4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸🏛️MA MA-bdk    🔝
 MA-bdk 0 – MA (BDK translation) – notes on errors corrected 2023 by lucid24.org
MA-bdk ..1.. Division 1 On Sets of Seven: MA 1-10
MA-bdk ..2.. Division 2 On Karma: MA 11-20
MA-bdk ..3.. Division 3 Sāriputta: MA 21-30
MA-bdk ..4.. Division 4 On Extraordinary Qualities MA 32-41
MA-bdk ..5.. Division 5 On Conditions MA 42-57
MA-bdk ..6.. Division 6 On Kings MA 58-71
MA-bdk ..7.. Division 7 On King Long Life Span MA 72-86
MA-bdk ..8.. Division 8 On Blemishes: MA 87-96
MA-bdk ..9.. Division 9 On Causality: MA 99-106
MA-bdk ..10.. Division 10 On the Forest: MA 107-116
MA-bdk ..11.. Division 11 The [First] Great Division: MA 117-141
MA-bdk ..12.. Division 12 On Brahmins: MA 142–161
MA-bdk ..13.. Division 13 On Basic Analysis: MA 162–171
MA-bdk ..14.. Division 14 On the Mind: MA 172–181
MA-bdk ..15.. Division 15 MA 182–222

TOC of all 222 sutras

MA-bdk ..1.. Division 1 On Sets of Seven: MA 1-10

    MA-bdk 1 - MA 1 The Discourse on Wholesome Qualities41
    MA-bdk 2 - MA 2 The Discourse on the Coral Tree
    MA-bdk 3 - MA 3 The Discourse with the Parable of the [Border] Town
    MA-bdk 4 - MA 4 The Discourse with the Water Parable
    MA-bdk 5 - MA 5 The Discourse with the Parable of the Heap of Wood53
    MA-bdk 6 - MA 6 The Discourse on the Destination of a Good Person
    MA-bdk 7 - MA 7 The Discourse on [Sources of] Worldly Merit
    MA-bdk 8 - MA 8 The Discourse on Seven Suns
    MA-bdk 9 - MA 9 The Discourse on Seven Chariots
    MA-bdk 10 - MA 10 The Discourse on the Cessation of the Taints

MA-bdk ..2.. Division 2 On Karma: MA 11-20

    MA-bdk 11 - MA 11 The Discourse with the Parable [of the Ounce] of Salt
    MA-bdk 12 - MA 12 The Discourse to Vappa
    MA-bdk 13 - MA 13 The Discourse on [Tenets to Be] Transcended
    MA-bdk 14 - MA 14 The Discourse to Rāhula
    MA-bdk 15 - MA 15 The Discourse on Intention
    MA-bdk 16 - MA 16 The Discourse to the Kālāmas
    MA-bdk 17 - MA 17 The Discourse to Gāmaṇi
    MA-bdk 18 - MA 18 The Discourse to Sīha
    MA-bdk 19 - MA 19 The Discourse to the 442c Nigaṇṭhas
    MA-bdk 20 - MA 20 The Discourse to Pāṭaliya

MA-bdk ..3.. Division 3 Sāriputta: MA 21-30

    MA-bdk 21 - MA 21 The Discourse on an Even Mind
    MA-bdk 22 - MA 22 The Discourse on Perfecting the Precepts
    MA-bdk 23 - MA 23 The Discourse on Wisdom
    MA-bdk 24 - MA 24 The Discourse on the “Lion’s Roar” of Sāriputta
    MA-bdk 25 - MA 25 The Discourse with Parables [Relating to] Water
    MA-bdk 26 - MA 26 The Discourse to Gulissāni
    MA-bdk 27 - MA 27 The Discourse to Dhānañjāni
    MA-bdk 28 - MA 28 The Discourse on Teaching the Il [Anāthapiṇḍika]
    MA-bdk 29 - MA 29 The Discourse by Mahā Koṭṭhita
    MA-bdk 30 - MA 30 The Discourse with the Parable of the Elephant’s Footprint
    MA-bdk 31 - MA 31 The Discourse on Discerning the Noble Truths

MA-bdk ..4.. Division 4 On Extraordinary Qualities MA 32-41

    MA-bdk 32 - MA 32 The Discourse on Extraordinary Qualities [of the Buddha]
    MA-bdk 33 - MA 33 The Discourse on [How Ānanda Became] the Attendant
    MA-bdk 34 - MA 34 The Discourse by Bakkula
    MA-bdk 35 - MA 35 The Discourse to the Asura
    MA-bdk 36 - MA 36 The Discourse on Earthquakes
    MA-bdk 37 - MA 37 The Discourse at Campā
    MA-bdk 38 - MA 38 The [First] Discourse to the Householder Ugga
    MA-bdk 39 - MA 39 The [Second] Discourse to the Householder Ugga
    MA-bdk 40 - MA 40 The Discourse to the Householder Hatthaka
    MA-bdk 41 - MA 41 The Discourse on the Householder Hatthaka

MA-bdk ..5.. Division 5 On Conditions MA 42-57

    MA-bdk 42 - MA 42 The Discourse on “What is the Purpose?”
    MA-bdk 43 - MA 43 The Discourse on No [Need for] Thought
    MA-bdk 44 - MA 44 The Discourse on Mindfulness1
    MA-bdk 45 - MA 45 The [First] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
    MA-bdk 46 - MA 46 The [Second] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
    MA-bdk 47 - MA 47 The [First] Discourse on the Precepts
    MA-bdk 48 - MA 48 The [Second] Discourse on the Precepts
    MA-bdk 49 - MA 49 The [First] Discourse on Respect
    MA-bdk 50 - MA 50 The [Second] Discourse on Respect
    MA-bdk 51 - MA 51 The Discourse on the Beginning
    MA-bdk 52 - MA 52 The [First] Discourse on Nutriments
    MA-bdk 53 - MA 53 The [Second] Discourse on Nutriments
    MA-bdk 54 - MA 54 The Discourse on [Attaining the] Wisdom of Cessation [of the Taints]
    MA-bdk 55 - MA 55 The Discourse on Nirvana
    MA-bdk 56 - MA 56 The Discourse to Meghiya
    MA-bdk 57 - MA 57 The Discourse Spoken for the Monks

MA-bdk ..6.. Division 6 On Kings MA 58-71

    MA-bdk 58 - MA 58 The Discourse on the Seven Treasures
    MA-bdk 59 - MA 59 The Discourse on the Thirty-two Marks
    MA-bdk 60 - MA 60 The Discourse on the Four Continents
    MA-bdk 61 - MA 61 The Discourse with the Cow Dung Parable
    MA-bdk 62 - MA 62 The Discourse on King Bimbisāra
    MA-bdk 63 - MA 63 The Discourse at Vebhaḷiṅga
    MA-bdk 64 - MA 64 The Discourse on the Divine Messengers
    MA-bdk 65 - MA 65 The Discourse with the Raven Parable
    MA-bdk 66 - MA 66 The Discourse on Origins
    MA-bdk 67 - MA 67 The Discourse on Mahādeva’s Mango Grove
    MA-bdk 68 - MA 68 The Discourse on Mahāsudassana
    MA-bdk 69 - MA 69 The Discourse with the 518c Thirty Analogies
    MA-bdk 70 - MA 70 The Discourse on the Wheel-turning Monarch
    MA-bdk 71 - MA 71 The Discourse to Pāyāsi

MA-bdk ..7.. Division 7 On King Long Life Span MA 72-86

    MA-bdk 72 - MA 72 The Discourse on the History
    MA-bdk 73 - MA 73 The Discourse on Devas
    MA-bdk 74 - MA 74 The Discourse on Eight Thoughts
    MA-bdk 75 - MA 75 The Discourse on the Path to Pure Imperturbability
    MA-bdk 76 - MA 76 The Discourse at Ukkācelā
    MA-bdk 77 - MA 77 The Discourse on Three Clansmen at Sāketa
    MA-bdk 78 - MA 78 The Discourse on Brahmā’s 547a Invitation to the Buddha
    MA-bdk 79 - MA 79 The Discourse on the Existence of Higher Devas
    MA-bdk 80 - MA 80 The Discourse on Cloth for Robes
    MA-bdk 81 - MA 81 The Discourse on 554c Mindfulness of the Body
    MA-bdk 82 - MA 82 The Discourse on [Hearing the Sound of ] Crickets
    MA-bdk 83 - MA 83 The Discourse on the Drowsiness of a Highly Regarded Elder
    MA-bdk 84 - MA 84 The Discourse on Being without Thorns
    MA-bdk 85 - MA 85 The Discourse on the True Person
    MA-bdk 86 - MA 86 The Discourse Explaining the Bases

MA-bdk ..8.. Division 8 On Blemishes: MA 87-96

    MA-bdk 87 - MA 87 The Discourse on Defilements
    MA-bdk 88 - MA 88 The Discourse on the Quest for the Dharma
    MA-bdk 89 - MA 89 The Discourse on a 571c Monk’s Request
    MA-bdk 90 - MA 90 The Discourse on Knowledge of the Dharma
    MA-bdk 91 - MA 91 The Discourse on Cunda’s Inquiry about Views
    MA-bdk 92 - MA 92 The Discourse on the Simile of Blue and White Lotuses
    MA-bdk 93 - MA 93 The Discourse on a Brahmin [Practitioner of ] Purification by Bathing
    MA-bdk 95 - MA 95 The Discourse on Maintaining [Wholesome] States
    MA-bdk 96 - MA 96 The Discourse on Absence
    MA-bdk 97 - MA 97 The Great Discourse on Causality
    MA-bdk 98 - MA 98 The Discourse on the Establishments of Mindfulness

MA-bdk ..9.. Division 9 On Causality: MA 99-106

    MA-bdk 99 - MA 99 The [First] Discourse 584c on the Mass of Dukkha
    MA-bdk 100 - MA 100 The [Second] Discourse on the Mass of Dukkha
    MA-bdk 101 - MA 101 The Discourse on the Higher State of Mind
    MA-bdk 102 - MA 102 The Discourse on Thoughts
    MA-bdk 103 - MA 103 The Discourse on the Lion’s Roar
    MA-bdk 104 - MA 104 The Discourse in the Udumbara [Forest]
    MA-bdk 105 - MA 105 The Discourse on Wishes
    MA-bdk 106 - MA 106 The Discourse on Perception

MA-bdk ..10.. Division 10 On the Forest: MA 107-116

    MA-bdk 107 - MA 107 The [First] Discourse on the Forest
    MA-bdk 108 - MA 108 The [Second] Discourse on the Forest
    MA-bdk 109 - MA 109 The [First] Discourse on Examining One’s Own Mind
    MA-bdk 110 - MA 110 The [Second] Discourse on Examining One’s Own Mind
    MA-bdk 111 - MA 111 The Discourse on Fulfilling the Holy Life
    MA-bdk 112 - MA 112 The Discourse Spoken at Anupiya
    MA-bdk 113 - MA 113 The Discourse on the 602c Root of all Phenomena
    MA-bdk 114 - MA 114 The Discourse on Uddaka [Rāmaputta]
    MA-bdk 115 - MA 115 The Discourse with the Simile of the Honeyball
    MA-bdk 116 - MA 116 The Discourse Spoken to Gotamī

MA-bdk ..11.. Division 11 The [First] Great Division: MA 117-141

    MA-bdk 117 - MA 117 The Discourse on 607c Delicate [Upbringing]
    MA-bdk 118 - MA 118 The Discourse on the Elephant
    MA-bdk 119 - MA 119 The Discourse on the Grounds for Speaking
    MA-bdk 120 - MA 120 The Discourse on a Teaching about Impermanence
    MA-bdk 121 - MA 121 The Discourse on the Invitation Ceremony
    MA-bdk 122 - MA 122 The Discourse at Campā
    MA-bdk 123 - MA 123 The Discourse on the Renunciant Soṇa Kolivīsa
    MA-bdk 124 - MA 124 The Discourse on Eight Obstacles
    MA-bdk 125 - MA 125 The Discourse on Poverty
    MA-bdk 126 - MA 126 The Discourse on Engaging in Sensual Pleasures
    MA-bdk 127 - MA 127 The Discourse on Fields of Merit
    MA-bdk 128 - MA 128 The Discourse on Male Lay Disciples
    MA-bdk 129 - MA 129 The Discourse on the Enemy
    MA-bdk 130 - MA 130 The Discourse on Teaching Dhammika
    MA-bdk 131 - MA 131 The Discourse on Overcoming Māra
    MA-bdk 132 - MA 132 The Discourse on Raṭṭhapāla1
    MA-bdk 133 - MA 133 The Discourse on Upāli21
    MA-bdk 134 - MA 134 The Discourse on the Questions
    MA-bdk 135 - MA 135 The Discourse on Sujāta66
    MA-bdk 136 - MA 136 The Discourse on Merchants
    MA-bdk 137 - MA 137 The Discourse on the World85
    MA-bdk 138 - MA 138 The Discourse on Meritorious Deeds
    MA-bdk 139 - MA 139 The Discourse on the Path
    MA-bdk 140 - MA 140 The Discourse on the Lowliest94
    MA-bdk 141 - MA 141 The Discourse with Similes97

MA-bdk ..12.. Division 12 On Brahmins: MA 142–161

    MA-bdk 142 - MA 142 The Discourse to Vassakāra98
    MA-bdk 143 - MA 143 The Discourse to Saṅgārava
    MA-bdk 144 - MA 144 The Discourse to Gaṇaka
    MA-bdk 145 - MA 145 The Discourse to Gopaka
    MA-bdk 146 - MA 146 The Discourse on the Simile
    MA-bdk 147 - MA 147 The Discourse on the Virtues
    MA-bdk 148 - MA 148 The Discourse on What Is Suffering
    MA-bdk 149 - MA 149 The Discourse on What One Desires
    MA-bdk 150 - MA 150 The Discourse to Esukārī160
    MA-bdk 151 - MA 151 The Discourse to Assalāyana172
    MA-bdk 152 - MA 152 The Discourse to Suka193
    MA-bdk 153 - MA 153 The Discourse to Māgandiya210
    MA-bdk 154 - MA 154 The Discourse to Vāseṭṭha at the Hall [of Migāra’s Mother]
    MA-bdk 155 - MA 155 The Discourse about Velāma246
    MA-bdk 156 - MA 156 The Discourse to the Pārāyana Brahmins
    MA-bdk 157 - MA 157 The Discourse in the Yellow Reed Park
    MA-bdk 158 - MA 158 The Discourse to Doṇa268
    MA-bdk 159 - MA 159 The Discourse to Aggilāyana
    MA-bdk 160 - MA 160 The Discourse on Araka279
    MA-bdk 161 - MA 161 The Discourse to Brahmāyu291

MA-bdk ..13.. Division 13 On Basic Analysis: MA 162–171

    MA-bdk 162 - MA 162 The Discourse on an Analysis of the Six Elements
    MA-bdk 163 - MA 163 The Discourse on an Analysis of the Six Sense Spheres
    MA-bdk 164 - MA 164 The Discourse on an Analytical Contemplation of Dharmas
    MA-bdk 165 - MA 165 The Discourse on a Deva
    MA-bdk 166 - MA 166 The Discourse on a Venerable One
    MA-bdk 167 - MA 167 The Discourse Spoken by Ānanda361
    MA-bdk 168 - MA 168 The Discourse on Mental Practice366
    MA-bdk 169 - MA 169 The Discourse [Spoken among] the Kurus on Nonconflict
    MA-bdk 170 - MA 170 The Discourse to [a Brahmin Named] Parrot
    MA-bdk 171 - MA 171 The Discourse on a Great Analysis of Karma

MA-bdk ..14.. Division 14 On the Mind: MA 172–181

    MA-bdk 172 - MA 172 The Discourse on the Mind391
    MA-bdk 173 - MA 173 The Discourse to Bhūmija396
    MA-bdk 174 - MA 174 The Discourse on Ways of Practice (1)
    MA-bdk 175 - MA 175 The Discourse on Ways of Practice (2)
    MA-bdk 176 - MA 176 The Discourse on Practitioners
    MA-bdk 177 - MA 177 The Discourse on [Four Modes of] Explanation
    MA-bdk 178 - MA 178 The Discourse on the Hunter415
    MA-bdk 179 - MA 179 The Discourse to the Carpenter
    MA-bdk 180 - MA 180 The Discourse to Gotamī435
    MA-bdk 181 - MA 181 The Discourse on Many Elements444

MA-bdk ..15.. Division 15 MA 182–222

detailed TOC



MA-bdk 0 – MA (BDK translation) – notes on errors corrected 2023 by lucid24.org

MA-bdk ..1.. Division 1 On Sets of Seven: MA 1-10

    MA-bdk 1 - MA 1 The Discourse on Wholesome Qualities41
    MA-bdk 2 - MA 2 The Discourse on the Coral Tree
    MA-bdk 3 - MA 3 The Discourse with the Parable of the [Border] Town
    MA-bdk 4 - MA 4 The Discourse with the Water Parable
    MA-bdk 5 - MA 5 The Discourse with the Parable of the Heap of Wood53
    MA-bdk 6 - MA 6 The Discourse on the Destination of a Good Person
    MA-bdk 7 - MA 7 The Discourse on [Sources of] Worldly Merit
    MA-bdk 8 - MA 8 The Discourse on Seven Suns
    MA-bdk 9 - MA 9 The Discourse on Seven Chariots
    MA-bdk 10 - MA 10 The Discourse on the Cessation of the Taints

MA-bdk ..2.. Division 2 On Karma: MA 11-20

    MA-bdk 11 - MA 11 The Discourse with the Parable [of the Ounce] of Salt
    MA-bdk 12 - MA 12 The Discourse to Vappa
    MA-bdk 13 - MA 13 The Discourse on [Tenets to Be] Transcended
    MA-bdk 14 - MA 14 The Discourse to Rāhula
    MA-bdk 15 - MA 15 The Discourse on Intention
    MA-bdk 16 - MA 16 The Discourse to the Kālāmas
    MA-bdk 17 - MA 17 The Discourse to Gāmaṇi
    MA-bdk 18 - MA 18 The Discourse to Sīha
    MA-bdk 19 - MA 19 The Discourse to the 442c Nigaṇṭhas
    MA-bdk 20 - MA 20 The Discourse to Pāṭaliya

MA-bdk ..3.. Division 3 Sāriputta: MA 21-30

    MA-bdk 21 - MA 21 The Discourse on an Even Mind
    MA-bdk 22 - MA 22 The Discourse on Perfecting the Precepts
    MA-bdk 23 - MA 23 The Discourse on Wisdom
    MA-bdk 24 - MA 24 The Discourse on the “Lion’s Roar” of Sāriputta
    MA-bdk 25 - MA 25 The Discourse with Parables [Relating to] Water
    MA-bdk 26 - MA 26 The Discourse to Gulissāni
    MA-bdk 27 - MA 27 The Discourse to Dhānañjāni
    MA-bdk 28 - MA 28 The Discourse on Teaching the Il [Anāthapiṇḍika]
    MA-bdk 29 - MA 29 The Discourse by Mahā Koṭṭhita
    MA-bdk 30 - MA 30 The Discourse with the Parable of the Elephant’s Footprint
    MA-bdk 31 - MA 31 The Discourse on Discerning the Noble Truths

MA-bdk ..4.. Division 4 On Extraordinary Qualities MA 32-41

    MA-bdk 32 - MA 32 The Discourse on Extraordinary Qualities [of the Buddha]
    MA-bdk 33 - MA 33 The Discourse on [How Ānanda Became] the Attendant
    MA-bdk 34 - MA 34 The Discourse by Bakkula
    MA-bdk 35 - MA 35 The Discourse to the Asura
    MA-bdk 36 - MA 36 The Discourse on Earthquakes
    MA-bdk 37 - MA 37 The Discourse at Campā
    MA-bdk 38 - MA 38 The [First] Discourse to the Householder Ugga
    MA-bdk 39 - MA 39 The [Second] Discourse to the Householder Ugga
    MA-bdk 40 - MA 40 The Discourse to the Householder Hatthaka
    MA-bdk 41 - MA 41 The Discourse on the Householder Hatthaka

MA-bdk ..5.. Division 5 On Conditions MA 42-57

    MA-bdk 42 - MA 42 The Discourse on “What is the Purpose?”
    MA-bdk 43 - MA 43 The Discourse on No [Need for] Thought
    MA-bdk 44 - MA 44 The Discourse on Mindfulness1
    MA-bdk 45 - MA 45 The [First] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
    MA-bdk 46 - MA 46 The [Second] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
    MA-bdk 47 - MA 47 The [First] Discourse on the Precepts
    MA-bdk 48 - MA 48 The [Second] Discourse on the Precepts
    MA-bdk 49 - MA 49 The [First] Discourse on Respect
    MA-bdk 50 - MA 50 The [Second] Discourse on Respect
    MA-bdk 51 - MA 51 The Discourse on the Beginning
    MA-bdk 52 - MA 52 The [First] Discourse on Nutriments
    MA-bdk 53 - MA 53 The [Second] Discourse on Nutriments
    MA-bdk 54 - MA 54 The Discourse on [Attaining the] Wisdom of Cessation [of the Taints]
    MA-bdk 55 - MA 55 The Discourse on Nirvana
    MA-bdk 56 - MA 56 The Discourse to Meghiya
    MA-bdk 57 - MA 57 The Discourse Spoken for the Monks

MA-bdk ..6.. Division 6 On Kings MA 58-71

    MA-bdk 58 - MA 58 The Discourse on the Seven Treasures
    MA-bdk 59 - MA 59 The Discourse on the Thirty-two Marks
    MA-bdk 60 - MA 60 The Discourse on the Four Continents
    MA-bdk 61 - MA 61 The Discourse with the Cow Dung Parable
    MA-bdk 62 - MA 62 The Discourse on King Bimbisāra
    MA-bdk 63 - MA 63 The Discourse at Vebhaḷiṅga
    MA-bdk 64 - MA 64 The Discourse on the Divine Messengers
    MA-bdk 65 - MA 65 The Discourse with the Raven Parable
    MA-bdk 66 - MA 66 The Discourse on Origins
    MA-bdk 67 - MA 67 The Discourse on Mahādeva’s Mango Grove
    MA-bdk 68 - MA 68 The Discourse on Mahāsudassana
    MA-bdk 69 - MA 69 The Discourse with the 518c Thirty Analogies
    MA-bdk 70 - MA 70 The Discourse on the Wheel-turning Monarch
    MA-bdk 71 - MA 71 The Discourse to Pāyāsi

MA-bdk ..7.. Division 7 On King Long Life Span MA 72-86

    MA-bdk 72 - MA 72 The Discourse on the History
    MA-bdk 73 - MA 73 The Discourse on Devas
    MA-bdk 74 - MA 74 The Discourse on Eight Thoughts
    MA-bdk 75 - MA 75 The Discourse on the Path to Pure Imperturbability
    MA-bdk 76 - MA 76 The Discourse at Ukkācelā
    MA-bdk 77 - MA 77 The Discourse on Three Clansmen at Sāketa
    MA-bdk 78 - MA 78 The Discourse on Brahmā’s 547a Invitation to the Buddha
    MA-bdk 79 - MA 79 The Discourse on the Existence of Higher Devas
    MA-bdk 80 - MA 80 The Discourse on Cloth for Robes
    MA-bdk 81 - MA 81 The Discourse on 554c Mindfulness of the Body
    MA-bdk 82 - MA 82 The Discourse on [Hearing the Sound of ] Crickets
    MA-bdk 83 - MA 83 The Discourse on the Drowsiness of a Highly Regarded Elder
    MA-bdk 84 - MA 84 The Discourse on Being without Thorns
    MA-bdk 85 - MA 85 The Discourse on the True Person
    MA-bdk 86 - MA 86 The Discourse Explaining the Bases

MA-bdk ..8.. Division 8 On Blemishes: MA 87-96

    MA-bdk 87 - MA 87 The Discourse on Defilements
    MA-bdk 88 - MA 88 The Discourse on the Quest for the Dharma
    MA-bdk 89 - MA 89 The Discourse on a 571c Monk’s Request
    MA-bdk 90 - MA 90 The Discourse on Knowledge of the Dharma
    MA-bdk 91 - MA 91 The Discourse on Cunda’s Inquiry about Views
    MA-bdk 92 - MA 92 The Discourse on the Simile of Blue and White Lotuses
    MA-bdk 93 - MA 93 The Discourse on a Brahmin [Practitioner of ] Purification by Bathing
    MA-bdk 95 - MA 95 The Discourse on Maintaining [Wholesome] States
    MA-bdk 96 - MA 96 The Discourse on Absence
    MA-bdk 97 - MA 97 The Great Discourse on Causality
    MA-bdk 98 - MA 98 The Discourse on the Establishments of Mindfulness

MA-bdk ..9.. Division 9 On Causality: MA 99-106

    MA-bdk 99 - MA 99 The [First] Discourse 584c on the Mass of Dukkha
    MA-bdk 100 - MA 100 The [Second] Discourse on the Mass of Dukkha
    MA-bdk 101 - MA 101 The Discourse on the Higher State of Mind
    MA-bdk 102 - MA 102 The Discourse on Thoughts
    MA-bdk 103 - MA 103 The Discourse on the Lion’s Roar
    MA-bdk 104 - MA 104 The Discourse in the Udumbara [Forest]
    MA-bdk 105 - MA 105 The Discourse on Wishes
    MA-bdk 106 - MA 106 The Discourse on Perception

MA-bdk ..10.. Division 10 On the Forest: MA 107-116

    MA-bdk 107 - MA 107 The [First] Discourse on the Forest
    MA-bdk 108 - MA 108 The [Second] Discourse on the Forest
    MA-bdk 109 - MA 109 The [First] Discourse on Examining One’s Own Mind
    MA-bdk 110 - MA 110 The [Second] Discourse on Examining One’s Own Mind
    MA-bdk 111 - MA 111 The Discourse on Fulfilling the Holy Life
    MA-bdk 112 - MA 112 The Discourse Spoken at Anupiya
    MA-bdk 113 - MA 113 The Discourse on the 602c Root of all Phenomena
    MA-bdk 114 - MA 114 The Discourse on Uddaka [Rāmaputta]
    MA-bdk 115 - MA 115 The Discourse with the Simile of the Honeyball
    MA-bdk 116 - MA 116 The Discourse Spoken to Gotamī

MA-bdk ..11.. Division 11 The [First] Great Division: MA 117-141

    MA-bdk 117 - MA 117 The Discourse on 607c Delicate [Upbringing]
    MA-bdk 118 - MA 118 The Discourse on the Elephant
    MA-bdk 119 - MA 119 The Discourse on the Grounds for Speaking
    MA-bdk 120 - MA 120 The Discourse on a Teaching about Impermanence
    MA-bdk 121 - MA 121 The Discourse on the Invitation Ceremony
    MA-bdk 122 - MA 122 The Discourse at Campā
    MA-bdk 123 - MA 123 The Discourse on the Renunciant Soṇa Kolivīsa
    MA-bdk 124 - MA 124 The Discourse on Eight Obstacles
    MA-bdk 125 - MA 125 The Discourse on Poverty
    MA-bdk 126 - MA 126 The Discourse on Engaging in Sensual Pleasures
    MA-bdk 127 - MA 127 The Discourse on Fields of Merit
    MA-bdk 128 - MA 128 The Discourse on Male Lay Disciples
    MA-bdk 129 - MA 129 The Discourse on the Enemy
    MA-bdk 130 - MA 130 The Discourse on Teaching Dhammika
    MA-bdk 131 - MA 131 The Discourse on Overcoming Māra
    MA-bdk 132 - MA 132 The Discourse on Raṭṭhapāla1
    MA-bdk 133 - MA 133 The Discourse on Upāli21
    MA-bdk 134 - MA 134 The Discourse on the Questions
    MA-bdk 135 - MA 135 The Discourse on Sujāta66
    MA-bdk 136 - MA 136 The Discourse on Merchants
    MA-bdk 137 - MA 137 The Discourse on the World85
    MA-bdk 138 - MA 138 The Discourse on Meritorious Deeds
    MA-bdk 139 - MA 139 The Discourse on the Path
    MA-bdk 140 - MA 140 The Discourse on the Lowliest94
    MA-bdk 141 - MA 141 The Discourse with Similes97

MA-bdk ..12.. Division 12 On Brahmins: MA 142–161

    MA-bdk 142 - MA 142 The Discourse to Vassakāra98
    MA-bdk 143 - MA 143 The Discourse to Saṅgārava
    MA-bdk 144 - MA 144 The Discourse to Gaṇaka
    MA-bdk 145 - MA 145 The Discourse to Gopaka
    MA-bdk 146 - MA 146 The Discourse on the Simile
    MA-bdk 147 - MA 147 The Discourse on the Virtues
    MA-bdk 148 - MA 148 The Discourse on What Is Suffering
    MA-bdk 149 - MA 149 The Discourse on What One Desires
    MA-bdk 150 - MA 150 The Discourse to Esukārī160
    MA-bdk 151 - MA 151 The Discourse to Assalāyana172
    MA-bdk 152 - MA 152 The Discourse to Suka193
    MA-bdk 153 - MA 153 The Discourse to Māgandiya210
    MA-bdk 154 - MA 154 The Discourse to Vāseṭṭha at the Hall [of Migāra’s Mother]
    MA-bdk 155 - MA 155 The Discourse about Velāma246
    MA-bdk 156 - MA 156 The Discourse to the Pārāyana Brahmins
    MA-bdk 157 - MA 157 The Discourse in the Yellow Reed Park
    MA-bdk 158 - MA 158 The Discourse to Doṇa268
    MA-bdk 159 - MA 159 The Discourse to Aggilāyana
    MA-bdk 160 - MA 160 The Discourse on Araka279
    MA-bdk 161 - MA 161 The Discourse to Brahmāyu291

MA-bdk ..13.. Division 13 On Basic Analysis: MA 162–171

    MA-bdk 162 - MA 162 The Discourse on an Analysis of the Six Elements
    MA-bdk 163 - MA 163 The Discourse on an Analysis of the Six Sense Spheres
    MA-bdk 164 - MA 164 The Discourse on an Analytical Contemplation of Dharmas
    MA-bdk 165 - MA 165 The Discourse on a Deva
    MA-bdk 166 - MA 166 The Discourse on a Venerable One
    MA-bdk 167 - MA 167 The Discourse Spoken by Ānanda361
    MA-bdk 168 - MA 168 The Discourse on Mental Practice366
    MA-bdk 169 - MA 169 The Discourse [Spoken among] the Kurus on Nonconflict
    MA-bdk 170 - MA 170 The Discourse to [a Brahmin Named] Parrot
    MA-bdk 171 - MA 171 The Discourse on a Great Analysis of Karma

MA-bdk ..14.. Division 14 On the Mind: MA 172–181

    MA-bdk 172 - MA 172 The Discourse on the Mind391
    MA-bdk 173 - MA 173 The Discourse to Bhūmija396
    MA-bdk 174 - MA 174 The Discourse on Ways of Practice (1)
    MA-bdk 175 - MA 175 The Discourse on Ways of Practice (2)
    MA-bdk 176 - MA 176 The Discourse on Practitioners
    MA-bdk 177 - MA 177 The Discourse on [Four Modes of] Explanation
    MA-bdk 178 - MA 178 The Discourse on the Hunter415
    MA-bdk 179 - MA 179 The Discourse to the Carpenter
    MA-bdk 180 - MA 180 The Discourse to Gotamī435
    MA-bdk 181 - MA 181 The Discourse on Many Elements444

MA-bdk ..15.. Division 15 MA 182–222

0 – MA (BDK translation) – notes on errors corrected 2023 by lucid24.org


http://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2023/03/ma-madhyama-agama-chinese-parallel-to.html

Unfortunately, BDK's MA translation project contains a grave error in the standard jhāna formula.
The error, in great detail here: V&V💭

It's important for publishers not to misrepresent the Buddha's teachings.
Especially on such an indispensable critical key to the whole enlightenment process,
jhāna meditation.

Until they publicly retract and disavow their errors on jhāna meditation,
I'm publishing the corrections for them.
Using a few simple 'search and replace' word substitutions, this did the trick.

Egregious errors:


vitakka & vicāra ≠ initial and sustained application of THE mind -
V&V = directed-thought and evaluation

vitakka & vicāra ≠ initial and sustained application of mind

V&V = directed-thought and evaluation (same as previous one, sometimes they had 'application of THE mind' and sometimes 'of mind').

vitakka ≠ [directed] awareness


vitakka = directed-thought: you don't lose awareness, nor directed-awareness after first jhāna into the higher jhānas and formless attainments.
Unless you die. See MN 111.
Cetana (volition), attention, sati, are present in all four jhānas.
You don't lose 'awareness' or the ability to 'contemplate' after first jhāna and into the higher samādhis.

vicāra ≠ [sustained] contemplation


vicāra = evaluation: On it's own, "sustained contemplation" is perfectly fine translation,
but in conjunction with "initial application" it's invoking a wrong view of Theravāda Commentary interpretation that removes verbal thought.
Also, 'contemplation' gets used elsewhere in their Agama translations for 'sampajāno' in satipaṭṭhāna,
so this ambiguity results in an error of sampajāno ('contemplation') still being present in 3rd jhāna, when first jhāna vicāra ('contemplation') was supposedly abandoned.

Minor errors


1. absorption → jhāna (absorption is a workable translation,
but since 'jhāna' is already widely in use and acccepted,
it's better to keep it untranslated.
'Zen' would work just as well)

2. (ekaggata) one-pointedness → singular-focus
The English phrase 'one-pointedness' already has well estabished meaning in corrupted meditation instructions from Theravāda Buddhism,
otherwise the English on its own is not necessarily a wrong translation.





MA 1-71 (BDK vol. 1)

..1.. Division 1 On Sets of Seven: MA 1-10




421a8

1 - MA 1 The Discourse on Wholesome Qualities41


1. The Discourse on Wholesome Qualities41

Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
If a monk achieves seven qualities, then he wil at ain joy and happiness in [the path of] the noble ones and wil progress rightly toward the cessation of the taints.

What are the seven?
They are:
a monk knows the Dharma, knows the meaning, knows the proper time, knows restraint, knows himself, knows assemblies, and knows persons according to their superiority.

How does a monk know the Dharma?
A monk knows the discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, causes, inspired ut erances, heroic tales, [what has been] “thus said,” birth stories, answers to questions, marvels, and explanations of meaning.
This is a monk who knows the Dharma.

If a monk does not know the Dharma—that is to say, does not know the discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, causes, inspired ut erances, heroic tales, [what has been] “thus said,” birth stories, answers to questions, marvels, and explanations of meaning—then such a monk is one who does not know the Dharma.

If, [however,] a monk knows the Dharma well—that is to say, knows the discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, causes, inspired utterances, heroic tales, [what has been] “thus said,” birth stories, answers to questions, marvels, and explanations of meaning—then such a monk is one who knows the Dharma wel .

How does a monk know the meaning?
A monk knows the meaning of various explanations:
“The meaning is this, the meaning is that.”


3
This is a monk who knows the meaning.

If a monk does not know the meaning—that is to say, does not know the meaning of various explanations:
“The meaning is this, the meaning is that”—then such a monk is one who does not know the meaning.

421b

If, [however,] a monk knows the meaning wel —that is to say, knows the meaning of various explanations:
“The meaning is this, the meaning is that”—then such a monk is one who knows the meaning wel .

How does a monk know the proper time?
A monk knows:
“This is the time to develop the characteristic of set ling,” “This is the time to develop the characteristic of arousing,” “This is the time to develop the characteristic of equanimity.”
This is a monk who knows the proper time.
If a monk does not know the proper time—that is to say, he does not know:
“This is the time to develop the characteristic of set ling,”

“This is the time to develop the characteristic of arousing,” “This is the time to develop the characteristic of equanimity”—then such a monk is one who does not know the proper time.

If, [however,] a monk knows wel the proper time—that is to say, he knows:
“This is the time to develop the characteristic of set ling,”

“This is the time to develop the characteristic of arousing,” “This is the time to develop the characteristic of equanimity”—then such a monk knows wel the proper time.

How does a monk know restraint?
A monk knows restraint who, having discarded sloth and torpor, practices right at entiveness when drinking, eating, going, standing, sit ing, lying down, speaking, keeping silent, defecating, or urinating.
This is a monk who knows restraint.

