena sabbapadesu attho veditabbo.
Tattha subhanimitte ayonisomanasikārena kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti.
In connection with the hindrances it must be known that the hindrance of sensuality arises because of wrong reflection on an object that is sensuously agreeable, pleasant, favorable.
Subhanimittaṃ nāma subhampi subhanimittaṃ, subhārammaṇampi subhanimittaṃ.
Such an object is either sensuality itself or that which produces sensuality — the sensuality-object.
Ayonisomanasikāro nāma anupāyamanasikāro uppathamanasikāro anicce niccanti vā dukkhe sukhanti vā anattani attāti vā asubhe subhanti vā manasikāro, taṃ tattha bahulaṃ pavattayato kāmacchando uppajjati.
Wrong reflection is inexpedient reflection, reflection on the wrong track. Or it is reflection which considers the impermanent as permanent, pain as pleasure, non-soul as soul, the bad as good. Sense-desire arises when wrong reflection occurs plentifully in a sensuously good object.
Tenāha bhagavā – "atthi, bhikkhave, subhanimittaṃ, tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for the arising of fresh sense-desire and for the increase and expansion of existing sense-desire is plentiful wrong reflection on a sensuously auspicious or promising object.
Asubhanimitte pana yonisomanasikārenassa pahānaṃ hoti.
Sense-desire is cast out, indeed, with right reflection on a sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object.
Asubhanimittaṃ nāma asubhampi asubhārammaṇampi.
Such an object itself or the jhana developed through such an object is meant by the term sensuously inauspicious object.
Yonisomanasikāro nāma upāyamanasikāro pathamanasikāro anicce aniccanti vā dukkhe dukkhanti vā anattani anattāti vā asubhe asubhanti vā manasikāro, taṃ tattha bahulaṃ pavattayato kāmacchando pahīyati.
Right reflection is expedient reflection; reflection going on the right track. It is reflection that considers the facts of impermanence, suffering, soullessness and of impurity, according to reality. When there is much right reflection on the sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object, sense-desire is knocked out.
Tenāha bhagavā – "atthi, bhikkhave, asubhanimittaṃ, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamanāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa anuppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa pahānāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for keeping out new sense-desire and for casting out old sense-desire is abundant right reflection on the sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object.
Apica cha dhammā kāmacchandassa pahānāya saṃvattanti asubhanimittassa uggaho asubhabhāvanānuyogo indriyesu guttadvāratā bhojane mattaññutā kalyāṇamittatā sappāyakathāti.
Further, there are six things which lead to the casting out of sense-desire: Taking up the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation; application for the development of the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation; the guarded state of the controlling faculties of sense; moderation in food; the sympathy and support of good men in the endeavor; stimulating talk that helps the accomplishment of the object in view.
Dasavidhañhi asubhanimittaṃ uggaṇhantassāpi kāmacchando pahīyati, bhāventassāpi, indriyesu pihitadvārassāpi, catunnaṃ pañcannaṃ ālopānaṃ okāse sati udakaṃ pivitvā yāpanasīlatāya bhojane mattaññunopi.
Explaining these six it is said: Taking up refers to the taking up of the tenfold object sensuously inauspicious, impure, or bad; the man who takes it up will cast out sense-desire. Sense-desire will also be cast out, by him who develops the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious object of meditation, by him who guards the controlling faculties of sense by closing the six sense doors, and by him who knows the measure of food for sustenance
Tenetaṃ vuttaṃ –
and of whom it is said:
"Cattāro pañca ālope, abhutvā udakaṃ pive;
To stop eating when he could eat some four Or five more lumps for which there's belly-room. And, with drinks of water, end his begged repast.[33]
Alaṃ phāsuvihārāya, pahitattassa bhikkhuno"ti. (theragā. 983);
Enough it is for the comfort of the almsman Who has put aside all thoughts of body and life, Who has his thoughts yoked on to craving's wane,
Asubhakammikatissattherasadise asubhabhāvanārate kalyāṇamitte sevantassāpi kāmacchando pahīyati, ṭhānanisajjādīsu dasaasubhanissitasappāyakathāyapi pahīyati.
It will also be cast out by him who keeps the company of men like the Elder Tissa, the worker in the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation, sympathetic towards those who endeavor in accomplishing the casting out of sense-desire and by talk connected with the tenfold sensuously inauspicious object.
Tena vuttaṃ "cha dhammā kāmacchandassa pahānāya saṃvattantī"ti.
Therefore it is said by the commentator that six things are conducive to the casting out of sense-desire.
Imehi pana chahi dhammehi pahīnassa kāmacchandassa arahattamaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hotīti pajānāti.
Sense-desire cast out by these six things becomes incapable of arising, in the future, through the attainment of the path of arahantship. {1}
Paṭighanimitte ayonisomanasikārena pana byāpādassa uppādo hoti.
2. Anger Indeed, wrong reflection on an object of resentment produces anger.
Tattha paṭighampi paṭighanimittaṃ, paṭighārammaṇampi paṭighanimittaṃ.
In this connection anger itself as well as the object which causes anger is called the resentment-object, or the sign of resentment.
Ayonisomanasikāro sabbattha ekalakkhaṇova.
Wrong reflection has just the same character everywhere,
Taṃ tasmiṃ nimitte bahulaṃ pavattayato byāpādo uppajjati.
and when it occurs much in the resentment-object or the resentment-sign, anger arises.
Tenāha bhagavā – "atthi, bhikkhave, paṭighanimittaṃ, tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā byāpādassa uppādāya uppannassa vā byāpādassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that intense wrong reflection on an object of resentment is the cause of fresh anger and of the increase and expansion of anger already existing.
Mettāya pana cetovimuttiyā yonisomanasikārenassa pahānaṃ hoti.
By right reflection of the liberating thought of love, the thought of love that frees the heart indeed, anger gets cast out.
Tattha tattha "mettā"ti vutte appanāpi upacāropi vaṭṭati.
The term "love" here is applicable both to partial concentration (upacara samadhi) and full concentration (appana samadhi).
"Cetovimuttī"ti appanāva.
Heart-liberating love is only full concentration.
Yonisomanasikāro vuttalakkhaṇova.
Right reflection has the same character throughout.
Taṃ tattha bahulaṃ pavattayato byāpādo pahīyati.
When it occurs strong in the thought of love, anger is removed from the heart.
Tenāha bhagavā – "atthi, bhikkhave, mettā cetovimutti, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamanāhāro anuppannassa vā byāpādassa anuppādāya uppannassa vā byāpādassa pahānāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Master said: "There is, o bhikkhus, the liberation of the mind through love. Intense right reflection on love is the condition for keeping out new anger and for throwing out anger that is already in the heart."
Apica cha dhammā byāpādassa pahānāya saṃvattanti mettānimittassa uggaho mettābhāvanānuyogo kammassakatāpaccavekkhaṇā paṭisaṅkhānabahutā kalyāṇamittatā sappāyakathāti.
And it is said that these six things help to cast anger out: Taking up the practice of the love subject of meditation; applying oneself to the development of jhana on the thought of love; reflection on one's action as one's own property, abundance of wise consideration; sympathetic and helpful companionship of the good; and stimulating talk that assists the development of the thought of love and the overthrow of anger.
Odhisakaanodhisakadisāpharaṇānañhi aññataravasena mettaṃ uggaṇhantassāpi byāpādo pahīyati, odhiso anodhiso disāpharaṇavasena mettaṃ bhāventassāpi.
In explanation the commentator said: Anger will be put down in one who takes up the love subject of meditation by way of spreading it particularly or separately. Or if one takes up the love subject of meditation by way of spreading it generally, without particularization or directional restriction in space, then too anger will be put down, in one.{2}
"Tvaṃ etassa kuddho kiṃ karissasi, kimassa sīlādīni nāsetuṃ sakkhissasi, nanu tvaṃ attano kammena āgantvā attano kammeneva gamissasi, parassa kujjhanaṃ nāma vītaccitaṅgāra-tattaayasalāka-gūthādīni gahetvā paraṃ paharitukāmatāsadisaṃ hoti.
Anger vanishes in one who reflects thus too: "What will you do to him by becoming angry? " "Will you be able to destroy things like his virtue? " "Have you not been born here just by your own actions and will you not also by your own actions get reborn hereafter? " "Getting angry with another is comparable to the state of him who wishes to strike another with glowing coals, red-hot crowbar, excreta and such other damaging things after taking them up in his bare hands."
Esopi tava kuddho kiṃ karissati, kiṃ te sīlādīni vināsetuṃ sakkhissati, esa attano kammeneva āgantvā attano kammena gamissati, appaṭicchitapaheṇakaṃ viya paṭivātaṃ khittarajomuṭṭhi viya ca etassevesa kodho matthake patissatī"ti evaṃ attano ca parassa ca kammassakataṃ paccavekkhatopi, ubhayakammassakataṃ paccavekkhitvā paṭisaṅkhāne ṭhitassāpi, assaguttattherasadise mettābhāvanārate kalyāṇamitte sevantassāpi byāpādo pahīyati.
"And what can another who is angry with you do to you? " "Can he destroy your virtue or any other similar thing of yours? " "He, too, has been born here as a result of his actions and will be reborn hereafter just according to his actions." "Like a present not accepted is that anger of his and like a handful of dust thrown against the wind, that anger of his alights on his own head." In this way one reflects on one's own action as one's own property and also another person's action as that person's own, and puts out anger. To one remaining in an abundance of wise consideration after reflecting on action as one's or another's own property, anger vanishes. And it vanishes in him who is in the company of a sympathetic friend who delights in developing the jhana of the thought of love like the Elder Assagutta
Ṭhānanisajjādīsu mettānissitasappāyakathāyapi pahīyati.
and through stimulating talk on the thought of love when in any one of the four postures.
Tena vuttaṃ "cha dhammā byāpādassa pahānāya saṃvattantī"ti.
Therefore it is said: Six things are conducive to the casting out of anger.
Imehi pana chahi dhammehi pahīnassa byāpādassa anāgāmimaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hotīti pajānāti.
The anger cast out by these six things, however, is finally destroyed by the attainment of the state of the Anagami, the never-returner. {3}
Aratiādīsu ayonisomanasikārena thinamiddhassa uppādo hoti.
3. Sloth and Torpor Through wrong reflection on a state of boredom and the like, sloth and torpor come to be.
Arati nāma ukkaṇṭhitā.
Boredom is just dissatisfaction.
Tandī nāma kāyālasiyatā.
Lassitude is bodily laziness.
Vijambhitā nāma kāyavināmanā.
Languidity of body is the bending of the body torpidly in getting up and in similar actions.
Bhattasammado nāma bhattamucchā bhattapariḷāho.
Lethargy after a meal is a dizziness or slight faint which is due to eating a principal meal. It is also called the discomfort which follows such a meal.
Cetaso līnattaṃ nāma cittassa līnākāro.
The mind's sluggishness is the dullness of the mind.
Imesu aratiādīsu ayonisomanasikāraṃ bahulaṃ pavattayato thinamiddhaṃ uppajjati.
An abundance of wrong reflection on boredom and similar states of mind produces sloth and torpor.
Tenāha – "atthi, bhikkhave, arati tandī vijambhitā bhattasammado cetaso līnattaṃ, tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā thinamiddhassa uppādāya uppannassa vā thinamiddhassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that much wrong reflection on boredom, lassitude, languidity of body, lethargy after a meal, and the mind's sluggishness, is a condition for the production of fresh sloth and torpor and the increase and expansion of sloth and torpor already come into being.
Ārambhadhātuādīsu pana yonisomanasikārenassa pahānaṃ hoti.
Through right reflection in inceptive energy and similar states of mind is brought about the overthrow of sloth and torpor.
Ārambhadhātu nāma paṭhamārambhavīriyaṃ.
Inceptive energy is the effort first set afoot.
Nikkamadhātu nāma kosajjato nikkhantatāya tato balavataraṃ.
Exertion is more powerful than the inceptive energy because it leaves indolence behind.
Parakkamadhātu nāma paraṃ paraṃ ṭhānaṃ akkamanato tatopi balavataraṃ.
And because of its assailing further and further of the destructive condition, progressive endeavor is more powerful than exertion.
Imasmiṃ tippabhede vīriye yonisomanasikāraṃ bahulaṃ pavattayato thinamiddhaṃ pahīyati.
By the exercise of right reflection intensely on this threefold strenuousness sloth and torpor are cast out.
Tenāha – "atthi, bhikkhave, ārambhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā thinamiddhassa anuppādāya uppannassa vā thinamiddhassa pahānāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for keeping out new sloth and torpor, and for casting out sloth and torpor that is old, is abundant right reflection on the element of inceptive energy, of exertion and of progressive endeavor.
Apica cha dhammā thinamiddhassa pahānāya saṃvattanti, atibhojane nimittaggāho iriyāpathasamparivattanatā ālokasaññāmanasikāro abbhokāsavāso kalyāṇamittatā sappāyakathāti.
There are six things which lead to the casting out of sloth and torpor: The seeing of the reason of sloth and torpor in the fact of eating too much or gluttony; the changing of the postures completely; reflection on the perception of light; staying in the open; sympathetic and helpful companionship of the good; and stimulating talk that assists in dispelling sloth an torpor.
Āharahatthakatatravaṭṭakaalaṃsāṭakakākamāsakabhuttavamitakabhojanaṃ bhuñjitvā rattiṭṭhāne divāṭṭhāne nisinnassa hi samaṇadhammaṃ karoto thinamiddhaṃ mahāhatthī viya ottharantaṃ āgacchati.
There is the following explanation of these six things: The bhikkhu who has eaten gluttonously is assailed by sloth and torpor while doing his recluse duty of meditation in his day or night quarters as by a mighty elephant pressing down on him,
Catupañcaālopaokāsaṃ pana ṭhapetvā pānīyaṃ pivitvā yāpanasīlassa bhikkhuno taṃ na hotīti evaṃ atibhojane nimittaṃ gaṇhantassāpi thinamiddhaṃ pahīyati.
but that one who practices moderation in food is not troubled thus with these hindrances. In one who thus sees the characteristic of sloth and torpor in gluttony there is the casting out of sloth and torpor.
Yasmiṃ iriyāpathe thinamiddhaṃ okkamati, tato aññaṃ parivattentassāpi, rattiṃ candālokadīpālokaukkāloke divā sūriyālokaṃ manasikarontassāpi, abbhokāse vasantassāpi, mahākassapattherasadise pahīnathinamiddhe kalyāṇamitte sevantassāpi thinamiddhaṃ pahīyati.
Sloth and torpor disappear in him who changes over from the posture which induces sloth and torpor to another; in him who reflects on the brightness or the light of the moon, a lamp or a torch by night, and on the light or brightness of the sun by day; in him who lives in the open; in him who associates with sympathetic and helpful companions, like the Elder Maha Kassapa, who have dispelled sloth and torpor;
Ṭhānanisajjādīsu dhutaṅganissitasappāyakathāyapi pahīyati.
and by stimulating talk connected with a strict recluse-regimen.
Tena vuttaṃ "cha dhammā thinamiddhassa pahānāya saṃvattantī"ti.
Therefore it is said: Six things lead to the casting out of sloth and torpor.
Imehi pana chahi dhammehi pahīnassa thinamiddhassa arahattamaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hotīti pajānāti.
The yogi understands thus: sloth and torpor cast out by these six things are stopped from arising forever in the future by the attainment of the path of arahantship. {4}
Cetaso avūpasame ayonisomanasikārena uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādo hoti.
4. Agitation and Worry Wrong reflection on mental agitation brings about flurry and worry.
Avūpasamo nāma avūpasantākāro.
Mental agitation is inner turbulence.
Uddhaccakukkuccamevetaṃ atthato.
Actually it is flurry and worry, only.
Tattha ayonisomanasikāraṃ bahulaṃ pavattayato uddhaccakukkuccaṃ uppajjati.
Intense wrong reflection on that mental agitation produces flurry and worry.
Tenāha "atthi, bhikkhave, cetaso avūpasamo, tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that wrong reflection on mental agitation when plentifully done produces fresh flurry and worry and increases and expands flurry and worry already in existence.
Samādhisaṅkhāte pana cetaso vūpasame yonisomanasikārenassa pahānaṃ hoti.
The casting out of agitation and worry occurs through right reflection on mental tranquillity called concentration
Tenāha – "atthi, bhikkhave, cetaso vūpasamo, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa anuppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
and an abundance of right reflection on mental tranquillity, says the Blessed One, is a condition for the keeping out of fresh mental agitation and worry and the dispelling of agitation and worry already in the mind.
Apica cha dhammā uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānāya saṃvattanti bahussutatā paripucchakatā vinaye pakataññutā vuddhasevitā kalyāṇamittatā sappāyakathāti.
Six things are conducive to the casting out of agitation and worry: Knowledge; questioning; understanding of disciplinary rules; association with those more experienced and older than oneself in the practice of things like virtue; sympathetic and helpful companionship and stimulating talk that helps the rejection of mental agitation and worry.
Bāhusaccenapi hi ekaṃ vā dve vā tayo vā cattāro vā pañca vā nikāye pāḷivasena ca atthavasena ca uggaṇhantassāpi uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahīyati.
In explanation it is said as follows: Agitation and worry disappear in him who learns in the spirit and in the letter one, two, three, four or five collections of Scripture. This is how one gets over agitation and worry by knowledge.
Kappiyākappiyaparipucchābahulassāpi, vinayapaññattiyaṃ ciṇṇavasibhāvatāya pakataññunopi, vuddhe mahallakatthere upasaṅkamantassāpi, upālittherasadise vinayadhare kalyāṇamitte sevantassāpi uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahīyati.
Questioning means: inquiring much about what is befitting and not, according to the practice of the Sangha. In him who does this, too, agitation and worry disappear. Then these twin evils disappear in him who has got the mastery of the Discipline due to practical application of and conversance with the nature of the Rule of the Sangha. This is the understanding of the disciplinary rules. Association with those more experienced and so forth; the going to the presence of and the conversing with virtuous elders in the Sangha. By such visits mental agitation and worry disappear in one. Sympathetic and helpful companionship: association with experts of the Disciplinary Rules like the Elder Upali, the first of the great masters of the Discipline in the Sangha. In such company mental agitation and worry disappear.
Ṭhānanisajjādīsu kappiyākappiyanissitasappāyakathāyapi pahīyati.
Stimulating talk in this connection refers particularly to matters of disciplinary practice by which one comes to know what is befitting and what is not. By this agitation and worry vanish in one.
Tena vuttaṃ – "cha dhammā uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānāya saṃvattantī"ti.
Therefore, is it said that six things lead to the rejection of agitation and worry,
Imehi pana chahi dhammehi pahīne uddhaccakukkucce uddhaccassa arahattamaggena kukkuccassa anāgāmimaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hotīti pajānāti.
but the agitation cast out by these things finally ceases to arise in the future through the attainment of the path of arahantship, and the worry cast out by these things finally ceases to arise in the future through the attainment of the path of the non-returner.{5}
Vicikicchāṭṭhānīyesu dhammesu ayonisomanasikārena vicikicchāya uppādo hoti.
5. Doubt Wrong reflection on things which are founded on doubt brings about the arising of doubt.
Vicikicchāṭṭhānīyādhammā nāma punappunaṃ vicikicchāya kāraṇattā vicikicchāva.
Things which are founded on doubt are known as just doubt owing to the state of being the reason of doubt again and again.
Tattha ayonisomanasikāraṃ bahulaṃ pavattayato vicikicchā uppajjati.
Tenāha – "atthi, bhikkhave, vicikicchāṭṭhānīyā dhammā, tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannāya vā vicikicchāya uppādāya uppannāya vā vicikicchāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore the Blessed One said that wrong reflection on things founded on doubt is the condition for fresh doubt and for the increase and expansion of doubt already arisen.
Kusalādīsu dhammesu yonisomanasikārena panassā pahānaṃ hoti.
By right reflection on wholesome things, karmically and the like, there is the casting out of doubt.
Tenāha – "atthi, bhikkhave, kusalākusalā dhammā sāvajjānavajjā dhammā sevitabbāsevitabbā dhammā hīnappaṇītā dhammā kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannāya vā vicikicchāya anuppādāya uppannāya vā vicikicchāya pahānāyā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Therefore, the Blessed One said that right reflection on things which are karmically wholesome and not, things blameful and blameless, things to be practiced and not to be practiced, things of low and high value, things dark and fair, the counterparts of bad and good, done intensely, keeps out fresh doubt and casts out doubt that has already come into existence.
Apica cha dhammā vicikicchāya pahānāya saṃvattanti bahussutatā paripucchakatā vinaye pakataññutā adhimokkhabahulatā kalyāṇamittatā sappāyakathāti.
There are these six things which help to throw out doubt: The state of being learned in the Buddha's teaching; of inquiring about the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; of understanding thoroughly the nature of the Discipline; of being decided about the truth of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; sympathetic and helpful companionship; and stimulating talk that helps to dispel doubt.
Bāhusaccenapi hi ekaṃ vā - pe - pañca vā nikāye pāḷivasena atthavasena ca uggaṇhantassāpi vicikicchā pahīyati.
The first has been explained earlier. It is the knowledge of the Suttas generally both in the letter and the spirit.
Tīṇi ratanāni ārabbha paripucchābahulassāpi, vinaye ciṇṇavasibhāvassāpi, tīsu ratanesu okappaniyasaddhāsaṅkhātaadhimokkhabahulassāpi, saddhādhimutte vakkalittherasadise kalyāṇamitte sevantassāpi vicikicchā pahīyati.
The second is obvious. The third indicates a state of mastery of the Discipline through practical application and great conversance with it at first hand. The fourth is the strong inclination towards or reliance on the Triple Gem called the faith that is capable of settling in the object of the virtues of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. The fifth is association with good companions like the Elder Vakkali, bent, inclined, sliding towards faith, mentally.
Ṭhānanisajjādīsu tiṇṇaṃ ratanānaṃ guṇanissitasappāyakathāyapi pahīyati.
The sixth is stimulating talk on the Triple Gem at all times possible in every state of behavior.
Tena vuttaṃ – "cha dhammā vicikicchāya pahānāya saṃvattantī"ti.
One can cast away doubt by means of these six things,
Imehi pana chahi dhammehi pahīnāya vicikicchāya sotāpattimaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hotīti pajānāti.
but the doubt cast out by these six things does not ever arise in the future only when it is destroyed by the attainment of the first stage of the arahant.{6}
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ pañcanīvaraṇapariggahaṇena attano vā dhammesu, parassa vā dhammesu, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects, by laying hold of the five hindrances amongst the mental objects of his own mind or amongst the mental objects in another's mind or at one time amongst the mental objects of his own mind, and at another time amongst the mental objects of another's mind.