If a monk does not know restraint—that is to say, he does not know [how] to discard sloth and torpor and practice right at entiveness when drinking, eating, going, standing, sit ing, lying down, speaking, keeping silent, defecating, or urinating—then such a monk is one who does not know restraint.

If, [however,] a monk knows restraint well—that is to say, he knows [how] to discard drowsiness and practice right at entiveness

when drinking, eating, going, standing, sit ing, lying down, speaking, keeping silent, defecating, or urinating—then such a monk is one who knows restraint wel .

How does a monk know himself?
A monk knows of himself:
“I have such faith, such virtue, such learning, such generosity, such wisdom, such eloquence, such [knowledge of] the canonical texts, and such at ainments.”
This is a monk who knows himself.

If a monk does not know himself—that is to say, he does not know of himself:
“I have such faith, such virtue, such learning, such generosity, such wisdom, such eloquence, such [knowledge of] the canonical texts, and such at ainments”—then such a monk is one who does not know himself.

If, [however,] a monk knows himself wel —that is to say, he knows of himself:
“I have such faith, such virtue, such learning, such generosity, such wisdom, such eloquence, such [knowledge of] the canonical texts, and such at ainments”—then such a monk is one who knows himself wel .

How does a monk know assemblies?
A monk knows:
“This is an assembly of khat iya s,”42 “This is an assembly of brahmins,” “This is an assembly of householders,” “This is an assembly of renunciants”;

“In that [type of] assembly I ought to walk like this, stand like this, sit like this, speak like this, keep silent like this.”
This is a monk who knows assemblies.

If a monk does not know assemblies—that is to say, he does not know:
“This is an assembly of khat iya s,” “This is an assembly of brahmins,” “This is an assembly of householders,” “This is an assembly of renunciants”;
“In that [type of] assembly I ought to walk like this, 421c stand like this, sit like this, speak like this, keep silent like this”— then such a monk is one who does not know assemblies.
If, [however,] a monk knows assemblies wel —that is to say, he knows:
“This is an assembly of khat iya s,” “This is an assembly of brahmins,” “This is an assembly of householders,” “This is an assembly of renunciants”;

“In that [type of] assembly I ought to walk like this, stand like this, sit like this, speak like this, keep silent like this”—then such a monk is one who knows assemblies wel .

5
How does a monk know persons according to their superiority?

A monk knows that there are two types of persons:
those who have faith and those who do not have faith.
Those who have faith are superior;
those who do not have faith are inferior.

Of persons who have faith there are again two types:
those who frequently go to see monks and those who do not frequently go to see monks.
43 Those who frequently go to see monks are superior;
those who do not frequently go to see monks are inferior.

Of persons who frequently go to see monks there are again two types:
those who pay their respects to monks and those who do not pay their respects to monks.
Those who pay their respects to monks are superior;
those who do not pay their respects to monks are inferior.

Of persons who pay their respects to monks there are again two types:
those who ask about the discourses and those who do not ask about the discourses.
Those who ask about the discourses are superior;
those who do not ask about the discourses are inferior.

Of persons who ask about the discourses there are again two types:
those who listen with concentration to a discourse and those who do not listen with concentration to a discourse.
Those who listen with concentration to a discourse are superior;
those who do not listen with concentration to a discourse are inferior.

Of persons who listen with concentration to a discourse there are again two types:
those who retain the Dharma they have heard and those who do not retain the Dharma they have heard.
Those who retain the Dharma they have heard are superior;
those who do not retain the Dharma they have heard are inferior.

Of persons who retain the Dharma they have heard there are again two types:
those who examine the meaning of the Dharma they have heard and those who do not examine the meaning of the Dharma they have heard.
Those who examine the meaning of the Dharma they have heard are superior;
those who do not examine the meaning of the Dharma they have heard are inferior.

Of persons who examine the meaning of the Dharma they have heard there are again two types:
those who know the Dharma, know its meaning, progress in the Dharma, fol ow the Dharma, conform to

the Dharma, and practice in accordance with the Dharma;
and those who do not know the Dharma, do not know its meaning, do not progress in the Dharma, do not follow the Dharma, do not conform to the Dharma, and do not practice in accordance with the Dharma.
Those who know the Dharma, know its meaning, progress in the Dharma, fol ow the Dharma, conform to the Dharma, and practice in accordance with the Dharma are superior.
Those who do not know the Dharma, do not know its meaning, do not progress in the Dharma, do not fol ow the Dharma, do not conform to the Dharma, and do not practice in accordance with the Dharma are inferior.

Of persons who know the Dharma, know its meaning, progress in the Dharma, fol ow the Dharma, conform to the Dharma, and practice in accordance with the Dharma, there are again two types:
there are those who benefit themselves and benefit others, who benefit many people, who have compassion for the world, seek advantage and benefit for gods and human beings, and seek their peace and happiness;
and 422a there are those who do not benefit themselves and do not benefit others, who do not benefit many people, who do not have compassion for the world, do not seek advantage and benefit for gods and human beings, and do not seek their peace and happiness.
Those who benefit themselves and benefit others, who benefit many people, who have compassion for the world, seek advantage and benefit for gods and human beings, and seek their peace and happiness—this [type of] person is supreme among the [types of] person [mentioned above], the greatest, the highest, the best, the superior one, the most excel ent one, the most sublime.

It is just as from a cow comes milk, from milk comes cream, from cream comes but er, from but er comes ghee, and from ghee comes cream of ghee;
and among these cream of ghee is supreme, the greatest, the highest, the best, the superior one, the most excel ent one, the most sublime.

In the same way, if persons benefit themselves and benefit others, benefit many people, have compassion for the world, seek advantage and benefit for gods and human beings, and seek their peace and happiness, then of the two [types of] person spoken of above, distinguished 7
above, and designated above, this one is supreme, the greatest, the highest, the best, the superior one, the most excel ent, the most sublime.

This is [how] a monk knows persons according to their superiority.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

2 - MA 2 The Discourse on the Coral Tree


2. The Discourse on the Coral Tree
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
When the leaves of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods become withered, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice, [saying]:
“The leaves of the coral tree wil soon fal !” Again, when the leaves of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods have fal en, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice:
“The [new] leaves of the coral tree will soon appear!”

Again, when the [new] leaves of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods have appeared, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice:
“The coral tree wil soon grow buds!”46 Again, when the coral tree of the thirty-three gods has grown buds, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice:

“The [buds of the] coral tree will soon resemble a bird’s beak!”

Again, when the [buds of the] coral tree of the thirty-three gods resemble a bird’s beak, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice:
422b

“The [buds of the] coral tree wil soon open up and resemble bowls!”

Again, [when the buds of] the coral tree of the thirty-three gods have opened up and resemble bowls, the thirty-three gods are happy and rejoice:
“The coral tree wil soon be in ful bloom!”

When the coral tree is in ful bloom, the radiance it emits, the color it reflects, and the fragrance it emits spread a hundred leagues around.

Then, for the four months of the summer season the thirty-three gods amuse themselves equipped with the five types of divine sense pleasure.

This is [how] the thirty-three gods assemble and amuse themselves beneath their coral tree.



It is just the same with the noble disciple.
When thinking of leaving the household life, the noble disciple is reckoned as having withered leaves, like the withered leaves of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

Again, the noble disciple shaves off [his] hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, and, out of faith, leaves the household life, becomes homeless, and practices the path.
At this time the noble disciple is reckoned as one whose leaves have fal en, like the fal ing of the leaves of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

Again, the noble disciple, separated from desires, separated from evil and unwholesome states, with directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of separation, dwel s having at ained the first jhāna.
At this time the noble disciple is reckoned as one whose new leaves have appeared, like the appearing of the new leaves on the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

Again, the noble disciple, through the calming of directed-thought and evaluation, with inward stil ness and mental singular-focus, without directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of concentration, dwel s having at ained the second jhāna.
At this time the noble disciple is reckoned to have grown buds, like the growing of the buds on the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

Again, the noble disciple, separated from joy and desire, dwel ing in equanimity and not seeking anything, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness, experiencing pleasure with the body, dwel s having at ained the third jhāna, which the noble ones speak of as noble equanimity and mindfulness, a happy abode.
47 At this time the noble disciple is reckoned to have grown [buds] resembling a bird’s beak, like the [buds] resembling a bird’s beak on the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

Again, the noble disciple, with the cessation of pleasure and pain, and with the earlier cessation of joy and displeasure, with neither-pain-nor-pleasure, equanimity, mindfulness, and purity, dwells having at ained the fourth jhāna.
At this time the noble disciple is reckoned to have grown [buds] resembling bowls, like the [buds] resembling bowls on the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.

9
Again, the noble disciple destroys the taints, [at ains] liberation of the mind, and liberation through wisdom, and in this very life, personal y at ains understanding and awakening, and dwel s having personal y realized.
He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


At this time the noble disciple is reckoned to be in ful bloom, like the ful blooming of the coral tree of the thirty-three gods.
This monk is one whose taints are destroyed, an arahant.
The thirty-three gods assemble in the Hal of the True Dharma and, sighing in admiration, praise him:

422c

Venerable disciple So-and-so, from such-and-such a vil age or town, having shaved off [his] hair and beard, donned the yel ow robe, and having left the household life out of faith to become a homeless one, having practiced the path, he has destroyed the taints.

He has [at ained] liberation of the mind and liberation through wisdom, and in this very life [he has] personal y at ained understanding and awakening, and dwel s having personal y realized.

He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


This is [how] an arahant, with taints destroyed, joins the community

[of liberated ones], like the assembling of the thirty-three gods beneath their coral tree.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

3 - MA 3 The Discourse with the Parable of the [Border] Town


3. The Discourse with the Parable of the [Border] Town
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:


If a king’s border town is equipped with seven things and obtains easily and without difficulty an abundance of four types of supplies, then this king’s [border] town wil not be wiped out by outside enemies but only by internal self-destruction.

What are the seven things with which the king’s [border] town is equipped?
In the king’s border town a watchtower has been constructed, built firmly in the earth, indestructible, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the first thing with which the king’s

[border] town is equipped.

Again, for the king’s border town a moat has been excavated, very deep and wide, wel designed and reliable, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the second thing with which the king’s [border] town is equipped.

Again, the king’s border town is surrounded by a road that is open and clear, level and wide, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the third thing with which the king’s [border] town is equipped.

Again, the king’s border town has raised an army with the four divisions—elephant troops, cavalry, chariot troops, and infantry—to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the fourth thing with which the king’s [border] town is equipped.

Again, the king’s border town has been provided with weapons—

bows and arrows, swords and spears—to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the fifth thing with which the king’s

[border] town is equipped.

Again, in the king’s border town a general has been appointed as gatekeeper, one who is sharp-wit ed and wise in making decisions, brave and resolute, of excel ent counsel, who al ows entry to the good and keeps out the bad, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the sixth thing with which the king’s [border] town is equipped.

Again, for the king’s border town a high rampart has been constructed, extremely solid, plastered with mud and painted with whitewash, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the seventh thing with which the king’s [border] town is equipped.

11
What are the four kinds of supplies that the king’s [border] town obtains in abundance, easily and without difficulty?
The king’s border 423a

town has been provided with plentiful quantities of water, grass, and firewood, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the first kind of supplies that the king’s [border] town obtains in abundance, easily and without difficulty.

Again, the king’s border town has harvested plenty of rice and stored up plenty of wheat, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the second kind of supplies that the king’s [border]

town obtains in abundance, easily and without difficulty.

Again, the king’s border town has amassed plenty of grain and beans of various sorts, to ensure peace within and control outside enemies.
This is the third kind of supplies that the king’s [border] town obtains in abundance, easily and without difficulty.

Again, the king’s border town has stored up ghee, honey, sugarcane, sugar, fish, salt, and dried meat, is equipped with al of these, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies.
This is the fourth kind of supplies that the king’s [border] town obtains in abundance, easily and without difficulty.

Such a king’s [border] town, equipped with [these] seven things and having obtained easily and without difficulty an abundance of

[these] four kinds of supplies, wil not be wiped out by outside enemies but only by internal self-destruction.

In the same way, if a noble disciple gains seven wholesome qualities and at ains four higher states of mind easily and without difficulty, then for this reason the noble disciple wil be beyond the reach of King Māra, wil not be influenced by evil and unwholesome states, wil not be defiled by defilements, and wil not be born again.

How does a noble disciple gain seven wholesome qualities?
A noble disciple gains firm faith that is deeply set led in the Tathāgata, faith with firm roots that cannot be influenced by non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins, or by gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world.
This is how the noble disciple gains the first wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple has at al times a sense of shame.
What is shameful he knows as shameful, [namely,] evil and unwholesome

states, which pol ute and defile, which have various evil consequences and create the root cause of birth and death.
This is how the noble disciple gains the second wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple continuously fears wrongdoing.
What is wrong he knows as wrong, [namely,] evil and unwholesome states, which pol ute and defile, which wil have various evil consequences and create the root cause of birth and death.
This is how the noble disciple gains the third wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple continuously applies effort, cut ing off what is evil and unwholesome and cultivating wholesome states.
He constantly arouses his mind, is single-minded and steadfast regarding the roots of wholesomeness, without giving up his task.
This is how the noble disciple gains the fourth wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple studies widely and learns much, retaining and not forget ing it, accumulating broad learning of what is cal ed the Dharma, which is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, which has [proper] meaning and expression, is endowed with purity, and reveals the holy life.
In this way he studies widely and learns much regarding al the teachings, familiarizing himself with them even a thousand times, considering and contemplating them with knowledge, vision, and profound penetration.
This is how the noble disciple gains the fifth wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple continuously practices mindfulness, achieves right mindfulness, always recal ing and not forget ing what 423b was done or heard long ago.
This is how the noble disciple gains the sixth wholesome quality.

Again, the noble disciple develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.
This is how the noble disciple gains the seventh wholesome quality.

How does the noble disciple attain four higher states of mind, easily and without difficulty?
Separated from desires, separated from evil and unwholesome states, with directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of separation, the noble disciple 13
dwel s having at ained the first jhāna.
This is how the noble disciple attains the first higher state of mind, easily and without difficulty.

Again, through the calming of directed-thought and evaluation, with inward stil ness and mental singular-focus, without directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of concentration, the noble disciple dwel s having at ained the second jhāna.
This is how the noble disciple at ains the second higher state of mind, easily and without difficulty.

Again, separated from joy and desire, dwel ing in equanimity and not seeking anything, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness, experiencing pleasure with the body, the noble disciple dwel s having at ained the third jhāna, which the noble ones speak of as noble equanimity and mindfulness, a happy abode.
49 This is how the noble disciple at ains the third higher state of mind, easily and without difficulty.

Again, with the cessation of pleasure and pain, and with the earlier cessation of joy and displeasure, with neither-pain-nor-pleasure, equanimity, mindfulness, and purity, the noble disciple dwel s having at ained the fourth jhāna.
This is how the noble disciple at ains the fourth higher state of mind, easily and without difficulty.

In this way the noble disciple, who has gained seven wholesome qualities and at ained four higher states of mind, easily and without difficulty, is beyond the reach of King Māra, and wil not be influenced by evil and unwholesome states, wil not be defiled by defilements and wil not be born again.

Just as a watchtower is constructed in the king’s border town, built firmly in the earth, indestructible, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies—in the same way, the noble disciple gains firm faith that is deeply set led in the Tathāgata, faith with firm roots that cannot be influenced by non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins, or by gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world.
This is how the noble disciple gains the “watchtower” of faith, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as a moat is excavated [around] the king’s border town, very deep and wide, wel designed and reliable, to ensure peace within and

to control outside enemies;
in the same way, the noble disciple has at al times a sense of shame.
What is shameful he knows as shameful,

[namely] evil and unwholesome states, which pol ute and defile, which have various evil consequences, and create the root cause of birth and death.
This is how the noble disciple gains the “moat” of a sense of shame, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as a road surrounds the king’s border town, open and clear, level and wide, to ensure peace within and control outside enemies;
in the same way, the noble disciple at al times fears wrongdoing.
What 423c is wrong he knows as wrong, [namely] evil and unwholesome states, which pol ute and defile, which wil have various evil consequences, which create the root cause of birth and death.
This is how the noble disciple gains the “level road” of the fear of wrongdoing, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as an army with four divisions is raised in the king’s border town, with elephant troops, cavalry, chariot troops, and infantry, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way, the noble disciple continuously applies effort, abandoning what is evil and unwholesome and cultivating wholesome states.
He constantly arouses his mind, is single-minded and steadfast regarding the roots of wholesomeness, without giving up his task.
This is how the noble disciple gains the “army” of effort, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as weapons are provided for the troops of the king’s border town—bows and arrows, swords and spears—to ensure peace within and control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple studies widely and learns much, retaining and not forget ing it, accumulating broad learning of what is called the Dharma, which is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, which has [proper]

meaning and expression, is endowed with purity, and reveals the holy life.
In this way he studies widely and learns much regarding al the teachings, familiarizing himself with them even a thousand times, mental y considering and contemplating them with knowledge, vision, and profound penetration.
This is how the noble disciple gains the “weapon”

15
of much learning, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as a general is appointed as gatekeeper to the king’s border town, one who is sharp-wit ed and wise in making decisions, brave and resolute, of excel ent counsel, who al ows entry to the good and keeps out the bad, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple continuously practices mindfulness, achieves right mindfulness, always recal ing and not forget ing what was done or heard long ago.
This is how the noble disciple gains the

“gatekeeping general” of mindfulness, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as a high rampart is constructed for the king’s border town, extremely solid, plastered with mud and painted with whitewash, to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.
This is how the noble disciple gains the

“rampart” of wisdom, which removes what is evil and unwholesome and develops wholesome states.

Just as supplies of water, grass, and firewood are provided for the king’s border town to ensure peace within and control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple, separated from desires, separated from evil and unwholesome states, with directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of seclusion, dwel s having at ained the first jhāna.
He abides in a happiness that lacks nothing, a peaceful happiness that leads natural y to nirvana.

Just as plenty of rice is harvested and plenty of wheat is stored up in the king’s border town to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple, through the calming of directed-thought and evaluation, with inward stil ness and 424a

mental singular-focus, without directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of concentration, dwel s having at ained the second jhāna.
He abides in a happiness that lacks nothing, a peaceful happiness that leads natural y to nirvana.



Just as large amounts of grain and beans of various sorts are amassed in the king’s border town to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple, separated from joy and desire, dwel ing in equanimity and not seeking anything, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness, experiencing pleasure with the body, dwel s having at ained the third jhāna, which the noble ones speak of as noble equanimity and mindfulness, a happy abode.

He abides in a happiness that lacks nothing, a peaceful happiness that leads natural y to nirvana.

Just as ghee, honey, sugarcane, sugar, fish, salt, and dried meat are stored up in the king’s border town, being equipped with all of these to ensure peace within and to control outside enemies;
in the same way the noble disciple, with the cessation of pleasure and pain, and with the earlier cessation of joy and displeasure, with neither-pain-nor-pleasure, equanimity, mindfulness, and purity, dwells having at ained the fourth jhāna, abiding in a happiness that lacks nothing, a peaceful happiness that leads natural y to nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

4 - MA 4 The Discourse with the Water Parable


4. The Discourse with the Water Parable
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
“I shal teach you about seven persons in the water.
Listen closely, listen closely and pay careful at ention!”

The monks listened to receive instruction.

The Buddha said:

What are the seven?

Suppose there is a person who remains lying in the water [below the surface].

And suppose there is another person who surfaces but then sinks again.

17
And suppose there is another person who surfaces and remains standing [in the water].

And suppose there is another person who surfaces and remains standing;
and, having remained standing, observes.
And suppose there is another person who surfaces and remains standing, and having remained standing, observes;
and, having observed, crosses over [toward the farther bank].

And suppose there is another person who surfaces and remains standing;
and, having remained standing, observes;
and, having observed, crosses over;
and, having crossed over, reaches the farther bank.

And suppose there is another person who surfaces and remains standing;
and, having remained standing, observes;
and, having observed, crosses over;
and, having crossed over, reaches the farther bank;
and, having reached the farther bank, is cal ed a “person dwel ing on the [farther] bank.”


In the same way, I shal repeat to you the parable of seven persons in the water.
Listen closely, listen closely and pay careful at ention!

The monks listened to receive instruction.

The Buddha said:

What are the seven?

Suppose there is a person who remains lying [in the water].

And suppose there is another person who, having surfaced, sinks again.
And suppose there is another who, having surfaced, remains standing.

And suppose there is another who, having surfaced, remains standing, and having remained standing, observes.
And suppose there is another who, having surfaced, remains standing;
and, having remained standing, observes;
and, having observed, crosses over.

And suppose there is another who, having surfaced, remains stand-424b

ing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
and having crossed over, reaches the farther bank.

And suppose there is another person who, having surfaced, remains standing, having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses

over;
having crossed over, reaches the farther bank;
and having reached the farther bank, is cal ed a “brahmin dwel ing on the [farther] bank.”


I have taught in brief this parable of seven people in the water.
As it has been set out and described above, do you know what its meaning is, how to explain it, and what its moral is?

The monks said to the World-honored One:

The World-honored One is the source of the Dharma, the World-honored One is the master of the Dharma, the Dharma comes from the World-honored One.
May he explain it! Having heard, we wil come to know its meaning ful y.

The Buddha said:
“[Then] Listen closely, listen closely and pay careful at ention! I shal explain its meaning to you.”


Then the monks listened to receive instruction.

The Buddha said:

What is [the meaning of] the person that remains lying [in the water]?

Here, a person is obstructed by unwholesome states, defiled by defilements, experiencing the consequences of evil states, which create the root cause for birth and death.

This is what is meant by the person that remains lying [in the water].
Like a person who, having sunk and drowned, remains lying in the water, just so, I say, is this [defiled] person.
This is what is meant by the first person in the water parable.
Such [people] are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, sinks again?
Here, a person has “surfaced” by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing] wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

At a later time, [however,] he loses faith, which [then] becomes unstable, gives up keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing] wisdom—[these practices] thus become unstable.

This is what is meant by the person who, having surfaced, sinks again.
Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water, 19
surfaces but then sinks again—just so, I say, is this [backsliding] person.

This is what is meant by the second person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, remains standing?
Here, a person has “surfaced” by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing]

wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

At a later time his faith [remains] firm and is not lost, and his keeping of the precepts, practice of generosity, learning much, and [developing of] wisdom [remain] stable and firm and are not lost.

This is what is meant by the person who, having surfaced, remains standing.
Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water, surfaces and remains standing—just so, I say, is this [stable] person.

This is what is meant by the third person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
and, having remained standing, observes?
Here, a person has “surfaced”

by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, and practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing] wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

At a later time, his faith remains firm and is not lost, and his keeping of the precepts, practice of generosity, learning much, and [developing] wisdom [remain] stable and firm and are not lost.
Being established in the true Dharma, he knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, and knows the path to the cessation of suffering as it really is.
Through such knowing and seeing, three fet ers are eliminated:
namely, personality view, clinging to precepts, and doubt;
and through the cessation of 424c

these three fet ers, he at ains stream-entry.
51 He is assured of progress toward ful awakening within at most seven existences, without fal ing into evil states.
Having passed through [at most] seven existences in heavenly or human realms, he will attain the ending of suffering.

This is what is meant by the person who having surfaced, remains standing, and having remained standing, observes.
Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water and having surfaced remains

standing, and having remained standing observes—just so, I say, is this person [who at ains stream-entry].
This is what is meant by the fourth person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
and having observed, crosses over?
Here, a person has “surfaced” by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing]

wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

At a later time, his faith [remains] firm and is not lost, his keeping of the precepts, practice of generosity, learning much, and [developing]

wisdom [remain] stable and firm and are not lost.
Being established in the true Dharma, he knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, knows the path to the cessation of suffering, as it real y is.
Through such knowing and seeing, three fet ers are eliminated:
namely, personality view, clinging to precepts, and doubt;
and, having eliminated these three fet ers, he [also]

reduces sensual desire, anger, and ignorance, and at ains once-returning.

Having passed through one existence in a heavenly or human realm, he wil at ain the ending of suffering.

This is what is meant by the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
and having observed, crosses over.
Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water and having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
and having observed, crosses over—just so, I say, is this person

[who at ains once-returning].
This is what is meant by the fifth person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
and having crossed over, reaches the farther bank?
Here, a person has “surfaced”

by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing] wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

At a later time his faith [remains] firm and is not lost, his keeping of the precepts, practice of generosity, learning much, and [developing]

21
wisdom [remain] stable and firm and are not lost.
Being established in the true Dharma, he knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, knows the path to the cessation of suffering as it real y is.
Through such knowing and seeing, the five lower fet ers are eliminated—namely, lustful desire, il wil , personality view, clinging to precepts, and doubt.
With these five lower fet ers eliminated, he wil be born in another[, heavenly] realm and there at ain final nirvana,52 having at ained the condition of non-returning, not coming back to this world.

This is what is meant by the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
and having crossed over, reaches the farther bank.
Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water and having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
and having crossed over, reaches the farther bank—just so, I say, is this person [who at ains non-returning].
This is what is meant by the sixth person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

What is the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
having crossed over, reaches the farther bank;
and having reached the farther bank, is cal ed a “brahmin dwel ing on the [farther] bank”?
Here, a person has “surfaced” by gaining faith in the true Dharma, keeping the precepts, practicing generosity, learning much, and [developing]

wisdom, [thereby] practicing the true Dharma.

425a

At a later time, his faith [remains] firm and is not lost, his keeping of the precepts, practice of generosity, learning, and [developing] wisdom are stable and firm and are not lost.
Being established in the true Dharma, he knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, and knows the path [leading]

to the cessation of suffering as it real y is.
Through such knowing and seeing, he at ains liberation of the mind from the taint of desire, from the taint of becoming, and from the taint of ignorance.
Being liberated, he knows he is liberated;
he knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the

holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.

There wil not be another existence.”


This is what is meant by the person who, having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
having crossed over, reaches the farther bank;
and having reached the farther bank, is cal ed a “brahmin dwel ing on the [farther] bank.”


Like the person who, having [nearly] drowned in the water and having surfaced, remains standing;
having remained standing, observes;
having observed, crosses over;
having crossed over, reaches the farther bank;
and having reached the farther bank, is cal ed a “person standing on the [farther] bank”—just so, I say, is this person [who has at ained liberation].
This is what is meant by the seventh person in the water parable.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

When I said earlier, “I shal teach you about seven persons in the water,” it was on account of this that I said it.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

5 - MA 5 The Discourse with the Parable of the Heap of Wood53


5. The Discourse with the Parable of the Heap of Wood53

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha, while dwel ing among the people of Kosala, was traveling accompanied by a great gathering of monks.

At that time the World-honored One, while on the road, suddenly saw in a certain place a great heap of wood, al ablaze, intensely hot.
On seeing it, the World-honored One went down from the side of the road, spread his sit ing mat under a tree, and sat down cross-legged.

Having seated himself, the World-honored One addressed the monks:

“Do you see that great heap of wood, al ablaze, intensely hot?”


The monks answered:
“We see it, World-honored One.”


The World-honored One said to the monks:

What do you think?
To embrace, or to sit or lie [beside] that great heap of wood, al ablaze, intensely hot;
or to embrace, or to sit or lie [beside]

a woman from the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a 23
woman who is in the ful bloom of youth, who has bathed and perfumed herself, has put on bright, clean clothes, is wearing garlands, and has adorned her body with jeweled necklaces—which [of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, to embrace, or to sit or lie [beside] that great heap of wood, al ablaze, intensely hot—that would be very painful.
World-honored One, to embrace, or to sit or lie [beside] a woman from the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], who is in the ful bloom of youth, who has bathed and perfumed herself, has put on bright clean clothes, is wearing flowers in her hair, and has adorned her body with jeweled necklaces—that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

425b

The World-honored One said:

I tel you:
while training as a renunciant, do not lose the path of the renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er to embrace that great heap of wood, al ablaze, intensely hot, or to sit or lie [beside it].
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet, one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm and be born in hel .

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it,54 not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he embraces or sits or lies [beside] a woman from the khattiya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], who is in the full bloom of youth, who has bathed and perfumed herself, has put on bright clean clothes, is wearing garlands, and has adorned her body with jeweled necklaces—that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial [conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:


My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

What do you think?
If a strong man were to take a stout rope or a cord made of hair and pul it around one’s thighs so that it cut the skin, and having cut the skin it cut the flesh, and having cut the flesh it cut the tendons, and having cut the tendons it cut the bone, and having cut the bone it reached the marrow and remained there;
or if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a massage of one’s body, limbs, hands, and feet, which [of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to take a stout rope or a cord made of hair and pul it around one’s thighs so that it cut the skin, and having cut the skin it cut the flesh, and having cut the flesh it cut the tendons, and having cut the tendons it cut the bone, and having cut the bone it reached the marrow and remained there, that would be very painful.
World-honored One, if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a massage of one’s body, limbs, hands, and feet, that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, while training as a renunciant, do not lose the path of the renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er to have a strong man take a stout rope or a cord madeof hair and pul it around one’s thighs so that it cut the skin, and having cut the skin it 25
cut the flesh, and having cut the flesh it cut the tendons, and having cut the tendons it cut the bone, and having cut the bone it reached the marrow and remained there.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hell.

425c

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives, as an offering made in faith by [someone from]

the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a massage of his body, limbs, hands, and feet, then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial [conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:
My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

What do you think?
If a strong man were to cut off one’s leg with a knife that had been sharpened on a whetstone;
or if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], homage, respect, and greetings—which

[of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to cut off one’s leg with a knife that had been sharpened on a whetstone, that would be very

painful.
World-honored One, if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], homage, respect, and greetings, that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, do not lose the path of the renunciant while training as a renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er to have a strong man cut off one’s leg with a knife that had been sharpened on a whetstone.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], homage, respect, and greetings, then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial [conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:
My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

426a

What do you think?
If a strong man were to encase one’s body in iron or copper plates that were al ablaze, intensely hot;
or if one were to 27
receive robes, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khattiya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes]—which [of these two]

would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to encase one’s body in iron or copper plates that were al ablaze, intensely hot, that would be very painful.
World-honored One, if one were to receive robes, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, do not lose the path of the renunciant while training as a renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er to have a strong man encase one’s body in iron or copper plates that are al ablaze, intensely hot.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives robes, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial

[conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:
My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!



You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

What do you think?
If a strong man were to open one’s mouth with a pair of hot iron tongs and then were to place inside one’s mouth an iron bal that was al ablaze, intensely hot;
and that hot iron bal were to burn the lips;
and having burned the lips, it were to burn the tongue;
and having burned the tongue, it were to burn the gums;
and having burned the gums, it were to burn the throat;
and having burned the throat, it were to burn the heart;
and having burned the heart, it were to burn the stomach and intestines;
and having burned the stomach and intestines, it were to come out below;
or if, [instead,] one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], food with a countless variety of tastes—which [of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to open one’s mouth with a pair of hot iron tongs, and then were to place inside one’s mouth an iron bal that was al ablaze, intensely hot;
and that hot iron bal were to burn the lips;
and having burned the lips, it were to burn the tongue;
and having burned the tongue, it were to burn the gums;
and having burned the gums, it were to burn the throat;
and having burned the throat, it were to burn the heart;
and having burned the heart, it were to burn the stomach and intestines;
and having burned the stomach and intestines, it were to come out below, that would be very painful.
World- 426b honored One, if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by

[someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], food with a countless variety of tastes, that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, while training as a renunciant, do not lose the path of the renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er if a strong man were to open one’s mouth with a pair of hot iron tongs, 29
and then were to place inside one’s mouth an iron ball that was all ablaze, intensely hot;
and that hot iron bal were to burn the lips;
and having burned the lips, it were to burn the tongue;
and having burned the tongue, it were to burn the gums;
and having burned the gums, it were to burn the throat;
and having burned the throat, it were to burn the heart;
and having burned the heart, it were to burn the stomach and intestines;
and having burned the stomach and intestines, it were to come out below.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], food with a countless variety of tastes, then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial [conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he will go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hell.
For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:

My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

What do you think?
If a strong man were to take an iron or copper bed that was al ablaze, intensely hot, and then force and compel one to sit or lie on it;
or if one were to receive bedding, as an offering made in

faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker

[castes]—which [of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to take an iron or copper bed that was al ablaze, intensely hot, and then force and compel one to sit or lie on it, that would be very painful.
World-honored One, if one were to receive bedding, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, while training as a renunciant do not lose the path of the renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er to have a strong man take an iron or copper bed that was all ablaze, intensely hot, and then force and compel one to sit or lie on it.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad 426c realm of existence and be born in hel .

If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives bedding, as an offering made in faith by

[someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial [conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.

When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others, and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:
My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, 31
and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

The World-honored One further said to the monks:

What do you think?
If a strong man were to take a great cauldron, of iron or copper, al ablaze, intensely hot, and having taken hold of and lifted up a person, were to turn him upside down and place him in that cauldron;
or if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by

[someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a dwel ing place, plastered with mud and painted with whitewash, with windows and doors, tight and secure, with a fireplace, warm and cozy55—which [of these two] would be the more pleasurable?

The monks answered:

World-honored One, if a strong man were to take a great cauldron, of iron or copper, al ablaze, intensely hot, and having taken hold of and lifted up a person, were to turn him upside down and place him in that cauldron, that would be very painful.
World-honored One, if one were to receive, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a dwel ing place, plastered with mud and painted with whitewash, with windows and doors, tight and secure, with a fireplace, warm and cozy, that, World-honored One, would be very pleasurable.

The World-honored One said:

I tel you, while training as a renunciant do not lose the path of the renunciant.
If you wish to perfect the holy life, it would be bet er if a strong man were to take a great cauldron, of iron or copper, al ablaze, intensely hot, and having taken hold of and lifted up a person, were to turn him upside down and place him in that cauldron.
Although one would, because of that, experience suffering or even death, yet one would not, when the body breaks up and life ends, go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .



If an ignorant person violates the precepts and is lax, giving rise to evil and unwholesome states, not practicing the holy life though professing to practice it, not a renunciant though professing to be a renunciant, if he receives, as an offering made in faith by [someone from] the khat iya, brahmin, merchant, or worker [castes], a dwel ing place, plastered with mud and painted with whitewash, with windows and doors, tight and secure, with a fireplace, warm and cozy, then that ignorant person wil , because of this unwholesome and unbeneficial

[conduct], experience the fruits of his evil states for a long time.
When the body breaks up and life ends, he wil go to a bad realm of existence and be born in hel .

For this reason you should contemplate your own benefit, the benefit of others and the benefit of both, reflecting thus:
My leaving the household life to train is not in vain, not empty.
It has results and fruits that are very agreeable, leading to a long life and to rebirth in good realms of existence.
I accept from people, 427a as offerings made in faith, robes, food and drink, bed and bedding, and medicine.
May all those donors obtain great merit, great reward, great splendor!

You should train like this.

As this teaching was being given, sixty monks were liberated from the fet ers through cessation of the taints, [while another] sixty monks gave up the precepts and returned to household life.
Why is that?
The World-honored One’s teaching and admonishment was profound and very difficult, and training in the path is also profound and very difficult.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

6 - MA 6 The Discourse on the Destination of a Good Person


6. The Discourse on the Destination of a Good Person
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
33
I shall teach you about the seven destinations of good persons and about nirvana without remainder.
Listen closely, listen closely and pay careful at ention!

The monks listened to receive instruction.

The Buddha said:

What are the seven?
A monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained;
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace57 through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?

It is just like a burning wheat husk which, having caught fire, quickly exhausts itself.
You should know that this monk is like that.

Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana [immediately after entering]

the intermediate state of existence.
This is the first destination of good persons, who are indeed to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?

It is just as when [a slab of] iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air, but on 427b

moving upward, becomes extinguished immediately.
You should know

that this monk is like that.
Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana

[after a short while spent in] the intermediate state of existence.
This is the second destination of good persons, really to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?

It is just as when [a slab of] iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air, which, having moved upward comes back down, but becomes extinguished before hit ing the ground.
You should know that this monk is like that.

Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana [after spending some time in]

the intermediate state of existence.
This is the third destination of good persons, real y to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?