Samudayavayā panettha subhanimitta asubhanimittādīsu ayonisomanasikārayonisomanasikāravasena pañcasu nīvaraṇesu vuttanayena nīharitabbā.
Here origination and dissolution, only refer to the origination of the five hindrances by way of wrong reflection on sensuously attractive or beautiful objects etc., and the dissolution of the five hindrances by wise reflection on the impurity of the sensuous objects etc.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
Kevalañhi idha nīvaraṇapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā nīvaraṇapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Here the mindfulness which lays hold of the hindrances is the Truth of Suffering. Thus the portal of deliverance of the bhikkhu who lays hold of the hindrances should be understood.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Nīvaraṇapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Khandhapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

4.2 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-khandha-pabba: The Aggregates

116.Evaṃ pañcanīvaraṇavasena dhammānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni pañcakkhandhavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
Having expounded the contemplation of mental objects by way of the five hindrances, the Master said, "And, further, o bhikkhus," in order to explain the contemplation of mental objects by way of the fivefold aggregation.
Tattha pañcasu upādānakkhandhesūti upādānassa khandhā upādānakkhandhā, upādānassa paccayabhūtā dhammapuñjā dhammarāsayoti attho.
Pañcasu upadanakkhandhesu = "In (the mental objects of) the five aggregates of clinging." The five aggregates of clinging are the groups that grasp life. The congeries of mental objects become the condition of clinging, is the meaning.
Ayamettha saṅkhepo.
This is a brief indication of these aggregates.
Vitthārato pana khandhakathā visuddhimagge vuttā.
For the statement about the aggregates at length the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity should be read.
Iti rūpanti "idaṃ rūpaṃ, ettakaṃ rūpaṃ, na ito paraṃ rūpaṃ atthī"ti sabhāvato rūpaṃ pajānāti.
Iti rupam = "Thus is material form." So far is there material form and no further. In this way the bhikkhu perceives material form according to nature.{7}
Vedanādīsupi eseva nayo.
In regard to feeling and the things that come afterwards the same is the method of exegesis.
Ayamettha saṅkhepo.
This is the brief indication of meaning of the matters referred to here.
Vitthārena pana rūpādīni visuddhimagge khandhakathāyameva vuttāni.
For the lengthy explanation on these things one should read the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity.
Iti rūpassa samudayoti evaṃ avijjāsamudayādivasena pañcahākārehi rūpassa samudayo.
Iti rupassa samudayo = "Thus is the arising of material form." The arising of material form and the other aggregates should be known according to the fivefold way (mentioned in the Section on the Modes of Deportment) through the arising of ignorance and so forth.
Iti rūpassa atthaṅgamoti evaṃ avijjānirodhādivasena pañcahākārehi rūpassa atthaṅgamo, vedanādīsupi eseva nayo.
Iti rupassa atthangamo = "Thus is the disappearance of material form." The disappearance of material form and the other aggregates should be known according to the fivefold way (mentioned in the Section on the Modes of Deportment) through the passing away of ignorance and so forth.
Ayamettha saṅkhepo.
Vitthāro pana visuddhimagge udayabbayañāṇakathāyaṃ vutto.
One should read the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity for further explanation.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ pañcakkhandhapariggahaṇena attano vā dhammesu, parassa vā dhammesu, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating mental objects by laying hold of the fivefold aggregation of clinging amongst his own mental objects or amongst the mental objects of another or at one time in his own and at another time in another's mental objects.
Samudayavayā panettha "avijjāsamudayā rūpasamudayo"tiādīnaṃ (paṭi. ma. 1.50) pañcasu khandhesu vuttānaṃ paññāsāya lakkhaṇānaṃ vasena nīharitabbā.
The origination and dissolution of the fivefold aggregate should be brought forward and connected by way of the fifty characteristics of the five groups, with the extended application of the words: "From the arising of ignorance the arising of material form comes to be."
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on according to the method already stated by the commentator should the exposition be.
Kevalañhi idha khandhapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā khandhapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Khandhapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Āyatanapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

4.3 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-āyatana-pabba: The Sense Fields

117.Evaṃ pañcakkhandhavasena dhammānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni āyatanavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
After explaining the contemplation of mental objects by way of the aggregates the Master said: "And, further, o bhikkhus," in order to explain the contemplation of mental objects by way of the sense-bases.
Tattha chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesūti cakkhu sotaṃ ghānaṃ jivhā kāyo manoti imesu chasu ajjhattikesu rūpaṃ saddo gandho raso phoṭṭhabbo dhammāti imesu chasu bāhiresu.
Chasu ajjhattika bahiresu ayatanesu = "In (the mental objects of) the six internal and the six external sense-bases." The eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind are the six internal sense-bases, and material form, mind, smell, tastes, tactual object, and mental object are the six external sense-bases.
Cakkhuṃ ca pajānātīti cakkhupasādaṃ yāthāvasarasalakkhaṇavasena pajānāti.
Cakkhum pajanati = "(He) understands the eye." He understands the sensory apparatus of the eye, by way of its own distinct function and salient characteristic.
Rūpe ca pajānātīti bahiddhā catusamuṭṭhānikarūpañca yāthāvasarasalakkhaṇavasena pajānāti.
Rupe pajanati = "(He) understands material form (objects) that are visible." He understands material form arising from the four producers of corporeality, namely, karma, consciousness, climate and nutriment [kamma citta utu ahara], by way of their own distinctive function and salient characteristic.
Yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojananti yañca taṃ cakkhuṃ ceva rūpe cāti ubhayaṃ paṭicca kāmarāgasaṃyojanaṃ paṭigha-māna-diṭṭhi-vicikicchā-sīlabbataparāmāsa-bhavarāga-issā-macchariyāvijjāsaṃyojananti dasavidhaṃ saṃyojanaṃ uppajjati, tañca yāthāvasarasalakkhaṇavasena pajānāti.
Yam tadubhayam paticcca uppajjati samyojanam = "The fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms)." He understands according to distinct function and characteristic the tenfold fetter that arises dependent on both eye and forms — the tenfold fetter of sense-desire, resentment, pride, speculative theory, doubt, belief in rites and ceremonies, the desire to go on existing, envy, avarice and ignorance.
Kathaṃ panetaṃ uppajjatīti?
"How does this tenfold fettering arise? " asks one.
Cakkhudvāre tāva āpāthagataṃ iṭṭhārammaṇaṃ kāmassādavasena assādayato abhinandato kāmarāgasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of sensuality arises for him who by way of sensuous enjoyment takes delight in a pleasant sense-object become visible at the eye-door.
Aniṭṭhārammaṇe kujjhato paṭighasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
For him who is annoyed or angry at the sight of an unpleasant object, the fetter of resentment arises,
"Ṭhapetvā maṃ na koci añño etaṃ ārammaṇaṃ vibhāvetuṃ samattho atthī"ti maññato mānasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
and the fetter of pride arises in him who thinks: No one but me is able to consider the object wisely.
"Etaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ niccaṃ dhuva"nti gaṇhato diṭṭhisaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of speculative theory comes to be in him who takes material form to be permanent and everlasting.
"Etaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ satto nu kho, sattassa nu kho"ti vicikicchato vicikicchāsaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of doubt arises in him who thinks in this way: Is the material form a being or a being's?
"Sampattibhave vata no idaṃ sulabhaṃ jāta"nti bhavaṃ patthentassa bhavarāgasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of the desire to go on existing arises in him who wishes thus: To be sure, in a favorable state of existence this material form will become easy of access.
"Āyatimpi evarūpaṃ sīlabbataṃ samādiyitvā sakkā laddhu"nti sīlabbataṃ samādiyantassa sīlabbataparāmāsasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of rites and ceremonies arises in him who undertakes to perform rites and ceremonies thinking: In the future it will be possible to obtain such an object as this by taking up the observance of rites and ceremonies.
"Aho vata etaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ aññe na labheyyu"nti usūyato issāsaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of envy arises in him who contemplates grudgingly: Should no others get this material form, it would be good, indeed.
Attanā laddhaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ aññassa maccharāyato macchariyasaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of avarice arises in one who stints for another the material form belonging to one.
Sabbeheva sahajātaaññāṇavasena avijjāsaṃyojanaṃ uppajjati.
The fetter of ignorance arises (with all the previously mentioned fetters), with all sensuous passion and the like, by way of the relation of conascent nescience.
Yathā ca anuppannassāti yena kāraṇena asamudācāravasena anuppannassa tassa dasavidhassāpi saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca kāraṇaṃ pajānāti.
Yathaca anupannassa samyojanassa uppado hoti tañca pajanati = "He understands how the arising of the non-arisen (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands that the (tenfold) fetter had not arisen earlier owing to some cause of non-occurrence.
Yathā ca uppannassāti appahīnaṭṭhena pana samudācāravasena vā uppannassa tassa dasavidhassāpi saṃyojanassa yena kāraṇena pahānaṃ hoti, tañca kāraṇaṃ pajānāti.
Yatha ca uppannassa samyojanassa pahanam hoti tañca pajanati = "He understands how the abandoning of the arisen (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands the reason for the abandoning of just the (tenfold) fetter arisen through previous non-abandoning or through occurrence.
Yathā ca pahīnassāti tadaṅgavikkhambhanappahānavasena pahīnassāpi tassa dasavidhassa saṃyojanassa yena kāraṇena āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.
Yatha ca pahinassa samojanassa ayatim anuppado hoti tañca pajanati = "He understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands the reason for the non-arising in the future of even the (tenfold) fetter abandoned by way of rejection of separate factors through right reflection [tadangavasena] and through absorption [vikkhambhana vasena].
Kena kāraṇena panassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti?
Owing to what reason does the tenfold fettering cease to arise in the future finally?
Diṭṭhivicikicchāsīlabbataparāmāsaissāmacchariyabhedassa tāva pañcavidhassa saṃyojanassa sotāpattimaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti.
The path of stream-winning or the first stage of awakening is the reason for final cessation of the five fetters of speculative theory, doubt, rites and ceremonies, envy, and avarice.
Kāmarāgapaṭighasaṃyojanadvayassa oḷārikassa sakadāgāmimaggena, aṇusahagatassa anāgāmimaggena, mānabhavarāgāvijjāsaṃyojanattayassa arahattamaggena āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti.
The path of once-returning or the second stage of awakening is the reason for the final cessation of sensuality and resentment of a gross kind and the residum of these two fetters finally ceases by reason of the statement of the path of never-returning, the third stage of awakening. The fact which makes the fetter of pride, of the desire to go on existing, and of ignorance to cease finally in the future is the path of final purification, arahantship, the fourth state of awakening.
Sotañca pajānāti sadde cā tiādīsupi eseva nayo.
The same is the method of exegesis in sotañca pajanati sadde ca pajanati = "He understands the ear and sounds."
Apicettha āyatanakathā vitthārato visuddhimagge āyatananiddese vuttanayeneva veditabbā.