It is just as when [a slab of] iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air, and becomes 35
extinguished on hit ing the ground.
You should know that this monk is like that.
Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana in his next existence.
This is the fourth destination of good persons, real y to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?
It is just as when [a slab of]

iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air and then fal s on a smal amount of sticks and grass, causing it to smoke and burn, and becomes extinguished after that has burned out.
You should know that this monk is like that.

Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana with effort.
This is the fifth destination of good persons, real y to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

427c

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?
It is just as when [a slab of]

iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air and then fal s on a large amount of sticks and grass, causing it to smoke and burn, and becomes extinguished

after that has burned out.
You should know that this monk is like that.

Having cut off the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he at ains final nirvana without effort.
This is the sixth destination of good persons.
Such people are real y to be found in the world.

Again, a monk practices thus:

There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom, but has not yet at ained [final] realization.
Practicing thus, to which destination wil such a monk go?

It is just as when [a slab of] iron that is al ablaze, intensely hot, is hit with a hammer, a burning splinter flies up into the air and fal s on to a large amount of sticks and grass, causing it to smoke and burn;
and after that has burned, the fire spreads to vil ages, towns, mountain forests, and wilderness;
and having burned out the vil ages, towns, mountain forests, and wilderness, it reaches a road, or reaches water, or reaches level ground, and becomes extinguished.
You should know that this monk is like that.
Having cut of the five lower fet ers, but with a remnant of conceit not yet extinguished, he [first] goes upstream [al the way]

to the Akaniṭ ha realm where he at ains final nirvana.
This is the seventh destination of good persons, real y to be found in the world.

What is nirvana without remainder?
A monk practices thus:
There is no self, nor is there anything belonging to a self;
in the future there wil be no self and nothing belonging to a self.
What has already come to exist wil be abandoned;
and when it has been abandoned, equanimity wil be at ained.
[I shal be] neither defiled by delight in existence nor at ached to contact [through the senses].

Such a practitioner sees the unsurpassable state of peace through his wisdom.
Having at ained [final] realization, I say, that monk wil not 37
go to the east, nor to the west, nor to the south, nor to the north, nor to

[any of] the four intermediate directions, nor above, nor below, but wil at ain the state of peace, final nirvana, right here and now.
When I said earlier, “I shal teach you about the seven destinations of good persons and about nirvana without remainder,” it was on account of this that I said it.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

7 - MA 7 The Discourse on [Sources of] Worldly Merit


7. The Discourse on [Sources of] Worldly Merit

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Kosambī, in Ghosita’s park.

At that time, in the late afternoon, Venerable Mahā Cunda rose from sitting in meditation and approached the Buddha.
On arriving, he paid his respects and, sit ing to one side, said:
“World-honored One, is it possible to 428a describe [the nature of] worldly merit?”


The World-honored One answered:

It is possible, Cunda.
There are seven [sources of] worldly merit that lead to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.

What are the seven?
Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family offers a dwel ing place or an assembly hal to the community of monks.

This, Cunda, is the first [source] of worldly merit that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Again, Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family of ers [to those] in that dwel ing place beds, seats, woolen blankets, felt mat resses, or bedding.
This, Cunda, is the second [source] of worldly merit that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Again, Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family offers to al [those] in that dwel ing-place new, clean robes of superior quality.
This, Cunda, is the third

[source] of worldly merit that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Again, Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family constantly offers to the community in that dwel ing place morning rice gruel and the midday meal .
. . provides monastic park

at endants to serve them .
. . personal y approaches the monastic park to make stil more offerings, regardless of wind or rain, cold or snow

.
. . [ensures that after] the monks have eaten, their robes do not get soaked58 by wind or rain, cold or snow, [so that they can] enjoy meditation and quiet reflection by day and by night.
This, Cunda, is the seventh [source] of worldly merit that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.

Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family who has at ained these seven [sources] of worldly merit, whether going or coming, whether standing or sit ing, whether sleeping or awake, whether by day or by night, their merit will continuously grow, increase, and become more extensive.
Cunda, just as, from its emergence at its source to its entry into the great ocean, the river Ganges becomes increasingly deep and increasingly wide, in the same way, Cunda, the merit of a faithful son or daughter of good family who has at ained these seven

[sources] of worldly merit, whether going or coming, whether standing or sit ing, whether sleeping or awake, whether by day or by night, wil continuously grow, increase, and become more extensive.

Thereupon, Venerable Mahā Cunda rose from his seat and, having bared his right shoulder, knelt with his right knee on the ground and, placing his palms together [in respect], said:
“World-honored One, is it possible to describe [the nature of] merit that transcends the world?”


The World-honored One answered:

It is possible, Cunda.
There are also seven [sources of] merit transcending the world that lead to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
What are the seven?
Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family hears that the Tathāgata or a disciple of the 428b Tathāgata is staying in a certain place.
Having heard this, they are delighted and supremely inspired.
This, Cunda, is the first [source] of merit transcending the world that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Again, Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family hears that the Tathāgata or a disciple of the Tathāgata intends to come from there to here.
Having heard this, they are delighted and supremely inspired.
This, Cunda, is the second 39
[source] of merit transcending the world that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Again, Cunda, a faithful son or daughter of good family hears that the Tathāgata or a disciple of the Tathāgata has come from there to here.
Having heard this, they are delighted and supremely inspired .
. . they personally go to see them and pay their respects with a pure mind .
. . they present offerings to them .
. . having paid their respects and presented offerings, they perform the threefold taking of refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks (Sangha) .
. . they take the precepts.

This, Cunda, is the seventh [source] of merit transcending the world that leads to great merit, great reward, great reputation, and great benefit.
Cunda, if a faithful son or daughter of good family at ains these seven [sources] of worldly merit and also these seven [sources] of merit transcending the world, their merit cannot be measured [in terms of] “so much merit,” “so much fruit of merit,” “so much result of merit”;
it just cannot be encompassed, cannot be measured.
This great merit cannot be calculated.
Cunda, it is just as in [this land of] Jambudīpa there are five rivers, the Ganges being reckoned the first, the Yamunā the second, the Sarabhū the third, the Aciravatī the fourth, and the Mahī the fifth;
and upon flowing into the great ocean, once within it, their water cannot be measured as “so many gal ons”;
it just cannot be encompassed, cannot be measured.
This great water cannot be calculated.
In the same way, Cunda, if a faithful son or daughter of good family attains these seven [sources of] worldly merit and again these seven [sources of] merit transcending the world, that merit cannot be measured as “so much merit,” “so much fruit of merit,” “so much result of merit”;
it just cannot be encompassed, cannot be measured.
This great merit cannot be calculated.

Then the World-honored One spoke these verses:

The river Ganges is pure and easily crossed,

The ocean, with its many treasures, is king of al waters.

Like the river’s water is the honor and respect of people in the world.

[Just as] al rivers reach and enter the great ocean, So it is with people who offer robes, food and drink,

Beds, couches, bedding, and seats,

428c

Measureless is the fruit of their merit, leading them to a sublime realm,

Just like the rivers’ water entering the great ocean.

This is what the Buddha said.
Venerable Mahā Cunda and the [other]

monks heard the Buddha’s words, were delighted, and remembered them wel .

8 - MA 8 The Discourse on Seven Suns


8. The Discourse on Seven Suns
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Vesālī, in Ambapālī’s Grove.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
Al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
60 Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.
Why is that?
There wil be a time when it wil not rain.
At that time when it does not rain, al the trees, the hundreds of grains, and all medicinal shrubs will wither entirely, come to destruction and extinction, unable to continue existing.
This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there wil be a time when a second sun wil appear in the world.

When the second sun appears, the flow of al the streams and rivulets wil become exhausted, unable to continue existing.
This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there wil be a time when a third sun appears in the world.
When the third sun appears, al the great rivers wil become exhausted, unable to continue existing.
This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable 41
by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there wil be a time when a fourth sun appears in the world.

When the fourth sun appears, the great springs from which the five rivers of Jambudīpa emerge—the Ganges being the first, the Yamunā

the second, the Sarabhū the third, the Aciravatī the fourth, and the Mahī

the fifth—those great springs wil al become exhausted, unable to continue existing.

This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one 429a

should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there wil be a time when a fifth sun appears in the world.

When the fifth sun appears, the water of the great ocean wil recede by one hundred leagues, and continue receding gradual y until it is

[only] seven hundred leagues [in extent].
When the fifth sun appears, and the remaining water in the ocean is [only] seven hundred leagues

[in extent], it wil continue receding gradual y until it is [only] one hundred leagues [in extent].
When the fifth sun appears, the water of the great ocean wil decrease [by the height of] one palm tree, and continue decreasing gradual y until it has [a depth of only] seven palm trees.
When the fifth sun appears and the remaining water in the ocean has [a depth of only] seven palm trees, it wil continue decreasing gradual y until it has [a depth of only] a single palm tree.
When the fifth sun appears, the water of the great ocean wil decrease [by the height of] a person, and continue decreasing gradual y until it has [a depth of only] seven persons.
When the fifth sun appears and the remaining water in the ocean has [a depth of only] seven persons, it wil again decrease gradual y until it has [a depth of only] one person.
When the fifth sun appears, the water in the ocean wil decrease to the level of a person’s neck, to the level of the shoulders, of the waist, of the hips, of the knees, to the level of the ankles, and [eventual y] there wil be

a time when the water of the ocean wil be completely exhausted, being not sufficient to submerge [even] one finger.

This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations;
one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there wil be a time when a sixth sun appears in the world.

When the sixth sun appears, the whole great earth, together with Meru, king of mountains, wil be total y submerged in smoke, a single mass of smoke.
Just as a pot er’s kiln, at the time of being ignited, is total y submerged in smoke, a single mass of smoke—in the same way, when the sixth sun appears, the whole great earth, together with Meru, king of mountains, wil be total y submerged in smoke, a single mass of smoke.

This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

Again, there will be a time when a seventh sun appears in the world.
When the seventh sun appears, the whole great earth, together with Meru, king of mountains, wil be al ablaze, intensely hot, a single mass of flame.
In this way, when the seventh sun appears and the whole great earth, together with Meru, king of mountains, is all ablaze, intensely hot, a single mass of flame, [then] the wind wil carry the flames even up to the Brahmā world.
Then the gods of radiance, who have just been born as gods and have never experienced, seen, or known the world’s [cyclic] creation and destruction, on seeing that great fire will all be terrified, with their hair standing on end, and will think:

“The fire wil not reach up to here, wil it?
The fire wil not reach up to here, wil it?”
Those who were born as gods at an earlier time and have experienced, seen, and known the world’s [cyclic] creation and destruction wil , on seeing that great fire, calm the distress of those gods, tel ing them, “Don’t be afraid! That fire is of such a nature that it wil not reach up to here.”


43
When the seventh sun appears, Meru, king of mountains, wil col-lapse, wil be completely destroyed and cease to be, [decreasing in 429b

height by] one hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, three hundred leagues, and so on until [decreasing in height by] seven hundred leagues, it wil be completely destroyed and cease to be.

When the seventh sun appears, Meru, king of mountains, together with this great earth, wil be burned to destruction and extinction, with not even ash remaining.
61 Just as hot ghee or oil that is cooked or fried until it is completely exhausted and not even smoke or soot remains, in the same way, when the seventh sun appears, Meru, king of mountains, together with the great earth, wil be [exhausted] with not even ash remaining.

This is why [I say that] al formations are impermanent, of a nature not to last, quickly changing by nature, unreliable by nature.
Thus, one should not delight in or be at ached to formations, one should loathe them as troublesome, one should seek to abandon them, one should seek to be free from them.

I have now told you that Meru, king of mountains, wil col apse and be completely destroyed.
Who can believe this?
Only those who have seen the truth.

I have now told you that the water of the great ocean will be exhausted and eliminated.
Who can believe this?
Only those who have seen the truth.

I have now told you that the whole great earth wil be burnt up and eliminated.
Who can believe this?
Only those who have seen the truth.
Why is that?

Monks, in ancient times there was a great teacher cal ed Sunet a.

He was the teacher of a school of non-Buddhist seers.
Abandoning sensual desire, he had at ained the bases of supernormal powers.
The great teacher Sunet a had countless hundreds of thousands of disciples.

The great teacher Sunet a gave his disciples teachings about [the way to] the Brahmā world.
When the great teacher Sunet a gave teachings about the [way to] the Brahmā world, some of his disciples did not adequately put his teaching into practice.



At the end of life, some of them were reborn among the four great kings, some were reborn among the thirty-three gods, some were reborn among the Yama gods, some were reborn among the Tusita gods, some were reborn among the gods who delight in creating, and some were reborn among the gods who delight in the creations of others.
If, when the great teacher Sunet a gave teachings about the [way to] the Brahmā

world, al the disciples had remembered them wel , they would have practiced the four divine abodes and, overcoming sensual desire, would, at the end of life, have at ained rebirth in the Brahmā world.

At that time the great teacher Sunet a had this thought, “In my next life I should not be reborn in the same place as my disciples.
I would now rather develop and cultivate loving-kindness.”
Having developed and cultivated loving-kindness, at the end of life he at ained rebirth among the gods of radiance.

At that time, the great teacher Sunet a developed and cultivated loving-kindness, and, having developed and cultivated loving-kindness, at the end of life I at ained rebirth among the gods of radiance.
The practice of the path by the great teacher Sunet a and his disciples was not in vain;
they obtained great reward.

Monks, what do you think?
The great teacher in ancient times cal ed Sunet a, who was the teacher of a school of non-Buddhist seers and who, overcoming sensual desire, at ained the bases of supernormal powers, do you think this was someone else?
Do not think that.
Know that it was me.

At that time I was cal ed Sunet a, a great teacher, the leader of a 429c school of non-Buddhist seers.
Overcoming sensual desire, I at ained supernormal powers.
I had countless hundreds of thousands of disciples.

I gave my disciples teachings about [the way to] the Brahmā world.

When I gave teachings about the [way to] the Brahmā world, not al of my disciples adequately put my teaching into practice.
At the end of life, some were reborn among the four great kings, some were reborn among the thirty-three gods, some were reborn among the Yama gods, some were reborn among the Tusita gods, some were reborn among the gods who delight in creating, and some were reborn among the 45
gods who delight in the creations of others.
When I gave teachings about the [way to] the Brahmā world, if al of my disciples had put my teaching into practice, they would have developed the four divine abodes and, overcoming sensual desire, at the end of life they would have at ained rebirth in the Brahmā world.

At that time I had this thought, “It is not proper for me to be reborn in the next world in the same realm as my disciples.
I would now rather develop and cultivate loving-kindness.”
Having developed and cultivated loving-kindness, at the end of life, I at ained rebirth among the gods of radiance.
Later, I developed and cultivated loving-kindness and, having developed and cultivated loving-kindness, at the end of life at ained rebirth among the gods of radiance.
The practice of the path by me and my disciples was not in vain;
we obtained great reward.

At that time I personal y practiced that path, which was of benefit to myself and of benefit to others, benefiting many people, out of compassion for the world, seeking the advantage and benefit of gods and human beings, seeking their peace and happiness.
The teaching I gave at that time did not lead to the ultimate, was not the ultimate purity, not the ultimate holy life, not the ultimate completion of the holy life.

At that time I was not able to abandon birth, old age, sickness, death, sorrow, and distress.
I was not able to at ain complete liberation from suffering.

But now, monks, I have appeared in the world as a Tathāgata, free from at achment,62 ful y awakened, endowed with knowledge and [good]

conduct, wel gone, a knower of the world, an unsurpassable being, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed,63 teacher of gods and human beings, cal ed Buddha, protector of the world.
I now benefit myself and benefit others, benefit many people.
Out of compassion for the world I seek the advantage and benefit of gods and human beings, seek [their]

peace and happiness.
The teaching I now give leads to the ultimate, is the ultimate purity, the ultimate completion of the holy life.
I have now abandoned birth, old age, sickness, death, sorrow, and distress.
I have now at ained complete liberation from suffering.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .



9 - MA 9 The Discourse on Seven Chariots


9. The Discourse on Seven Chariots
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, together with a great assembly of monks who were spending 430a the rains retreat there.
[At the same time] Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a was spending the rains retreat in the [Buddha’s] native region.

Then, a number of monks who had concluded the rains retreat in the

[Buddha’s] native region, the three months being over, having mended their robes, they put on their robes, took their bowls, and left the [Buddha’s] native region for Rājagaha.
Traveling by stages, they reached Rājagaha, where they went to stay in the Bamboo Grove.
Then those monks from the [Buddha’s]

native region approached the Buddha, paid their respects by bowing down their heads, and sat to one side.

The World-honored One asked them:
“Monks, where have you come from, and in what place did you spend the rains retreat?”


The monks from the [Buddha’s] native region replied:
“World-honored One, we have come from the [World-honored One’s] native region, having spent the rains retreat there.”


The World-honored One asked them:

Among the monks living in [my] native region, which monk is praised by the other monks [thus]:
Having few wishes and being contented himself, he speaks [to others] in praise of having few wishes and being contented;
living in seclusion himself, he speaks in praise of living in seclusion;
being energetic himself, he speaks in praise of being energetic;
having right mindfulness himself, he speaks in praise of right mindfulness;
having mental singular-focus himself, he speaks in praise of mental singular-focus;
having wisdom himself, he speaks in praise of wisdom;
having himself destroyed the taints, he speaks in praise of destroying the taints;
having himself exhorted, inspired, and ful y delighted [others], he speaks in praise of exhorting, inspiring, and ful y delighting [others].

The monks from the [Buddha’s] native region replied:
World-honored One, the monks living in [the World-honored One’s]

47
native region praise Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a [thus]:
Having few wishes and being contented himself, he speaks [to others] in praise of having few wishes and being contented;
living in seclusion himself, he speaks in praise of living in seclusion;
being energetic himself, he speaks in praise of being energetic;
having right mindfulness himself, he speaks in praise of right mindfulness;
having mental singular-focus himself, he speaks in praise of mental singular-focus;
having wisdom himself, he speaks in praise of wisdom;
having himself destroyed the taints, he speaks in praise of destroying the taints;
having himself exhorted, inspired, and ful y delighted [others], he speaks in praise of exhorting, inspiring, and ful y delighting [others].

At that time, Venerable Sāriput a was seated among the assembly.
Then Venerable Sāriput a thought:

The World-honored One has questioned those monks from [his] native region about this mat er and the monks from [his] native region have given the greatest praise to Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a [thus]:
Having few wishes and being contented himself, he speaks [to others] in praise of having few wishes and being contented;
living in seclusion himself, he speaks in praise of living in seclusion;
being energetic himself, he speaks in praise of being energetic;
having right mindfulness himself, he speaks in praise of right mindfulness;
having mental singular-focus himself, he speaks in praise of mental singular-focus;
having wisdom himself, he speaks in praise of wisdom;
having himself destroyed the taints, he speaks in praise of destroying the taints;
having himself exhorted, inspired, and ful y delighted [others], he speaks in praise of exhorting, inspiring, and ful y delighting [others].

Venerable Sāriputta thought further:
“When I get to meet Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a, I wil ask him a few things.
He would probably be competent in understanding [and replying to] my questions.”


430b

At that time the World-honored One, who had concluded the rains retreat at Rājagaha, the three months being over, having mended his robes, put on his robes and took his bowl, left Rājagaha for Sāvat hī.
Traveling by stages, he reached Sāvat hī, where he went to stay in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.



[Meanwhile,] after staying for a few days at Rājagaha, Venerable Sāriput a and the monks [who had come] from the [Buddha’s] native region put on their robes, took their bowls, and left Rājagaha for Sāvat hī.
Traveling by stages, they reached Sāvatthī, where they went to stay in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiputta, who had concluded the rains retreat in the [Buddha’s] native region, the three months being over, having mended his robes, put on his robes, took his bowl, and left the

[Buddha’s] native region for Sāvat hī.
Traveling by stages, he reached Sāvat hī, where he went to stay in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiputta approached the Buddha and paid his respects by bowing down his head.
Then he spread his sit ing mat [at some distance] in front of the Buddha and sat down cross-legged.

Then Venerable Sāriput a asked some other monks:
“Venerable friends, is that Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a?”


The monks answered Venerable Sāriput a:
“That is so.
The venerable one who is seated in front of the Tathāgata, with fair skin and a prominent nose resembling a parrot’s beak, that is he.”


Then Venerable Sāriput a, having taken note of Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a’s facial appearance, retained a clear memory of it.

When the night was over, at dawn, Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a put on his robes, took his bowl, and entered Sāvat hī to beg for food.
After having taken his midday meal, he put away his robes and bowl, washed his hands and feet, put his sit ing mat over his shoulder, and went to a place for walking meditation in the Blind Men’s Grove.
Venerable Sāriput a also, when the night was over, at dawn, put on his robes, took his bowl and entered Sāvat hī to beg for food.
After having taken his midday meal, he put away his robes and bowl, washed his hands and feet, put his sit ing mat over his shoulder, and went to a place for walking meditation in the Blind Men’s Grove.

Then, when Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a had reached Blind Men’s Grove, he spread his sit ing mat beneath a tree and sat down cross-legged.

Venerable Sāriput a also, on reaching Blind Men’s Grove, spread his sit ing mat beneath a tree not far from Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a, and sat down cross-legged.

49
In the late afternoon, after rising from sit ing in meditation, Venerable Sāriput a approached Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a, exchanged friendly greetings, and, sit ing down to one side, asked Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a:

“Is the venerable one practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama?”
65

[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“That is so.”


[Sāriput a asked]:
“How is it, venerable friend, are you practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama for the sake of purification of virtue?”


[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“Not so.”


[Sāriput a asked further]:

Are you practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama for the sake of purification of mind.
. . , for the sake of purification of view.
. . , for the sake of purification [from] the hindrance of doubt.
. . , for the sake 430c

of purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning?

[To each question Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“Not so.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:

Just before, I asked the venerable one if he is practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama, and he said that this is so.
Now I have asked the venerable one if he is practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama for the sake of purification of virtue, and he has said “Not so.”
[I have also asked the venerable one if] he is practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama for the sake of purification of mind.
. . , for the sake of purification of view.
. . , for the sake of purification [from]

the hindrance of doubt.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning;
and [to each question] he has said, “Not so.”
In that case, for the sake of what are you practicing the holy life under the renunciant Gotama?

[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“Venerable friend, for the sake of nirvana without remainder.”




[Sāriput a] asked further:
“How is it, then, venerable friend?
Is it for the sake of purification of virtue that the renunciant Gotama designates nirvana without remainder?”


[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“Not so.”


[Sāriput a asked further]:

Is it for the sake of purification of mind.
. . , for the sake of purification of view.
. . , for the sake of purification [from] the hindrance of doubt.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of

[what is] the path and [what is] not the path.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning that the renunciant Gotama designates nirvana without remainder?

[And to each question Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:
“Not so.”


[Sāriput a] asked again:

Just now, I asked the venerable one if it is for the sake of purification of virtue that the renunciant Gotama designates nirvana without remainder, and he replied “Not so.”
[And I asked] is it for the sake of purification of mind.
. . , for the sake of purification of view.
. . , for the sake of purification [from] the hindrance of doubt.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way [of practice].
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning, that the renunciant Gotama designates nirvana without remainder;
and [to each question] the venerable one has replied

“Not so.”
What is the meaning of what the venerable one has said?

How can one come to understand it?

[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a] replied:

Venerable friend, if the World-honored One, the renunciant Gotama, were to designate nirvana without remainder for the sake of purification of virtue, then that would be to praise what is with a remainder [of clinging] as being without a remainder [of clinging].
If the World-honored One, the renunciant Gotama, were to designate nirvana without 51
remainder for the sake of purification of mind.
. . , for the sake of purification of view.
. . , for the sake of purification [from] the hindrance of doubt.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way.
. . , for the sake of purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning, then that would be to praise what is with a remainder [of clinging] as being without a remainder

[of clinging].

[On the other hand,] venerable friend, if the World-honored One were to designate nirvana without remainder apart from these things, then a worldling should also [be able to at ain] nirvana without remainder, because a worldling is also apart from these things.

Rather, venerable friend, [it is] through purification of virtue, [that]

one attains purification of mind;
through purification of mind, one 431a

at ains purification of view;
through purification of view, one at ains purification [from] the hindrance of doubt;
through purification [from]

the hindrance of doubt, one attains purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path;
through purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path, one at ains purification by knowledge and vision of the way;
through purification by knowledge and vision of the way, one at ains purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning;
through purification by knowledge of the way of abandoning, the World-honored One, the renunciant Gotama, designates nirvana without remainder.

Venerable friend, listen further.
Once King Pasenadi of Kosala was in Sāvat hī and had some mat er [to at end to] in Sāketa.
He thought,

“Using what expedient means can I reach Sāketa from Sāvat hī in a single day’s journey?”
He further thought, “I shal now have seven chariots arranged [along the road] from Sāvat hī to Sāketa.”
So, he had seven chariots arranged [along the road] from Sāvatthī to Sāketa.

Having arranged the seven chariots, he set out from Sāvat hī in the first chariot.
Riding in the first chariot, he reached the second chariot;
leaving behind the first chariot and riding in the second66 chariot, he reached the third chariot;
leaving behind the second chariot and riding in the third chariot, he reached the fourth chariot;
leaving behind the

third chariot and riding in the fourth chariot, he reached the fifth chariot;
leaving behind the fourth chariot and riding in the fifth chariot, he reached the sixth chariot;
leaving behind the fifth chariot and riding in the sixth chariot, he reached the seventh chariot;
leaving behind the sixth chariot and riding in the seventh chariot, he reached Sāketa within a single day.

When the king had dealt with the matter in Sāketa, the great courtiers gathered and surrounded the king, who was seated in the main hal , and respectful y said:
“Great King, did you come in a single day from Sāvat hī to Sāketa?”


The king replied:
“That is so.”


[The courtiers asked]:
“Did the Great King come in a single day from Sāvat hī to Sāketa by riding in the first chariot?”


The king replied:
“Not so.”


[The courtiers asked further]:
“Did you come from Sāvatthī to Sāketa by riding in the second chariot.
. . , by riding in the third chariot.

. . , (and so on up to) by riding in the seventh chariot?”
[And to each question] the king replied:
“Not so.”


What do you say, venerable friend:
in what way should King Pasenadi of Kosala answer on being asked this by the gathering of courtiers?

[Sāriput a answered:
]

The king [should] answer the gathering of courtiers:
“I was in Sāvat hī

and I had some mat er [to at end to] in Sāketa.
Then I thought, ‘Using what expedient means can I reach Sāketa from Sāvatthī in a single day’s journey?
’ I further thought, ‘I shall now have seven chariots arranged [along the road] from Sāvat hī to Sāketa.
’ So, I had seven chariots arranged [along the road] from Sāvat hī to Sāketa.
Having arranged the seven chariots, I set out from Sāvat hī in the first chariot.

Riding in the first chariot, I reached the second chariot;
leaving behind the first chariot and riding in the second chariot, I reached the third chariot;
leaving behind the second chariot and riding in the third chariot, 431b I reached the fourth chariot;
leaving behind the third chariot and riding in the fourth chariot, I reached the fifth chariot;
leaving behind the fourth chariot and riding in the fifth chariot, I reached the sixth chariot;
53
leaving behind the fifth chariot and riding in the sixth chariot, I reached the seventh chariot;
leaving behind the sixth chariot and riding in the seventh chariot, I reached Sāketa within a single day.”


Thus, venerable friend, [should] King Pasenadi of Kosala reply to the questions put in this way by the gathering of courtiers.

[Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a said:
]

In the same way, venerable friend, through purification of virtue, one at ains purification of mind;
through purification of mind, one at ains purification of view;
through purification of view, one at ains purification

[from] the hindrance of doubt;
through purification [from] the hindrance of doubt, one at ains purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path;
through purification by knowledge and vision of [what is] the path and [what is] not the path, one at ains purification by knowledge and vision of the way;
through purification by knowledge and vision of the way, one at ains purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning;
through purification by knowledge of the way to abandoning, the World-honored One designates nirvana without remainder.

Then Venerable Sāriput a asked Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a:
“What is the venerable one’s name?
How do his companions in the holy life cal the venerable one?”


Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a replied:
“Venerable friend, I am cal ed Puṇṇa and my mother’s name is Mantāṇī;
67 therefore, my companions in the holy life cal me Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a.”


Venerable Sāriput a expressed his praise:

Excel ent, excel ent, Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a! As befits a disciple of the Tathāgata, [the venerable one] has explained wisely, with intel-ligence and determination, calm and without wavering, being an accomplished trainer who has achieved great eloquence, has at ained the banner of the deathless, and dwel s having himself realized the element of deathlessness—for the venerable one has been able, on being questioned, to respond ful y on a profound issue.
Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a’s companions in the holy life wil obtain great benefit if they

get to meet Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a, to visit and pay homage to him on a suitable occasion.
Now I too have obtained great benefit on visiting and paying homage to him on [this] suitable occasion.
Great benefit would be obtained by his companions in the holy life if they were to rol up their robes and put them on their heads to carry Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a [around on their heads].
Now I too have obtained great benefit on visiting and paying homage to him on [this] suitable occasion.

Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a asked Venerable Sāriput a:
“What is the venerable one’s name?
How do his companions in the holy life cal the venerable one?”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“Venerable friend, my name is Upatissa and my mother’s name is Sārī;
therefore my companions in the holy life cal me Sāriput a.”


Venerable Puṇṇa Mantāṇiput a expressed his praise:

Today, unwit ingly, I have discussed with a disciple of the World-honored One, unwit ingly I have discussed with the second most respected one, unwittingly I have discussed with the general of the Dharma, unwit ingly I have discussed with the disciple who keeps the wheel of Dharma turning.
If I had known that this was Venerable Sāriput a, I 431c would not have been able to answer with even one sentence, let alone discuss so deeply.
Excel ent, excel ent, Venerable Sāriput a! As befits a disciple of the Tathāgata, [the venerable one] has explained wisely, with intel igence and determination, calm and without wavering, being an accomplished trainer who has achieved great eloquence, has at ained the banner of the deathless, and dwel s having himself realized the element of deathlessness—for the venerable one has posed very profound questions.
Venerable Sāriput a’s companions in the holy life wil obtain great benefit if they get to meet Venerable Sāriput a, to visit and pay homage to him on a suitable occasion.
Now I too have obtained great benefit on visiting and paying homage to him on this suitable occasion.

Great benefit would be obtained by his companions in the holy life if they were to rol up their robes and put them on their heads to carry Venerable Sāriput a [around on their heads].
Now I too have obtained 55
great benefit on visiting and paying homage to him on [this] suitable occasion.

In this way these two venerable ones praised each other.
Having commended each other, they were delighted and remembered [the exchange]

wel .
Each rose from his seat and returned to his dwel ing place.

10 - MA 10 The Discourse on the Cessation of the Taints


10. The Discourse on the Cessation of the Taints
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying among the Kurus, at a Kuru town cal ed Kammāsadhamma.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
Through knowing and seeing, one at ains the cessation of the taints, not without knowing and seeing.
How does one at ain the cessation of the taints through knowing and seeing?

There is right at ention and there is wrong at ention.
If one engages in wrong at ention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil arise and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil increase;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil arise and the arisen

[taints of existence and of ignorance] wil increase.
If, [however,] one engages in right at ention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil not arise and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil cease;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil not arise and the arisen [taints of existence and of ignorance] wil cease.

The foolish worldling, who has not got to hear the right Dharma, has not met genuine good friends, does not know the noble Dharma, has not been trained in the noble Dharma, and does not know the Dharma as it real y is—[if such a person] engages in wrong at ention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil arise, and the arisen

[taint of sensual desire] wil increase;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil arise, and the arisen [taints of existence and of ignorance] wil increase.
[If, however, this person] engages in right at ention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil not arise, and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil cease;
the not yet

arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil not arise, and the arisen

[taints of existence and of ignorance] wil cease.

Through not knowing the Dharma as it really is, [the foolish worldling] thinks thoughts that should not be thought, and does not think thoughts that should be thought.
Through his thinking thoughts that should not be thought, and not thinking thoughts that should be thought, the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil arise, and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil increase;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil arise, and the arisen [taints of exis- 432a tence and of ignorance] wil increase.

The learned noble disciple who has got to hear the right Dharma, has met genuine good friends, has been trained in the noble Dharma, and knows the Dharma as it real y is—[if such a person nevertheless]

engages in wrong attention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil arise, and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil increase;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil arise, and the arisen [taints of existence and of ignorance] wil increase.

[If, however, such a person] engages in right at ention, then the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil not arise, and the arisen [taint of sensual desire] wil cease;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil not arise, and the arisen [taints of existence and of ignorance] wil cease.

Through knowing the Dharma as it real y is, [the learned noble disciple] does not think thoughts that should not be thought, and thinks thoughts that should be thought.
Through his not thinking thoughts that should not be thought, and thinking thoughts that should be thought, the not yet arisen taint of sensual desire wil not arise, and the arisen

[taint of sensual desire] wil cease;
the not yet arisen taints of existence and of ignorance wil not arise, and the arisen [taints of existence and of ignorance] wil cease.

There are seven [ways] of abandoning the taints, which [cause]

distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow.
What are the seven?
There are taints that are to be abandoned through seeing, there are taints to be abandoned through guarding, there are taints to be abandoned through 57
avoiding, there are taints to be abandoned through using, there are taints to be abandoned through enduring, there are taints to be abandoned through removing, and there are taints to be abandoned through at ending.

How are taints abandoned through seeing?
The foolish worldling, who has not got to hear the right Dharma, has not met genuine good friends, does not know the noble Dharma, and has not been trained in the noble Dharma—he does not know the Dharma as it real y is.
[Such a person,] through not practicing right attention, has the following thoughts:
“I was in the past! I was not in the past! From what cause was I in the past?
How was I in the past?
I wil be in the future! I wil not be in the future! From what cause wil I be in the future?
How wil I be in the future?”
He wonders about himself [in the present]:
“What is this so-called self?
How did it come to be?
This present sentient being, from where has it come?
Where wil it go?
Rooted in what cause does it exist?
From what future cause wil it exist?”


As he engages in wrong at ention in this way, there arises [one or another of] six views.
The view arises that there truly is a self;
or the view arises that there truly is no self;
or the view arises that the self perceives the self;
or the view arises that the self perceives the not-self;
or the view arises that the not-self perceives the self;
or the view arises that this is the self, namely that which is able to talk, able to know, able to act and to teach, and which acts and teaches, which is born in this or that realm and experiences the fruits of good and evil

[actions], which certainly has come from nowhere, certainly does not exist, and certainly wil not exist.

This is cal ed the deception of views, the agitation of views, the bondage of views, because of which the foolish worldling undergoes the suffering of birth, old age, disease, and death.

[On the other hand,] the learned noble disciple, who has got to hear the right Dharma, has met genuine good friends, and has been 432b

trained in the noble Dharma—he knows the Dharma as it really is, knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, and knows the path [leading] to the cessation of suffering as it real y is.
Through his having come to know this as it

real y is, three fet ers cease:
personality view, clinging to precepts, and doubt.
Through the cessation of these three fet ers, he at ains stream-entry.
He wil not fal into evil conditions and is assured of progress towards right awakening within at most seven existences.
Having gone through [at most] seven existences in the heavens or among human beings, he wil at ain the ending of suffering.

If one does not know and see, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does know and see, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.
This is cal ed abandoning the taints through seeing.

How are taints abandoned through guarding?
A monk, on seeing a form with the eye, guards the eye faculty and, with right at ention, contemplates impurity.
He is not guarding the eye faculty if, without right at ention, he is contemplating purity.
If one does not guard [the eye faculty], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does guard it, distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.

Similarly for the ear, nose, tongue, body.
. . .
On knowing a mind-object with the mind, [a monk] guards the mind faculty and, with right at ention, contemplates impurity.
He is not guarding the mind faculty if, without right at ention, he is contemplating purity.
If one does not guard [the mind faculty], distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does guard it, distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.

This is cal ed abandoning taints through guarding.

How are taints abandoned through avoiding?
A monk, on seeing a vicious elephant, should avoid it;
.
. . and similarly a vicious horse, a vicious ox, a vicious dog, a poisonous snake, a dangerous path, a ditch or pit, a cesspool, a river, a deep spring, a mountain precipice, a bad companion, a bad friend, an evil heretic, an evil neighbor, a bad abode, [or] anything that would cause doubt to arise in his [previously]

undoubting companions in the holy life.
A monk should completely avoid a bad companion, a bad friend, an evil heretic, an evil neighbor, a bad abode, [or] anything that would cause doubt to arise in his [previously] undoubting companions in the holy life.

If one does not avoid these, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does avoid them, then distress, vexation, 59
dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.
This is cal ed abandoning taints through avoiding.

How are taints abandoned through using?
A monk does not use his robes for the sake of gain, nor out of pride, nor for the sake of adornment, but for [protection against] mosquitoes, gadflies, wind, rain, cold, and heat, and out of shame [to conceal the private parts].

He does not use food and drink for the sake of gain, nor out of pride, nor for the pleasure of growing stout, but to maintain the body and remove distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow;
for the sake of living the holy life, out of a wish to overcome former discomfort and prevent the arising of new discomfort;
for the sake of living peaceful y and without disease.

He does not use abodes and dwel ing places, beds and bedding, for the sake of gain, nor out of pride, nor for the sake of adornment, but to al ay fatigue and be able to meditate.

432c

He does not use decoctions and medicines for the sake of gain, nor out of pride, nor for the pleasure of growing stout, but to remove sickness and vexation, to preserve the life faculty and [remain] safe from disease.

If one does not use [these requisites properly], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does use [them properly], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.
This is cal ed abandoning taints through using.

How are taints abandoned through enduring?
To energetically abandon evil and unwholesome [states] and develop wholesome states, a monk continuously arouses the mind to wholehearted diligent effort,

[thinking]:
“Even if the body, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, blood, and marrow should al dry up, I wil not stop striving.
Not until the goal has been at ained wil I stop striving.”


A monk should also endure hunger and thirst;
cold and heat;
mosquitoes, gadflies, flies, fleas, and lice;
being assailed by wind and sun;
being verbally abused and being beaten with sticks—he is able to endure it [al ].
[Even if] the body suffers disease causing such extreme pain that his life seems to come to an end—whatever is unpleasant, he is able to endure it al .



If one does not endure [such things], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does endure them, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.
This is cal ed abandoning taints through enduring.

How are taints abandoned through removing?
When thoughts of sensual desire arise, a monk removes, discards, abandons, and gets rid of them.
69 When thoughts of il wil or harming arise, he removes, discards, abandons, and gets rid of them.
If one does not remove [such thoughts], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does remove them, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow will not arise.
This is called abandoning taints through removing.

How are taints abandoned through at ending?
A monk at ends to mindfulness, the first factor of awakening, based on seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and leading to emancipation.
[He at ends to investigation of] phenomena .
. . energy .
. . joy .
. . tranquility .
. . concentration.
. . ;
he at ends to equanimity, the seventh factor of awakening, based on seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and leading to emancipation.
If one does not at end to [the factors of awakening], then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil arise;
but if one does at end to them, then distress, vexation, dejection, and sorrow wil not arise.
This is cal ed abandoning taints through at ending.

If a monk, through seeing, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through seeing;
through guarding, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through guarding;
through avoiding, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through avoiding;
through using, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through using;
through enduring, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through enduring;
through removing, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through removing;
through at ending, abandons the taints that are to be abandoned through at ending—then he is cal ed a monk who has abandoned al taints and has been liberated from al bondage, who has, through right knowledge, been able to make an end of suffering.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .




..2.. Division 2 On Karma: MA 11-20




11 - MA 11 The Discourse with the Parable [of the Ounce] of Salt


11. The Discourse with the Parable [of the Ounce] of Salt
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One said to the monks:

[If one were to say]:
“According to the actions a person does, he wil experience the [exactly corresponding] result of those actions,” then in that case there could be no practice of the holy life and no at ainment of the end of suffering.
If [however,] one says:
“According to the actions a person does, he wil experience the result of those actions,”71 then in that case there can be the practice of the holy life and at ainment of the end of suffering.

Why so?
Consider the case of a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result?

This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done unwholesome actions, must experience suffering as their fruit by

[being reborn in] hel as a result.

It is just as if a person were to drop an ounce of salt into a smal amount of water, intending to make the water salty and undrinkable.

What do you think?
Could this ounce of salt make that smal amount of water salty and undrinkable?”


[The monks] replied:

63
Yes indeed, World-honored One.
And why so?
Because there is much salt but little water, therefore the salt can make the water salty and undrinkable.

[The Buddha continued:
]

It is the same with a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hell as a result.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hell as a result?

This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by

[being reborn in] hel as a result.

433b

Again, there is a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?

This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.

Suppose a person were to drop an ounce of salt into the waters of the Ganges, intending to make the water salty and undrinkable.
What do you think?
Could this ounce of salt cause the water of the Ganges to become salty and undrinkable?

[The monks] replied:

No, World-honored One.
And why not?
Because, the water of the Ganges is much while an ounce of salt is lit le, therefore the salt cannot make the water salty and undrinkable.

[The Buddha continued:
]

It is the same with a person who has done an unwholesome action and

must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?

This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long;
this is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.

Again, there is a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result?

This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by

[being reborn in] hel as a result.

It is just as when a person takes a goat belonging to another person.

What is the case of a person who has taken away another person’s goat?
The one who took the goat is perhaps a king or a king’s minister, someone possessing much power.
The owner of the goat is poor and powerless.
Because of his lack of power, he can only hope against hope and, with his palms placed together, implore the other:
“Sire! Please return the goat to me, or give me the price of the goat!” This is the case of a person who takes away another person’s goat.

In the same way, when a person has done an unwholesome action, he must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.
Why is it that a person who has done an unwholesome action must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hell as a result?
This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.

Again, there is a person who has done an unwholesome action 65
and must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?

This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.

433c

It is just as when a person steals another’s goat and the owner of the goat takes it back by force.
What is the case of a person who has stolen another’s goat, and the owner of the goat takes it back by force?

[Here] the person who steals the goat is poor and powerless, while the owner of the goat is perhaps a king or a king’s minister, someone possessing much power.
Because of their power they can detain and arrest the thief, and take the goat back by force.
This is the case of a person who has stolen another’s goat, and the owner of the goat takes it back by force.

It is the same with a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why is it that a person who has done an unwholesome action must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?
This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome deed, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.

Again, there is a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result?

This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by

[being reborn in] hel as a result.



It is just as when a person owes another person five coins and is arrested by the creditor, or is arrested by him even for owing just one coin.
Why would a person who owes another person five coins be arrested by the creditor, or even be arrested by him for owing just one coin?
This is the case when the debtor is poor and powerless.
Because he is poor and powerless, when he owes another person five coins, he wil be arrested by the creditor, or wil even be arrested by him for owing just one coin.
This is the case of a person who owes another person five coins and is arrested by the creditor, or even is arrested by him for owing just one coin.

It is the same with a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [being reborn in] hel as a result?

This is the case when a person has not cultivated the body, has not cultivated virtue, has not cultivated the mind, has not cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very short.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by

[being reborn in] hel as a result

Again, there is a person who has done an unwholesome action and must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why must a person who has done an unwholesome action experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?

This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.

It is just as when a person owes another person a hundred coins, yet is not arrested by the creditor, and would not be arrested by him even for owing a thousand or ten thousand coins.
Why is it that a person who owes another person a hundred coins is not arrested by the creditor, 434a and would not be arrested by him even for owing a thousand or ten thousand coins?
This is the case when the debtor has property beyond measure and is extremely powerful, and because of that, despite owing 67
another person a hundred coins, is not arrested by the creditor, and would not be arrested by him even for owing a thousand or ten thousand coins.
This is the case of a person who owes another person a hundred coins, yet is not arrested by the creditor, and would not be arrested by him even for owing a thousand or ten thousand coins.

It is the same with a person who has done an unwholesome action, he must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life.
Why is it that a person who has done an unwholesome action must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing] the result in this life?
This is the case when a person has cultivated the body, has cultivated virtue, has cultivated the mind, has cultivated wisdom, and his life span is very long.
This is the case of a person who, having done an unwholesome action, must experience suffering as its fruit by [experiencing]

the result in this life.
He experiences the result for wholesome and unwholesome actions in this life, and only to a moderate degree.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

12 - MA 12 The Discourse to Vappa


12. The Discourse to Vappa
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying among the Sakyans at Kapilavat hu, in the Nigrodha Park.

At that time, after the midday meal, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna was sit ing in the assembly hal together with a company of monks for some purpose.
Then a Sakyan by the name of Vappa, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas, wandering around after noon, approached Venerable Mahā Moggal āna and, after exchanging greetings, sat down to one side.

Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna asked [the visitor] about this mat er:
What do you think, Vappa?
If a monk is restrained in body, speech, and mind,73 do you see any possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might arise, leading to future existence?

Vappa replied:

Mahā Moggal āna, if a monk is restrained in body, speech, and mind, I do see a possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might

arise, leading to future existence.
Mahā Moggal āna, if someone has done unwholesome actions in a previous existence, then owing to that, unwholesome taints wil arise, leading to future existence.

[Soon] after this the World-honored One, who was meditating in a solitary place, heard with the purified divine ear, which surpasses that of [ordinary]

human beings, the conversation between Venerable Mahā Moggal āna and Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas.
Hearing it, the World-honored One rose from his afternoon meditation, went toward the assembly hal , and sat down on a prepared seat in front of the assembly of monks.

Having sat down, the World-honored One asked:

434b

Moggal āna, what mat er were you discussing with Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas?
For what mat er were you sit ing together in the assembly hal ?

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna replied:

World-honored One, today after the midday meal I was sit ing in the assembly hal together with a company of monks for some purpose.

Then Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas, wandering around after noon, approached me and, after exchanging greetings, sat down to one side.
I asked him this:
“What do you think, Vappa?
If a monk is restrained in body, speech, and mind, do you see a possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might arise, leading to future existence?”
Then Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas, replied:

“If a monk is restrained in body, speech, and mind, I do see a possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might arise, leading to future existence.
Mahā Moggal āna, if someone has done unwholesome actions in a previous existence, then, owing to that, unwholesome taints wil arise, leading to future existence.”


World-honored One, that was the discussion I was having with Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas.
Because of this mat er, we were sit ing together in the assembly hal .

Then the World-honored One said to Vappa the Sakyan, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas:

69
If you agree with what I say, you should say “yes”;
if you disagree, you should say “no”;
and if you have any uncertainty, you should ask me further thus:
“Renunciant Gotama, how is this?
What is the meaning of this?”
If you can accept what I have just proposed, I could discuss this mat er with you.

Vappa replied:

Renunciant Gotama, if I agree with what you say, I wil say “yes”;
if I disagree, I wil say “no”;
and if I have any uncertainty, I wil ask you further thus:
“Renunciant Gotama, how is this?
What is the meaning of this?”
As the renunciant Gotama has just proposed, I accept it.
May the renunciant Gotama discuss this mat er with me!

The World-honored One asked:

What do you think, Vappa?
Suppose that a monk has [in the past] given rise to unwholesome bodily activities, [resulting in the arising of] taints, vexation, and worry, [but] that at a later time he ceases unwholesome bodily activities.
Creating no new karma, and having abandoned old karma, he, in this very life, at ains the goal and, free from vexation, remains permanently and unchangingly [in this condition], which is spoken of as “something to be seen by noble wisdom and to be known by noble wisdom.”


[In the past] he gave rise to unwholesome verbal activities.
. . , unwholesome mental activities.
. . , unwholesome activities based on ignorance, [but] that at a later time he ceases unwholesome activities based on ignorance.
Creating no new karma, and having abandoned old karma, he in this very life at ains the goal and, free from vexation, remains permanently and unchangingly [in this condition], which is spoken of as “something to be seen by noble wisdom and to be known by noble wisdom.”


434c

What do you think, Vappa?
For a monk who is restrained in body, speech, and mind in this way, do you see a possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might arise, leading to future existence?

Vappa replied:



Gotama, if a monk is restrained in body, speech, and mind in this way, I see no possible cause owing to which unwholesome taints might arise, leading to future existence.

The World-honored One praised him, saying:

Very good, Vappa! Why is that, Vappa?
If in a monk ignorance has been extinguished and knowledge has arisen, then with ignorance extinguished and knowledge arisen, when there arises the feeling of the body nearing its end, he knows that there has arisen the feeling of the body nearing its end.
When there arises the feeling of life nearing its end, he knows that there has arisen the feeling of life nearing its end.

And when the body breaks up and life ends, the life span having expired, then al that is felt in this life wil be exhausted and come to an end.
It should be understood that it wil end and become cold.

Vappa, it is just like a shadow that exists in dependence on a tree.

Suppose that someone comes with a sharp axe and chops down the tree at its root, cuts it into pieces;
then breaks [each piece] into ten or a hundred fragments, burns them in a fire so that they become ash, which is then blown away by a strong wind, or carried away by water.

What do you think, Vappa?
That shadow existed in dependence on the tree, so once the cause of the shadow has been cut off, wil the shadow disappear and not arise again?

Vappa replied:
“Indeed, Gotama.”


[The Buddha continued:
]

Vappa, it should be understood in the same way in the case of a monk in whom ignorance has been extinguished and knowledge has arisen.

With ignorance extinguished and knowledge arisen, when there arises the feeling of the body nearing its end, he knows that there has arisen the feeling of the body nearing its end.
When there arises the feeling of life nearing its end, he knows that there has arisen the feeling of life nearing its end.
And when the body breaks up and life ends, the life span having expired, then al that is felt in this life wil be exhausted and come to an end.
It should be understood that it wil end and become cold.

71
Vappa, a monk whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains six wholesome abodes.
What are the six?

Vappa, on seeing a form with the eye, [such] a monk is neither pleased nor displeased;
he remains equanimous and unaffected, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Vappa, a monk whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains the first wholesome abode.

Similarly, [on hearing a sound with] the ear .
. . [on smel ing an odor with] the nose .
. . [on tasting a flavor with] the tongue .
. . [on experiencing a touch with] the body .
. . on cognizing a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased;
he remains equanimous and unaffected, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Vappa, a monk whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains the sixth wholesome abode.
Vappa, a monk whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains these six wholesome abodes.

Vappa replied:

Indeed, Gotama.
A learned noble disciple whose mind has been rightly liberated like this attains six wholesome abodes.
What are the six?

Gotama, a learned noble disciple, on seeing a form with the eye, is neither pleased nor displeased;
he remains equanimous and unaffected, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Gotama, this is the first wholesome abode for a noble disciple who has learned much and whose mind has been rightly liberated.

Similarly, [on hearing a sound with] the ear .
. . [on smel ing an odor with] the nose .
. . [on tasting a flavor with] the tongue .
. . [on experiencing 435a

a touch with] the body .
. . on cognizing a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased;
he remains equanimous and unaffected, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Indeed, Gotama, a learned noble disciple whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains the sixth wholesome abode.
Indeed, Gotama, a learned noble disciple whose mind has been rightly liberated like this at ains these six wholesome abodes.

Thereupon, Vappa [continued and] said to the World-honored One:
Gotama, I have known it! Wel -gone One, I have understood it! Gotama,

it is just as when someone with clear vision uncovers what was covered, exposes what was covered, or shows the way to one who was lost, or offers a light in the darkness, so that those with eyes can see forms.
In the same way, the renunciant Gotama has taught me the Dharma using countless skil ful means to reveal its meaning in various ways.

World-honored One, I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks (Sangha).
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

World-honored One, just as a person who raises a bad horse, expecting to get benefit from it, only tires himself and gets no benefit—World-honored One, I was like this.
Those foolish Nigaṇṭhas lack right knowledge;
they are unable to understand and know.
Not recognizing the fertile field [of the Buddha’s teaching], and not examining for myself, [I] revered them for a long time, made offerings, and paid them homage, expecting to get benefit from it;
but I only suffered in vain.
World-honored One, for a second time I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

World-honored One, formerly I was ignorant.
Whatever faith and respect I had for those foolish Nigaṇṭhas has today been cut off.
Why?

Because I was deceived.
World-honored One, for a third time, I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.

May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the Sakyan Vappa and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

13 - MA 13 The Discourse on [Tenets to Be] Transcended


13. The Discourse on [Tenets to Be] Transcended
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the World-honored One said to the monks:
73
There are three tenets to be transcended, [tenets held by those] of dif erent affiliation, different appel ation, different school, and different doctrine that, despite being wel accepted, firmly held, and declared to others by so-cal ed wise men, are not beneficial.
What are these three?

There are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:

“Al that a person does is caused by what was done in previous lives.”


435b

Again, there are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“Al that a person does is caused and created by a supreme divine being.”
Again, there are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“Al that a person does is without any cause or condition.”


Herein, if there are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“Al that a person does is caused by what was done in previous lives,” then I approach them and, having approached them, I ask:
Venerable friends, is it true that you hold this view and declare:

“Al that a person does is caused by what was done in previous lives?”


They reply:
“Yes.”
Then I say to them:

If that is so, venerable friends, then you al endorse75 kil ing living beings.
Why is that?
Because al is caused by what was done in previous lives[, therefore people cannot have moral responsibility for their actions].
In the same way, venerable friends, you endorse taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech .
. . (and so on up to) wrong views.
Why is that?
Because al of that is caused by what was done in previous lives.
Venerable friends, if the view that al is caused by what was done in previous lives were true, then it would fol ow logical y76 that al that one does or does not, takes place without desire, without effort.
Venerable friends, if in doing a deed or not doing it, a person lacks true understanding, then he has lost right mindfulness and lacks right at entiveness, and hence is unteachable.

If renunciants [and brahmins] proclaim such a teaching, then those renunciants and brahmins can be refuted by such reasoning.



Herein, if there are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“Al that a person does is caused and created by a supreme divine being,” then I approach them and, having approached, I ask:
Venerable friends, is it true that you hold this view and declare:

“Al that a person does is caused and created by a supreme divine being?”


They reply:
“Yes.”
Then I say to them:

If that is so, venerable friends, then you al endorse kil ing living beings.
Why is that?
Because al is caused and created by a supreme divine being.
In the same way, venerable friends, you endorse taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech .
. . (and so on up to) wrong views.
Why? Because al of that is caused and created by a supreme divine being.
Venerable friends, if the view that al is caused and created by a supreme divine being were true, then it would fol ow logical y that al that one does or does not, takes place without desire, without effort.
Venerable friends, if in doing a deed or not doing it, a person lacks true understanding, then he has lost right mindfulness and lacks right at entiveness, and hence is unteachable.

If renunciants [and brahmins] proclaim this teaching, then those renunciants and brahmins can be refuted by such reasoning.

Herein, if there are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“Al that a person does is without any cause or condition,”

then I approach them and, having approached, I ask:
Venerable friends, is it true that you hold this view and declare:
435c

“All that a person does is without any cause or condition?”


They reply:
“Yes.”
Then I say to them:

If that is so, venerable friends, then you al endorse kil ing living beings.
Why is that?
Because al is without any cause or condition.

In the same way, venerable friends, you endorse taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech .
. . (and so on up to) wrong views.
Why? Because al of that is without any cause or 75
condition.
Venerable friends, if the view that al is without any cause or condition were true, then it would fol ow logical y that al that one does or does not, takes place without desire, without effort.
Venerable friends, if in doing a deed or not doing it, a person lacks true understanding, then he has lost right mindfulness and lacks right at entiveness, and hence is unteachable.

If renunciants [and brahmins] proclaim such a teaching, then those renunciants and brahmins can be refuted by such reasoning.

The Dharma I teach to you, which I have known and realized by myself, cannot be refuted, cannot be defiled, and cannot be prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world.
Why can the Dharma I teach to you, which I have known and realized by myself, not be refuted, defiled, or prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world?

There is the teaching on the six sense bases, which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you;
it cannot be refuted, cannot be defiled, and cannot be prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world.
Again, there is the teaching on the six elements, which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you;
it cannot be refuted, cannot be defiled, and cannot be prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, gods, Māras, Brahmās, or anyone else in the world.

What is the teaching on the six sense bases, which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you?
[The six] are the eye sense base, the ear .
. . nose .
. . tongue .
. . body .
. . [and] the mind sense base.
This is the teaching on the six sense bases which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you.
What is the teaching on the six elements which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you?
[The six] are the elements of earth .
. .

water .
. . fire .
. . air .
. . space .
. . and the element of consciousness.

This is the teaching on the six elements which, having known and realized it by myself, I have taught to you.

Because of the combination of the six elements, there is rebirth from a mother’s womb;
because of the six elements, there are the six sense bases;
because of the six sense bases, there is contact;
and because

of contact there is feeling.
Monks, one who has feeling wil [be able to] know suffering as it real y is, know the arising of suffering, know the cessation of suffering, and know the path to the cessation of the suffering as it real y is.

What is knowing suffering as it real y is?
It is this:
birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, association with what is disliked is suffering, dissociation from what is liked is suffering, not get ing what one wants is suffering;
in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering—this is cal ed knowing suffering as it real y is.

What is knowing the arising of suffering as it real y is?
It is craving for and clinging to future existence, with delight and desire, seeking 436a after this and that [state of] existence—this is cal ed knowing the arising of suffering as it real y is.

What is knowing the cessation of suffering as it real y is?
It is the cut ing off without remainder, abandoning, disgorging, fading away, cessation, stopping, and disappearance of this craving for and clinging to future existence, with delight and desire, seeking after this and that

[state of] existence—this is cal ed knowing the cessation of suffering as it real y is.

What is knowing the path to the cessation of suffering as it real y is?
It is the noble eightfold path:
right view .
. . (and so on up to) right concentration, these eight—this is cal ed knowing the path to the cessation of suffering as it real y is.

Monks, you should know suffering as it real y is, you should cut off the arising of suffering, you should realize the cessation of suffering, and you should cultivate the path to the cessation of suffering.
If a monk knows suffering as it real y is, cuts off the arising of suffering, realizes the cessation of suffering, and cultivates the path to the cessation of suffering, then that monk, having abandoning al taints, having loos-ened al fet ers, is able through right at entiveness to at ain the end of suffering.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

77

14 - MA 14 The Discourse to Rāhula


14. The Discourse to Rāhula
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

At that time, Venerable Rāhula was also staying at Rājagaha, in the Hot Spring Grove.
Then the World-honored One, when the night was over, at dawn, having put on his robes and taken his almsbowl, went into Rājagaha to beg for food.
Having finished begging for food, he went to the Hot Spring Grove, the place where the venerable Rāhula was staying.
When Venerable Rāhula saw the Buddha coming in the distance, he forthwith went to greet him, took the Buddha’s [outer] robe and bowl, made a seat ready, and set out water for washing feet.
The Buddha, having washed his feet, sat down on the seat prepared by Rāhula.

Then the World-honored One took the water vessel and, having poured out the water until only a little was left, asked:
“Rāhula, did you see me taking this water vessel and pouring out the water until only a lit le was left?”


Rāhula replied:
“Yes, I saw it, World-honored One.”


The Buddha told Rāhula:

In the same way, the practice of those who knowingly speak falsehood without embarrassment or regret, without shame or scruple, is of lit le

[worth], I say.
Rāhula, there is no evil they would not do.
Therefore, Rāhula, you should train yourself like this:
“Even in jest I shal not speak falsehood.”


The World-honored One again took the water vessel containing a lit le water and, having completely discarded the water, asked:
“Rāhula, now again, did you see me take this water vessel containing a lit le water, and completely discard the water?”


Rāhula replied:
“Yes, I saw it, World-honored One.”


The Buddha told Rāhula:

In the same way, the practice of those who knowingly speak falsehood without embarrassment or regret, without shame or scruple, is completely discarded, I say.
Rāhula, there is no evil they would not do.

436b

Therefore, Rāhula, you should train yourself like this:
“Even in jest I shal not speak falsehood.”




The World-honored One again took the empty water vessel, tipped it over on the ground, and asked:
“Rāhula, now again, did you see me take the empty water vessel, and tip it over on the ground?”


Rāhula replied:
“Yes, I saw it, World-honored One.”


The Buddha told Rāhula:

In the same way, the practice of those who knowingly speak falsehood without embarrassment or regret, without shame or scruple, is tipped over, I say.
Rāhula, there is no evil they would not do.
Therefore, Rāhula, you should train yourself like this:
“Even in jest I shal not speak falsehood.”


The World-honored One again took the tipped water vessel and, having turned it bot om up, asked:
“Rāhula, did you see me again take the toppled water vessel and turn it bot om up?”


Rāhula replied:
“Yes, I saw it, World-honored One.”


The Buddha told Rāhula:

In the same way, the practice of those who knowingly speak falsehood without embarrassment or regret, without shame or scruple, is turned bot om up, I say.
Rāhula, there is no evil they would not do.
Therefore, Rāhula, you should train yourself like this:
“Even in jest I shal not speak falsehood.”


Rāhula, it is just as if a king had a great elephant who, when going into bat le, uses his forefeet, his hindfeet, his tail, shoulders, back, flanks, neck, head, ears, and tusks— everything except his trunk, which he keeps protected.
Seeing this, the elephant trainer would think in this way:
The king’s great elephant stil cherishes his life.
Why so?
Because when going into bat le, the king’s great elephant uses his forefeet, his hindfeet, his tail, shoulders, back, flanks, neck, head, ears, and tusks—everything except his trunk, which he keeps protected.

Rāhula, if when going into bat le, the king’s great elephant uses his forefeet, his hindfeet, his tail, shoulders, back, flanks, neck, head, ears, tusks, and also his trunk—if he uses everything—then on seeing this the elephant trainer would think in this way:

79
The king’s elephant no longer cherishes his life.
Why so?
Because when going into bat le, the king’s great elephant uses his forefeet, his hindfeet, his tail, shoulders, back, flanks, neck, head, ears, tusks, and also his trunk;
he uses everything.

Rāhula, if the king’s great elephant, when going into bat le, uses his forefeet, his hindfeet, his tail, shoulders, back, flanks, neck, head, ears, tusks, and also his trunk—if he uses everything—then Rāhula, I say that when going into bat le, there is no evil that the king’s great elephant would not do.
So too, Rāhula, those who knowingly speak falsehood without embarrassment or regret, without shame or scruple, Rāhula, I say that there is no evil they would not do.
Therefore, Rāhula, you should train yourself like this:
“Even in jest I shal not speak falsehood.”


Then, the World-honored One ut ered the fol owing verses:
He who transgresses this one law

Against speaking falsehood:

Not fearing the next world,

There is no evil he would not do.

436c

Bet er to swal ow an iron bal ,

Burning hot like fire,

Than to transgress the precepts

While accepting the offerings of the faithful.

If you fear suffering,

Not even wishing to think of it,

Whether secretly or openly,

Perform no evil deed.

An unwholesome deed,

Already done or being done,

Can never be escaped;

One cannot hide from [its result].

Having ut ered these verses, the Buddha asked Rāhula further:
“What do you think, Rāhula?
For what purpose do people use a mirror?”




Venerable Rāhula replied:
“World-honored One, they wish to examine their face, to see if it is clean or not.”


[The Buddha continued:
]

Similarly, Rāhula, if you are about to perform a bodily action, then examine that bodily action:
“I am about to perform a bodily action.
Is this bodily action pure or impure?
Am I doing it for myself or for another?”


Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I am about to perform a bodily action, and that bodily action is impure, either for myself or for another;
78 it is unwholesome, has suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should abandon that bodily action that you are about to perform.
[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I am about to perform a bodily action, and that bodily action is pure, either for myself or for another;
79 it is wholesome, has happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—then, Rāhula, you should approve of that bodily action that you are about to perform.

Rāhula, if you are performing a bodily action, then examine that bodily action:
“I am performing a bodily action.
Is this bodily action pure or impure?
Am I doing it for myself or for another?”


Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I am performing a bodily action, and this bodily action is impure, either for myself or for another;
it is unwholesome, has suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should abandon that bodily action that you are performing.
[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I am performing a bodily action, and this bodily action is pure, either for myself or for another;
it is wholesome, has happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—then, Rāhula, you should approve of [and remember] that bodily action that you are performing.

Rāhula, if you have performed a bodily action, then examine that bodily action:
“I have performed a bodily action.
That bodily action, which is already past, having ceased completely or changed, was it pure or impure?
Did I do it for myself or for another?”


81
Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I have performed a bodily action, which is already past, having ceased completely or changed.

That bodily action was impure, either for myself or for another;
it was unwholesome, has suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should approach a good friend, a companion in the holy life, and wholeheartedly reveal that bodily action 437a

that you have done.
You should confess and declare it, being careful not to hide it, and you should exercise greater restraint [in the future].

[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“I have performed a bodily action, which is already past, having ceased completely or changed.

That bodily action was pure, either for myself or for another;
it was wholesome, has happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—then, Rāhula, you should dwel happily day and night, with right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

(It is the same for verbal actions.
)

Rāhula, if with a past deed as its condition a mental action arises, then examine that mental action:
“With a past deed as its condition, a mental action arose.
Was that mental action pure or impure?
Did I do it for myself or for another?”


Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“With a past deed as its condition, a mental action arose.
That mental action, which is already past, having ceased completely or changed, was impure, either for myself or for another;
it was unwholesome, has suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should abandon that past mental action.
[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:

“With a past deed as its condition, a mental action arose.
That mental action, which is already past, having ceased completely or changed, was pure, either for myself or for another;
it was wholesome, has happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—

then, Rāhula, you should approve of that past mental action.

Rāhula, if with a future deed as its condition a mental action wil arise, then examine that mental action:
“With a future deed as its condition, a mental action wil arise.
Wil that mental action be pure or impure?
Wil I do it for myself or for another?”
Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“With a future deed as its condition, a mental action wil

arise.
That mental action wil be impure, either for myself or for another;
it wil be unwholesome, wil have suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should abandon that future mental action.
[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:

“With a future deed as its condition a mental action wil arise.
That mental action wil be pure, either for myself or for another;
it wil be wholesome, wil have happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—then, Rāhula, you should approve of that future mental action.

Rāhula, if with a present deed as its condition a mental action arises, then examine that mental action:
“With a present deed as its condition, a mental action is arising.
Is this mental action pure or impure?
Am I doing it for myself or for another?”


Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“With a present deed as its condition, a mental action is arising.
This mental action is impure, either for myself or for another;
it is unwholesome, has suffering as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of suffering”—then, Rāhula, you should abandon that present mental action.
[But,] Rāhula, if on examining it you know:
“With a present deed as its condition a mental action is arising.
This mental action is pure, either for myself or for 437b another;
it is wholesome, has happiness as its fruit, and wil result in the experience of happiness”—then, Rāhula, you should approve that present mental action.

Rāhula, whatever renunciants and brahmins in the past have repeatedly examined and repeatedly purified their bodily, verbal, and mental actions, al of them have repeatedly examined and repeatedly purified their bodily, verbal, and mental actions in this very way.

Rāhula, whatever renunciants and brahmins in the future will repeatedly examine and repeatedly purify their bodily, verbal, and mental actions, al of them wil repeatedly examine and repeatedly purify their bodily, verbal, and mental actions in this very way.

Whatever renunciants and brahmins in the present repeatedly examine and repeatedly purify their bodily, verbal, and mental actions, al of them repeatedly examine and repeatedly purify their bodily, verbal, and mental actions in this very way.
Rāhula, you should train yourself 83
like this:
“I too repeatedly examine and repeatedly purify my bodily, verbal, and mental actions in this very way.”


Then the World-honored One ut ered further verses, saying:
Bodily action, verbal action,

And mental action, Rāhula,

Whether wholesome or unwholesome by nature,

You should constantly examine them.

Knowingly to speak falsehood,

Do not do it, Rāhula.

Shaven-headed, you live off others,

How could you speak falsehood?

Overturning the law of renunciants,

Empty, without truthfulness,

Such is speaking falsehood,

With an unrestrained mouth.

Therefore, not to speak falsehood,

O son of the rightly Awakened One,

This is the law of renunciants,

[Thus] you should train, O Rāhula.

Prosperity and happiness al around,

Safety and fearlessness,

Rāhula, to at ain that,

Do not harm others.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Rāhula and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

15 - MA 15 The Discourse on Intention


15. The Discourse on Intention
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.



At that time, the World-honored One told the monks:
If a person does an action intentional y, then he wil have to experience its result, either in this life or in the next life, I say.
If a person does an action unintentional y, then he wil not have to experience the result, I say.
In this connection, there are three intentionally done bodily actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering.
There are four [intentionally done]

verbal actions and three [intentional y done] mental actions that are 437c unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering.

What are the three intentionally done bodily actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering?
The first is kil ing living beings:
someone is extremely evil and bloodthirsty, has the desire to harm, and has no compassion toward [any kind of] living being, including insects.

The second is taking what is not given:
someone has at achment to another’s property and, with thieving intent, takes it.

The third is sexual misconduct:
someone has sexual relations with a woman who is under the protection of her father, or under the protection of her mother, or under the protection of both father and mother, or under the protection of her sisters, or under the protection of her brothers, or under the protection of her parents-in-law, or under the protection of her relatives, or under the protection of her clan;
or with a woman who is married to another man, [in spite of] the fear of being punished, or with

[a woman] who has been garlanded as a sign of betrothal.

These are the three intentionally done bodily actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering.
What are the four intentional y done verbal actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering?

The first is false speech:
someone, perhaps in an assembly, or among one’s retainers, or in the king’s palace, on being told “Say what you know!”, claims to know what he does not know, or claims not to know what he does know;
claims to have seen what he has not seen, 85
or claims not to have seen what he did see;
be it for his own sake, or for the sake of others, or for the sake of profit, he knowingly speaks falsehood.

The second is divisive speech:
someone wishes to divide others;
hearing something from this person he tel s it to that person, in order to harm this person;
hearing something from that person he tel s it to this person, in order to harm that person.
He desires to divide those who are united, and to further split those who are already divided;
he creates factions, delights in factions, and praises factions.

The third is harsh speech:
someone ut ers speech that is rough and rude in tone, offensive words that grate on the ear, that people neither enjoy nor desire;
he ut ers such speech as causes others suffering and vexation, that is not conductive to concentration.

The fourth is frivolous speech:
someone makes talk that is untimely, untrue talk, meaningless talk, talk that is contrary to the Dharma, that is not calming;
furthermore he praises what is not conductive to calming, and teaches and admonishes others in an untimely and unwholesome way.
These are the four intentionally done verbal actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering.

What are the three intentionally done mental actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering?

The first is covetousness:
someone views another’s wealth and lifestyle, constantly longing for them and wishing:
“If only I could get that!”

The second is il wil :
someone’s mind is fil ed with il wil and he thinks:
“Those beings should be kil ed, bound, arrested, removed, or banished.”
His wish is for them to experience immeasurable suffering.

The third is wrong view:
someone holds distorted views.
Views such as these, tenets such as these:

There is no offering, no sacrifice, there are no incantations;
no wholesome or unwholesome actions, no results of wholesome or unwholesome actions;
there is neither this world nor another world,

there are no father and mother;
there are no True Persons in the world 438a who are headed for a supreme at ainment, who are wel gone and wel directed, who have known and realized for themselves this world and the other world, and who dwel having personal y realized.

These are the three intentionally done mental actions that are unwholesome, have suffering as their fruit, and result in the experience of suffering.

A learned noble disciple abandons unwholesome bodily actions and practices wholesome bodily actions;
he abandons unwholesome verbal and mental actions and practices wholesome verbal and mental actions.
That learned noble disciple, endowed with diligence and virtue in this way, achieves pure bodily actions, pure verbal actions, and pure mental actions.
He abandons il wil and quarrel, discards sloth and torpor, is without restlessness and conceit, he cuts off doubt;
he transcends arrogance, has right mindfulness and right at entiveness, and is without confusion.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel s pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind] that is boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.
He thinks:
“Formerly my mind was narrow and not wel cultivated;
now my mind is immeasurable and wel cultivated.”


If the learned noble disciple, whose mind is [now] thus immeasurable and wel cultivated, had earlier neglected his practice because of bad friends and done unwholesome actions, then he wil no longer be led along by them.
They cannot corrupt him and wil not accompany him further.

Suppose there were a young boy or a young girl who, since birth, had been able to practice liberation of the mind through loving-kindness.

Would he or she later perform unwholesome bodily, verbal, or mental actions?

The monks replied:
“No, World-honored One.
And why not?
Since he or she has never done an evil deed, how could evil deeds arise?”