Further, in this connection, the talk on the sense-bases in full should be understood as stated by the commentator in the Path of Purity.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ ajjhattikāyatanapariggahaṇena attano vā dhammesu, bāhirāyatanapariggahaṇena parassa vā dhammesu, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects by laying hold of the internal sense-bases in his own mental objects or in another's or laying hold of the external sense-bases in another's mental objects or in his own or at one time in his own and at another time in another's mental objects.
Samudayavayā panettha "avijjāsamudayā cakkhusamudayo"ti rūpāyatanassa rūpakkhandhe, arūpāyatanesu manāyatanassa viññāṇakkhandhe, dhammāyatanassa sesakkhandhesu vuttanayena nīharitabbā.
Origination and dissolution should be brought forward and connected here by the extended application of the method indicated by the words: "From the origin of ignorance the origin of the eye" to the sense-bases of material form in the aggregate of materiality, to the mental sense-base in the aggregate of consciousness, and to the sense-base of the mental object in the other non-material aggregates, according to the method of exegesis already stated by the commentator.
Lokuttaradhammā na gahetabbā.
The supramundane states should not be taken.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here onward the exposition is according to the method already shown by the commentator.{8}
Kevalañhi idha āyatanapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā āyatanapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Āyatanapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Bojjhaṅgapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

4.4 Dhamm-ānu-passanā-bojjhaṅga-pabba: The Awakening Factors

118.Evaṃ cha ajjhattikabāhirāyatanavasena dhammānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni bojjhaṅgavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparanti ādimāha.
1. Mindfulness After explaining the contemplation of mental objects by way of the internal and the external sense-bases, the Master said, "And further, o bhikkhus," in order to talk on the contemplation of mental objects, by way of the Factors of Enlightenment, {9}
Tattha bojjhaṅgesūti bujjhanakasattassa aṅgesu.
Limbs are members or constituent parts of the awaking mind.
Santanti paṭilābhavasena saṃvijjamānaṃ.
Santam = "Is present." Existing by way of attainment.
Satisambojjhaṅganti satisaṅkhātaṃ sambojjhaṅgaṃ.
The enlightenment factor called mindfulness is the enlightenment factor of mindfulness.
Ettha hi sambujjhati āraddhavipassakato paṭṭhāya yogāvacaroti sambodhi, yāya vā so satiādikāya sattadhammasāmaggiyā sambujjhati kilesaniddāto uṭṭhāti, saccāni vā paṭivijjhati, sā dhammasāmaggī sambodhi.
Because in these enlightenment factors, the meditator effectively gets enlightened, the meditator is called "Complete Enlightenment" from the time he begins strenuous contemplation on insight. {10} The sevenfold completeness or harmony, beginning with mindfulness by which he awakes, effectively, rises from the sleep of the defilements, or penetrates the Truths, is "Complete Enlightenment."
Tassa sambodhissa, tassā vā sambodhiyā aṅganti sambojjhaṅgaṃ.
The components of that "Complete Enlightenment" or of the harmony called "Complete Enlightenment" are the factors of enlightenment. {11}
Tena vuttaṃ "satisaṅkhātaṃ sambojjhaṅga"nti.
Sesasambojjhaṅgesupi imināva nayena vacanattho veditabbo.
In the other factors of enlightenment the word-meaning should be understood in the same way.
Asantanti appaṭilābhavasena avijjamānaṃ.
Assantam = "Is absent." Not existing through lack of attainment.
Yathā ca anuppannassātiādīsu pana satisambojjhaṅgassa tāva – "atthi, bhikkhave, satisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.183) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
Yatha anuppannassa = "How (the arising) of the non-arisen." First, is the enlightenment factor of mindfulness. There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, and an abundance of right reflection on them is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness and for the increase, the expansion and completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor.
Tattha satiyeva satisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā.
Thus it comes into being: just mindfulness comprises the things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness.
Yonisomanasikāro vuttalakkhaṇoyeva, taṃ tattha bahulaṃ pavattayato satisambojjhaṅgo uppajjati.
Right reflection has just the characteristic already mentioned, and when right reflection occurs plentifully in the things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, the enlightenment factor of mindfulness arises.
Apica cattāro dhammā satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti satisampajaññaṃ muṭṭhassatipuggalaparivajjanatā upaṭṭhitassatipuggalasevanatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Further, four things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness: Mindfulness with clear comprehension, the avoiding of person with confused minds, association with persons who keep mindfulness ready for application, inclination towards mindfulness.
Abhikkantādīsu hi sattasu ṭhānesu satisampajaññena bhattanikkhittakākasadise muṭṭhassatipuggale parivajjanena tissadattattheraabhayattherasadise upaṭṭhitassatipuggale sevanena ṭhānanisajjādīsu satisamuṭṭhāpanatthaṃ ninnapoṇapabbhāracittatāya ca satisambojjhaṅgo uppajjati.
In explanation it is said: Mindfulness arises through mindfulness with clear comprehension in the seven positions beginning with that of "going forwards";{12} Mindfulness arises through the avoiding of persons who are confused in mind like crows that come cawing to food thrown; through association with persons who keep mindfulness ready for application like the Elder Tissadatta{13} and the Elder Abhaya {14}; and through the state of mind tending for originating mindfulness in all postures, in all kinds of behavior or disposition of the body.
Evaṃ catūhi kāraṇehi uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
And the bhikkhu knows that the completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness brought into being by these four ways takes place by means of the attainment of the path of arahantship.
Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa pana – "atthi, bhikkhave, kusalākusalā dhammā - pe - kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
2. Investigation of Mental Objects There are karmically good and karmically bad things... right and wrong counterparts of bright and dark things, and an abundance of right reflection on them is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects and for the increase, expansion and the completion of culture of that enlightenment factor when it has arisen. {15}
Apica satta dhammā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti paripucchakatā vatthuvisadakiriyā indriyasamattapaṭipādanā duppaññapuggalaparivajjanā paññavantapuggalasevanā gambhīrañāṇacariyapaccavekkhaṇā tadadhimuttatāti.
Six things lead to the arising of this enlightenment factor: Inquiring about the aggregates and so forth; the purification of the basis (namely, the cleaning of the body, clothes and so forth); imparting evenness to the (five spiritual) controlling faculties; avoiding the ignorant; associating with the wise; reflecting on the profound difference of the hard-to-perceive processes of the aggregates, modes (or elements), sense-bases and so forth; and the inclining (sloping, bending) towards the development of the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects.
Tattha paripucchakatāti khandhadhātuāyatanaindriyabalabojjhaṅgamaggaṅgajhānaṅgasamathavipassanānaṃ atthasannissitaparipucchābahulatā.
Inquiring about the aggregates and so forth means: seeking the meaning of the aggregates, the modes (or elements), sense-bases, controlling faculties, powers, enlightenment factors, way factors, absorption factors, the meditation for quietude, and the meditation for insight{16}
Vatthuvisadakiriyāti ajjhattikabāhirānaṃ vatthūnaṃ visadabhāvakaraṇaṃ.
Yadā hissa kesanakhalomā atidīghā honti, sarīraṃ vā ussannadosañceva sedamalamakkhitañca, tadā ajjhattikaṃ vatthu avisadaṃ hoti aparisuddhaṃ.
Personal cleanliness is impaired by the excessive length of hair of the head, nails, hair of the body, by the excess of humors, and by the dirt of perspiration;
Yadā pana cīvaraṃ jiṇṇaṃ kiliṭṭhaṃ duggandhaṃ hoti, senāsanaṃ vā uklāpaṃ, tadā bāhiraṃ vatthu avisadaṃ hoti aparisuddhaṃ.
cleanliness of impersonal or external things is impaired when robes are worn out, dirty and smelly, and when the house where one lives is dirty, soiled and untidy.
Tasmā kesādicchedāpanena uddhaṃvirecanaadhovirecanādīhi sarīrasallahukabhāvakaraṇena ucchādananhāpanena ca ajjhattikaṃ vatthu visadaṃ kātabbaṃ.
So personal cleanliness should be secured by shaving, hair-cutting, nail-paring, the use of pectoral emetics and of purgatives which make the body light, and by shampooing, bathing and doing other necessary things, at the proper time.
Sūcikammadhovanarajanaparibhaṇḍakaraṇādīhi bāhiraṃ vatthu visadaṃ kātabbaṃ.
In similar way external cleanliness should be brought about by darning, washing and dyeing one's robes, and by smearing the floor of one's house with clay and the like to smoothen and clean it, and by doing other necessary things to keep the house clean and tidy.
Etasmiñhi ajjhattikabāhire vatthusmiṃ avisade uppannesu cittacetasikesu ñāṇampi aparisuddhaṃ hoti, aparisuddhāni dīpakapallakavaṭṭitelāni nissāya uppannadīpasikhāya obhāso viya.
Visade pana ajjhattikabāhire vatthumhi uppannesu cittacetasikesu ñāṇampi visadaṃ hoti, parisuddhāni dīpakapallakavaṭṭitelāni nissāya uppannadīpasikhāya obhāso viya.
Tena vuttaṃ – "vatthuvisadakiriyā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattatī"ti.
Indriyasamattapaṭipādanā nāma saddhādīnaṃ indriyānaṃ samabhāvakaraṇaṃ.
Imparting evenness to the (five spiritual) controlling faculties is the equalizing of the controlling faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. {17}
Sace hissa saddhindriyaṃ balavaṃ hoti, itarāni mandāni.
When faith outstrips the others through over-activity, the others are thrown out of gear.
Tato vīriyindriyaṃ paggahakiccaṃ, satindriyaṃ upaṭṭhānakiccaṃ, samādhindriyaṃ avikkhepakiccaṃ, paññindriyaṃ dassanakiccaṃ kātuṃ na sakkoti.
Then energy finds it impossible to exert; mindfulness, to attend to the object; concentration, to be non-distracted; and wisdom, to see.
Tasmā taṃ dhammasabhāvapaccavekkhaṇena vā yathā vā manasikaroto balavaṃ jātaṃ, tathā amanasikārena hāpetabbaṃ.
Therefore that over-activity of faith should be made to wane either by reflection on the phenomenal nature of the things (faith) or by not attending to that thing when thinking of which faith becomes excessive.
Vakkalittherassa vatthu cettha nidassanaṃ.
The story of the Thera Vakkali[34] is the illustration of over-active faith. {18}
Sace pana vīriyindriyaṃ balavaṃ hoti, atha neva saddhindriyaṃ adhimokkhakiccaṃ kātuṃ sakkoti, na itarāni itarakiccabhedaṃ.
If however the controlling faculty of energy becomes too powerful then neither will the faculty of faith be able to do its work of arousing faith in a settled way in its object nor will the remaining controlling faculties be able to perform their functions.
Tasmā taṃ passaddhādibhāvanāya hāpetabbaṃ.
Therefore, in such a case, energy should be made to lessen its activity by the development of the enlightenment factors of calm, concentration and equanimity.
Tatrāpi soṇattherassa vatthu dassetabbaṃ.
The story of the Thera Sona[35] is given as an illustration of overdone energy. {19}
Evaṃ sesesupi ekassa balavabhāve sati itaresaṃ attano kiccesu asamatthatā veditabbā.
Even thus should the incapacity of the rest of the spiritual faculties to function effectively when one of them has become over-active and powerful, be understood.
Visesato panettha saddhāpaññānaṃ samādhivīriyānaṃ ca samataṃ pasaṃsanti.