87
[The Buddha continued:
]

Therefore, a man or woman, whether layperson or renunciant, should always diligently practice liberation of the mind through loving-kindness.
If that man or woman, whether layperson or renunciant, practices liberation of the mind through loving-kindness, [since] when going toward the other world [he or she] wil not take this body along, [he or she] wil proceed [just] in accordance with [the developed quality of his or her] mind.

Monks, you should think like this:
“Formerly, I was negligent, and did unwholesome deeds.
Let al their results be experienced now, not in the next life!”

One who practices liberation of the mind through loving-kindness in this way, immeasurable and wel cultivated, wil definitely at ain the fruit of non-returning, or else attain that which is still higher.

[It is the same] with compassion, with empathic joy, and with equanimity.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

He thinks:
“Formerly, my mind was narrow and not wel cultivated;
now my mind is immeasurable and wel cultivated.”


If the learned noble disciple, whose mind is [now] thus immeasurable and wel cultivated, had earlier neglected his practice because of bad friends and done unwholesome actions, then he wil no longer 438b

be led along by them.
They cannot corrupt him and wil not accompany him further.

Suppose there were a young boy or a young girl who, since birth, had been able to practice liberation of the mind through equanimity.

Would he or she later perform unwholesome bodily, verbal, or mental actions?

The monks replied:
“No, World-honored One.
And why not?
Since he or she has never done an evil deed, how could evil deeds arise?”


[The Buddha continued:
]

Therefore, a man or woman, whether layperson or renunciant, should always diligently practice liberation of the mind through equanimity.



If that man or woman, whether layperson or renunciant, practices liberation of the mind through equanimity, [since] when going toward the other world [he or she] wil not take this body along, [he or she]

wil proceed [just] in accordance with [the developed quality of their]

mind.
Monks, you should think like this:
“Formerly, I was negligent and did unwholesome deeds.
Let al their results be experienced now, not in the next life!” One who practices liberation of the mind through equanimity in this way, immeasurable and wel cultivated, wil definitely at ain the fruit of non-returning, or else at ain that which is stil higher.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

16 - MA 16 The Discourse to the Kālāmas


16. The Discourse to the Kālāmas
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha, who was wandering in the territory of the Kālāmas together with a great company of monks, having arrived at Kesaput a, was staying in a rosewood grove north of Kesaput a.

At that time, the Kālāmas of Kesaput a heard that the renunciant Gotama, a son of the Sakyans, who had gone forth from the Sakya clan to train in the path, was wandering in the territory of the Kālāmas together with a great company of monks and, having arrived at Kesaput a, was staying in a rosewood grove north of Kesaput a.

[They also heard that] the renunciant Gotama had a great reputation, which had spread in al the ten directions:

The renunciant Gotama is a Tathāgata, free from attachment, fully awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, an unsurpassed one, a trainer of those to be tamed, a teacher of gods and human beings, and known as the Buddha, the Fortunate One.

In this world, with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, he has [at ained] understanding and awakening by himself, and dwel s having personal y realized it.
The Dharma he teaches is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and 89
good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.

If one visits such a Tathāgata, who is free from at achment and ful y awakened, [if one] pays homage to him respectful y and serves him, then one wil quickly get good rewards.

[They thought:
] “We should go together to see the renunciant Gotama and pay homage to him.”


Having learned [of the Buddha], the Kālāmas of Kesaput a left Kesaput a, relatives walking in groups together.
They went north toward the rosewood grove to visit the World-honored One and pay homage to him.
Having 438c approached the Buddha, some of the Kālāmas paid respect with their heads at the Buddha’s feet and sat to one side;
some exchanged courteous greetings with the Buddha and sat to one side;
some saluted the Buddha with their palms placed together and sat to one side;
and some, having seen the Buddha from a distance, sat down silently.

When each of the Kālāmas was seated and set led, the Buddha taught them Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting them.
Having, by countless skil ful means, taught them Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, he remained silent.

Then the Kālāmas, having been taught Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged and delighted, rose from their seats, arranged their clothes so as to bare one shoulder, saluted the Buddha by placing their palms together, and said to the World-honored One:

Gotama, some renunciant or brahmin approaches [us] Kālāmas and just praises what he himself has come to know and see, while denounc-ing and disparaging what others have come to know and see.
And then, Gotama, another renunciant or brahmin approaches [us] Kālāmas and also praises what he himself has come to know and see, while denounc-ing and disparaging what others have come to know and see.
Gotama, having heard these, we have come to doubt:
Which of these renunciants or brahmins is right, and which is wrong?

The World-honored One told them:



Kālāmas, do not doubt! Why?
When there is doubt, hesitation arises.

Kālāmas, you yourselves do not have clear knowledge about whether there is a next life or whether there is no next life.
Kālāmas, you yourselves also do not have clear knowledge about what action is an offense and what action is not an offense.
Kālāmas, you should know that al actions have three causes, sources, roots, causal conditions.
What are the three?

Kālāmas, desire is a cause, a source, a root, a causal condition of actions.
Kālāmas, hatred and ignorance are causes, sources, roots, causal conditions of actions.

Kālāmas, someone who has desire becomes overwhelmed by desire;
their mind is never satisfied.
Such a one may kil living beings, or take what is not given, or engage in sexual misconduct, or knowingly speak falsehood, or drink intoxicating liquor.

Kālāmas, someone who has hatred becomes overwhelmed by hatred;
their mind is never satisfied.
Such a one may kil living beings, or take what is not given, or engage in sexual misconduct, or knowingly speak falsehood, or drink intoxicating liquor.

Kālāmas, someone who is ignorant becomes overwhelmed by ignorance;
their mind is never satisfied.
Such a one may kill living beings, or take what is not given, or engage in sexual misconduct, or knowingly speak falsehood, or drink intoxicating liquor.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from kil ing, gives up kil ing, discards blade and cudgel.
He has shame and scruple, and a mind [ful of] loving-kindness and compassion, [wishing to] benefit all [beings], including insects.
He purifies his mind with regard to kil ing living beings.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from taking what is not given, gives up taking what is not given.
He takes [only] what was given and delights in taking [only] what was given.
He is always fond of generosity, rejoicing in it, without stinginess, and not expecting a reward.
He purifies his mind with regard to taking what is not given.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from sexual activity, has 439a given up sexual activity.
He diligently practices celibacy, is energetic in 91
this good conduct, pure, without blemish, having abandoned sensual desires, having given up sexual desires.
He purifies his mind of sexual activity.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from false speech, has given up false speech.
He speaks the truth, delights in the truth, is unshakably established in the truth, is completely trustworthy, and would not deceive [anyone in] the world.
He purifies his mind with regard to false speech.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from divisive speech and abandons divisive speech.
He does not engage in divisive speech and does not harm [the relationships of] others.
Hearing something from this person he does not tel it to that person, in order to harm this person;
hearing something from that person he does not tel it to this person, in order to harm that person.
He has the wish to unite those that are divided, delighting in unity.
He does not belong to any faction and does not delight in or praise factions.
He has purified his mind with regard to divisive speech.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from harsh speech, has given up harsh speech.
He has given up the type of speech that consists of words that are rough and rude in tone, offensive words that grate on the ear, that people neither enjoy nor desire, that cause others suffering and vexation, and that are not conducive to concentration.
He speaks the type of speech that consists of words that are pure, peaceful, gentle, and beneficial, that are pleasant to the ear and enter the mind, that are enjoyable and desirable, that give others happiness, words endowed with meaning, that do not make others afraid and that help others to at ain concentration.
He purifies his mind with regard to harsh speech.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from frivolous speech and abandons frivolous speech.
He speaks at the [proper] time, speaking what is true, what is Dharma, what is meaningful, what is calming, delighting in speaking what is calming.
[In regard to any] mat er he teaches wel and admonishes wel , in accordance with the [proper]

time and in a proper way.
He purifies his mind with regard to frivolous speech.



Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from covetousness and abandons covetousness;
his mind is not ful of envy on seeing another’s wealth and lifestyle, he does not long for them, wishing:
“If only I could get that!” He purifies his mind with regard to covetousness.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from hatred and abandons hatred;
he has shame and scruple;
his mind is ful of loving-kindness and compassion for the welfare of al beings, including insects.

He purifies his mind with regard to hatred.

Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple abstains from wrong view and abandons wrong view.
He holds right view, view that is not distorted.

He has these views and makes these declarations:

There is offering, there is sacrifice, there are incantations;
there are wholesome and unwholesome deeds, there are results of wholesome or unwholesome deeds;
there is this world and the other world, there are father and mother;
there are True Persons in the world who are headed for a supreme attainment, who are well gone and wel directed, who in this world and another world have

[at ained] understanding and awakening by themselves, and dwel having personal y realized it.

He purifies his mind with regard to wrong view.

In this manner, Kālāmas, a learned noble disciple achieves purity of bodily actions, achieves purity of verbal and mental actions.
He abandons il wil and quarrel, discards sloth and torpor, is without restlessness 439b or conceit, and cuts off doubt;
he transcends arrogance, has right mindfulness and right at entiveness, and is without confusion.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel s pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

It is the same with compassion, empathic joy, and equanimity;
free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s 93
pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

In this way, Kālāmas, the mind of a learned noble disciple is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, and he obtains four assurances.
What are the four?

[He thinks:
]

[If] there is this world and another world, [if] there are results of wholesome and unwholesome actions, then upholding and being endowed with this right view and action in conformity with it, at the breaking up of the body, after my death, I wil certainly go to a good realm of existence, be reborn in a heavenly realm.

Thus, Kālāmas, this is the first assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Kālāmas, [he thinks:
]

[If] there is neither this world nor another world, [if] there are no results of wholesome and unwholesome actions, then in this case, in this lifetime I am not censured by others for this belief, but am praised for having right at entiveness, as one who is diligent and one who is said to have right view.

Thus, Kālāmas, this is the second assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Kālāmas, [he thinks:
]

Whatever I have done, I have certainly done no evil, and I recol ect no evil.
Why? Since I have done no evil, whence could suffering arise?

Thus, Kālāmas, this is the third assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Kālāmas, [he thinks:
]

Whatever I may have done, I have certainly done no evil, and I have not violated the [customs of the] world, either out of fear or without fear;
I have always had compassion and empathy for the

entire world.
My mind has been free of contention with beings, untainted, and delighted.

Thus, Kālāmas, this is the fourth assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
These, Kālāmas, are the four assurances obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.

The Kālāmas[, repeating the teaching,] said to the World-honored One:
Indeed, Gotama, the mind of a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel obtains four assurances.
What are the four?

[If] there is this world and another world, [if] there are results of wholesome and unwholesome actions, then upholding and being endowed with this right view and with action in conformity with 439c it, at the breaking up of the body, after my death, I wil certainly go to a good realm of existence, and be reborn in a heavenly realm.

Thus, Gotama, this is the first assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Gotama,

[If] there is neither this world nor another world, [if] there are no results of wholesome and unwholesome actions, then in this case, in this lifetime, I am not censured by others for this belief, but am praised for having right at entiveness, as one who is diligent and is said to have right view.

Thus, Gotama, this is the second assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Gotama,

Whatever I may have done, I have certainly done no evil, and I recol ect no evil.
Why? Since I have done no evil, whence could suffering arise?

95
Thus, Gotama, this is the third assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
Again, Gotama,

Whatever I may have done, I have certainly done no evil, and I have not violated the [customs of the] world, either out of fear or without fear.
I have always had compassion and empathy for the entire world.
My mind has been free of contention with beings, untainted, and delighted.

Thus, Gotama, this is the fourth assurance obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.
These, Gotama, are the four assurances obtained by a learned noble disciple whose mind is free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel.

Gotama, we have come to know it! Wel -gone One, we have understood it! World-honored One, we go for lifelong refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept us as lay fol owers! From this day forth until life ends we go [to him] for refuge.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, al the people of Kālāma and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

17 - MA 17 The Discourse to Gāmaṇi


17. The Discourse to Gāmaṇi
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Nālandā, in Pāvārika’s mango grove.

At that time, [the seer] Asita Devala had a son named Gāmaṇi, who was of majestic complexion and build, radiant and bright.
Just before dawn

[Gāmaṇi] approached the place where the Buddha was, paid homage at the Buddha’s feet, and stood to one side.

Gāmaṇi, the son of Asita Devala, said:

440a

World-honored One, brahmins arrogantly claim that they serve various gods, and that they can, at wil , cause beings to reach a good realm of existence after death, to be reborn in a heavenly realm.
The World-honored

One is the King of Dharma.
May the World-honored One cause people to reach a good realm of existence after death, to be reborn in a heavenly realm!

The World-honored One said:

Now, Gāmaṇi, I shal ask you something.
Answer according to your understanding.
What do you think, Gāmaṇi?
If in a vil age there are men and women who are lazy and indolent and who behave in evil ways, undertaking the ten unwholesome courses of action—kil ing living beings, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, .
. .

(and so on up to) wrong view—and at the time of their death crowds of people come, placing their palms together, praising and imploring, saying:

You men and women, who have been lazy and indolent and have behaved in evil ways, undertaking the ten unwholesome courses of action—kil ing living beings, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech .
. . (and so on up to) wrong view—

because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, you shal 83 reach a good realm of existence, and be reborn in a heavenly realm.

Gāmaṇi, those men and women, who have been lazy and indolent and have behaved in evil ways, undertaking the ten unwholesome courses of action—kil ing living beings, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech .
. . (and so on up to) wrong view—on being urged [when near death] by those crowds of people who come, placing their palms together, praising and imploring them, wil they because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, reach a good realm of existence, and be reborn in a heavenly realm?

Gāmaṇi replied:
“No, World-honored One.”


The World-honored One praised him saying:

Very good, Gāmaṇi! Why so?
That those men and women who have been lazy and indolent and who behaved in evil ways, undertaking the ten unwholesome courses of action—kil ing living beings, taking what 97
is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) wrong view—on being approached [when near death] by crowds of people, placing their palms together, praising and imploring them;
that because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, they should reach a good realm of existence, and be reborn in a heavenly realm, this is not possible.

Suppose, Gāmaṇi, there was a deep lake ful of water located not far from a vil age, and a man was to throw a large heavy rock into it.

If a crowd of people came along and, placing their palms together, praising and imploring, said:
“Rock! May you float up and come out!”—what do you think, Gāmaṇi?
On being urged by that crowd of people who have come, placing their palms together, praising and imploring, because of this, conditioned by this, would that large heavy rock come out?

Gāmaṇi replied:
“No, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha continued:
]

So it is, Gāmaṇi.
Those men and women who have been lazy and indolent and have behaved in evil ways, having undertaken the ten unwholesome courses of action—kil ing living beings, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) wrong view—

on being approached [when near death] by crowds of people, placing their palms together, praising and imploring them;
that because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, they should reach a good realm of existence, and be reborn in a heavenly realm, this is not possible.

440b

And why not?
These ten unwholesome courses of action are black and have black results;
by nature they incline downward, certainly leading to a bad realm of existence.

What do you think, Gāmaṇi?
If in a village there are men and women who are diligent and energetic and practice the sublime Dharma, undertaking the ten wholesome courses of action—they refrain from kil ing and have abandoned kil ing, .
. . taking what is not given, .
. .

sexual misconduct, .
. . false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) they abstain from wrong view and have abandoned wrong view, they have acquired

right view—and at the time of their death crowds of people come, placing their palms together, praising and imploring them, saying:
You men and women have been diligent and energetic and have practiced the sublime Dharma, undertaking the ten wholesome courses of action—you refrained from kil ing and had abandoned kil ing, .
. . taking what is not given, .
. . sexual misconduct, .
. .

false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) you abstained from wrong view and had abandoned wrong view, had acquired right view—and because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, you shal reach a bad realm of existence, be reborn in hel .

What do you think, Gāmaṇi?
Those men and women who have been diligent and energetic and have practiced the sublime Dharma, undertaking the ten wholesome courses of action—[who] refrained from kil ing and had abandoned kil ing, .
. . taking what is not given, .
. .

sexual misconduct, .
. . false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) [who]

abstained from wrong view and had abandoned wrong view, had acquired right view—on being urged by the crowds of people who come, placing their palms together, praising and imploring, wil they because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, reach a bad realm of existence, and be reborn in hel ?

Gāmaṇi replied:
“No, World-honored One.”


The World-honored One praised him saying:

Very good, Gāmaṇi.
Why? Gāmaṇi, those men and women who have been diligent and energetic and practiced the sublime Dharma, undertaking the ten wholesome courses of action—they refrained from kil ing and had abandoned kil ing, .
. . taking what is not given, .
. . sexual misconduct, .
. . false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) they abstained from wrong view and abandoned wrong view, had acquired right view—on being urged by crowds of people, placing their palms together, praising and imploring;
that because of this, conditioned by this, after the breaking up of the body, at death, they should reach a bad realm of existence, and be reborn in hel ;
this is not possible.

99
Why so?
Gāmaṇi, these ten wholesome courses of action are white and have white results, by nature they ascend, certainly reaching a good realm of existence.

Gāmaṇi, suppose there were a deep lake ful of water located not far from a vil age, and a man were to throw into the water a jar ful of ghee and oil and then break it, so that fragments of the jar sank downward, while the ghee and oil floated upward.

Gāmaṇi, it is the same with those men and women who have been diligent and energetic and have practiced the sublime Dharma, undertaking the ten wholesome courses of action— they refrained from kil ing and had abandoned kil ing, .
. . taking what is not given, .
. . sexual misconduct, .
. . false speech, .
. . (and so on up to) they abstained from wrong view and abandoned wrong view, had acquired right view—

At the time of their death, the body, which is gross mat er, composed of the four elements, was born of father and mother, nourished and raised in dependence on food, and [in old age] endured being sat down or laid down to be massaged and bathed, is of a nature to break 440c

up, of a nature to cease, of a nature to be dispersed.
After death, it wil be pecked at by ravens, or eaten by tigers and wolves, or burned, or buried, and final y become ashes and dust.
[However,] their mind, their mental faculty, their consciousness, having been constantly pervaded by faith, diligence, much learning, generosity, and wisdom, because of this, conditioned by this, by nature they wil ascend, to be reborn in a good realm of existence.

Gāmaṇi, those who kil living beings, if they refrain from kil ing and abandon kil ing, then they are on the path of uplift, the path of ascent and progress, the path to a good realm of existence.
Gāmaṇi, those who take what is not given .
. . [who engage in] sexual misconduct

.
. . false speech .
. . (and so on up to) those who have wrong view, if they abstain from wrong view and acquire right view, then they are on the path of uplift, the path of ascent and progress, the path to a good realm of existence.

Moreover, Gāmaṇi, there is another path of uplift, [another] path of ascent and progress, [another] path to a good realm of existence.

What, Gāmaṇi, is this other path of uplift, the path of ascent and

progress, the path to a good realm of existence?
It is the eightfold noble path:
right view .
. . (and so on up to) right concentration—these eight.

Gāmaṇi, this too is a path of uplift, a path of ascent and progress, a path to a good realm of existence.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Gāmaṇi and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

18 - MA 18 The Discourse to Sīha


18. The Discourse to Sīha
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Vesālī, in the Gabled Hal near the Monkey Lake.

At that time, many Licchavis from Vesālī had come together in the assembly hal , frequently speaking in praise of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
At that time, Senior Minister Sīha, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas, was also in the assembly.

Then Senior Minister Sīha had the wish to visit the Buddha and pay homage to him.
Senior Minister Sīha went first to the place of the Nigaṇṭhas, and told the Nigaṇṭhas:
“Venerable sirs, I wish to go and visit the renunciant Gotama.”


Then, the Nigaṇṭhas reprimanded Sīha, saying:

441a

You should not wish to visit the renunciant Gotama! Why?
The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction.
Sīha, to visit [someone who asserts] a doctrine of inaction is inauspicious, and it is also inauspicious to pay homage

[to him].

Those many Licchavis from Vesālī came together again in the assembly hal a second and a third time, frequently speaking in praise of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks;
and a second and a third time Senior Minister Sīha, a disciple of the Nigaṇṭhas, was in the assembly.
Then, a second and a third time, Senior Minister Sīha had the wish to visit the Buddha and pay homage to him.

[On the third occasion] Senior Minister Sīha, without asking leave of the Nigaṇṭhas, approached the Buddha.
Having exchanged greetings, he sat down to one side and said:

101
I have heard thus:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction.”
Gotama, if someone speaks thus:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction,” is that person not misrepresenting the renunciant Gotama?
Does he speak what is true?
Does he speak what is Dharma?
Does he speak the Dharma according to the Dharma?
Does he not fal into error and incur censure according to the Dharma?

The World-honored One replied:

Sīha, if someone speaks thus:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction,” he does not misrepresent the renunciant Gotama, he speaks what is true, he speaks what is Dharma, he speaks the Dharma according to the Dharma, and he does not fal into error or incur censure according to the Dharma.

Why is that?
Sīha, there is a way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on action, and he proclaims to people a doctrine of action.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on annihilation, and he proclaims to people a teaching of annihilation.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on abhorrence, and he proclaims to people a teaching of abhorrence.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on Dharma and Vinaya, and he proclaims to people a teaching of Dharma and Vinaya.”




Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying] “The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on asceticism, and he proclaims to people 441b a teaching of asceticism.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying] “The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on not entering a womb [to be reborn], and he proclaims to people a teaching of not entering a womb.”


Again, Sīha, there is another way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on at aining peace, and he proclaims to people a teaching of at aining peace.”


Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction”?
Sīha, I proclaim that evil bodily actions are not to be done, that evil verbal and mental actions are not to be done.

Sīha, the countless unwholesome and defiled states of this kind, which are the basis of future existence, which result in suffering and vexation and are the cause of birth, old age, sickness, and death—I proclaim that al of these are not to be done.
This, Sīha, is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on inaction, and he proclaims to people a teaching of inaction.”


Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on action, and he proclaims to people a teaching of action”?
Sīha, I proclaim that good bodily actions are to be done, that good verbal and mental actions are to be done.
Sīha, the countless wholesome states of this kind, whose results are experienced as happiness, as rebirth in a good realm of existence, endowed with a long life span—I proclaim that al of these are to be done.
This, Sīha, is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent

[me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on action, and he proclaims to people a teaching of action.”


103
Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on annihilation, and he proclaims to people a teaching of annihilation”?
Sīha, I proclaim that evil bodily actions are to be annihilated, that evil verbal and mental actions are to be annihilated.

Sīha, the countless unwholesome and defiled states of this kind, which are the basis of future existence, which result in suffering and vexation and are the cause of birth, old age, sickness, and death—I proclaim that al of these are to be annihilated.
This, Sīha, is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying] “The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on annihilation, and he proclaims to people a teaching of annihilation.”


Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s 441c

doctrine is based on abhorrence, and he proclaims to people a teaching of abhorrence”?
Sīha, I proclaim that evil bodily actions are to be loathed and abhorred, that evil verbal and mental actions are to be loathed and abhorred.
Sīha, the countless unwholesome and defiled states of this kind, which are the basis of future existence, which result in suffering and vexation and are the cause of birth, old age, sickness, and death—I proclaim that al of these are to be loathed and abhorred.

This, Sīha, is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on abhorrence, and he proclaims to people a teaching of abhorrence.”


Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on Dharma and Vinaya, and he proclaims to people a teaching of Dharma and Vinaya”?
Sīha, I teach the Dharma and Vinaya for the sake of abandoning sensual desire, I declare the Dharma and Vinaya for the sake of abandoning hatred and ignorance.
Sīha, the countless unwholesome and defiled states of this kind, which are the basis of future existence, which result in suffering and vexation and are the cause of birth, old age, sickness, and death—I teach the Dharma and Vinaya for the sake of abandoning these.
This, Sīha, is the way in

which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on Dharma and Vinaya, and he proclaims to people a teaching of Dharma and Vinaya.”


Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on asceticism, and he proclaims to people a teaching of asceticism”?

Sīha, there are renunciants and brahmins, who go naked and unclothed, who use their hands as clothes [to cover their private parts], or use leaves as clothes, or use beads as clothes;
who wil not use a pot to get water, or wil not use a ladle to get water;
who wil not eat food [obtained by others] by robbery with blade and cudgel;
who wil not eat food obtained by deception, or by personal y approaching [a donor], or by sending a faithful fol ower [to get it], or [when cal ed thus:
] “Come, venerable sir!”, or “Very wel , venerable sir!”, or “Stay, venerable sir!”

Or [there are those] who, when two are eating together, wil not eat with them;
or who wil not eat food from a house where there is a pregnant woman, or from a house where there is a pet dog;
or who wil not take food from a house where flies are buzzing around excrement;
or who do not eat fish, do not eat meat, do not drink alcohol, do not drink water [considered as] evil, or do not drink at al but train in the practice of not drinking;
or who eat one mouthful and are content with one mouthful, or eat two mouthfuls, or three, four .
. . or at most seven mouthfuls and are content with seven mouthfuls.

Or [there are those] who eat [only the alms] they obtain at a single

[house] and are content with what they obtain at a single [house], or at two [houses], or three, four .
. . or at most seven [houses] and are content with what they obtain at seven [houses];
or who have one meal a day and are content with one meal, or one meal in two days, or in three, four, five, six, or in seven days, or in a fortnight, or who have one meal in a month and are content with one meal [in a month].

Or [there are those] who eat edible roots, or wild rice, or mil et, 442a or rice bran, or rice scum, or coarse food;
who go to secluded places 105
and live off [what they find] in seclusion, or eat roots or eat fruits, or eat fal en fruits.

Or [there are those] who clothe themselves in patchwork robes, or in robes made of hair, or in robes made of coarse fabric, or in robes made of hair and coarse fabric;
or who wear complete hides, or wear pierced hides, or wear complete pierced hides;
who keep their hair disheveled, or keep their hair in braids, or keep their hair disheveled and in braids, or shave their hair, or shave their beard, or shave their hair and beard, or tear out their hair, or tear out their beard, or tear out their hair and beard.

Or [there are those] who stand continuously, abstaining from sit ing;
or move about in a squat ing position;
or lie down on thorns, using a bed of thorns;
or lie down on fruits, using a bed of fruits;
or who worship water day and night, pouring it out with their hands;
or who worship fire, keeping it burning continuously.

Or [there are those] who worship the sun and moon, revering them as spirits of great might, and saluting them with palms together.
In these ways they experience untold suffering in the practice of self-mortification.
Sīha, there is such asceticism;
I do not deny it.

But, Sīha, such asceticism is lowly action, leading to suffering, leading to distress, a practice of worldlings;
it is not the noble path.

[On the other hand,] Sīha, if there are renunciants and brahmins whose method of “asceticism” consists in knowing [defilements], abandoning them, [causing them] to cease completely, rooting them out and cut ing them off, so that they wil never arise again, then I proclaim this “asceticism.”


Sīha, for the Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, the method of “asceticism” consisted in knowing [defilements], abandoning them, [causing them] to cease completely, rooting them out and cut ing them off, so that they would never arise again.
For this reason I practiced “asceticism.”
Sīha, this is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on asceticism, and he proclaims to people a teaching of asceticism.”


Again, Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant

Gotama’s doctrine is based on not entering a womb [to be reborn], and he proclaims to people a teaching of not entering a womb”?

Sīha, if there are renunciants and brahmins who [through] higher knowledge abandon future rebirth in a womb, [causing future rebirth]

to cease completely, rooting it out and cut ing it off, so that it wil not arise again, I proclaim that they will [indeed] not enter a womb.

Sīha, the Tathāgata, free from attachment and fully awakened,

[through] higher knowledge abandoned future rebirth in a womb, [caused future rebirth] to cease completely, rooted it out, and cut it off, so that it wil not arise again.
For this reason, I wil not again enter a womb.

Sīha, this is a way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on not entering a womb [to be reborn], and he proclaims to people a teaching of not entering a womb.”


Again, Sīha, what is the way in which, according to the true Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on at aining peace, and he proclaims to people a teaching of at aining peace”?

Sīha, [I] at ained ful y the summit of the holy life, for the sake of 442b which a clansman85 shaves off hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path.

In this very life I have personal y at ained understanding and awakening, and I dwel having personal y realized.
I know as it real y is:

“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


Having at ained peace myself, I bring peace to other monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen.
Having brought peace to them, I bring liberation from birth to other living beings who are subject to birth, .
. . subject to old age .
. . subject to disease .
. . subject to death .
. . I bring liberation from sorrow, sadness, and defilements to other beings who are subject to sorrow, sadness, and defilements.

Sīha, this is the way in which, according to the True Dharma, one would not misrepresent [me in saying]:
“The renunciant Gotama’s doctrine is based on at aining peace, and he proclaims to people a teaching of peace.”


107
Senior Minister Sīha said to the World-honored One:
Gotama, I have known it! Wel -gone One, I have understood it! Gotama, it is as when someone with clear vision uncovers what was covered, exposes what was covered, or shows the way to one who was lost, or offers a light in the darkness, so that those with eyes can see forms.
In the same way, the renunciant Gotama has taught me the Dharma using countless skil ful means to reveal its meaning in various ways.

World-honored One, I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

World-honored One, just as a person who raises a bad horse, expecting to get benefit from it, only tires himself and gets no benefit—World-honored One, I was like this.
Those foolish Nigaṇṭhas lack right knowledge;
they do not know for themselves.
Not recognizing the fertile field [of the Buddha’s teaching], and not examining for myself, [I] long revered them, made offerings, and paid them homage, expecting to get benefit from it;
but I only suffered in vain.

World-honored One, for a second time I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

World-honored One, I was formerly ignorant.
Whatever faith and respect I had for those foolish Nigaṇṭhas has today been cut off.
Why?

Because I was deceived.
World-honored One, for a third time, I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.

May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Senior Minister Sīha and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

19 - MA 19 The Discourse to the 442c Nigaṇṭhas


19. The Discourse to the 442c Nigaṇṭhas
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying among the Sakyans, in Devadaha.



There the World-honored One told the monks:

The Nigaṇṭhas hold this view and declare:

Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.

If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma]

is created, then al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is at ained;
the cessation of suffering being at ained, the end of suffering is at ained.

I therefore approached them, and on arriving, I asked:
Nigaṇṭhas, do you hold this view and declare:
“Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.
If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma] is created, then al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is attained;
the cessation of suffering being at ained, the end of suffering is at ained”?

They replied:
“That is so, Gotama.”
I also asked those Nigaṇṭhas:
Do you personally have clear knowledge that “I existed in the past,” or “I did not exist in the past”;
“I did evil in the past,” or “I did not do evil in the past”;
“This much of the suffering that I created has already been exhausted,” or “This much of the suffering that I created has not yet been exhausted,” or “When this has been exhausted, when its exhaustion is at ained, then, by practicing, I wil realize in this lifetime the eradication of al unwholesome states and the at ainment of manifold wholesome states”?

They replied:
“No, Gotama.”
I also said to those Nigaṇṭhas:

[You have affirmed that] you do not personal y have clear knowledge that “I existed in the past,” or “I did not exist in the past”;
“I did evil in the past,” or “I did not do evil in the past”;
“This much of the suffering that I created has already been exhausted,” or

“This much of the suffering that I created has not been exhausted,”

or “When this has been exhausted, when its exhaustion is at ained, then, by practicing, I wil realize in this lifetime the eradication 109
of al unwholesome states and the at ainment of manifold wholesome states.”
How, then, can you claim:
“Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.
If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma] is created, then al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is at ained;
the cessation of suffering being at ained, the end of suffering is at ained”?

Nigaṇṭhas, if you personally had clear knowledge that:
“I existed in the past,” or “I did not exist in the past”;
“I did evil in the past,” or “I did not do evil in the past”;
“This much of the suffering that I created has already been exhausted,” or “This much of the suffering that I created has not been exhausted”;
or “When this has been exhausted, when its exhaustion is at ained, then, by practicing, I will realize in this lifetime the eradication of all unwholesome states and the at ainment of manifold wholesome states,” then, Nigaṇṭhas, you could claim:
“Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.
If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma] is created, al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is at ained;
the cessation of suffering being at ained, the end of suffering is at ained.”


Nigaṇṭhas, suppose that a man’s body has been wounded by a poisoned arrow and, because of being wounded by this poisoned 443a

arrow, extreme pain arises.
Then, out of sympathy and concern about the wound, his kinsmen and relatives cal a surgeon to pul out the arrow, for his benefit and wel -being.
The surgeon comes, and with a sharp knife cuts the wound open;
and while the wound is being cut open, extreme pain arises again.
Having cut the wound open, the surgeon probes for the metal arrowhead;
and while he is probing for the arrowhead, extreme pain arises again.
Having probed and found the arrowhead, he pul s it out;
and while he is pul ing it out, extreme pain arises again.
Having pul ed out the arrowhead, he dresses and bandages the wound;
and while he is bandaging it, extreme pain arises again.
After the arrowhead has been pul ed out,

that man regains his vigor and feels wel .
Without any damage to his faculties, he recovers and is just as he was before.

Nigaṇṭhas, that man, personally having clear knowledge, thinks:
“Formerly I was wounded by a poisoned arrow, and because of that extreme pain arose.
Then, out of sympathy and concern about the wound, my kinsmen and relatives cal ed a surgeon to pul out the arrow, for the sake of my benefit and wel -being.
The surgeon came, and with a sharp knife cut the wound open;
and while the wound was being cut open, extreme pain arose again.

Having cut the wound open, the surgeon probed for the metal arrowhead;
and while he was probing for the arrowhead, extreme pain arose again.
Having probed and found the arrowhead, he pul ed it out;
and while he was pul ing it out, extreme pain arose again.
Having pul ed out the arrowhead, he dressed and bandaged the wound;
and while he was bandaging it, extreme pain arose again.
After the arrowhead had been pulled out, I regained my vigor and felt wel .
Without any damage to my faculties, I recovered and was just as I had been before.”


In the same way, Nigaṇṭhas, if you personal y had clear knowledge that “I existed in the past,” or “I did not exist in the past”;
“I did evil in the past,” or “I did not do evil in the past”;
“This much of the suffering that I created has already been exhausted,” or

“This much of the suffering that I created has not been exhausted”;
or “When this has been exhausted, when its exhaustion is at ained, then, by practicing, I wil realize in this lifetime the eradication of al unwholesome states and the at ainment of manifold wholesome states,” then, Nigaṇṭhas, you could claim:
“Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.
If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma] is created, al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is at ained;
the cessation of suffering being at ained, the end of suffering is at ained.”
I asked them in this way, but I did not see any of the Nigaṇṭhas able to answer me, saying:

“Gotama, it is so,” or “It is not so.”


111
Again, I asked the Nigaṇṭhas:
“If the Nigaṇṭhas [engage in] strong striving and strong asceticism, wil at that time strong pain arise in the Nigaṇṭhas?”


They replied:
“Yes, Gotama.”


[The Buddha said:
] “If the Nigaṇṭhas [engage in] middling striving and middling asceticism, wil at that time middling pain arise in the Nigaṇṭhas?”


They replied:
“Yes, Gotama.”


[The Buddha said:
] “If the Nigaṇṭhas [engage in] weak striving and weak asceticism, wil at that time weak pain arise in the Nigaṇṭhas?”


They replied:
“Yes, Gotama.”


[The Buddha said:
]

That is to say, [when] the Nigaṇṭhas [engage in] strong striving 443b

and strong asceticism, at that time strong pain arises in the Nigaṇṭhas;
[when] they [engage in] middling striving and middling asceticism, at that time middling pain arises in the Nigaṇṭhas;

[when] they [engage in] weak striving and weak asceticism, at that time weak pain arises in the Nigaṇṭhas.

When the Nigaṇṭhas [engage in] strong striving and strong asceticism, at that time strong pain is calmed by the Nigaṇṭhas;

[when] they [engage in] middling striving and middling asceticism, at that time middling pain is calmed by the Nigaṇṭhas;
[when]

they [engage in] weak striving and weak asceticism, at that time weak pain is calmed by the Nigaṇṭhas.

Whether they act like this or do not act like this to calm that extreme pain, that great and heavy pain, it should be known that the Nigaṇṭhas are [simply] producing [their own] pain in the present life.

But the Nigaṇṭhas are enveloped by ignorance, possessed by ignorance, saying:
“Whatever one experiences is caused by what was done in the past.
If past karma is eradicated through asceticism, and no new [karma] is created, al karma comes to cease;
al karma having ceased, the cessation of suffering is at ained;
the cessation of suffering being attained, the end of suffering is attained.”