Here, the wise specially praise the equalizing of faith and wisdom and of concentration and energy.
Balavasaddho hi mandapañño mudhāpasanno hoti, avatthusmiṃ pasīdati.
He who is very strong in faith and feeble in wisdom becomes a person who believes in foolish people who have no virtue, persons who are not trustworthy.
Balavapañño mandasaddho kerāṭikapakkhaṃ bhajati.
He who has very strong wisdom and feeble faith gets crafty-minded
Bhesajjasamuá¹­á¹­hito viya rogo atekiccho hoti.
and is like a drug-produced disease that cannot be cured.
Cittuppādamatteneva kusalaṃ hotīti atidhāvitvā dānādīni akaronto niraye uppajjati.
Such a person thinks that wholesome karma arises with just the intention to do good. Going along the wrong way, by a species of thought beyond the limits of reason, and doing neither almsgiving nor other similar good deeds, he is born in a state of woe.
Ubhinnaṃ samatāya vatthusmiṃyeva pasīdati.
By the equalizing of faith and wisdom one believes only in those like the Buddha who are worthy of trust because there is a reason for trusting them.
Balavasamādhiṃ pana mandavīriyaṃ samādhissa kosajjapakkhattā kosajjaṃ adhibhavati.
As concentration naturally inclines towards indolence, when there is too much of concentration and too little of energy, indolence overwhelms the mind.
Balavavīriyaṃ mandasamādhiṃ vīriyassa uddhaccapakkhattā uddhaccaṃ adhibhavati.
As energy inclines naturally towards restlessness or agitation when there is much energy and little concentration, restlessness overwhelms the mind.
Samādhi pana vīriyena saṃyojito kosajje patituṃ na labhati.
When concentration is combined well with energy there will be no falling of the mind into indolence.
Vīriyaṃ samādhinā saṃyojitaṃ uddhacce patituṃ na labhati.
When energy is combined well with concentration there will be no falling of the mind into restlessness. {20}
Tasmā tadubhayaṃ samaṃ kātabbaṃ.
Ubhayasamatāya hi appanā hoti.
With the making even functionally of these pairs full absorption occurs.
Apica samādhikammikassa balavatīpi saddhā vaṭṭati.
Further, to a worker in concentration — a man pursuing the path of quietude [samatha] — faith that is somewhat strong is met.{22}
Evaṃ saddahanto okappento appanaṃ pāpuṇissati.
With faith that is (rather) strong, the yogi will, by believing in and fixing the mind on the object, reach full absorption.
Samādhipaññāsu pana samādhikammikassa ekaggatā balavatī vaṭṭati, evañhi so appanaṃ pāpuṇāti.
Concerning concentration and wisdom it is said as follows: For the worker in concentration — the man pursuing quietude [samatha] — strong one-pointedness is met by{23} With strong one-pointedness he reaches full absorption.
Vipassanākammikassa paññā balavatī vaṭṭati, evañhi so lakkhaṇappaṭivedhaṃ pāpuṇāti.
For the man pursuing the path of insight [vipassana] strong wisdom is met; if strong wisdom exists he arrives at the penetration of the characteristics.
Ubhinnaṃ pana samatāyapi appanā hotiyeva.
By the equalizing of the concentration and wisdom of the worker in concentration, the man pursuing quietude, there is just full absorption.{24}
Sati pana sabbattha balavatī vaṭṭati.
Strong mindfulness is met everywhere
Sati hi cittaṃ uddhaccapakkhikānaṃ saddhāvīriyapaññānaṃ vasena uddhaccapātato, kosajjapakkhikena ca samādhinā kosajjapātato rakkhati.
Strong mindfulness is met everywhere since it protects the mind from falling into restlessness belonging to faith, energy and wisdom and from falling into indolence belonging to concentration.{25}
Tasmā sā loṇadhūpanaṃ viya sabbabyañjanesu sabbakammikaamacco viya ca sabbarājakiccesu sabbattha icchitabbā.
It is likened to the salt-flavoring which is in all curries, and the minister-of-all-work wanted in every business of the king.
Tenāha – "sati ca pana sabbatthikā vuttā bhagavatā.
And because of this (universality of application of mindfulness) the commentator made the following statement: "And indeed, it was said by the Blessed One thus: 'Mindfulness is to be desired everywhere.'
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
Why?
Cittañhi sati paṭisaraṇaṃ, ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā ca sati, na ca vinā satiyā cittassa paggahaniggaho hotī"ti.
Because mindfulness is the mind's help, because mindfulness has just protection as its manifestation, and because without mindfulness there is no exerting or restraining of the mind."{26}
Duppaññapuggalaparivajjanā nāma khandhādibhede anogāḷhapaññānaṃ dummedhapuggalānaṃ ārakāva parivajjanaṃ.
Avoiding the ignorant is keeping away from foolish folk not grounded in the knowledge of the divisions of the aggregates and so forth.
Paññavantapuggalasevanā nāma samapaññāsalakkhaṇapariggāhikāya udayabbayapaññāya samannāgatapuggalasevanā.
Association with wise folk is fellowship with persons possessed of the knowledge of rise and fall through the laying hold of all the fifty characteristics.
Gambhīrañāṇacariyapaccavekkhaṇā nāma gambhīresu khandhādīsu pavattāya gambhīrapaññāya pabhedapaccavekkhaṇā.
Reflecting on the profound differences of the profound process of the aggregates and so forth is the analytic reflection according to wisdom of the movement of the hard-to-perceive aggregates and so forth.
Tadadhimuttatā nāma ṭhānanisajjādīsu dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgasamuṭṭhāpanatthaṃ ninnapoṇapabbhāracittatā.
Inclining towards the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is the mental state inclining, tending, and sloping towards the purpose of originating this enlightenment factor in every posture of standing, sitting, walking and lying down.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
The yogi understands that the culture of this enlightenment factor arisen thus comes to completion through the path of arahantship.
Vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa – "atthi, bhikkhave, ārabbhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu, tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
3. Energy There is the mode (or element) of energy that is inceptive, the mode of energy that is enduring, and the mode of energy that is strong, powerful, courageous; and an abundance of right reflection on these (modes of energy) is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy, and for the increase, expansion and the completion by culture of that enlightenment factor when it has arisen.
Apica ekādasa dhammā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti apāyabhayapaccavekkhaṇatā ānisaṃsadassāvitā gamanavīthipaccavekkhaṇatā piṇḍapātāpacāyanatā dāyajjamahattapaccavekkhaṇatā satthumahattapaccavekkhaṇatā jātimahattapaccavekkhaṇatā sabrahmacārimahattapaccavekkhaṇatā kusītapuggalaparivajjanatā āraddhavīriyapuggalasevanatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Eleven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of energy: Reflection on the fearfulness of states-of-woe [apaya bhaya]; the seeing of the benefits of energy; reflection on the path to be trodden; the honoring of alms, reflection on the greatness of the heritage; the reflection on the greatness of the Master; reflection on the greatness of race; reflection on the greatness of fellows in the holy life; the avoiding of lazy folk; the associating with folk who have begun to exert; and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of energy.
Tattha nirayesu pañcavidhabandhanakammakāraṇato paṭṭhāya mahādukkhaṃ anubhavanakālepi, tiracchānayoniyaṃ jālakkhipakumīnādīhi gahitakālepi, pājanakaṇṭakādippahāratunnassa pana sakaṭavāhanādikālepi, pettivisaye anekānipi vassasahassāni ekaṃ buddhantarampi khuppipāsāhi āturitakālepi, kālakañjikaasuresu saṭṭhihatthaasītihatthappamāṇena aṭṭhicammamatteneva attabhāvena vātātapādidukkhānubhavanakālepi na sakkā vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ uppādetuṃ.
Reflection on the fearfulness of the states-of-woe as stated in the Devaduta[36] and other Suttas produces in the yogi the thought: "it is not possible to be energetic when subject to great suffering."
Ayameva te bhikkhu kālo vīriyakaraṇāyāti evaṃ apāyabhayaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi vīriyasambojjhaṅgo uppajjati.
Now is the time to rouse energy".
"Na sakkā kusītena navalokuttaradhammaṃ laddhuṃ, āraddhavīriyeneva sakkā ayamānisaṃso vīriyassā"ti evaṃ ānisaṃsadassāvinopi uppajjati.
The seeing of the benefits of energy is the appreciation of the fact that only by one who has begun to exert himself (in the development of the enlightenment factors etc.) could the Supramundane Truth be obtained and not by a lazy person.
"Sabbabuddhapaccekabuddhamahāsāvakehi te gatamaggo gantabbo, so ca na sakkā kusītena gantu"nti evaṃ gamanavīthiṃ paccavekkhantassāpi uppajjati.
"The path trodden by all the Supreme Buddhas, the Paccekabuddhas, and the Great Disciples, has to be trodden by you," says the yogi to himself, "and that path is impossible for an indolent person." That is the reflection on the path to be trodden.
"Ye taṃ piṇḍapātādīhi upaṭṭhahanti, ime te manussā neva ñātakā, na dāsakammakarā, nāpi 'taṃ nissāya jīvissāmā'ti te paṇītāni piṇḍapātādīni denti, atha kho attano kārānaṃ mahapphalataṃ paccāsīsamānā denti, satthārāpi 'ayaṃ ime paccaye paribhuñjitvā kāyadaḷhībahulo sukhaṃ viharissatī'ti na evaṃ sampassatā tuyhaṃ paccayā anuññātā, atha kho 'ayaṃ ime paribhuñjamāno samaṇadhammaṃ katvā vaṭṭadukkhato muccissatī'ti te paccayā anuññātā, so dāni tvaṃ kusīto viharanto na taṃ piṇḍaṃ apacāyissasi, āraddhavīriyasseva hi piṇḍapātāpacāyanaṃ nāma hotī"ti evaṃ piṇḍapātāpacāyanaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi uppajjati mahāmittattherassa viya.
The yogi thinks thus: "Those who support you with alms-food and so forth are not relatives of yours, are not your servants; they do not give you excellent alms thinking: 'We shall (in the future) live depending on you.' But they give expecting from their offerings great fruit. Also the requisites were not allowed to you by the Master so that you may make use of the requisites and live strong-bodied in comfort, but they were allowed to you so that you may do the duty of the recluse and escape the round of suffering whilst using the requisites. The indolent one does not honor the alms; only he who has begun to be energetic honors it." Reflection in this way about honoring the alms permitted by the Buddha produces energy, as in the case of the Thera Maha Mitta (Great Friend).
Thero kira kassakaleṇe nāma paṭivasati.
The Thera lived in Kassaka Lena (Cultivator's or Farmer's Cave).
Tassa ca gocaragāme ekā mahāupāsikā theraṃ puttaṃ katvā paṭijaggati.
In the village to which he resorted for alms there was a certain Maha Upasika (elderly or great female lay devotee) who taking him as a child of hers looked after him.
Sā ekadivasaṃ araññaṃ gacchantī dhītaraṃ āha – "amma asukasmiṃ ṭhāne purāṇataṇḍulā, asukasmiṃ khīraṃ, asukasmiṃ sappi, asukasmiṃ phāṇitaṃ, tava bhātikassa ayyamittassa āgatakāle bhattaṃ pacitvā khīrasappiphāṇitehi saddhiṃ dehi, tvaṃ ca bhuñjeyyāsi, ahaṃ pana hiyyo pakkaṃ pārivāsikabhattaṃ kañjikena bhuttāmhī"ti.