I asked them in this way, but I did not find any Nigaṇṭha able to answer me, saying:
“Gotama, it is so,” or “It is not so.”


I also asked the Nigaṇṭhas:
“Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result is to be experienced as happiness, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having suffering as its result?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


[I asked them further] “Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result is to be experienced as suffering, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having happiness as its result?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


“Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result is to be experienced in this lifetime, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result in a later life?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


“Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result is to be experienced in a later life, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result in this lifetime?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


“Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result has not yet matured, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result matured?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


“Nigaṇṭhas, if there is an action whose result has matured, can that action, through striving and through asceticism, be made otherwise?”


They replied:
“No, Gotama.”


[The Buddha said:
]

That is to say, Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result is to be experienced as happiness, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having suffering as its result.

Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result is to be experienced as suffering, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having happiness as its result.

Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result is to be experienced in this lifetime, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result in a later life.

113
443c

Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result is to be experienced in a later life, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result in this lifetime.

Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result has not yet matured, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be turned into having its result matured.

Nigaṇṭhas, an action whose result has matured, that action cannot, through striving and through asceticism, be made otherwise.

Therefore, Nigaṇṭhas, your effort is in vain, your striving is empty and futile.

Then those Nigaṇṭhas told me:
“Gotama, we have a venerable teacher, named Nigaṇṭha Nātaput a, who proclaims thus:”


Nigaṇṭhas, if you created evil karma in the past, then that karma can be completely extinguished by means of this asceticism.
[And]

if you now restrain your body, speech, and mind, then through this [restraint] you wil not create any further evil karma.

Again, I asked those Nigaṇṭhas:
“Do you believe in [your] venerable teacher, the Nigaṇṭha Nātaput a, without having any doubts?”


They replied:
“Gotama, we believe in [our] venerable teacher, the Nigaṇṭha Nātaput a, without having any doubts.”


Again, I said to those Nigaṇṭhas:

There are five things, which may have a twofold result in the present life.
They are:
belief, liking, oral tradition, memory, and wel -

considered view.
Nigaṇṭhas, a person who himself says what is untrue, could [he regard that untrue statement] as believable, as likable, as traditional, as memorable, as a wel -considered view?

They replied:
“Yes, Gotama.”


Then I said further to those Nigaṇṭhas:

[But given that] it is an untrue statement, how could it be believable, how could it be likable, how could it be traditional, how could it be memorable, how could it be wel contemplated?
[Yet] the person who himself says what is untrue has belief [in it], has liking [for

it], has heard [it as tradition], has memory [of it], has considered

[it] wel .

[Monks,] if the Nigaṇṭhas speak thus, then they incur a fivefold censure according to the Dharma and can be reproached.
87 What are the five?

If al the pleasure and pain that these beings now experience is caused by actions done [in the past, then the Nigaṇṭhas [must] have done evil in the past.
Why? Because that would be the reason why the Nigaṇṭhas now experience extreme pain.
This is the first [ground] on which the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by the company they kept, then the Nigaṇṭhas [must] have kept evil company in the past.
Why? Because that would be why the Nigaṇṭhas now experience extreme pain.
This is the second [ground] on which the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by destiny, then the Nigaṇṭhas [must] have had an evil destiny in the past.
Why? Because that would be why the Nigaṇṭhas now experience extreme pain.
This is the third [ground] on which the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by views, then the Nigaṇṭhas [must] have held evil views in the past.

Why? Because that would be why the Nigaṇṭhas now experience 444a extreme pain.
This is the fourth [ground] on which the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused and created by a supreme god, then in the past the Nigaṇṭhas [must]

have been created by an evil supreme god.
Why? Because that would be why the Nigaṇṭhas now experience extreme pain.
This is the fifth

[ground] on which the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

If in the past the Nigaṇṭhas did evil, .
. . kept evil company, .
. .

had an evil destiny, .
. . held evil views, [if there was] an evil supreme god and they were created by this evil supreme god;
and if because of this the Nigaṇṭhas now experience extreme pain—then for these reasons, on these grounds, the Nigaṇṭhas can be reproached.

115
The Dharma, which I came to know by myself and realized by myself, and which I have proclaimed to you, cannot be refuted, cannot be defiled, cannot be prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, god, Māra, Brahmā or anyone else in the world.
Why is it that the Dharma, which I came to know by myself and realized by myself, and which I have proclaimed to you, cannot be refuted, cannot be defiled, cannot be prevailed over by any renunciant, brahmin, god, Māra, Brahmā or anyone else in the world?

If a monk abandons unwholesome bodily actions and practices wholesome bodily actions, [if he] abandons unwholesome verbal and mental actions and practices wholesome verbal and mental actions, then in regard to future suffering [due to present unwholesome actions]

he personal y knows:
“there wil be no [such] future suffering for me.”


In accordance with the Dharma he at ains happiness and wil not discard it.

Aspiring to eliminate a [particular] cause of suffering, he may practice with [that] aspiration;
or, aspiring to eliminate a [particular] cause of suffering, he may practice equanimity [in regard to that] aspiration.

If, aspiring to eliminate a [particular] cause of suffering, he practices with [that] aspiration;
and if he then develops his practice with [that]

aspiration and eliminates that [particular cause of suffering], then the

[corresponding] suffering comes to be extinguished.

If, aspiring to eliminate a [particular] cause of suffering, he practices equanimity [in regard to that] aspiration;
and if he then develops his practice with equanimity and eliminates that [particular cause of suffering], then the [corresponding] suffering comes to be extinguished.

Then, the monk has this thought:

According to one’s behavior, according to one’s deeds, unwholesome states arise and wholesome states cease.
If I eliminate my suffering for myself,88 then unwholesome states wil cease and wholesome states wil arise.
Now, I would bet er eliminate my suffering for myself.

Then he eliminates the suffering and, once the suffering has been eliminated, unwholesome states cease and wholesome states arise, and he

no longer needs to eliminate suffering.
Why? Because, monks, his original purpose has been achieved, it is not the case that he might need to eliminate suffering again.

Monks, it is just as a fletcher may use a template to straighten an arrow, but once the arrow has been straightened, he has no further use for the template.
Why? Because that person’s original purpose has been achieved, it is not the case that he might need to use the template again.

In the same way, a monk has this thought:

According to one’s behavior, according to one’s deeds unwholesome states arise and wholesome states cease.
If I eliminate my suffering for myself, then unwholesome states will cease and wholesome states wil arise.
Now, I would bet er eliminate my suffering for myself.

Then he eliminates the suffering and, once the suffering has been elim- 444b inated, unwholesome states cease and wholesome states arise, and he no longer needs to eliminate the suffering.
Why? Because his original purpose has been achieved, it is not the case that he might need to eliminate this suffering again.

Monks, suppose that a [certain] man loves a woman, is at ached to her, and has high regard for her;
but the woman instead gets talking with someone else, exchanges greetings with him, and they go off and spend the night together.
Would, because of this, physical and mental suffering, vexation, and extreme grief and sorrow arise in that man?

The monks replied:

Yes indeed, World-honored One.
And why?
That man loves the woman, is at ached to her and has high regard for her;
but then that woman instead gets talking with someone else, exchanges greetings with him, and they go off to spend the night together.
How could, because of this, physical and mental suffering, vexation, and extreme grief and sorrow not arise in that man?
[The Buddha:
]

Monks, suppose that man thinks like this:

117
I love that woman, and have high regard for her;
but that woman instead got talking with another man, exchanged greetings with him, and they went off to spend the night together.
Because of my suffering and sadness, shouldn’t I now rather cut off my love and at achment for that woman?

Then that man, because of his own suffering and sadness, cuts off his love and at achment for that woman.
If that woman, as before, gets talking with someone else, exchanges greetings with him, and they go off to spend the night together, would again, because of that, physical and mental suffering, vexation, and extreme grief and sorrow arise in him?

The monks replied:

No, World-honored One.
And why not?
Because that man no longer has a feeling of love and at achment for that woman.
If that woman, as before, gets talking with someone else, exchanges greetings with him, and they go off to spend the night together, it is not the case that, because of that, physical and mental suffering, vexation, and extreme grief and sorrow wil arise in him.

[The Buddha:
]

In the same way, a monk has this thought:

According to one’s actions, according to one’s deeds, unwholesome states arise and wholesome states cease.
If I eliminate the suffering, then the unwholesome states wil cease and wholesome states wil arise.
Now, I would bet er eliminate my suffering.

Then he eliminates the suffering and, once the suffering has been eliminated, unwholesome states cease and wholesome states arise, and he no longer needs to eliminate the suffering.
Why? Because his original purpose has been achieved, he need not again eliminate the suffering.

Then he has this further thought:

Whatever the cause of [this] suffering that was to be eliminated, I have eliminated it;
yet with regard to desire [itself] it is as before—

it is not eliminated.
Now, I would bet er seek to eliminate desire!



So he seeks to eliminate desire [itself].
In order to eliminate that desire, he dwel s alone, in seclusion, resorting to a secluded place—to the base of a tree, to an empty and quiet place, a mountain top, a cave, [a place] in the open air, a heap of straw;
or he goes into a forest, or to a cemetery.

Having resorted to a secluded place—to the base of a tree, to an empty and quiet place—he spreads his sit ing mat, sits down cross- 444c legged, with upright body and upright intention, and sets up mindfulness before him.

He abandons covetousness, his mind is free from envy.
Seeing another’s wealth and lifestyle, he does not give rise to thoughts of covetousness:
“If only I could get that!”

He purifies his mind of covetousness;
and similarly of hatred, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry.

He abandons doubt and overcomes confusion;
without hesitation in regard to wholesome states, he purifies his mind of doubt and confusion.

Having abandoned these five hindrances, which are imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, having abandoned desire, abandoned evil and unwholesome states, .
. . (and so on up to) he dwel s having at ained the fourth jhāna.
When he has at ained concentration in this way, his mind being purified, without blemish, free of vexations, mal eable, wel established, having at ained imperturbability, he directs his mind to the realization of the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.

He knows as it real y is:
“this is suffering”;
he knows:
“this is the origin of suffering”;
he knows:
“this is the cessation of suffering”;
he knows as it real y is:
“this is the path to the cessation of suffering.”


Again, he knows as it real y is:
“these are the taints”;
he knows:
“this is the origin of the taints”;
he knows:
“this is the cessation of the taints”;
he knows as it real y is:
“this is the path to the cessation of the taints.”


Knowing thus, seeing thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of existence, and from the taint of ignorance.
Being liberated, he knows he is liberated.
He understands as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done;
there wil not be another existence.”


119
The Tathāgata who has, in this way, rightly liberated the mind, gains five kinds of praise, [praise that is] according to the Dharma, undisputed, desirable, and highly regarded.
What are the five?

If al the pleasure and pain that beings now experience is caused by deeds in the past, then the Tathāgata [must] have done sublime actions in the past;
and because of that, the Tathāgata now experiences a noble happiness that is free of taints.
Quiescent and calm, he has at ained happiness and awakening.
This is the first praise gained by the Tathāgata.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by the company they have kept, then the Tathāgata [must have] kept good company in the past;
and because of that, the Tathāgata now experiences a noble happiness free of taints.
Quiescent and calm, he has at ained happiness and awakening.
This is the second praise gained by the Tathāgata.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by destiny, then the Tathāgata [must have] had a good destiny in the past;
and because of that, the Tathāgata now experiences a noble happiness free of taints.
Quiescent and calm, he has at ained happiness and awakening.
This is the third praise gained by the Tathāgata.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused by holding views, then the Tathāgata [must have] held good views in the past;
and because of that, the Tathāgata now experiences a noble happiness free of taints.
Quiescent and calm, he has at ained happiness and awakening.
This is the fourth praise gained by the Tathāgata.

Again, if al the pleasure and pain that beings experience is caused and created by a supreme god, then the Tathāgata [must have been cre-445a

ated by] a good supreme god in the past;
and because of that, the Tathā-

gata now experiences a noble happiness free of taints.
Quiescent and calm, he has at ained happiness and awakening.
This is the fifth praise gained by the Tathāgata.

Thus, because of the Tathāgata’s former good actions, good company, good destiny, good view, and the existence of a good supreme god, the good supreme god by which the Tathāgata was created—

because of these the Tathāgata now experiences a noble happiness free

from taints, is quiescent and calm, having at ained happiness and awakening.
For these reasons, the Tathāgata now gains five kinds of praise.

There are five causes and conditions owing to which sorrow and suffering arise in the mind.
What are the five?

[The first is] entanglement in sexual desire;
because of entanglement in sexual desire, sorrow and suffering arise in the mind.
Similarly entanglement in hatred, .
. . sloth and torpor, .
. . restlessness and worry, entanglement in doubt;
because of entanglement in doubt, sorrow and suffering arise in the mind.
These are the five causes and conditions owing to which sorrow and suffering arise in the mind.

There are five causes and conditions owing to which sorrow and suffering disappear from the mind.
What are the five?
If one is entangled in sexual desire, and because of entanglement in sexual desire, sorrow and suffering have arisen in the mind, then on abandoning entanglement in sexual desire, the sorrow and suffering wil cease.
Owing to entanglement in sexual desire, sorrow and suffering have arisen in the mind;
but on at aining the goal in this lifetime, there is freedom from vexation and affliction, constantly present and unchanging, as is known to the noble ones and seen by the noble ones.

In the same way, if one is entangled in hatred .
. . sloth and torpor

.
. . restlessness and worry .
. . if one is entangled in doubt, and because of entanglement in doubt, sorrow and suffering have arisen in the mind, then on abandoning entanglement in doubt, the sorrow and suffering wil cease.
Owing to entanglement in doubt, sorrow and suffering have arisen in the mind;
but on at aining the goal in this lifetime, there is freedom from vexation and affliction, constantly present and unchanging, as is known to the noble ones and seen by the noble ones.
These are the five causes and conditions owing to which sorrow and suffering disappear from the mind.

Again, there is another at aining of the goal in this lifetime, which is free from vexation and affliction, constantly present and unchanging, as is known to the noble ones and seen by the noble ones.
What is that other at aining of the goal in this lifetime, which is free from vexation and affliction, constantly present and unchanging, as is known to the noble ones and seen by the noble ones?
It is the noble eightfold path:
121
right view .
. . (and so on up to) right concentration—these eight.
This is another at aining of the goal in this lifetime, which is free from vexation and affliction, constantly present and unchanging, as is known to the noble ones and seen by the noble ones.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

20 - MA 20 The Discourse to Pāṭaliya


20. The Discourse to Pāṭaliya
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha, who was wandering among the Koliyans together with a great company of monks, arrived at the vil age of Ut ara and stayed in a rosewood grove north of Ut ara.

At that time Pāṭaliya, the vil age headman, heard that the renunciant 445b Gotama, a son of the Sākya clan, who had abandoned his clan and family, and had gone forth to train in the path, was wandering among the Koliyans together with a great company of monks, and that he had arrived at the vil age of Ut ara and was staying in a rosewood grove north of Ut ara.
[He also heard that] the renunciant Gotama had a great reputation, which had spread in al the ten directions:

The renunciant Gotama is a Tathāgata, free from attachment, fully awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, an unsurpassed one, a trainer of those to be tamed, a teacher of gods and human beings, known as the Buddha, the Fortunate One.

In this world, with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, he has [at ained] understanding and awakening by himself, and dwel s having personal y realized it.

The Dharma he teaches is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.

If one visits such a Tathāgata, who is free from at achment and ful y awakened, [if one] pays homage to him respectful y and serves him, then one wil quickly get good rewards.



[Pāṭaliya] thought:
“I should go to visit the renunciant Gotama and pay homage to him.”


Having learned this, Pāṭaliya the vil age headman left Ut ara and went north toward the rosewood grove, wishing to visit the World-honored One and pay homage to him.
From afar Pāṭaliya the village headman saw the World-honored One among the trees of the grove, dignified and beautiful, like the moon amidst the stars, with radiant aura, shining like a golden mountain, endowed with handsome appearance and majestic dignity, with sense faculties calm, free of obstruction, accomplished and disciplined, with his mind calm and quiet.

Having seen the Buddha from afar, Pāṭaliya the village headman approached the Buddha, exchanged greetings, sat down to one side, and said to the World-honored One:

I have heard this:
“The renunciant Gotama knows magic, he is a magician.”


Gotama, those who say:
“The renunciant Gotama knows magic, he is a magician,” are they not misrepresenting the renunciant Gotama?

Do they speak what is true?
Do they speak what is Dharma?
Do they speak the Dharma according to the Dharma?
Do they not fal into error and incur censure according to the Dharma?

The World-honored One replied:

Headman, those who say:
“The renunciant Gotama knows magic, he is a magician,”91 they are not misrepresenting the renunciant Gotama.

They speak what is true.
They speak what is Dharma.
They speak the Dharma according to the Dharma.
They do not fal into error or incur censure according to the Dharma.
Why? Because, headman, I know the magic of others, though I myself am not a magician.

Pāṭaliya said:

Although what those renunciants and brahmins were saying is true, yet I did not believe them when they said:
“The renunciant Gotama knows magic, he is a magician.”


123
The World-honored One said:
“Headman, if one knows magic, does one thereby become a magician?”


Pāṭaliya replied:
“Indeed, World-honored One.
Indeed, Wel -gone One.”


The World-honored One said:

Headman, do not make a mistake and misrepresent me.
If you misrepresent me, then you harm yourself, you wil be criticized, you commit an offense, and you wil be condemned by the noble ones for having 445c

perpetrated a major fault.
Why? Because the truth is not in accordance with what you say.
Headman, have you heard that the Koliyans have soldiers?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, I have heard that.”


[The Buddha:
] “What do you think, headman?
Why do the Koliyans employ soldiers?”


[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“To kil bandits, Gotama.
For this reason the Koliyans employ soldiers.”


[The Buddha:
] “What do you think, headman?
Are the Koliyan soldiers virtuous or without virtue?”


[Pāṭaliya] replied:

Gotama, if in the world there are those who lack virtue, the Koliyan soldiers are certainly among them.
Why? The Koliyan soldiers break al the precepts and behave in evil ways.

[The Buddha] asked further:

Headman, you see it thus and know it thus, and I do not question it.

[But] suppose that someone else were to ask you:
“Headman Pāṭaliya, you know that the Koliyan soldiers break al the precepts and do only evil;
therefore, headman Pāṭaliya, you too break al the precepts and do only evil.”
If someone were to speak like this, would he be speaking the truth?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:

No, Gotama.
And why?
The views of the Koliyan soldiers are different

[from mine], their desires are different, their aspirations are different.



The Koliyan soldiers break al the precepts and do only evil, but I keep al the precepts and do no evil.

[The Buddha] asked further:

Headman, you know that the Koliyan soldiers break al the precepts and do only evil, but you do not for this reason become one who breaks the precepts and does only evil.

Why, then, should it not be the case that the Tathāgata knows magic but is not himself a magician?
How is that?
I know magic, I know magicians, I know the results of doing magic, and I know the elimination of magic.

Headman, I also know kil ing of living beings, I know kil ers of living beings, I know the results of kil ing living beings, and I know the elimination of kil ing living beings.
Headman, I know taking what is not given, I know those who take what is not given, I know the results of taking what is not given, and I know the elimination of taking what is not given.
Headman, I know speaking falsehood, I know those who speak falsehood, I know the results of speaking falsehood, and I know the elimination of speaking falsehood.

Headman, I know this and see this.
If someone says, “The renunciant Gotama knows magic, he is a magician,” and if he does not give up saying that but makes known that state of mind, that desire, that aspiration, that report, that memory, and that reflection, then, when his life ends he shal , as quickly as one might bend or stretch out one’s arm, be reborn in hel .

On hearing this, Pāṭaliya the vil age headman was greatly afraid, trembling, with his body hair standing on end.
He immediately got up from his seat, paid homage at the [Buddha’s] feet with his head and, kneeling down with his palms placed together [in respect], said to the World-honored One:
I repent, Gotama.
I confess, Wel -gone One.
I was like a fool, like an ignorant person, like an unstable person, like an unwholesome person.

And why?
I was wrong in saying that the renunciant Gotama is a magi- 446a cian.
May Gotama accept my repentance! I have seen my fault and disclosed it.
Having repented, I shal exercise restraint and not do it again.

125
The World-honored One told him:

So it is, headman.
You truly were like a fool, ignorant, unstable and unwholesome.
And why?
You were wrong in saying that the Tathāgata, who is free from at achment and ful y awakened, is a magician.
However, you have been able to repent.
You have seen your fault and disclosed it.
Exercising restraint, you wil not do it again.

In this way, headman, those who are able to repent, who see their faults and disclose them, and who exercise restraint so as not to do it again, wil grow in the noble Dharma and be free from fault.

Thereupon Pāṭaliya the vil age headman, his palms placed together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said to the World-honored One:
Gotama, there is one [type of] renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and declare:
“If someone kil s living beings, they wil get the entire result in this lifetime;
and because of that, sorrow and suffering wil arise.
If someone takes what is not given, or speaks falsehood, they wil get the entire result in this lifetime;
and because of that, sorrow and suffering wil arise.”
Renunciant Gotama, what do you think [of this]?

The World-honored One said:

Headman, I shal now ask you something;
answer according to your understanding.
What do you think, headman?
In a vil age there may be a man who has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.

Then someone asks:
“What has this man done, that he now has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
that singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and that he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king?”


Someone replies:
“This man kil ed an enemy of the king, and the king, being delighted, bestowed rewards on him.
For this reason this man has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.”




Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha continued:
]

Headman, one may also see that a criminal is arrested by the king, his hands are bound behind him and, with a drum being beaten and the

[sentence] proclaimed, he is taken out through the southern gate of the town, seated beneath a tal signpost, beheaded, and his head is put on display.

Then someone asks:
“What crime has this man commit ed that he is executed by the king?”
Someone replies:
“This man wrongly kil ed an innocent person from the king’s household.
For this reason the king ordered this punishment.”
Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha said:
]

Headman, if a renunciant or brahmin holds this view and makes this proclamation:
“If someone kil s living beings, they wil get the entire result in this lifetime;
and because of that, sorrow and suffering wil arise,” are they saying what is true or are they saying what is false?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“It is falsely said, Gotama.”


[The Buddha:
] “If they say what is false, would you have faith in them?”
446b

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“No, I would not have faith, Gotama.”


The World-honored One praised him, saying:
“Very good, headman!

Very good!”

[The Buddha] asked further:

What do you think, headman?
In a vil age there may be a man who has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.

127
Then someone asks:
“What has this man done, that he now has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
that singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and that he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king?”


Someone replies:
“In another country this man took what was not given [and the king, being pleased with him, bestowed rewards on him.
] For this reason this man has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.”


Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha continued:
]

Again, headman, one may also see that a criminal is arrested by the king, his hands are bound behind him and, with a drum being beaten and [the sentence] proclaimed, he is taken out through the southern gate of the town, seated beneath a tal signpost, beheaded, and his head is put on display.

Then someone asks:
“What crime has this man commit ed that he is executed by the king?”
Someone replies:
“Within the king’s country this man took what was not given.
For this reason the king ordered this punishment.”
Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha:
]

Headman, if a renunciant or brahmin holds this view and makes this proclamation:
“If someone takes what is not given, they wil get the entire result in this lifetime;
and because of that, sorrow and suffering wil arise,” are they saying what is true or are they saying what is false?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“It is falsely said, Gotama.”




[The Buddha:
] “If they say what is false, would you have faith in them?”


[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“No, I would not have faith, Gotama.”


The World-honored One praised him saying:

Very good, headman! Very good! What do you think, headman?
In a vil age there may be a man who has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.

Then someone asks:
“What has this man done, that he now has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
that singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and that he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king?”


Someone replies:
“This man is a singer,92 able to entertain and amuse.
He delighted the king with false speech and the king, being delighted, bestowed rewards on him.
For this reason this man has garlands on his head and various perfumes applied to his body;
singing, music, and dancing are performed for his entertainment;
and he is presented with courtesans to enjoy himself like a king.”


446c

Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

[Pāṭaliya] replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha:
]

Again, headman, one may also see that a criminal is arrested by the king, his hands are bound behind him and, with a drum being beaten and [the sentence] proclaimed, he is taken out through the southern gate of the town, seated beneath a tal signpost, beheaded, and his head is put on display.
Then someone asks:
“What crime has this man commit ed that he is executed by the king?”
Someone replies:
“This man lied in testimony before the king.
With lies he tried to deceive the king.

For this reason the king ordered this punishment.”


Headman, have you ever seen something like this, or heard of something like this?

129
He replied:
“Yes, Gotama, I have seen it, I have heard of it, and I [expect I] wil hear of it [again].”


[The Buddha:
]

Headman, what do you think—if a renunciant or brahmin holds this view and makes this proclamation:
“If someone kil s living beings, they wil get the entire result in this lifetime;
and because of that, sorrow and suffering wil arise,” are they saying what is true or are they saying what is false?

He replied:
“It is falsely said, Gotama.”


“If they say what is false, would you have faith in them?”


He replied:
“No, I would not have faith, Gotama.”


The World-honored One praised him, saying:
“Very good, headman!

Very good!”

Then Pāṭaliya, the village headman, rose from his seat, arranged his clothes so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together [in respect]

towards the Buddha, said to the World-honored One:

Marvelous! What Gotama has said is wonderful, with good analogies and good proof.
Gotama, I built a high-roofed hal in the vil age of Ut ara, provided it with seats and beds, and set up water pots and big bright lamps.
If diligent renunciants or brahmins come to stay in this high-roofed hal , I provide what they need in accordance with my ability.

[Once] four teachers, holding different and opposing views were gathered in the high-roofed hal .
Among them was one teacher who held this view and made this proclamation:

There is no offering, no sacrifice,93 there are no incantations;
no wholesome or unwholesome actions, no results of wholesome or unwholesome actions;
there is neither this world nor another world, there are no father and mother;
there are no True Persons in the world who are headed for a supreme attainment, who are well gone and wel directed, who have themselves known and realized this world and the other world, who have themselves directly realized and accomplished it and dwel therein.



The second teacher had right view.
Opposing the view and knowledge of the first teacher, he held this view and made this proclamation:
There is offering, there is sacrifice, and there are incantations;
there are wholesome and unwholesome actions, and results of wholesome and unwholesome actions;
there is this world and the other world, there are father and mother;
there are True Persons in the world who are headed for a supreme at ainment, who are well gone and well directed, who have themselves known and realized this world and the other world, who have themselves directly realized and accomplished it and dwel therein.

The third teacher held this view and made this proclamation:
One who acts or instructs another to act;
one who destroys or instructs another to destroy;
one who tortures or instructs another to torture, [causing] distress, vexation, sadness, beating of breasts, despair, weeping, and bewilderment;
one who kil s living beings, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, drinks intoxicating liquor, breaks through wal s to open 447a storehouses, intrudes into others’ territory, destroys vil ages and towns, wipes out cities and countries—one who acts in these ways is not doing any evil.

Again, if by using an iron wheel as sharp as a razor, one were, in a single day, to cut into parts and kil al the living beings on this earth, slicing them into pieces and turning them all into a single heap of flesh;
this does not amout to “evil actions,” and the evil actions wil not have results.
If one were to go along the southern bank of the Ganges kil ing, destroying, and torturing, and to come back along the northern bank of the Ganges making offerings, undertaking sacrifices, and chanting incantations;
then there is no offense and no merit because of this, there are no results of offense or merit because of this.

Making offerings, taming [oneself], guarding [oneself], restraining [oneself], by esteeming, benefiting, generosity, speaking pleasantly, doing good, and sharing profit, one does not [earn]

merit because of this, there is no result of merit because of this.

131
The fourth teacher had right view.
Opposing the understanding and view of the third teacher, he held this view and made this proclamation:
One who acts or instructs another to act;
one who destroys or instructs another to destroy;
one who tortures or instructs another to torture, [causing] distress, vexation, and sadness, beating of breasts, despair, weeping, and bewilderment;
one who kil s living beings, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, drinks intoxicating liquor, breaks through wal s to open storehouses, intrudes into others’ territory, destroys vil ages and towns, wipes out cities and countries—one who acts in these ways is doing evil.

Again, if by using an iron wheel as sharp as a razor, one were, in a single day, to cut into parts and kil al the living beings on this earth, slicing them into pieces and turning them all into a single heap of flesh, this does amount to “evil actions,” and these evil actions wil have results.
If one were to go along the southern bank of the Ganges kil ing, destroying, and torturing, and to come back along the northern bank of the Ganges making offerings, undertaking sacrifices, and chanting incantations;
then there is offense or merit because of this, there are results of offense or merit because of this.

Making offerings, taming [oneself], guarding [oneself], restraining [oneself], by esteeming, benefiting, generosity, speaking pleasantly, doing good and sharing profit, there is merit because of this, there is result of merit because of this.

Gotama, having heard this, I have come to doubt.
Of these renunciants and brahmins, who is speaking the truth, and who is speaking falsehood?

The World-honored One told him:

Headman, do not let doubt arise in you.
Why not?
Owing to doubt, hesitation arises.
Headman, you yourself do not have pure knowledge about whether there is a next life or no next life.
Also, headman, you do not have pure knowledge regarding which way of acting is evil and which way of acting is wholesome.
Headman, there is a Dharma meditation

cal ed abandoning.
Through this meditation you may at ain right mindfulness, you may at ain singular-focus of mind.
In this way you may cut off your doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress.

Thereupon, Pāṭaliya the village headman rose again from his seat, arranged his clothes so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together

[in respect] towards the Buddha, said to the World-honored One:
Gotama, what is the Dharma meditation cal ed abandoning, through 447b which I may at ain right mindfulness and may at ain singular-focus of mind, and in that way may cut off my doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress?

The World-honored One told him:

Headman, a learned noble disciple refrains from kil ing and abandons kil ing, abandons taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. .

false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandons wrong view and at ains right view.
During the daytime he instructs people to farm and cultivate the fields, and when evening comes, he rests from this and goes indoors to meditate.
When the night is over, at dawn, he thinks:
I have refrained from kil ing and have abandoned kil ing, I have abandoned taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. .

false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandoned wrong view and at ained right view.

Then he examines himself:
“I have abandoned the ten unwholesome courses of action, and have been mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action.”
When he sees these ten unwholesome courses of action abandoned within himself and is mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action, joy arises in him;
joy having arisen, rapture arises;
rapture having arisen, the body becomes calm;
the body having become calm, he experiences happiness with the body;
the body having experienced happiness, he at ains singular-focus of mind.

Headman, a learned noble disciple who has at ained singular-focus of mind, imbues his mind with loving-kindness and dwel s [mental y] pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the 133
fourth direction, also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Then he reflects thus:
“There are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and make this proclamation:”


There is no offering, no sacrifice, there are no incantations;
no wholesome or unwholesome actions, no results of wholesome or unwholesome actions;
there is neither this world nor another world, there are no father and mother;
there are no True Persons in the world who are headed for a supreme attainment, who are well gone and wel directed, who have known and realized for themselves this world and the other world, who have themselves directly realized and accomplished it and dwel therein.

If those renunciants and brahmins are speaking the truth, then I have offended against neither the fearful nor the fearless in the world.
I have always had compassion and empathy for the entire world.
Toward [al ] beings my mind has been free of contention, untainted, and delighted.

Now I have at ained the Dharma of the unsurpassable person (i.
e., the Buddha),94 at ained progress and a happy abiding;
this is cal ed the Dharma meditation of abandoning.
What these renunciants and brahmins say may be correct or incorrect;
but [whether]

it is correct or incorrect, I have at ained inner tranquility of mind.

Headman, this is the Dharma meditation cal ed abandoning.
Through this meditation you may at ain right mindfulness, you may at ain singular-focus of mind.
In this way you may cut off your doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress.

Again, headman, a learned noble disciple refrains from kil ing and abandons kil ing, abandons taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. . false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandons wrong view and at ains right view.
During the daytime he instructs people to farm and cultivate the fields, and when evening comes, he rests from this

and goes indoors to meditate.
When the night is over, at dawn, he 447c thinks:

I have refrained from kil ing and have abandoned kil ing, I have abandoned taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. .

false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandoned wrong view and at ained right view.

Then he examines himself:
“I have abandoned the ten unwholesome courses of action and have been mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action.”
When he sees these ten unwholesome courses of action abandoned within himself and is mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action, joy arises in him;
joy having arisen, rapture arises;
rapture having arisen, the body becomes calm;
the body having become calm, he experiences happiness with the body;
the body having experienced happiness, he at ains singular-focus of mind.

Headman, a learned noble disciple who has at ained singular-focus of mind imbues his mind with compassion, and dwel s [mental y]

pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with compassion, free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

Then he reflects thus:

There are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and make this proclamation:
There is offering, there is sacrifice, there are incantations;
there are wholesome or unwholesome actions, and results of wholesome or unwholesome actions;
there is both this world and the other world, there are father and mother;
there are True Persons in the world who are headed for a supreme at ainment, who are wel gone and wel directed, who have known and realized for themselves this world and the other world, who have themselves directly realized and accomplished it and dwel therein.

If those renunciants and brahmins are speaking the truth, then I have offended against neither the fearful nor the fearless in the 135
world.
I have always had compassion and empathy for the entire world.
Toward [al ] beings my mind has been free of contention, untainted, and delighted.
Now I have at ained the Dharma of the unsurpassable person, at ained progress and a happy abiding;
this is cal ed the Dharma meditation of abandoning.
What these renunciants and brahmins say may be correct or incorrect;
but [whether]

it is correct or incorrect, I have at ained inner tranquility of mind.

Headman, this is the Dharma meditation cal ed abandoning.
Through this meditation you may at ain right mindfulness, you may at ain singular-focus of mind.
In this way you may cut off your doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress.

Again, headman, a learned noble disciple refrains from kil ing and abandons kil ing, abandons taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. . false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandons wrong view and at ains right view.
During the daytime he instructs people to farm and cultivate the fields and, when evening comes, he rests from this and goes indoors to meditate.
When the night is over, at dawn, he thinks:
I refrained from kil ing and have abandoned kil ing, I have abandoned taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. . false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandoned wrong view and at ained right view.

Then he examines himself:
“I have abandoned the ten unwholesome courses of action, and have been mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action.”
When he sees these ten unwholesome courses of action abandoned within himself and is mindful of the ten wholesome courses 448a

of action, joy arises in him;
joy having arisen, rapture arises;
rapture having arisen, the body becomes calm;
the body having become calm, he experiences happiness with the body;
the body having experienced happiness, he at ains singular-focus of mind.

Headman, a learned noble disciple who has at ained singular-focus of mind, imbues his mind with empathic joy and dwel s [mental y]

pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al

around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with empathic joy, free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

Then he reflects thus:

There are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and make this proclamation:
One who acts or instructs another to act;
one who destroys or instructs another to destroy;
one who tortures or instructs another to torture, [causing] distress, vexation, sadness, beating of breasts, despair, weeping, and bewilderment;
one who kil s living beings, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, drinks intoxicating liquor, breaks through wal s to open storehouses, intrudes into others’ territory, destroys vil ages and towns, wipes out cities and countries—one who acts in these ways is not doing any evil.

Again, if by using an iron wheel as sharp as a razor, one were, in a single day, to cut into parts and kil al the living beings on this earth, slicing them into pieces and turning them all into a single heap of flesh;
there is no evil karma because of this, there is no result of evil karma because of this.
If one were to go along the southern bank of the Ganges kil ing, destroying, and torturing, and to come back along the northern bank of the Ganges making offerings, undertaking sacrifices, and chanting incantations;
then there is no offense and no merit because of this, there are no results of offense or merit because of this.
Making offerings, taming [oneself], guarding [oneself], restraining [oneself], by esteeming, benefiting, generosity, speaking pleasantly, doing good, and sharing profit, there is no merit because of this, there is no result of merit because of this.

If those renunciants and brahmins are speaking the truth, then I have offended against neither the fearful nor the fearless in the world.
I have always had compassion and empathy for the entire world.
Toward [al ] beings my mind has been free of contention, untainted, and delighted.
Now I have at ained the Dharma of the 137
unsurpassable person, at ained progress and a happy abiding;
this is cal ed the Dharma meditation of abandoning.
What these renunciants and brahmins say may be correct or incorrect;
but [whether]

it is correct or incorrect, I have at ained inner tranquility of mind.

Headman, this is the Dharma meditation cal ed abandoning.
Through this meditation you may at ain right mindfulness, you may at ain singular-focus of mind.
In this way you may cut off your doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress.