One day she was preparing to go to the forest, and spoke to her daughter thus: "Here is old rice; here, milk; here, ghee; and here, treacle. When your brother the venerable Mitta comes cook the rice and give it to him with milk, ghee, and treacle. You, too, eat of it. I have eaten the cold rice cooked yesterday with gruel."
Divā kiṃ bhuñjissasi ammāti?
"Mother, what will you take at noon?"
Sākapaṇṇaṃ pakkhipitvā kaṇataṇḍulehi ambilayāguṃ pacitvā ṭhapehi ammāti.
"Cook a sour gruel with herbs and broken rice and put it by (for me)."
Thero cīvaraṃ pārupitvā pattaṃ nīharantova taṃ saddaṃ sutvā attānaṃ ovadi – "mahāupāsikā kira kañjiyena pārivāsikabhattaṃ bhuñji, divāpi kaṇapaṇṇambilayāguṃ bhuñjissati, tuyhaṃ atthāya pana purāṇataṇḍulādīni ācikkhati, taṃ nissāya kho panesā neva khettaṃ na vatthuṃ na bhattaṃ na vatthaṃ paccāsīsati, tisso pana sampattiyo patthayamānā deti, tvaṃ etissā tā sampattiyo dātuṃ sakkhissasi na sakkhissasīti, ayaṃ kho pana piṇḍapāto tayā sarāgena sadosena samohena na sakkā gaṇhitunti pattaṃ thavikāya pakkhipitvā gaṇṭhikaṃ muñcitvā nivattitvā kassakaleṇameva gantvā pattaṃ heṭṭhāmañce cīvaraṃ cīvaravaṃse ṭhapetvā arahattaṃ apāpuṇitvā na nikkhamissāmī"ti vīriyaṃ adhiṭṭhahitvā nisīdi.
Just as the Thera was taking out the bowl (from the bowl-bag), after he had robed himself to go out for alms, he heard that talk of the mother and daughter through his clairaudient power, at the door of his cave, and thought as follows: "The great lay devotee has eaten stale rice with gruel and will take sour gruel at noon. For you she has given old rice, milk, ghee and treacle. She does not expect field or food or cloth from you. Only expecting the three good attainments of the human, divine and supramundane planes does she give (alms to you). Will you be able to bestow on her those attainments? Indeed her alms is not fit to be taken by you with (heart of) lust, hatred and ignorance." Then, he put back the bowl into the bowl-bag, loosened the robe-knot, refrained from going for alms, and returning to the Cultivator's Cave put the bowl under his bed, the robe on the robe pole and sat down resolved on endeavor thinking, "I will not go from here without attaining arahantship.)
Dīgharattaṃ appamatto hutvā nivutthabhikkhu vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā purebhattameva arahattaṃ patvā vikasitaṃ viya padumaṃ mahākhīṇāsavo sitaṃ karontova nikkhami.
This recluse who had been earnest for a long time, after developing insight, reached the fruit of arahantship even before meal-time, and the great destroyer of the corruptions smiling like an opening lotus went out of the cave.
Leṇadvāre rukkhamhi adhivatthā devatā –
To him the guardian deity of the tree near the cave said this:
"Namo te purisājañña, namo te purisuttama;
Hail to thee man-steed of finest strain, Hail to thee the best of mortal kind,
Yassa te āsavā khīṇā, dakkhiṇeyyosi mārisā"ti. –
Gone are thy cankers, Sorrowless One, and so Worthy art thou to take a gift of faith.
Evaṃ udānaṃ udānetvā "bhante, piṇḍāya paviṭṭhānaṃ tumhādisānaṃ arahantānaṃ bhikkhaṃ datvā mahallakitthiyo dukkhā muccissantī"ti āha.
Having uttered this appreciation, the tree deity said: "Venerable Sir, after giving alms to an arahant like you wandering for alms, the elderly woman will escape suffering."
Thero uṭṭhahitvā dvāraṃ vivaritvā kālaṃ olokento pātoyevāti ñatvā pattacīvaramādāya gāmaṃ pāvisi.
When the Thera got up and opened the door to observe what the time was he found that it was still quite early. So he took his bowl and robe and entered the village.
Dārikāpi bhattaṃ sampādetvā "idāni me bhātā āgamissati, idāni āgamissatī"ti dvāraṃ olokayamānā nisīdi.
The young girl, having prepared the rice, sat looking towards the door of her house thinking, "Now my brother will come."
Sā there gharadvāraṃ sampatte pattaṃ gahetvā sappiphāṇitayojitassa khīrapiṇḍapātassa pūretvā hatthe ṭhapesi.
And when the Thera arrived she took the bowl, filled it with milk-rice alms mixed with ghee and treacle and placed it in his hands,
Thero "sukhaṃ hotū"ti anumodanaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
and he departed after giving thanks with the words: "May there be happiness,"
Sāpi taṃ olokayamānāva aṭṭhāsi.
and the girl stood there looking at the departing one.
Therassa hi tadā ativiya parisuddho chavivaṇṇo ahosi, vippasannāni indriyāni, mukhaṃ bandhanā pamuttatālapakkaṃ viya ativiya virocittha.
The color of the Elder at that time was exceedingly clear, and his controlling faculties especially pure and his face was shining like a ripe palm-fruit freed from the foot-stalk.
Mahāupāsikā araññā āgantvā "kiṃ amma, bhātiko te āgato"ti pucchi.
The mother of the girl on returning from the forest inquired: "Dear, did your brother come?"
Sā sabbaṃ taṃ pavattiṃ ārocesi.
The daughter told her everything.
Sā upāsikā "ajja me puttassa pabbajitakiccaṃ matthakaṃ patta"nti ñatvā "abhiramati te amma bhātā buddhasāsane na ukkaṇṭhatī"ti āha.
The Maha Upasika knowing that her son's renunciation work had that day reached its acme, said, "Dear, your brother delights in the Dispensation of the Buddha. He is not dissatisfied."
"Mahantaṃ kho panetaṃ satthu dāyajjaṃ, yadidaṃ sattaariyadhanaṃ nāma, taṃ na sakkā kusītena gahetuṃ.
There is reflection on the greatness of the heritage when one thinks thus: "Great, indeed, is the heritage of the Teacher, namely the Seven Real Treasures [Sutta Ariya Dhanani]. These are not to be got by the slothful.
Yathā hi vippaṭipannaṃ puttaṃ mātāpitaro 'ayaṃ amhākaṃ aputto'ti paribāhiraṃ karonti, so tesaṃ accayena dāyajjaṃ na labhati, evaṃ kusītopi idaṃ ariyadhanadāyajjaṃ na labhati, āraddhavīriyova labhatī"ti dāyajjamahattataṃ paccavekkhatopi uppajjati.
The indolent man is like a son disowned by his parents. He does not get this parents' wealth when they pass away. So too it is with the Seven Real Treasures. Only the man of energy gets these."
"Mahā kho pana te satthā, satthuno hi mātukucchismiṃ paṭisandhiggahaṇakālepi abhinikkhamanepi abhisambodhiyampi dhammacakkappavattanayamakapāṭihāriyadevorohaṇa-āyusaṅkhāravossajjanesupi parinibbānakālepi dasasahassilokadhātu kampittha, yuttaṃ nu te evarūpassa satthuno sāsane 'pabbajitvā kusītena bhavitu"'nti evaṃ satthumahattaṃ paccavekkhatopi uppajjati.
Reflection on the greatness of the Master consists in recalling the great events in the teacher's life, and admonishing oneself thus: "Does it befit you to be slack after entering the Dispensation of such a Teacher? "
Jātiyāpi – "tvaṃ idāni na lāmakajātiko, asambhinnāya mahāsammatapaveṇiyā āgato, ukkākarājavaṃse jātosi, suddhodhanamahārājassa mahāmāyādeviyā ca nattā, rāhulabhaddassa kaniṭṭho, tayā nāma evarūpena jinaputtena hutvā na yuttaṃ kusītena viharitu"nti evaṃ jātimahattaṃ paccavekkhatopi uppajjati.
Reflection on the greatness of race is carried out by way of the fact that in entering the Buddha's Dispensation one has become the Conqueror's son [spiritually], and that for such a one slacking is not fit.
"Sāriputtamoggallānā ceva asīti ca mahāsāvakā vīriyeneva lokuttaradhammaṃ paṭivijjhiṃsu, tvaṃ etesaṃ sabrahmacārīnaṃ maggaṃ paṭipajjissasi na paṭipajjissasī"ti evaṃ sabrahmacārimahattaṃ paccavekkhatopi uppajjati.
Reflection on the greatness of fellows in the holy life consists of admonishing oneself thus: "Sariputta, Maha Moggallana, and the great disciples penetrated the supramundane after much endeavor. Are you following their way of life? "
Kucchiṃ pūretvā ṭhitaajagarasadise vissaṭṭhakāyikacetasikavīriye kusītapuggale parivajjantassāpi, āraddhavīriye pahitatte puggale sevantassāpi, ṭhānanisajjādīsu vīriyuppādanatthaṃ ninnapoṇapabbhāracittassāpi uppajjati.
The avoiding of lazy folk is the avoiding of people without physical and mental energy who are like a rock-snake lying inert after a full feed. And the association with folk who have begun to exert themselves is mixing with those whose minds are turned towards and who are endeavoring for the attainment of Nibbana. Inclination towards the development of this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping and bending of the mind towards right exertion in all postures of sitting, standing and so forth.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
The enlightenment factor that arises in this way comes to completion by culture through the path of arahantship.
Pītisambojjhaṅgassa – "atthi, bhikkhave, pītisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
4. Joy There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of joy and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of joy and for the increase, expansion and completion by culture of the enlightenment factor when it has arisen.
Tattha pītiyeva pītisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā nāma, tassa uppādakamanasikāro yonisomanasikāro nāma.
Apica ekādasa dhammā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti buddhānussati dhammasaṅghasīlacāgadevatānussati upasamānussati lūkhapuggalaparivajjanatā siniddhapuggalasevanatā pasādanīyasuttantapaccavekkhaṇatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Eleven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of joy: recollection of the Buddha, recollection of the Dhamma, recollection of the Sangha, recollection of virtue, of liberality, of the shining ones [devas], and the recollection of peace [upasama], the avoiding of bad people, association with good people, reflection on the discourses inspiring confidence, and the inclination towards joy.
Buddhaguṇe anussarantassāpi hi yāva upacārā sakalasarīraṃ pharamāno pītisambojjhaṅgo uppajjati.
By recollection of the Buddha's qualities, of the qualities of the Dhamma, and of the Sangha, joy arises.
Dhammasaṅghaguṇe anussarantassāpi, dīgharattaṃ akhaṇḍaṃ katvā rakkhitaṃ catupārisuddhisīlaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi, gihino dasasīlapañcasīlaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi, dubbhikkhabhayādīsu paṇītaṃ bhojanaṃ sabrahmacārīnaṃ datvā "evaṃ nāma adamhā"ti cāgaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi, gihinopi evarūpe kāle sīlavantānaṃ dinnadānaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi, yehi guṇehi samannāgatā devatā devattaṃ pattā, tathārūpānaṃ guṇānaṃ attani atthitaṃ paccavekkhantassāpi, "samāpattiyā vikkhambhitā kilesā saṭṭhipi, sattatipi vassāni na samudācarantī"ti paccavekkhantassāpi, cetiyadassanabodhidassanatheradassanesu asakkaccakiriyāya saṃsūcitalūkhabhāve buddhādīsu pasādasinehābhāvena gadrabhapiṭṭhe rajasadise lūkhapuggale parivajjantassāpi, buddhādīsu pasādabahule muducitte siniddhapuggale sevantassāpi, ratanattayaguṇaparidīpake pasādanīye suttante paccavekkhantassāpi, ṭhānanisajjādīsu pītiuppādanatthaṃ ninnapoṇapabbhāracittassāpi uppajjati.