Again, headman, a learned noble disciple refrains from kil ing and abandons kil ing, abandons taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. . false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandons wrong view and at ains right view.
During the daytime he instructs people to farm and cultivate the fields, and when evening comes, he rests from this and goes indoors to meditate.
When the night is over, at dawn, he thinks:

I have refrained from kil ing and have abandoned kil ing, I have abandoned taking what is not given .
. . sexual misconduct .
. .

false speech .
. . (and so on up to) abandoned wrong view and at ained right view.

Then he examines himself:
“I have abandoned the ten unwholesome courses of action, and have been mindful of the ten wholesome courses 448b

of action.”
When he sees these ten unwholesome courses of action abandoned within himself, and is mindful of the ten wholesome courses of action, joy arises in him;
joy having arisen, rapture arises;
rapture having arisen, the body becomes calm;
the body having become calm, he experiences happiness with the body;
the body having experienced happiness, he at ains singular-focus of mind.

Headman, a learned noble disciple who has at ained singular-focus of mind, imbues his mind with equanimity and dwel s [mental y]

pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with equanimity, free from fet ers and resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading

the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

Then he reflects thus:

There are renunciants and brahmins who hold this view and make this proclamation:
One who acts or instructs another to act;
one who destroys or instructs another to destroy;
one who tortures or instructs another to torture, [causing] distress, vexation, and sadness, beating of breasts, despair, weeping, and bewilderment;
one who kil s living beings, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, drinks intoxicating liquor, breaks through wal s to open storehouses, intrudes into others’ territory, destroys vil ages and towns, wipes out cities and countries—one who acts in these ways is doing evil.

Again, if by using an iron wheel as sharp as a razor, one were, in a single day, to cut into parts and kil al the living beings on this earth, slicing them into pieces and turning them all into a single heap of flesh, there is evil karma because of this, there is result of evil karma because of this.
If one were to go along the southern bank of the Ganges kil ing, destroying, and torturing, and to come back along the northern bank of the Ganges making offerings, undertaking sacrifices, and chanting incantations;
then there is offense or merit because of this, there are results of offense or merit because of this.
Making offerings, taming [oneself], guarding [oneself], restraining [oneself], by esteeming, benefiting, generosity, speaking pleasantly, doing good, and sharing profit, there is merit because of this, there is result of merit because of this.

If those renunciants and brahmins are speaking the truth, then I have offended against neither the fearful nor the fearless in the world.
I have always had compassion and empathy for the entire world.
Toward [al ] beings my mind has been free of contention, untainted, and delighted.
Now I have at ained the Dharma of the unsurpassable person, at ained progress and a happy abiding;
this is cal ed the Dharma meditation of abandoning.
What these renunciants and brahmins say may be correct or incorrect;
but 139
[whether] it is correct or incorrect, I have at ained inner tranquility of mind.

Headman, this is the Dharma meditation cal ed abandoning.
Through this meditation you may at ain right mindfulness, you may at ain singular-focus of mind.
In this way you may cut off your doubt in this lifetime and achieve progress.

As this Dharma was being taught, the spotless and immaculate Dharma-eye in regard to al phenomena arose in Pāṭaliya the vil age headman.
Pāṭaliya the vil age headman saw the Dharma, at ained the Dharma, realized the bright 448c and pure Dharma;
he cut off doubt and went beyond perplexity;
he became independent of other teachers;
he would never again fol ow others;
and he became free of hesitation.
Having been established in the at ainment of the fruit, he had at ained fearlessness in the Dharma taught by the World-honored One.
He rose from his seat, paid homage with his head at the feet of the Buddha, and said:

World-honored one, I now go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower! From this day forth until life ends I go [to him] for refuge.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the vil age headman Pāṭaliya and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .



..3.. Division 3 Sāriputta: MA 21-30



21 - MA 21 The Discourse on an Even Mind


21. The Discourse on an Even Mind
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, Venerable Sāriput a had gathered, one night, with an assembly of monks at the assembly hal , and was explaining to them the distinction between internal fet ers and external fet ers:

Venerable friends, there truly are two categories of people to be found in the world.
Which two?

There are those non-returners who have [only] internal fet ers and who wil not be reborn into this [human] realm;
and there are those who are not [yet] non-returners, who have external fet ers, and who wil be reborn into this [human] realm.

What, venerable friends, are the non-returners, who have [only] internal fet ers, and who wil not be reborn into this [human] realm?
Suppose there is someone who observes the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect.
He practices in this way abundantly, overcomes impediments, and is praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training].

Through having observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect, having practiced in this way abundantly, having overcome impediments, and having been praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training], he further trains in disenchantment regarding sensual desires, in dispassion, and in abandoning sensual desires.

Through having trained in disenchantment regarding sensual 449a desires, in dispassion, and in abandoning sensual desires, he at ains a peaceful liberation of the mind.

141
Having at ained it, he delights in it and enjoys it constantly, [but]

does not at ain final knowledge in that lifetime.
With the breaking up of the body at death, he passes beyond the gods that feed on gross food and is reborn among the mind-made gods.

Once reborn there, he thinks:

Formerly, when I was a human being, I observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect.
I practiced in this way abundantly and overcame impediments, and I was praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training].

Through having observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect, having practiced in this way abundantly and overcome impediments, and having been praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training], I further trained in disenchantment regarding sensual desires, in dispassion, and in abandoning sensual desires.
Through having trained in disenchantment regarding sensual desires, in dispassion, and in abandoning sensual desires, I at ained a peaceful liberation of the mind.
Having at ained it, I delighted in it and enjoyed it constantly, [but] did not at ain final knowledge in that same lifetime.
With the breaking up of the body at death, I passed beyond the gods that feed on gross food and was reborn here among the mind-made gods.

Venerable friends, [suppose] there is another person who observes the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect.
He practices in this way abundantly and overcomes impediments, and is praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training].

Through having observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect, having practiced in this way abundantly and overcome impediments, and having been praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training], he further trains in the realm of form, abandoning desire, abandoning activities.
He trains in giving up and casting aside sensual desire.



Through having trained in the realm of form, abandoning desire, abandoning activities, having trained in giving up and casting aside sensual desire, he at ains a peaceful liberation of the mind.
Having attained it, he delights in it and enjoys it constantly, [but] does not attain final knowledge in that lifetime.
With the breaking up of the body at death, he passes beyond the gods that feed on gross food and is reborn among the mind-made gods.

Once reborn there, he thinks:

Formerly, when I was a human being, I observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect.
I practiced in this way abundantly and overcame impediments, and was praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training].
Through having observed the training in the precepts without transgression or compromise, without blemish or defect, having practiced in this way abundantly and overcome impediments, and having been praised by the worthy ones for being wel cultivated and wel endowed [in the training], I further trained in the realm of form, abandoning desire, abandoning activities.
I trained in giving up and casting aside sensual desire.

Through having trained in the realm of form, abandoning desire, abandoning activities, having trained in giving up and casting aside sensual desire, I at ained a peaceful liberation of the mind.

Having at ained it, I delighted in it and enjoyed it constantly, [but]

did not at ain final knowledge in that same lifetime.
With the breaking up of the body at death, I passed beyond the gods feeding on gross food and was reborn here among the mind-made gods.

Such a person, venerable friends, is called a non-returner who has

[only] internal fet ers and who wil not be reborn into this [human]

realm.

What, venerable friends, is meant by those who are not [yet] non-returners, who have external fet ers, and who wil be reborn into this

[human] realm?
Suppose a person observes the training in the precepts, guards [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y controls his 143
comportment in accordance with proper conduct.
He trains in the precepts in this way, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression 449b

and being apprehensive of it.
Such a person, venerable friends, is cal ed one who is not [yet] a non-returner, who has external fet ers, and who wil stil be reborn into this [human] realm.

Thereupon, numerous gods of even mind,96 of resplendent and majestic form, visited the Buddha just before dawn.
After paying their respects to the Buddha, they stood to one side and addressed him:

World-honored One, this past night Venerable Sāriput a has gathered with an assembly of monks at the assembly hal .
He has explained to those monks the distinction between internal fet ers and external fet ers, tel ing them:
“Venerable friends, there truly are two categories of people to be found in the world:
those who have [only] internal fet ers and those who have [also] external fet ers.”
World-honored One, the assembly is delighted [by his explanation].
May the World-honored One, out of compassion, go to the assembly hal !

Then the World-honored One acceded to the request of the gods of even mind by remaining silent.
The gods of even mind understood that the World-honored One had consented by remaining silent, paid homage at his feet, and, after circumambulating him three times, vanished from the spot.

Not long after the gods of even mind had gone, the World-honored One arrived before the gathering of monks at the assembly hal and sat on a prepared seat.

Once seated, the World-honored One spoke in praise:
Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! You are most excel ent! Why?
This past night you have gathered with an assembly of monks at this assembly hal , and you have explained to the monks the distinction between internal fet ers and external fet ers, [saying]:
“Venerable friends, there truly are two categories of people to be found in the world:
those who have [only] internal fet ers and those who have [also] external fet ers.”


Sāriput a, numerous gods of even mind visited me this past night just before dawn.
After paying homage, they stood to one side and addressed me:
“World-honored One, this past night Venerable Sāriput a

has assembled with a gathering of monks at the assembly hal .
He has explained to the monks the distinction between internal fetters and external fet ers, [saying]:
‘Venerable friends, there truly are two categories of people to be found in the world:
those who have [only] internal fet ers and those who have [also] external fet ers.
’ World-honored One, we are delighted [by his explanation].
May the World-honored One, out of compassion, join us in the assembly hall!” I acceded to the request of the gods of even mind by remaining silent.
The gods of even mind understood that I had consented by [remaining] silent, paid homage at my feet and, after circumambulating me three times, vanished from the spot.

Sāriput a, those gods of even mind are able to stand together on the tip of an awl—ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, or sixty of them—

without obstructing one another.

Sāriput a, it was not after being born into their heavenly realm that those gods of even mind cultivated a good mind, extensively and greatly, and thereby acquired the ability to stand together on the tip of an awl—ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, or sixty of them—without obstructing one another.

Sāriput a, it was while stil in the human realm [in a former life]

that those gods of even mind cultivated a good mind, extensively and greatly, and thereby acquired the ability to stand together on the tip of 449c an awl—ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, or sixty of them—without obstructing one another.

Therefore, Sāriput a, one should cultivate tranquility—tranquility of the sense faculties, tranquility of the mind, and tranquility in one’s physical, verbal, and mental actions—al in accordance with [the teachings of] the World-honored One and with [one’s] wise companions in the holy life.

Sāriput a, the erroneous adherents of other sects [wil come to]

long-lasting downfal and loss.
Why? Because they do not get to hear such sublime teachings.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

145

22 - MA 22 The Discourse on Perfecting the Precepts


22. The Discourse on Perfecting the Precepts
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, Venerable Sāriput a addressed the monks:
If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration, and wisdom, then it is certainly possible that he may, in this life, enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.
If he does not at ain final knowledge within this life, then with the breaking up of the body at death, he wil pass beyond the gods that feed on gross food and be reborn among the mind-made gods.
Once he has been reborn there, it is certainly possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

At that time, Venerable Udāyin was also present in the assembly.
Venerable Udāyin responded:

Venerable Sāriput a, if a monk is reborn among the mind-made gods, it is certainly not possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

A second and a third time Venerable Sāriput a told the monks:
If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration, and wisdom, then it is certainly possible that he may, in this life, enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.
If he does not at ain final knowledge within this life, then with the breaking up of the body at death, he wil pass beyond the gods that feed on gross food and be reborn among the mind-made gods.
Once he is reborn there, it is certainly possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

And a second and a third time Venerable Udāyin countered:
Venerable Sāriput a, if a monk is reborn among the mind-made gods, then it is certainly not possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

Division X

Thereupon, Venerable Sāriput a thought:
“This monk has contradicted what I said three times now, and not a single monk [in this assembly] has commended what I said.
Perhaps I ought to approach the World-honored One.”


Then Venerable Sāriput a approached the Buddha.
After paying homage, he sat down to one side.
Not long after Venerable Sāriput a had left [the assembly that he had been teaching], Venerable Udāyin and the other monks also approached the Buddha.
After paying homage, they sat down to one side.

In that situation, Venerable Sāriputta again addressed the monks:
If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration, and wisdom, then 450a it is certainly possible that he may, in this life, enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.
If he does not at ain final knowledge within this life, then with the breaking up of the body at death, he wil pass beyond the gods that feed on gross food and be reborn among the mind-made gods.
Once he is reborn there, it is certainly possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

[And just as before,] Venerable Udāyin countered:

Venerable Sāriput a, if a monk is reborn among the mind-made gods, then it is certainly not possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

A second and a third time Venerable Sāriput a told the monks:
If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration, and wisdom, then it is certainly possible that he may, in this life, enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.
If he does not at ain final knowledge within this life, then with the breaking up of the body at death, he wil pass beyond the gods that feed on gross food and be reborn among the mind-made gods.
Once he is reborn there, it is certainly possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

And a second and a third time Venerable Udāyin countered:
Venerable Sāriput a, if a monk is reborn among the mind-made gods, 147
then it is certainly not possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

Then Venerable Sāriput a thought:
“[Even] in front of the World-honored One this monk has contradicted what I said three times now, and not a single monk [in this assembly] has commended what I said.
I had bet er remain silent.”


Thereupon, the World-honored One asked:
“Udāyin, would you say that the mind-made gods have form?”


Venerable Udāyin replied:
“Yes, World-honored One.”


The World-honored One directly rebuked Udāyin:
“You are a fool, blind, without vision.
On what grounds do you comment on this advanced topic in the Dharma?”


Thereupon, Venerable Udāyin, having been directly rebuked by the Buddha, was sad and distressed.
He lowered his head in silence, unable to reply, and seemed immersed in thought.

After having directly rebuked Venerable Udāyin, the World-honored One addressed Venerable Ānanda:

A most highly regarded and virtuous elder monk has been [improperly]

contradicted.
For what reason did you show disrespect by not inter-vening?
You too are a fool, with no loving-kindness, to turn your back on a most highly regarded and virtuous elder.

After having directly rebuked Venerable Udāyin and Venerable Ānanda, the World-honored One addressed the monks:

If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration, and wisdom, then it is certainly possible that he may, in this life, enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.
If he does not at ain final knowledge within this life, then with the breaking up of the body at death, he wil pass beyond the gods that feed on gross food and be reborn among the mind-made gods.
Once he is reborn there, it is certainly possible that he may enter and emerge from the concentration of the cessation of perception and feeling.

Having said this, the Buddha entered his meditation hut to meditate in

silence.
At that time, Venerable Baijing98 was in the assembly.
Venerable 450b Ānanda spoke to Venerable Baijing:

I have been rebuked for something that another person did.
Venerable Baijing, the World-honored One wil certainly emerge from his meditation hut in the late afternoon.
He wil sit on a prepared seat in front of the assembly of monks and discuss this mat er.
May Venerable Baijing respond regarding this mat er! I am much [too] embarrassed and ashamed in front of the World-honored One and our companions in the holy life.

Then, in the late afternoon the World-honored One emerged from his meditation hut.
He sat on a prepared seat in front of the assembly of monks.

He asked:
“Baijing, for possessing how many qualities is a senior monk esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life?”


Venerable Baijing replied:

World-honored One, a senior monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life if he possesses five qualities.

What are the five?
World-honored One, a senior monk observes the training in the precepts, guards [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y controls his comportment in accordance with proper conduct.
He trains in the precepts in this way, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.
World-honored One, such a morally restrained, elder and highly regarded monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.

Again, World-honored One, a senior monk studies widely and learns much, retaining it and not forget ing it, accumulating wide learning of what is cal ed the Dharma, which is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, which has [proper] meaning and expression, is endowed with purity, and reveals the holy life.

In this way he studies widely and learns much regarding al the teachings, familiarizing himself with them even a thousand times, mental y considering and contemplating them with knowledge, vision, and profound penetration.
World-honored One, such a learned, elder and highly regarded monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.

149
Again, World-honored One, a senior monk at ains the four higher states of mind, happy abidings in the present lifetime;
he at ains them with ease, without difficulty.
World-honored One, such a meditative senior monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.

Again, World-honored One, a senior monk develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.

World-honored One, such a wise senior monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.

Again, World-honored One, a senior monk has destroyed al taints, is freed from al fet ers, [has at ained] liberation of the mind and liberation through wisdom, in that very life, personal y at ained understanding and awakening, and dwel s having personal y realized.
He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


World-honored One, such a taint-free senior monk is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.
World-honored One, if a senior monk is accomplished in these five qualities, he is esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.

450c

The World-honored One asked:

Baijing, if a senior monk does not possess these five qualities, for what

[other] reason should he be esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life?

Venerable Baijing replied:

World-honored One, if a senior monk does not possess these five qualities, there is no other reason that he should be esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.
Only for his advanced age, hoary hair, lost teeth, deteriorating health, hunched body, unsteady step, overweight body, shortness of breath, reliance on a walking cane, shrinking flesh, sagging skin, wrinkles like pockmarks, failing sense faculties, and unsightly complexion might his companions in the holy life stil esteem and revere him.



The World-honored One said:

Indeed so! If a senior monk does not possess these five qualities, there is no other reason that he should be esteemed and revered by his companions in the holy life.
Only for his advanced age, hoary hair, lost teeth, deteriorating health, hunched back, unsteady step, overweight body, shortness of breath, reliance on a walking cane, shrinking flesh, sagging skin, wrinkles like pockmarks, failing sense faculties, and unsightly complexion might his companions in the holy life stil esteem and revere him.

Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has at ained these five qualities, so al of you should esteem and revere him.

Why? Baijing, the monk Sāriput a observes the training in the precepts, guards [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y controls his comportment in accordance with proper conduct.
He trains in the precepts in this way, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.

Furthermore, Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has studied widely and learned much, retaining it and not forgetting it, accumulating wide learning of what is cal ed the Dharma, which is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, which has [proper] meaning and expression, is endowed with purity, and reveals the holy life.

In this way he has studied widely and learned much regarding al the teachings, familiarizing himself with them even a thousand times, mental y considering and contemplating them with knowledge, vision, and profound penetration.

Furthermore, Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has at ained the four higher states of mind, happy abidings in his present lifetime, he at ains them with ease, without difficulty.

Furthermore, Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has developed comprehension and wisdom, has at ained understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, has at ained noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.

Furthermore, Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has destroyed al taints.

Freed from al fet ers, [he has at ained] liberation of the mind and liberation through wisdom, in this very life, he has personal y at ained 151
understanding and awakening, and dwel s having personal y realized.

He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


Baijing, the monk Sāriput a has at ained these five qualities, so al of you should esteem and revere him.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Baijing and the other monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

451a

23 - MA 23 The Discourse on Wisdom


23. The Discourse on Wisdom
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the monk Moliyaphagguna had given up the precepts and stopped practicing the path.

When the monk Kaḷārakhat iya heard that the monk Moliyaphagguna had given up the precepts and stopped practicing the path, he approached Venerable Sāriput a.
After paying homage at [Sāriput a’s] feet, [Kaḷārakhat iya]

sat down to one side.
Having seated himself, he said:
“Venerable Sāriput a, know that the monk Moliyaphagguna has given up the precepts and stopped practicing the path.”


Venerable Sāriput a asked:
“Was the monk Moliyaphagguna happy in the teaching?”


The monk Kaḷārakhat iya asked in return:
“Is Venerable Sāriput a happy in the teaching?”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“Kaḷārakhat iya, I harbor no doubts about the teaching.”


The monk Kaḷārakhat iya further asked:
“Venerable Sāriput a, how is it in regard to things yet to come?”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“Kaḷārakhat iya, I am also without perplexity in regard to things yet to come.”


On hearing this, Kaḷārakhat iya rose from his seat and approached the Buddha.
Having paid homage, he sat down to one side and addressed the Buddha:



World-honored One, Venerable Sāriput a has just now proclaimed that he has at ained [final] knowledge, that he knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


On hearing this, the World-honored One said to one of the monks:
“Go to Sāriput a and tel him, ‘The World-honored One summons you.
’”

Having been so instructed, that monk rose from his seat, saluted the Buddha, went to Venerable Sāriput a, and said:
“The World-honored One summons Venerable Sāriput a.”


Hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a approached the Buddha, and, having paid homage, sat down to one side.

The World-honored One asked:

Sāriput a, is it true that you declared having at ained final knowledge, knowing as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence”?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“World-honored One, I did express that meaning, but not in those words, not in those phrases.”


The World-honored One said:
“Sāriput a, a clansman declares things in his own way.
If he has at ained final knowledge, then let him declare final knowledge.”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“World-honored One, as I have just said, I did express that meaning, but not in those words, not in those phrases.”


The World-honored One asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you, “Venerable Sāriputta, knowing what and seeing what, do you declare having at ained knowledge, declare knowing as it real y is:
‘Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
451b There wil not be another existence”?
—Sāriput a, on hearing this, how would you answer?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if my companions in the holy life come and ask me, “Venerable Sāriputta, knowing what and seeing what, do you 153
declare having at ained knowledge, declare knowing as it real y is:

‘Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence?
’” World-honored One, on hearing this, I wil answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable friends, birth has a cause.
This cause for birth has been brought to an end.
Knowing that the cause for birth has been brought to an end, I declare having at ained final knowledge, knowing as it real y is:
‘Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.
’” World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you, “Venerable Sāriputta, what are the causes and conditions for birth?
From what does birth arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, how wil you respond?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me:

“Venerable Sāriput a, what are the causes and conditions for birth?
From what does birth arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, World-honored One, I wil answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable friends, birth is caused by the process of existence, conditioned by the process of existence, it arises from the process of existence, has the process of existence as its basis.”
World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I will answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life and

ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you, “Venerable Sāriput a, what are the causes and conditions for the process of existence?
From what does it arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, how would you answer?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me,

“Venerable Sāriput a, what are the causes and conditions for the process of existence?
From what does it arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, World-honored One, I wil answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable friends, the process of existence is caused by clinging, conditioned by clinging, it arises from clinging, has clinging as its basis.”
World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if 451c you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you, “Venerable Sāriput a, what are the causes and conditions for clinging?
From what does clinging arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, how would you answer?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me:

“Venerable Sāriput a, what are the causes and conditions for clinging?

From what does it arise?
What is its basis?”
—on hearing this question, World-honored One, I wil answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable 155
friends, clinging is caused by craving, conditioned by craving;
it arises from craving, has craving as its basis.”
World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you:
“Venerable Sāriput a, and what about craving?”
—on hearing this question, how would you answer?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me,

“Venerable Sāriput a, and what about craving?”
—on hearing this question, World-honored One, I wil answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable friends, there are three kinds of feeling—pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling, and neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant-feeling.
Delighting in, desiring, and grasping at these feelings is what is cal ed craving.”


World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you, “Venerable Sāriput a, by knowing what and by seeing what is there no delighting in these three kinds of feeling, no desire for them or grasping at them?”
—on hearing this question, how would you answer?



Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me,

“Venerable Sāriput a, by knowing what and by seeing what is there no delighting in these three kinds of feeling, no desire for them or grasping at them?”
—on hearing this question, World-honored One, I wil answer in this manner:
“Venerable friends, these three kinds of feelings are impermanent by nature, unsatisfactory by nature, of a nature to disin-tegrate.
What is impermanent by nature is unsatisfactory.
Seeing this unsatisfactoriness, there is no more delighting in these three kinds of feeling, no desire for them or grasping at them.”
World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if 452a you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

At that time, the World-honored One said:

Sāriput a, one could also give a brief summary of what you have just said.
And what, Sāriput a, is this brief summary of what you have just said?
It is this:
“Whatever is felt and acted upon is al unsatisfactory”—

Sāriput a, this is a brief summary of what you have just said.

The World-honored One [further] asked:

Sāriput a, if companions in the holy life come and ask you:
“Venerable Sāriput a, how is it that by turning away [from grasping at feeling] you declare having at ained final knowledge, declare knowing as it real y is:
‘Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence’?”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me,

“Venerable Sāriput a, how is it that by turning away [from grasping at 157
feeling] you declare having at ained final knowledge, declare knowing as it real y is:
‘Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence’?”


World-honored One, on hearing this question, I would answer in the fol owing manner:
“Venerable friends, through my inwardly turning away [from grasping at feeling], al craving has come to an end, there is no apprehension, no fear, no doubt, no perplexity.
I live protected in this way.
Through my living protected in this way, unwholesome taints do not arise.”
World-honored One, if companions in the holy life come and ask me this, I wil answer in this manner.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good, Sāriput a! If companions in the holy life come and ask you this, you should answer in this manner.
Why? Because if you speak in this manner, they wil know what you mean.

The World-honored One said:

Sāriput a, one could also give a brief summary of what you have just said:
“Whatever fet ers have been spoken of by the Renunciant (i.
e., the Buddha), those fet ers do not exist in me.
I live protected in this way.

Through my living protected in this manner, unwholesome taints do not arise”—Sāriput a, this is the brief summary of what you have just said.

After saying this, the World-honored One rose from his seat and returned to his hut to sit in meditation.
Soon after the World-honored One had returned to his hut, Venerable Sāriput a told the monks [in the assembly]:
Venerable friends, earlier I had not considered [these mat ers];
thus, when the World-honored One suddenly asked those questions, I thought:

“I’m afraid I won’t be able to answer.”
[But,] venerable friends, my first answer was approved and praised by the World-honored One, and I then thought:
“If the World-honored One were to question me on this matter for a whole day and night, posing his questions in different words and phrases, I would be able to answer in [correspondingly] different words and phrases.
If the World-honored One were to question me on this mat er for two, three, four, even up to seven days and nights,

posing his questions in different words and phrases, I would be able to answer the World-honored One in [correspondingly] different words and phrases.”


On hearing Venerable Sāriput a speak in this way, the monk Kaḷārakhat- 452b tiya rose from his seat and right away approached the Buddha.
He said to the World-honored One:

Soon after the World-honored One returned to his hut, Venerable Sāriput a made a weighty proclamation, roared a lion’s roar, saying:

“Venerable friends, earlier I had not considered [these mat ers];
thus, when the World-honored One suddenly asked those questions, I thought:

‘I’m afraid I won’t be able to answer.
’ [But,] venerable friends, my first answer was approved and praised by the World-honored One, and I then thought:
‘If the World-honored One were to question me on this matter for a whole day and night, posing his questions in different words and phrases, I would be able to answer the World-honored One in [correspondingly] different words and phrases for a whole day and night.
Venerable friends, if the World-honored One were to question me on this mat er for two, three, four, even up to seven days and nights, posing his questions in different words and phrases, I would be able to answer in [correspondingly] different words and phrases.
’”

The World-honored One said:

Indeed so, Kaḷārakhat iya! If I were to question the monk Sāriput a on this mat er for a whole day and night, posing questions in different words and phrases, he would be able to reply with [correspondingly]

different words and phrases.
Kaḷārakhat iya, if I were to question the monk Sāriput a on this mat er for two, three, four, even up to seven days and nights, posing questions in different words and phrases, he would be able to reply with [correspondingly] different words and phrases.
Why? Because, Kaḷārakhat iya, the monk Sāriput a has deeply comprehended the realm of thought.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Sāriput a and the other monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

159

24 - MA 24 The Discourse on the “Lion’s Roar” of Sāriputta


24. The Discourse on the “Lion’s Roar” of Sāriputta
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the World-honored One was accompanied by a great assembly of monks, who were observing the rains retreat at Sāvat hī.
Venerable Sāriput a was also observing the rains retreat at Sāvat hī.
At the end of the three-months’ rains retreat at Sāvat hī, Venerable Sāriput a, having mended his robes, took his robes and bowl and approached the Buddha.
Having paid homage at [the Buddha’s] feet, he sat down to one side and addressed him:

“World-honored One, I have completed the rains retreat at Sāvat hī, and now I wish to journey among the people.”


452c

The World-honored One replied:

Sāriput a, go as you please, so that you may deliver those who have not yet won deliverance, liberate those who have not yet at ained liberation, and [lead to] final nirvana those who have not yet achieved final nirvana.
Sāriput a, go as you please.

Thereupon, Venerable Sāriput a, having heard what the Buddha said, received and remembered it well, rose from his seat, paid homage at the Buddha’s feet, circumambulated him three times, and returned to his quarters.

Having stored away his bedding and seat, he put on his robe and took his bowl and set out to journey among the people.

Not long after the venerable Sāriput a had left, a certain companion in the holy life [al eged], before the Buddha, a breach of the precepts, a contravention of the Dharma, saying to the World-honored One:
“Venerable Sāriput a slighted me today, just before he set out to journey among the people.”
Hearing this, the World-honored One told one of the monks:
Go to Sāriput a and tel him:
“The World-honored One cal s you.
Not long after you set out, a certain companion in the holy life [al eged], before me, a breach of the precepts, a contravention of the Dharma, saying:
‘World-honored One, Venerable Sāriput a slighted me today, just before he set out to journey among the people.
’”



Having received this order, that monk rose from his seat, paid homage to the Buddha, and set out.

At that time, Venerable Ānanda was standing behind the World-honored One, fanning him.
Not long after that monk had set out, Venerable Ānanda went, with keys in hand, to al of the [monks’] quarters.
He told al the monks he encountered:

It would be good, venerable sirs, if you would come to the assembly hal right away.
Venerable Sāriput a wil soon roar a lion’s roar before the Buddha.
It may be that Venerable Sāriput a wil make a profound proclamation about that which is most peaceful and sublime.
If he makes such a proclamation, you, venerable sirs, and I, having heard it, should later recite and memorize it wel .

Then, on hearing what Venerable Ānanda said, al the monks went to the assembly hal .
At that time, the monk [sent by the Buddha] approached Venerable Sāriput a and said:

The World-honored One cal s you.
Not long after you set out, a certain companion in the holy life [al eged], before the Buddha, a breach of the precepts, a contravention of the Dharma, saying:
“World-honored One, Venerable Sāriput a slighted me today, just before he set out to journey among the people.”


On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a rose from his seat and returned to where the Buddha was.
Having paid homage at his feet, Sāriput a sat down to one side.

The Buddha said:

Sāriput a, not long after you set out, a certain companion in the holy life [al eged], before me, a breach of the precepts, a contravention of the Dharma, saying:
“World-honored One, the venerable Sāriput a slighted me today just before he set out to journey among the people.”


Sāriput a, did you real y slight a companion in the holy life just before you set out to journey among the people?

Venerable Sāriput a said:

453a

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in 161
regard to the body, might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as a de-horned ox that is patient and docile, being thoroughly tamed, causes no harm wherever it goes, whether from vil age to vil age or from street to street.
I, World-honored One, am like this, having a mind like a de-horned ox.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body, might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as a son of an outcaste whose two hands have been cut of , being ut erly humbled, causes no harm wherever he goes, whether from vil age to vil age or from town to town.
I, World-honored One, am like this;
my mind is like the son of an outcaste whose two hands have been cut off.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as the earth receives what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or humiliated.
I, World-honored One, am like this;
my mind is like the

earth.
Free from fetters or resentment, without ill will or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as water washes away what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or humiliated.
I, World-honored One, am like this;
my mind is like that water.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body 453b in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as fire burns up what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or humiliated.
I, World-honored One, am like this;
my mind is like that fire.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

163
World-honored One, it is just as the wind blows away what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or humiliated.
I, World-honored One, am like this;
my mind is like the wind.
Free from fetters or resentment, without ill will or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as a broom sweeps away what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or humiliated.
World-honored One, I am like this;
my mind is like a broom.
Free from fetters or resentment, without ill will or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as a cleaning rag wipes away what is pure and what is impure, excrement, urine, snot, and spit le, without for this reason hating it or liking it, without feeling ashamed, or humiliated.
World-honored One, I am like this;
my mind is like a cleaning rag.
Free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life

just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard 453c to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as, when a jug with many cracks has been fil ed to the brim with grease and placed in the sun, the grease leaks and oozes out everywhere.
If a man with [good] eyesight comes and stands beside it, he sees this jug of grease with many cracks, which has been fil ed to the brim and placed in the sun;
and he sees the grease leaking and oozing out everywhere.
World-honored One, I too, am like this.
I constantly contemplate the impurity of this body with its nine orifices leaking and oozing out everywhere.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

World-honored One, it is just as a joyful youth might bathe and perfume himself with fragrances, put on white, clean clothes, and adorn himself with jewels;
and having shaved his beard and arranged his hair, might place flowers on his head.
Suppose that three kinds of corpse are then garlanded around his neck—a dead snake, a dead dog, and a dead human being, discolored, bloated, foul-smelling, rotten, and oozing putrid fluids.
That youth would feel embarrassed and ashamed and fil ed with ut er disgust.
World-honored One, I am like this.
As I constantly contemplate the foul and impure parts of this body, my mind is embarrassed and ashamed and fil ed with ut er disgust.

World-honored One, someone who lacks mindfulness of the body in regard to the body might wel slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people.
I, however, World-honored One, am wel equipped with mindfulness of the body in regard to the body.
How could I slight a companion in the holy life just before set ing out to journey among the people?

165
Thereupon, that monk [who had accused Sāriput a] rose from his seat, paid homage at the Buddha’s feet, and said to him:

I repent my transgression, World-honored One;
I confess, Wel -gone One, [to acting] like a fool, like an idiot, like [one who is] confused, like [one who is] unwholesome.
Why so?
Because I falsely slandered the monk Sāriput a, my pure companion in the holy life.
World-honored One, I now repent, hoping that this wil be accepted.
Having seen [my transgression] and acknowledged it, I wil not repeat it.

The World-honored One said:

So it is, monk.
You have indeed [acted] like a fool, like an idiot, like

[one who is] confused, like [one who is] unwholesome.
Why so?

Because you falsely slandered the monk Sāriput a, your pure companion in the holy life.
Yet you have been able to repent your transgression, and, having seen and acknowledged it, you wil not repeat it.
Those who are able to repent their transgression, having seen it and acknowledged it, and will not repeat it, come, in this way, to growth in the noble teaching and discipline, and wil not regress.

Then the Buddha told Venerable Sāriput a:
“Accept that foolish man’s expression of remorse quickly, lest the head of this monk split into seven parts right away in front of you.”


Venerable Sāriput a, out of compassion, accepted that monk’s expression of remorse.

454a

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Sāriputta and the [other] monks, were delighted and remembered them wel .

25 - MA 25 The Discourse with Parables [Relating to] Water


25. The Discourse with Parables [Relating to] Water
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, Venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks:
“Venerable friends, I shal explain to you five methods for overcoming resentment.
Listen careful y, and give close at ention.”




Those monks listened to receive instruction.

Venerable Sāriput a said:

What are the five methods?
Venerable friends, suppose there is someone whose bodily actions are not pure, but whose verbal actions are pure.

A wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself [of that resentment].

Again, venerable friends, suppose there is someone whose verbal actions are impure, but whose bodily actions are pure.
A wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of it.

Again, venerable friends, suppose there is someone whose bodily and verbal actions are impure, but whose mind is pure to a smal extent.

A wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of it.

Again, venerable friends, suppose there is someone whose bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al impure.
A wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of it.

Again, venerable friends, suppose there is someone whose bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al pure.
A wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of it.

Venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily actions are impure, but whose verbal actions are pure, how should a wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment rid himself [of that resentment]?

Venerable friends, suppose there is a forest-dwelling monk, a wearer of rag robes, who sees a discarded piece of cloth in a cesspool, stained by excrement, urine, snot, spit le, and other impurities;
and on seeing it, he holds it with his left hand, and spreads it out with his right hand;
and wherever he sees portions that are not stained by excrement, urine, snot, spit le, or other impurities, and that are without holes, he tears them off and takes them [to make a rag robe].
Similarly, venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily actions are not pure, but whose verbal actions are pure, one should not pay attention to his impure bodily actions, but pay at ention only to his pure verbal actions.

This is how a wise person who, on seeing [such an individual], is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of [that resentment].

167
Venerable friends, if there is someone whose verbal actions are impure, but whose bodily actions are pure, how should a wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment rid himself of it?