Joy arises also for one who having kept the precepts of fourfold purity unbroken for a long time reflects on one's virtue; to laymen who reflect on their virtue through observing the ten and the five precepts; to one reflecting on liberality and recollecting one's gift of excellent food to one's fellows in the holy life during a time of scarcity and the like; to laymen recollecting their liberality in giving alms to virtuous folk; to one reflecting on one's possession of qualities by which beings have reached the state of shining ones (devas); to one reflecting thus by way of peace: "The passions suppressed by the higher attainments do not occur for sixty or seventy years." The avoiding of bad people is the keeping away from rough people who are like dirt on a mule's back, who show a callous nature through irreverence, owing to lack of faith-inspired affection for the Buddha and the like, in worshipping shrines or elders. Good people are those who have much faith in the Buddha and the like and are gentle of mind. Discourses which illumine the qualities of and inspire confidence in the Triple Gem are discourses inspiring confidence. The inclination towards joy refers to the mind sloping towards this enlightenment factor in all postures of sitting and the like.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
The completion by culture of this enlightenment factor is through the path of awakening.
Passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa – "atthi, bhikkhave, kāyapassaddhi cittapassaddhi, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti evaṃ uppādo hoti.
5. Calm There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of calm of the body (the aggregates of feeling, perception and the conformations) and of the mind (the aggregate of consciousness) and an abundance of right reflection on these things is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of calm and for the increase, expansion, and completion by culture of this enlightenment factor when it has arisen.
Apica satta dhammā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti paṇītabhojanasevanatā utusukhasevanatā iriyāpathasukhasevanatā majjhattapayogatā sāraddhakāyapuggalaparivajjanatā passaddhakāyapuggalasevanatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Seven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of calm: The resorting to fine food, comfortable weather, and comfortable postures; judgment according to the middle way; the avoiding of people who are physically restless; the association with people who are physically calm and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of calm.
Paṇītañhi siniddhaṃ sappāyabhojanaṃ bhuñjantassāpi, sītuṇhesu utūsu ṭhānādīsu iriyāpathesu sappāyaṃ utuṃ ca iriyāpathaṃ ca sevantassāpi passaddhi uppajjati.
The resorting to fine food is the resorting to excellent, beneficial food that is suitable to one. The resorting to comfortable weather and postures means the resorting to weather and postures suitable to one.{27}
Yo pana mahāpurisajātiko sabbautuiriyāpathakkhamova hoti, na taṃ sandhāyetaṃ vuttaṃ.
But he who has the nature of a great man is patient of all kinds of weather and postures. Not concerning such a person has the above been said.
Yassa sabhāgavisabhāgatā atthi, tasseva visabhāge utuiriyāpathe vajjetvā sabhāge sevantassāpi uppajjati.
Majjhattapayogo vuccati attano ca parassa ca kammassakatāpaccavekkhaṇā, iminā majjhattapayogena uppajjati.
Judgment according to the middle way is reflection on one's own deed as one's own property and another's deed as that of other's property.
Yo leḍḍudaṇḍādīhi paraṃ viheṭhayamānova vicarati.
The avoiding of people who are physically restless is the keeping away from restless people who go about harassing others with clod and stick.
Evarūpaṃ sāraddhakāyaṃ puggalaṃ parivajjantassāpi, saṃyatapādapāṇiṃ passaddhakāyaṃ puggalaṃ sevantassāpi, ṭhānanisajjādīsu passaddhiuppādanatthāya ninnapoṇapabbhāracittassāpi uppajjati.
People who are physically calm are those who are quiet because they are restrained on hand and foot. The inclination towards the development of this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping, and bending of the mind towards calm in all postures.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
By the arahant's path the completion by culture of this enlightenment factor takes place.
Samādhisambojjhaṅgassa – "atthi, bhikkhave, samathanimittaṃ abyagganimittaṃ, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
6. Concentration There is the sign of quietude, and the sign of non-confusion, and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the increase, expansion and completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of concentration when it has arisen. {28}
Tattha samathova samathanimittaṃ, avikkhepaṭṭhena ca abyagganimittanti.
There the sign of quietude is just the quietude{29} And in the sense of non-distraction is the sign of non-confusion to be taken. {30}
Apica ekādasa dhammā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti vatthuvisadakiriyatā indriyasamattapaṭipādanatā nimittakusalatā samaye cittassa paggahaṇatā samaye cittassa niggahaṇatā samaye sampahaṃsanatā samaye ajjhupekkhanatā asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanatā samāhitapuggalasevanatā jhānavimokkhapaccavekkhaṇatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Eleven things lead to the arising of concentration. Purification of the basis; the imparting of evenness to the spiritual controlling faculties; skill in taking up the sign of the object of meditation; the inciting of the mind on occasion, the restraining of the mind on occasion, the gladdening of the mind on occasion and the regarding of the mind without interfering on occasion; the avoiding of people who are not collected in mind; association with people who are collected in mind; reflection on the absorptions and the emancipations; and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of concentration.
Tattha vatthuvisadakiriyatā ca indriyasamattapaṭipādanatā ca vuttanayeneva veditabbā.
Nimittakusalatā nāma kasiṇanimittassa uggahaṇakusalatā.
Skill in the taking up of the sign which is the cause for the arising of absorption is skill in taking up the sign.
Samaye cittassa paggahaṇatāti yasmiṃ samaye atisithilavīriyatādīhi līnaṃ cittaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ samaye dhammavicayavīriyasambojjhaṅgasamuṭṭhāpanena tassa paggahaṇaṃ.
The inciting of the mind on occasion is the applying of the mind vigorously by bringing into being the enlightenment factors of the investigation of mental objects, energy and joy, when there is excessive laxity of energy and of the application of wisdom, and a deficiency of delight in the meditation.
Samaye cittassa niggahaṇatāti yasmiṃ samaye accāraddhavīriyatādīhi uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ samaye passaddhisamādhiupekkhāsambojjhaṅgasamuṭṭhāpanena tassa niggahaṇaṃ.
The restraining of the mind refers to the checking of the mind that is becoming excessively energetic, too strong, in the application of wisdom and elated with delight, by bringing into being the enlightenment factors of calm, concentration and equanimity.
Samaye sampahaṃsanatāti yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paññāpayogamandatāya vā upasamasukhānadhigamena vā nirassādaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ samaye aṭṭhasaṃvegavatthupaccavekkhaṇena saṃvejeti.
The gladdening of the mind means: The enlivening with confidence of the mind becomes dissatisfied either through weak application of wisdom or the non-attainment of the bliss of restfulness (or of the subsidence of the passions even temporarily).
Aṭṭha saṃvegavatthūni nāma jātijarābyādhimaraṇāni cattāri, apāyadukkhaṃ pañcamaṃ, atīte vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, anāgate vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, paccuppanne āhārapariyeṭṭhimūlakaṃ dukkhanti.
This enlivening is done through reflection on the eight reasons for the upsurge of spiritual feeling, namely, birth, decay, disease, death, the suffering of the four states of woe, the samsaric round of suffering in the past, and the suffering rooted in the search for nutriment in the present life,
Ratanattayaguṇānussaraṇena ca pasādaṃ janeti.
and through contemplation on the qualities of the Triple Gem.
Ayaṃ vuccati "samaye sampahaṃsanatā"ti.
Samaye ajjhupekkhanatā nāma yasmiṃ samaye sammāpaṭipattiṃ āgamma alīnaṃ anuddhataṃ anirassādaṃ ārammaṇe samappavattaṃ samathavīthipaṭipannaṃ cittaṃ hoti, tadāssa paggahaniggahasampahaṃsanesu na byāpāraṃ āpajjati sārathi viya samappavattesu. Assesu.
The regarding of the mind without interfering is the absence of the work of inciting, retraining and gladdening the mind which has got to right practice and which proceeds well in the object, free from sloth, free from restlessness, and free from dissatisfaction. It is comparable to the state of a charioteer who looks on uninterfering when the horses are going well.
Ayaṃ vuccati "samaye ajjhupekkhanatā"ti.
Asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanatā nāma upacāraṃ vā appanaṃ vā appattānaṃ vikkhittacittānaṃ puggalānaṃ ārakā parivajjanaṃ.
The keeping away from persons who have not reached partial or full absorption and are distracted of mind is the avoiding of people who are not collected in mind.
Samāhitapuggalasevanatā nāma upacārena vā appanāya vā samāhitacittānaṃ sevanā bhajanā payirupāsanā.
Association with persons who have reached those states of absorption is association with people who are collected in mind.
Tadadhimuttatā nāma ṭhānanisajjādīsu samādhiuppādanatthaṃyeva ninnapoṇapabbhāracittatā.
The mind inclining, sloping, and bending towards concentration-production in all postures of standing, sitting and the like constitutes the inclination for this factor.
Evañhi paṭipajjato esa uppajjati.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
The completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of concentration is through the path of arahantship.{32}
Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa – "atthi, bhikkhave, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā, tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232) evaṃ uppādo hoti.
7. Equanimity There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of equanimity and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity and for the increase, expansion and the completion by culture of the enlightenment factor when it has risen.
Tattha upekkhāyeva upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā nāma.
Apica pañca dhammā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti sattamajjhattatā saṅkhāramajjhattatā sattasaṅkhārakelāyanapuggalaparivajjanatā sattasaṅkhāramajjhattapuggalasevanatā tadadhimuttatāti.
Five things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of equanimity: The detached attitude towards beings; the detached attitude towards things; the avoiding of persons who are egotistical in regard to living beings and things; association with people who are neutral (impartial) in regard to living beings and things; and the inclination for developing the enlightenment factor of equanimity.
Tattha dvīhākārehi sattamajjhattataṃ samuṭṭhāpeti – "tvaṃ attano kammena āgantvā attano kammena gamissasi, esopi attano kammena āgantvā attano kammena gamissati, tvaṃ kaṃ kelāyasī"ti evaṃ kammassakatāpaccavekkhaṇena ca, "paramatthato sattoyeva natthi, so tvaṃ kaṃ kelāyasī"ti evaṃ nissattapaccavekkhaṇena ca.
The detached attitude towards beings is brought about by reflection on beings as possessors of their own deeds, and by reflection in the highest sense. Reflection on beings as possessors of their own deeds is there when a person thinks thus: "You have been born here by your own deeds in the past and will depart from here and fare according to your own deeds. Who then is the being you are attached to? " Reflection in the highest sense is thinking in the following way: "Really no living being exists. To whom then, can you be attached? "
Dvīhevākārehi saṅkhāramajjhattataṃ samuṭṭhāpeti – "idaṃ cīvaraṃ anupubbena vaṇṇavikāraṃ ceva jiṇṇabhāvaṃ ca upagantvā pādapuñchanacoḷakaṃ hutvā yaṭṭhikoṭiyā chaḍḍanīyaṃ bhavissati, sace panassa sāmiko bhaveyya, nāssa evaṃ vinassituṃ dadeyyā"ti evaṃ asāmikabhāvaṃ paccavekkhaṇena, "anaddhaniyaṃ idaṃ tāvakālika"nti evaṃ tāvakālikatāpaccavekkhaṇena ca.
The detached attitude towards things is brought about by reflection on ownerlessness and temporariness. A person thinks thus: "This robe will fade, get old, become a foot-cleaning rag and be after that fit only to be taken up at the end of a stick and flung away. Surely, should there be an owner of this he would not let it come to ruin in this way? " This is the reflection on ownerlessness. To think that this robe cannot last long and that its duration is short, is to reflect on the temporariness of it.
Yathā ca cīvare, evaṃ pattādīsupi yojanā kātabbā.
These two reflections are applicable in a similar way to the bowl and other things.
Sattasaṅkhārakelāyanapuggalaparivajjanatāti ettha yo puggalo gihi vā attano puttadhītādike, pabbajito vā attano antevāsikasamānupajjhāyakādike mamāyati, sahattheneva nesaṃ kesacchedanasūcikammacīvaradhovanarajanapattapacanādīni karoti, muhuttampi apassanto "asuko sāmaṇero kuhiṃ, asuko daharo kuhi"nti bhantamigo viya ito cito ca āloketi, aññena kesacchedanādīnaṃ atthāya "muhuttaṃ tāva asukaṃ pesethā"ti yācīyamānopi "amhepi taṃ attano kammaṃ na kārema, tumhe taṃ gahetvā kilamessathā"ti na deti.
Persons who are egotistical in regard to living beings are laymen who cherish their own sons and daughters and the like, and recluses who cherish their resident pupils, mates, preceptors and the like. And these persons, if for instance, they are recluses do with their own hands for them whom they cherish, hair-cutting, sewing, robe-washing, robe-dyeing, bowl-lacquering, and so forth. If even for a short time they do not see their cherished ones they look here and there like bewildered deer, and ask, "Where is such and such novice? " or "Where is such and such a young bhikkhu." And if these recluses are requested by others to send a novice or a young bhikkhu to do some work for them, such as hair-cutting, they don't send the novice or young bhikkhu, on the pretense that he is not made to do even his own work, and that if he is made to do the work of others he would get tired.{33}
Ayaṃ sattakelāyano nāma.
Yo pana pattacīvarathālakakattarayaṭṭhiādīni mamāyati, aññassa hatthena parāmasitumpi na deti, tāvakālikaṃ yācito "mayampi idaṃ mamāyantā na paribhuñjāma, tumhākaṃ kiṃ dassāmā"ti vadati.
A person who is egotistical in regard to things is he who cherishes robes, bowls, beakers, walking sticks, staffs and so forth and does not let another even touch these. When asked for a loan of some article he would say: "Even I do not use it; how can I give it?" {34}
Ayaṃ saṅkhārakelāyano nāma.
Yo pana tesu dvīsupi vatthūsu majjhatto udāsino.
A person who is neutral, indifferent, as regards both living beings and things
Ayaṃ sattasaṅkhāramajjhatto nāma.
is a person who is detached as regards both living beings and things.{35}
Iti ayaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo evarūpaṃ sattasaṅkhārakelāyanaṃ puggalaṃ ārakā parivajjantassāpi, sattasaṅkhāramajjhattapuggalaṃ sevantassāpi, ṭhānanisajjādīsu taduppādanatthaṃ ninnapoṇapabbhāracittassāpi uppajjati.
Inclination for developing this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping, and bending of the mind towards equanimity, in all postures of standing and so forth.
Evaṃ uppannassa panassa arahattamaggena bhāvanāpāripūrī hotīti pajānāti.
The completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of equanimity is wrought by the path of awakening.
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ attano vā satta sambojjhaṅge pariggaṇhitvā, parassa vā, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa bojjhaṅge pariggaṇhitvā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The yogi lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects (that is, contemplating mental objects only and nothing else) by laying hold of his own enlightenment factors or another's enlightenment factors or at one time his own enlightenment factors and at another time another's enlightenment factors.
Samudayavayā panettha bojjhaṅgānaṃ nibbattinirodhavasena veditabbā.
Here, origination and dissolution should be known by way of the origination and dissolution of the enlightenment factors.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on the exposition is just according to the manner already stated. {36}
Kevalañhi idha bojjhaṅgapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā bojjhaṅgapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Bojjhaṅgapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Catusaccapabbavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

4.5 Dhammānupassanāsacca-pabba: The Truths

119.Evaṃ sattabojjhaṅgavasena dhammānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni catusaccavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha.
Having explained thus the contemplation of mental objects by way of the seven factors of enlightenment, the Master said, "And further," and so forth, in order to explain the meditation by way of the Four Truths.
Tattha idaṃ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṃ pajānātīti ṭhapetvā taṇhaṃ tebhūmake dhamme "idaṃ dukkha"nti yathāsabhāvato pajānāti, tasseva kho pana dukkhassa janikaṃ samuṭṭhāpikaṃ purimataṇhaṃ "ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo"ti, ubhinnaṃ appavattiṃ nibbānaṃ "ayaṃ dukkhanirodho"ti, dukkhaparijānanaṃ samudayapajahanaṃ nirodhasacchikaraṇaṃ ariyamaggaṃ "ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā"ti yathāsabhāvato pajānātīti attho.
Idam dukkhanti yathabhutam Pajanati = "A bhikkhu understands: 'this is suffering,' according to reality." He puts aside craving, and understands all things of the three planes of becoming as suffering, according to nature. He understands according to nature the previous craving that produces and makes to arise that very suffering. He understands the non-occurrence of both suffering and its origin, according to nature, as Nibbana. He understands, according to nature, the Noble Path which penetrates suffering, abandons origination, and realizes cessation.
Avasesā ariyasaccakathā visuddhimagge vitthāritāyeva.
The rest of the explanation of the Noble Truths is in the Path of Purity [Visuddhi Magga].
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ attano vā cattāri saccāni pariggaṇhitvā, parassa vā, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa cattāri saccāni pariggaṇhitvā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.
Iti ajjhattam = "Thus, internally." He lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, having laid hold of his own four truths or the four truths of another or at one time his own four truths and at another time another's four truths.
Samudayavayā panettha catunnaṃ saccānaṃ yathāsambhavato uppattinivattivasena veditabbā.
In this explanation of the truths, the origination and dissolution of the four truths should be understood according to nature by way of arising and stopping.
Ito paraṃ vuttanayameva.
From here on the explanation is according to the manner already stated.
Kevalañhi idha catusaccapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccanti evaṃ yojanaṃ katvā saccapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno niyyānamukhaṃ veditabbaṃ.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
Catusaccapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Ettāvatā ānāpānaṃ catuiriyāpathaṃ catusampajaññaṃ dvattiṃsākāraṃ catudhātuvavatthānaṃ navasivathikā vedanānupassanā cittānupassanā nīvaraṇapariggaho khandhapariggaho āyatanapariggaho bojjhaṅgapariggaho saccapariggahoti ekavīsati kammaṭṭhānāni vuttāni.
With this have been stated the following twenty-one subjects of meditation: Breathing, Modes of Deportments, the Method of the Thirty-two Parts of the Body, the Determination of the Four Modes of Materiality (or the Four Elements), the Nine Cemetery Contemplations, Contemplation of Feeling, Contemplation of Consciousness, the Laying Hold on the Hindrances, the Laying Hold on the Aggregates, the Laying Hold on the Sense-bases, the Laying Hold on the Enlightenment Factors, and the Laying Hold on the Truths. The Cemetery Contemplations are counted separately.
Tesu ānāpānaṃ dvattiṃsākāro navasivathikāti ekādasa appanākammaṭṭhānāni honti.
The Contemplation on Breathing, the Thirty-two Parts and the Nine Cemetery Contemplations, these eleven, are subjects of meditation which produce full absorption.
Dīghabhāṇakamahāsīvatthero pana "navasivathikā ādīnavānupassanāvasena vuttā"ti āha.
The Digha-bhanaka (Reciter of the Long Collection of Discourses) Maha Siva, however, says that the Nine Cemetery Contemplations are here stated by way of the contemplation of Misery.
Tasmā tassa matena dveyeva appanākammaṭṭhānāni, sesāni upacārakammaṭṭhānāni.
Therefore according to his view only two subjects, Breathing and the Thirty-two Parts, produce full absorption; the rest produce only partial absorption.
Kiṃ panetesu sabbesu abhiniveso jāyatīti?
Na jāyati.
Iriyāpathasampajaññanīvaraṇabojjhaṅgesu hi abhiniveso na jāyati, sesesu jāyatīti.
Mahāsīvatthero panāha – "etesupi abhiniveso jāyati, ayañhi atthi nu kho me cattāro iriyāpathā, udāhu natthi, atthi nu kho me catusampajaññaṃ, udāhu natthi, atthi nu kho me pañcanīvaraṇā, udāhu natthi, atthi nu kho me sattabojjhaṅgā, udāhu natthīti evaṃ pariggaṇhāti, tasmā sabbattha abhiniveso jāyatī"ti.
137.Yo hi koci, bhikkhaveti yo hi koci bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā.
Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattaro satipatthane evam bhaveyya = "O bhikkhus, if anyone develops the Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner." If any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or upasaka or upasika
Evaṃ bhāveyyāti ādito paṭṭhāya vuttena bhāvanānukkamena bhāveyya.
cultivates mindfulness from the beginning according to the method taught here.
Pāṭikaṅkhanti paṭikaṅkhitabbaṃ, avassaṃ bhāvīti attho.
Aññāti arahattaṃ.
Sati vā upādiseseti upādānasese vā sati aparikkhīṇe.
Anāgāmitāti anāgāmibhāvo.
Evaṃ sattannaṃ vassānaṃ vasena sāsanassa niyyānikabhāvaṃ dassetvā puna tato appatarepi kāle dassento "tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave"tiādimāha.
Titthantu bhikkhave = "O bhikkhus, let alone."
Sabbampi cetaṃ majjhimasseva neyyapuggalassa vasena vuttaṃ.
This together with what follows, was said by way of the average person capable of being trained.
Tikkhapaññaṃ pana sandhāya – "pāto anusiṭṭho sāyaṃ visesaṃ adhigamissati, sāyaṃ anusiṭṭho pāto visesaṃ adhigamissatī"ti (ma. ni. 2.345) vuttaṃ.
But concerning the person of keen intelligence it was stated as follows: Instructed in the morning, he will attain in the evening; instructed in the evening, he will attain in the morning.
Iti bhagavā "evaṃniyyānikaṃ, bhikkhave, mama sāsana"nti dassetvā ekavīsatiyāpi ṭhānesu arahattanikūṭena desitaṃ desanaṃ niyyātento "ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo - pe - iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta"nti āha.
The Blessed One pointed out the teaching thus: "Bhikkhus, my Dispensation leads to Deliverance in this way," closed the instruction that is crowned with arahantship in twenty-one places and uttered the following words: "This is the only way, o bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."
Sesaṃ uttānatthamevāti.
Papañcasūdaniyā majjhimanikāyaṭṭhakathāya
Satipaṭṭhānasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
Paṭhamavaggavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.


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