Venerable friends, suppose that, not far from a vil age, there is a deep pool [whose surface is] covered with water plants;
and suppose 454b

that a man comes along who is oppressed by extreme heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion, caused by a hot wind.
On arriving at the pool, he takes off his clothes, puts them on the bank, and enters the pool, pushing aside the water plants with both hands.
He enjoys a pleasant bath, and rids himself of the oppression by heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion.
Similarly, venerable friends, if there is someone whose verbal actions are not pure, but whose bodily actions are pure, one should not pay at ention to his impure verbal actions, but should pay at ention only to his pure bodily actions.
This is how a wise person who, on seeing [such an individual], is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of [that resentment].

Venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily and verbal actions are both impure, but whose mind is pure to a smal extent, how should a wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment rid himself of it?

Venerable friends, suppose that, at a crossroads, there is a puddle of water in the depression made by the hoof of an ox;
and suppose that a man comes along who is oppressed by extreme heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion, caused by a hot wind.
He thinks to himself:
“This ox’s hoof print at the crossroads contains a lit le water.
If I were to scoop it up with my hand or with a leaf, the water would become muddied, and I would not be able to rid myself of the oppression by heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion.
Let me kneel down, with hands and knees on the ground, and suck up the water directly with my mouth.”
He then kneels down, with hands and knees on the ground, and sucks up the water directly with his mouth, and so is able to rid himself of the oppression by heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion.

Similarly, venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily and verbal actions are impure, but whose mind is pure to a smal extent, one should not pay at ention to his impure bodily and verbal actions,

but should pay attention only to his mind, which is pure to a small extent.
Venerable friends, this is how a wise person who, on seeing

[such an individual], is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of

[that resentment].

Venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al impure, how should a wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment rid himself of it?
Venerable friends, suppose a person is on a long journey and, having become il on the way, is suffering greatly and exhausted.
He is alone, without companion;
the vil age behind him is far away and the vil age ahead has not yet been reached.
Suppose [also] that a second person comes along and, standing to one side, looks at this first person, who is on a long journey and, having become il on the way, is suffering greatly and exhausted—

alone, without companion, the vil age behind him far away and the vil age ahead not yet reached.
And suppose that he helps [that sick traveler] to get through the wilderness and reach the [next] vil age, and there gives him excel ent medicine and good, sustaining food, caring for him wel .
In that case, that person’s il ness would most certainly subside.
That is to say, the second person is extremely compassionate toward the sick person, having a heart ful of loving-kindness.

Similarly, venerable friends, if there is a person whose bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al impure, then a wise person, on seeing him, thinks:
“This person’s bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al impure;
[but] let him not, on the breaking up of the body at death, go to a bad realm of existence and be reborn in hel , as a consequence of his impure bodily, verbal, and mental actions.
If this [impure] person encounters a good friend, [he may] give up his impure bodily, verbal, 454c and mental actions, and cultivate pure bodily, verbal, and mental actions.”
In that case, through cultivating pure bodily, verbal, and mental actions, this [reformed] person wil , on the breaking up of the body at death, go to a good realm of existence, be reborn in a heavenly realm.
That is to say, this [wise] person is extremely compassionate toward that [impure] person, having a heart ful of loving-kindness.

This is how a wise person who, on seeing [such an individual], is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of [that resentment].
Venerable friends, 169
if there is a person whose bodily actions, verbal actions, and mental actions are al pure, how should a wise person who, on seeing him, is aroused to resentment rid himself of it?

Venerable friends, suppose that, not far from a vil age, there is a pool, ful to the brim with clear, beautiful water, its banks covered with verdant grass, and surrounded by flowering trees;
and suppose that a man comes along who is oppressed by extreme heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion, caused by a hot wind.
On arriving at the pool, he takes off his clothes, puts them on the bank, and enters the water.
He enjoys a pleasant bath, and rids himself of the oppression by heat, hunger, thirst, and exhaustion.

Similarly, venerable friends, if there is someone whose bodily, verbal, and mental actions are al pure, then one should constantly pay at ention to his pure bodily, verbal, and mental actions.
This is how a wise person who, on seeing [such an individual], is aroused to resentment ought to rid himself of [that resentment].
Hereby, venerable friends, I have explained the said five methods of overcoming resentment.

This is what Venerable Sāriput a said.
Having heard it, the monks were delighted and remembered it wel .

26 - MA 26 The Discourse to Gulissāni


26. The Discourse to Gulissāni
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

At that time, the monk Gulissāni was also staying at Rājagaha.
Living in a forest dwel ing,104 Gulissāni [was given to] joking frivolously and bragging about himself.
Acting in a restless and agitated manner, he was lacking in mindfulness, and his mind was like a monkey.
For some smal mat er, the monk Gulissāni had gone to Rājagaha.

455a

At that time, at midday after having taken their meal, Venerable Sāriput a and an assembly of monks had congregated in the assembly hal over some smal mat er.
Having set led what he had to do at Rājagaha, the monk Gulissāni also went toward the assembly hal .

Seeing Gulissāni approaching in the distance, Venerable Sāriput a spoke to the [assembled] monks in relation to Gulissāni:



Venerable friends, a forest-dwelling monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in being respectful and compliant.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often disrespectful and not compliant, he wil incur other monks’

disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say]

this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often disrespectful and not compliant.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in being respectful and compliant.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in refraining from making frivolous jokes and from behaving in a restless and agitated manner.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, often makes frivolous jokes and behaves in a restless and agitated manner, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why

[do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest-dwel ing, often makes frivolous jokes and behaves in a restless and agitated manner.”
When he comes to stay amid the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.

Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in refraining from making frivolous jokes and from behaving in a restless and agitated manner.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwelling, should train in refraining from irrelevant talk.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, often engages in irrelevant talk, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dweller, though practicing forest dwelling, often engages in irrelevant talk.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the 171
other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in refraining from irrelevant talk.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwelling, should train in not bragging about himself and not being chat y.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, often brags about himself and often is chat y, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?

Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, often brags about himself and often is chat y.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such]

disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in not bragging about himself and not being chat y.

455b

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in guarding the sense faculties.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often with unguarded sense faculties, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often with unguarded sense faculties.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in guarding the sense faculties.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in moderation in eating.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest-dwel ing, is greedy in eating and does not know moderation, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?

This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is greedy in eating and does not know moderation.”
When he comes to

stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in moderation in eating.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in being energetic and free from laziness.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwelling monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often slack and lazy, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is often slack and lazy.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwelling monk, when practicing forest dwelling, should train in being energetic and free from laziness.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwelling, should train in right mindfulness and right attentiveness.

Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, often lacks right mindfulness and right at entiveness, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?

Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, often lacks right mindfulness and right at entiveness.”


When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur

[such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in knowing the [proper] time and being skil ful in regard to time, [for example,] not going into the vil age to beg for food too early nor returning too late.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, goes into the vil age to beg for food too early or returns too late, he wil incur other monks’ 455c disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say]

173
this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, goes into the vil age to beg for food too early or returns too late.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such]

disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in knowing the [proper] time and being skil ful in regard to time.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in knowing [proper] seats and being skil ful in choosing a seat, not taking the seat of a senior monk, or scolding junior monks [for taking the seat he wants].
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, takes the seat of a senior monk or scolds junior monks [for taking the seat he wants], he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?

Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, takes the seat of a senior monk or scolds junior monks

[for taking the seat he wants].”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in knowing [proper]

seats and being skil ful in choosing a seat.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the code of discipline and the advanced teachings.
Why? Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, may encounter people who come with questions regarding the code of discipline and the advanced teachings.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding] the code of discipline and the advanced teachings, he will incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say]

this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding] the code of discipline and the advanced teachings.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other

monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the code of discipline and the advanced teachings.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the peaceful liberations, the at aining of those formless concentrations that transcend form.
Why? Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, may encounter people who come with questions regarding the peaceful liberations, the at aining of those formless concentrations that transcend form.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding] the peaceful liberations, the at aining of those formless concentrations that transcend form, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dwel er, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding] the peaceful liberations, the at aining of those formless concentrations that transcend form.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a 456a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the peaceful liberations, the at aining of those formless concentrations that transcend form.

Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.
Why? Venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, may encounter people who come with questions regarding the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.
Venerable friends, if a forest-dwel ing monk, though practicing forest-dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding] the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints, he wil incur other monks’ disapproval and criticism:
“As for this venerable forest-dweller, for the sake of what does he practice forest dwel ing?
Why [do we say] this?
This venerable forest-dwel er, though practicing forest dwel ing, is unable to answer [questions regarding]

175
the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.”
When he comes to stay among the monastic community, he wil incur [such] disapproval and criticism from the other monks.
Therefore, venerable friends, a forest-dwel ing monk, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in explaining and discussing the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.

At that time, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna was also present in the assembly.
Venerable Mahā Moggal āna said:

Venerable Sāriput a, should only forest-dwel ing monks, when practicing forest dwel ing, train in these things, and not monks [who] stay among people?

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, forest-dwel ing monks, when practicing forest dwel ing, should train in these things.
How much more so monks who stay among people!

In this way, the two venerable ones exchanged ideas and praised each other’s words.
Having heard what was said, [the monks in the assembly]

rose from their seats and left.

Be respectful, refrain from frivolous jokes,

Do not engage in irrelevant talk and bragging,

Guard the sense faculties, be moderate in eating,

Be energetic and have right mindfulness and at entiveness, Know the time and [know] proper seating,

Discuss the code of discipline and the advanced teachings, Explain the peaceful liberations,

And the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.

27 - MA 27 The Discourse to Dhānañjāni


27. The Discourse to Dhānañjāni
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary, where he was observing the rains

retreat together with a great assembly of monks.
At that time, Venerable Sāriput a was in Sāvat hī, also observing the rains retreat.

At that time a certain monk who, after having completed the three-month rains retreat at Rājagaha, and having mended his robes, put on his robe and took his bowl, and left Rājagaha for Sāvatthī, to stay in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.
That monk approached Venerable Sāriput a and, having 456b paid homage at his feet, sat down to one side.

Venerable Sāriputta asked:
“Where have you come from, venerable friend?
Where did you observe the rains retreat?”


The monk replied:
“Venerable Sāriput a, I have come from Rājagaha.
I observed the rains retreat at Rājagaha.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:

Venerable friend, as for the World-honored One, who has been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha, is he healthy and strong?
Is he comfortable and free from ailments?
Is he dwel ing at ease, and is his vigor as usual?

The monk replied:

Yes, Venerable Sāriputta.
The World-honored One, who has been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha, is healthy and strong, he is comfortable and free from ailments, he is dwel ing at ease and his vigor is as usual.

[Sāriput a] asked further:

Venerable friend, as for the monks and nuns who have been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha, are they healthy and strong?
Are they comfortable and free from ailments?
Are they dwel ing at ease, and is their vigor as usual?
Do they wish to see the Buddha often and do they delight in hearing the Dharma?

[That monk] replied:

Yes, Venerable Sāriput a.
The monks and nuns who have been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha are healthy and strong, they are comfortable and free from ailments, they are dwel ing at ease and their vigor is as 177
usual.
They wish to see the Buddha often, and they delight in hearing the Dharma.

[Sāriput a] asked further:

Venerable friend, as for the male and female lay fol owers who live in Rājagaha, are they healthy and strong?
Are they comfortable and free from ailments?
Are they dwel ing at ease and is their vigor as usual?

Do they wish to see the Buddha often and do they delight in hearing the Dharma?

[That monk] replied:

Yes, Venerable Sāriput a.
The male and female lay fol owers who live in Rājagaha are healthy and strong, they are comfortable and free from ailments, they are also dwel ing at ease and their vigor is as usual.
They wish to see the Buddha often, and they delight in hearing the Dharma.

[Sāriput a] asked further:

Venerable friend, as for the various non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins who have been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha, are they healthy and strong?
Are they comfortable and free from ailments?
Are they dwel ing at ease and is their vigor as usual?
Do they wish to see the Buddha often and do they delight in hearing the Dharma?

[That monk] replied:

Yes, Venerable Sāriput a.
The various non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins who have been observing the rains retreat at Rājagaha are healthy and strong, they are comfortable and free from ailments, they are dwel ing at ease, and their vigor is as usual.
They wish to see the Buddha often and they delight in hearing the Dharma.

[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Venerable friend, there is at Rājagaha a brahmin named Dhānañjāni.
He was a friend of mine before I went forth as a monk.
Do you know him?”


[That monk] replied:
“I do know him.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:



Venerable friend, as for this brahmin Dhānañjāni from Rājagaha, is he healthy and strong?
Is he comfortable and free from ailments?
Is he dwelling at ease and is his vigor as usual?
Does he wish to see the Buddha often and does he delight in hearing the Dharma?

[That monk] replied:

Venerable Sāriput a, the brahmin Dhānañjāni from Rājagaha is healthy 456c and strong, he is comfortable and free from ailments, he is dwel ing at ease, and his vigor is as usual.
[However,] he does not wish to see the Buddha, nor does he delight in hearing the Dharma.

Why is that?
Venerable Sāriput a, the brahmin Dhānañjāni has not been making efforts and has been transgressing against the moral precepts.
Relying on his standing with the king, he defrauds the brahmins and householders;
and relying on his standing with the brahmins and householders, he defrauds the king.

Hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a, having completed the three-month rains retreat at Sāvat hī and having mended his robes, put on his robe and took his bowl and left Sāvat hī for Rājagaha, where he stayed in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

Then in the morning, after spending the night there, Venerable Sāriput a put on his robes, took his bowl, and went into Rājagaha to beg for food, going from door to door.
Having begged for food, he went to the house of the brahmin Dhānañjāni.
At that time, the brahmin Dhānañjāni had come out of his house, and was by the side of a spring, harshly punishing some local residents.

Seeing Venerable Sāriput a approaching in the distance, the brahmin Dhānañjāni rose from his seat, bared his [right] shoulder, placing his palms together [in respect] toward Venerable Sāriput a, and expressed his joy:
“Welcome, Sāriput a! It has been a long time since you came here, Sāriput a.”


Then, respectful y taking Venerable Sāriput a by the arm, the brahmin Dhā-

nañjāni led him into his house.
He prepared a fine seat and invited Sāriput a to sit down.
Venerable Sāriputta then sat on that seat.
When the brahmin Dhānañjāni saw that Venerable Sāriput a was seated, he brought him a golden bowl106 to wash [his hands] and invited him to take a meal.

Venerable Sāriput a said:
“Enough, enough, Dhānañjāni, put your mind at ease.”


179
A second and a third time the brahmin Dhānañjāni repeated his invitation, and a second and a third time Venerable Sāriput a declined, saying:
“Enough, enough, Dhānañjāni, put your mind at ease.”


Then the brahmin Dhānañjāni asked:
“Sāriput a, why enter the house like this and then refuse to eat?”


Venerable Sāriput a replied:

Dhānañjāni, [I hear that] you have not been making efforts and have been transgressing against the moral precepts.
Relying on your standing with the king, you defraud the brahmins and householders, and relying on your standing with the brahmins and householders, you defraud the king.

The brahmin Dhānañjāni replied:

Sāriput a, know that, being at present a householder, I have to manage my household affairs.
I have to see to my own comfort and wel -being, support my parents, look after my wife and children, provide for my male and female servants,107 pay taxes to the king, perform rituals for the deities, make offerings to my departed ancestors, and give to renunciants and brahmins—in order to live long and later be reborn in heaven and obtain pleasant karmic fruits.
Sāriput a, al these affairs cannot be neglected,108 being dictated by [customary] law.

Then Venerable Sāriput a said:

457a

Dhānañjāni, let me ask you a question.
Answer as best you can.
What do you think, Dhānañjāni?
Suppose that someone does evil for the sake of his parents.
Having done evil, he goes, at the breaking up of the body at death, to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
Once reborn in hel , he is dragged off by the wardens of hel to undergo harsh punishment.
He pleads with the wardens of hel :
“Wardens of hel , let me tel you! Don’t punish me! Why?
Because I did evil only for the sake of my parents.”
What do you think, Dhānañjāni, wil that person be able to escape punishment by the wardens of hel [by pleading so]?

[Dhānañjāni] replied:
“No.”


Venerable Sāriput a asked further:



What do you think, Dhānañjāni?
Suppose, again, that someone does evil for the sake of his wife and children.
Having done evil, he goes, at the breaking up of the body at death, to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
Once reborn in hel , he is dragged off by the wardens of hel to undergo harsh punishment.
He pleads with the wardens of hell:
“Wardens of hell, let me tell you! Don’t punish me! Why?

Because I did evil only for the sake of my wife and children.”
What do you think, Dhānañjāni, wil that person be able to escape punishment by the wardens of hel [by pleading so]?

Dhānañjāni replied:
“No.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:

What do you think, Dhānañjāni?
Suppose, again, that someone does evil for the sake of his servants.
Having done evil, he goes, at the breaking up of the body at death, to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
Once reborn in hel , he is dragged off by the wardens of hel to undergo harsh punishment.
He pleads with the wardens of hell:

“Wardens of hel , let me tel you! Don’t punish me! Why?
Because I did evil only for the sake of my male and female servants.”
What do you think, Dhānañjāni, wil that person be able to escape punishment by the wardens of hel [by pleading so]?

Dhānañjāni replied:
“No.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:

What do you think, Dhānañjāni?
Suppose, again, that someone does evil for the sake of the king, deities, departed ancestors, and renunciants and brahmins.
Having done evil, he goes, at the breaking up of the body at death, to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
Once reborn in hel , he is dragged off by the wardens of hel to undergo harsh punishment.
He pleads with the wardens of hel :
“Wardens of hel , let me tel you! Don’t punish me! Why?
Because I did evil only for the sake of the king, deities, departed ancestors, and renunciants and brahmins.”
What do you think, Dhānañjāni, will that person be able to escape punishment by the wardens of hel [by pleading so]?

Dhānañjāni replied:
“No.”


181
[Sāriput a said:
]

Dhānañjāni, a clansman can gain wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [creating good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to honor, respect, and support his parents, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts.
Dhānañjāni, if a clansman gains wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [creating good]

karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to honor, respect, and support his parents, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining 457b

from unwholesome acts—he is thought of fondly by his parents, who say:
“May you have good health and long life! Why [do we say this]?

Because thanks to you, we have peace and happiness.”
Dhānañjāni, for one who is thus thought of fondly by his parents, merits increase daily and do not decline.

Dhānañjāni, a clansman can gain wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [creating good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to lovingly take care of his wife and children and look after their wel -being, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts.
Dhānañjāni, if a clansman gains wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to lovingly take care of his wife and children and look after their wel -

being, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts—then he is honored and respected by his wife and children, who say:
“Your honor, may you have good health and long life! Why

[do I say this]?
Because thanks to you, I have wel -being and happiness.”


Dhānañjāni, for one who is thus honored and respected by his wife and children, merits increase daily and do not decline.

Dhānañjāni, a clansman can gain wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to lovingly take care of his male and female servants and look after their wel -being, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts.
Dhānañjāni, if a clansman gains wealth by means that are in accordance with the

Dharma, in accordance with [good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to compassionately provide for his servants and look after their wel -being, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts—then he is honored and respected by his servants, who say:
“Master, may you have good health and long life! Why

[do we say this]?
Because thanks to you, we have wel -being.”
Dhā-

nañjāni, for one who is thus honored and respected by his servants, merits increase daily and do not decline.

Dhānañjāni, a clansman can gain wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to honor and support renunciants and brahmins, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from unwholesome acts.
Dhānañjāni, if a clansman gains wealth by means that are in accordance with the Dharma, in accordance with [good] karma, and in accordance with virtue, in order to honor and support renunciants and brahmins, thus performing meritorious acts and abstaining from un wholesome acts—then he is thought of fondly by renunciants and brahmins, who say:
“Donor, may you have good health and long life! Why [do we say this]?
Because thanks to you, we have wel -being and happiness.”
Dhā-

nañjāni, for one who is thus thought of fondly by renunciants and brahmins, merits increase daily and do not decline.

Thereupon, the brahmin Dhānañjāni rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, placed his palms together [in respect] toward Venerable Sāriput a, and said:

Sāriput a, I have a wife named Beautiful, whom I dote on.
Through having been deluded by her, I have become negligent and undertaken many evil 457c deeds.
Sāriput a, from today onward, I wil detach myself from my wife Beautiful and [instead] take refuge in you, Venerable Sāriput a.

Venerable Sāriput a replied:
“Dhānañjāni, do not take refuge in me.
You should take refuge in the Buddha, in whom I myself take refuge.”


The brahmin Dhānañjāni proclaimed:

Venerable Sāriput a, from this day on, I take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May Venerable Sāriput a 183
accept me as a lay fol ower of the Buddha, having taken refuge for life, until death.

Then Venerable Sāriput a taught the Dharma to the brahmin Dhānañjāni.

Exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him, Sāriput a employed countless skillful means to teach the Dharma.
Having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted [Dhānañjāni], [Sāriput a] rose from his seat and left for Rājagaha.

After staying there several days, [Sāriput a] put on his robe and took his bowl and left Rājagaha for the Southern Mountains.
He stayed in a rosewood grove, [located] north of a vil age in the Southern Mountains.

At that time, a certain monk who was staying at Rājagaha, after having stayed there for several days, put on his robe and took his bowl and [also]

left Rājagaha for the Southern Mountains.
He [too] stayed in the rosewood grove, [located] north of a vil age in the Southern Mountains.

Then that monk approached Venerable Sāriput a and, having paid homage at his feet, sat down to one side.

Venerable Sāriput a asked:
“Venerable friend, where have you come from?
Where have you been staying?”


That monk replied:
“Venerable Sāriput a, I have come from Rājagaha.

I was staying at Rājagaha.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Venerable friend, in Rājagaha there is a brahmin named Dhānañjāni, a friend of mine from before I went forth as a monk.

Do you know him?”


The monk replied:
“I know him.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:

Venerable friend, as for this brahmin Dhānañjāni who lives in Rājagaha, is he healthy and strong?
Is he comfortable and free from ailments?
Is he dwel ing at ease and is his vigor as usual?
Does he wish to see the Buddha often and does he delight in hearing the Dharma?

The monk replied:

Venerable Sāriput a, the brahmin Dhānañjāni wishes to see the Buddha often and he wishes to hear the Dharma often.
However, he is not wel and his vigor is diminishing.
Why is that?



Venerable Sāriput a, the brahmin Dhānañjāni is currently afflicted with an ailment.
He is seriously il and in a critical condition and therefore could die [soon].

Having heard this, Venerable Sāriput a put on his robe and took his bowl, and left the Southern Mountains for Rājagaha, [where] he stayed in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

Having passed the night there, at dawn Venerable Sāriput a, put ing on his robe and taking his bowl, headed for the house of the brahmin Dhānañjāni.

Seeing Venerable Sāriput a approaching in the distance, the brahmin Dhānañjāni struggled to get up from his bed.
Seeing the brahmin Dhānañjāni struggling to get up from his bed, Venerable Sāriput a stopped him, saying:
“Lie stil , Dhānañjāni! Don’t get up! There is another bed here.
I shal sit on it.”


458a

Then, having seated himself on the other bed, Venerable Sāriput a asked:

“Dhānañjāni, how is your ailment now?
How much are you eating and drinking?
Is your il ness subsiding, not increasing?”


Dhānañjāni replied:

My ailment is becoming critical.
I cannot eat or drink.
My il ness is increasing, not subsiding.

Venerable Sāriput a, I now have a headache so severe that it is as if a strong man were cut ing my head open with a knife, causing extreme pain.
Venerable Sāriput a, I now have a headache so severe that it is as if a strong man were constantly tightening a rope around my head, causing extreme pain.
Venerable Sāriput a, I now have stomach pains so severe that it is as if a butcher were cut ing it open, like the stomach of a live cow, with a sharp knife, causing extreme pain.
Venerable Sāriput a, my entire body is in such pain that it is as if two strong men had seized a weak man and were roasting him over a fire, causing extreme pain.
Such are the painful feelings I am experiencing;
and they are increasing, not subsiding.

Venerable Sāriput a said:

Dhānañjāni, let me ask you a question.
Answer as best you can.
What do you think, brahmin Dhānañjāni?
Which is the bet er, hel or the animal [realm]?

185
Dhānañjāni answered:
“The animal [realm] is the bet er.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the animal

[realm] or the [realm] of hungry ghosts?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The [realm] of hungry ghosts is the better.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the [realm]

of hungry ghosts or the [realm] of human beings?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The [realm] of human beings is the better.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the [realm]

of human beings or the heaven of the four kings?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The heaven of the kour kings is the better.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the heaven of the four kings or the heaven of the thirty-three?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The heaven of the thirty-three is the better.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the heaven of the thirty-three or the Yama heaven?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The Yama heaven is the bet er.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the Yama heaven or the Tusita heaven?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The Tusita heaven is the bet er.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the Tusita heaven or [the heaven] of the gods who delight in creating?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The heaven of the gods who delight in creating is the bet er.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the heaven of the gods who delight in creating or the [heaven] of the gods who wield power over others’ creations?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The heaven of the gods who wield power over others’ creations is the bet er.”


[Sāriput a] asked further:
“Dhānañjāni, which is the bet er, the heaven of the gods who wield power over others’ creations or the Brahmā world?”


Dhānañjāni answered:
“The Brahmā world is supreme! The Brahmā

world is supreme!”

Venerable Sāriput a said:

Dhānañjāni, the World-honored One, who is endowed with knowledge and vision, the Tathāgata, without at achment and ful y awakened, has

taught four divine abidings.
By practicing them again and again, a male or female lay fol ower can cut off sensual desire, relinquish thoughts related to sensual desire, and, with the breaking up of the body at death, 458b wil be reborn in the Brahmā world.
What are the four?

Dhānañjāni, here a learned noble disciple with his mind imbued with loving-kindness, dwel s [mental y] pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions and also above and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Similarly, he imbues his mind with compassion, with empathic joy, with equanimity, and, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel s pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

This, Dhānañjāni, is the teaching of the four divine abidings that has been taught by the World-honored One, who is endowed with knowledge and vision, the Tathāgata, without attachment and fully awakened.
By practicing [these four divine abidings] again and again, a male or female lay fol ower can eradicate sensual desire and relinquish thoughts related to sensual desire and, with the breaking up of the body at death, wil be reborn in the Brahmā world.

Having taught Dhānañjāni the teachings relating to the Brahmā world, Venerable Sāriput a rose from his seat and left.

After Venerable Sāriput a had left Rājagaha and before he had reached the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary, while he was stil in between

[these two places], the brahmin Dhānañjāni, who had practiced the four divine abidings and had abandoned sensual desire and relinquished thoughts relating to sensual desire, with the breaking up of the body at death, was reborn in the Brahmā world.

At that time, the World-honored One was giving teachings, surrounded by an immense fol owing.
Seeing Venerable Sāriput a approaching in the distance, the World-honored One told the monks [in the assembly]:
187
The monk Sāriput a is endowed with bright wisdom, quick wisdom, lively wisdom, keen wisdom, extensive wisdom, profound wisdom, wisdom that brings release, penetrative wisdom, eloquent wisdom.

The monk Sāriput a has achieved genuine wisdom.
This monk Sāriput a has just taught the brahmin Dhānañjāni a teaching on the Brahmā

world.
If he had taught him further, [Dhānañjāni] would have quickly realized the Dharma in accordance with the Dharma.

Then, Venerable Sāriputta approached the Buddha and, having paid homage at his feet, sat down to one side.

The World-honored One said:

Sāriput a, why did you not teach the brahmin Dhānañjāni the teaching on going beyond the Brahmā world?
If you had taught him further, he would have quickly realized the Dharma in accordance with the Dharma.

Venerable Sāriput a replied:

World-honored One, those brahmins have for a long time been at ached to the Brahmā world, they delight in the Brahmā world, [take] the Brahmā world to be supreme, esteem the Brahmā world, [take] the Brahmā world to be [ultimately] real, and consider the Brahmā world as being for them.
For these reasons, World-honored One, I acted according to [Dhānañjāni’s] wishes.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Sāriputta and the assembly of countless hundreds of thousands of people were delighted and remembered them wel .

28 - MA 28 The Discourse on Teaching the Il [Anāthapiṇḍika]


28. The Discourse on Teaching the Il [Anāthapiṇḍika]
458c Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the householder Anāthapiṇḍika was gravely il .
Then the householder Anāthapiṇḍika spoke to a certain messenger:
Go to the Buddha and, on my behalf, pay homage at his feet.
Inquire about his wel -being, asking:
“World-honored One, are you healthy

and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?”
Then inform him:
“The householder Anāthapiṇḍika pays homage at the World-honored One’s feet.
He inquires about your wel -being [with the words]:
‘World-honored One, are you healthy and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?
’”

After you have, on my behalf, made these inquiries of the Buddha, go to Venerable Sāriput a.
Pay homage at his feet on my behalf, and inquire about his wel -being by asking:
“Venerable one, are you healthy and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?”
Then inform him:
“The householder Anāthapiṇḍika pays homage at the feet of Venerable Sāriput a.
He inquires about the venerable one’s wel -being [with the words]:
‘Are you healthy and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?
’”

[Then also tel him:
] “Venerable Sāriput a, the householder Anātha -

piṇḍika is gravely il and in a critical condition.
The householder Anātha -

piṇḍika deeply wishes to see Venerable Sāriput a.
But in his deteriorating physical condition, he is too weak to come and visit Venerable Sāriput a.

It would be good if Venerable Sāriput a, out of compassion, were to visit the householder Anāthapiṇḍika at his house.”


Then, having received the householder Anāthapiṇḍika’s order, the messenger approached the Buddha.
Having paid homage at his feet, he sat down to one side and said:

World-honored One, the householder Anāthapiṇḍika pays homage at your feet.
He inquires about your wel -being:
“World-honored One, are you healthy and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?”


Then the World-honored One said to the messenger:

May the householder Anāthapiṇḍika find wel -being and happiness.

May al gods, human beings, asura s, celestial musicians, demons, and al other forms of life find wel -being and happiness!

189
The messenger heard what the Buddha said, and remembered it wel .

Then, having paid homage at the Buddha’s feet and circumambulated him three times, he approached Venerable Sāriput a.
Having paid homage at his feet, he sat down to one side and said:

Venerable Sāriput a, the householder Anāthapiṇḍika pays homage at Venerable Sāriput a’s feet.
He inquires about your wel -being:
“Venerable one, are you healthy and strong?
Are you comfortable and free from ailments?
Are you dwel ing at ease, and is your vigor as usual?”


[Also] “Venerable Sāriput a, the householder Anāthapiṇḍika is gravely il and is in a critical condition.
The householder Anāthapiṇḍika deeply wishes to see Venerable Sāriput a.
But in his poor physical condition, 459a

he is too weak to visit Venerable Sāriput a.
It would be good if Venerable Sāriputta, out of compassion, were to visit the householder Anāthapiṇḍika at his house.”


Venerable Sāriput a consented by remaining silent.
Then, understanding that Venerable Sāriput a had consented by remaining silent, the messenger rose from his seat, paid homage at [Sāriput a’s] feet, circumambulated him three times, and departed.

When the night was over, at dawn, Venerable Sāriput a put on his robe, took his bowl, and approached the householder Anāthapiṇḍika’s house.
Seeing Venerable Sāriputta approaching in the distance, the householder Anāthapiṇḍika struggled to raise himself from his bed.

Seeing the householder Anāthapiṇḍika struggling to raise himself from the bed, Venerable Sāriput a stopped him, saying:
“Lie stil , householder!

Don’t get up! There is another bed here.
I shal sit on it.”


Then, having seated himself on the other bed, Venerable Sāriput a asked:

“How is your ailment now, householder?
How much are you eating and drinking?
Are your painful feelings subsiding, not increasing?”


The householder replied:
“My ailment is becoming critical.
I cannot eat or drink.
My painful feelings are increasing, not subsiding.”


Venerable Sāriput a said:

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who are lacking in faith, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn

in hel .
But you, householder, are not lacking in faith nowadays;
rather, you are of superior faith.
And by [recal ing your] superior faith, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] superior faith, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who lack virtue, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not lack virtue;
rather, you are strong in virtue.
And by [recal ing your] strong virtue, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] strong virtue, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have not learned much [about the Dharma], with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, are not one who has not learned much [about the Dharma];
rather, you are learned [regarding the Dharma].
And by [recal ing your] great learning [in the Dharma], householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] great learning, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already attained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who are miserly and covetous, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, are not 459b miserly or covetous;
rather, you are a generous donor.
And by [recal ing your] generosity as a donor, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] generosity as a donor, householder, you may attain the fruit of once-returning or

[even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

191
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have faulty wisdom, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not have faulty wisdom;
rather, you are endowed with wholesome wisdom.
And by [recal ing your] wholesome wisdom, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your]

wholesome wisdom, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have wrong view, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hell.
But you, householder, do not have wrong view;
rather, you have right view.
And by [recal ing your] right view, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] right view, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have wrong intention, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not have wrong intention;
rather, you have right intention.
And by [recal ing your] right intention, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] right intention, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already attained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have wrong understanding, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not have wrong understanding;
rather, you have right understanding.

And by [recal ing your] right understanding, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing

your] right understanding, householder, you may attain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have the wrong

[kind of] liberation, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not have the wrong [kind of] liberation;
rather, you have [the first stage of] the right [kind of] liberation.
And by [recal ing your] right liberation, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your] right liberation, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Don’t be afraid, householder.
Don’t be afraid, householder.
Why 459c not?
In the case of ignorant, ordinary worldlings who have wrong at entiveness, with the breaking up of the body at death they go to a bad realm of existence, being reborn in hel .
But you, householder, do not have wrong at entiveness;
rather, you have right at entiveness.
And by

[recal ing your] right at entiveness, householder, you may be able to extinguish your pain and give rise to happiness.
By [recal ing your]

right at entiveness, householder, you may at ain the fruit of once-returning or [even] the fruit of non-returning, as you have already at ained stream-entry.

Thereupon, the householder’s il ness vanished and his condition returned to normal.
He raised himself into a sit ing position on the bed, and praised Venerable Sāriput a:

Very good! Very good! Your teaching of the Dharma to this sick man was marvelous, very special! Venerable Sāriputta, on hearing your Dharma teaching for a sick man, my pain has been extinguished and happiness has been aroused.
Venerable Sāriput a, my il ness has now vanished and my condition has returned to normal.

Venerable Sāriput a, once, in the past, being in Rājagaha for some business or other, I stayed in the home of a householder there.
At that time that householder was preparing to provide a meal for the Buddha 193
and the community of monks on the fol owing day.
When the night was far-gone and dawn was approaching, the householder cal ed his children, grandchildren, servants, and retainers, saying:
“Get up! Quick! We must al prepare the meal.”
Each received his or her instructions and together they set up the kitchen and began preparing al sorts of nourishing and delicious food and drinks.
The householder personal y set up a raised seat [for the Buddha], decorating it with countless adornments.

Venerable Sāriput a, on seeing this, I thought:
“Is the householder preparing for a wedding?
Is it to be a reception for a new daughter-in-law?
Or has the king been invited?
Or some senior minister?
Or is it for a great ritual offering of food?”


Venerable Sāriputta, having pondered in this way, I asked the householder, “Are you preparing for a wedding?
Is it to be a reception for a new daughter-in-law?
Or has the king been invited?
Or some senior minister?
Or is it for a great ritual offering of food?”


The householder replied:
“We are not preparing for a wedding.
It is not to be a reception for a new daughter-in-law.
Neither has the king been invited, nor some senior minister.
But it is indeed for a great ritual offering of food.
We are providing a meal for the Buddha and the community of monks this coming day.”


Venerable Sāriput a, until then I had not heard the word “Buddha.”


When I heard it, my bodily hair stood on end.
So I inquired:
“Householder, you spoke of ‘the Buddha.
’ Who is it that is called ‘the Buddha’?”


Then the householder replied:
“Have you not heard?
There is a son of the Sakya clan who has relinquished his Sakyan family ties.
He shaved off his hair and beard, donned yel ow robe and, out of faith, gave up the household life and became a homeless one, to train in the path.
He attained perfect, supreme awakening;
hence he is called

‘Buddha’ [Awakened One].”


I asked him further:
“You also mentioned ‘the community.
’ What is this community?”


The householder again replied:
“Members of various families and clans have [also] shaved off their hair and beards, donned the yellow robe and, out of faith, given up the household life and become

homeless ones, to train in the Buddha’s path.
These [monks] constitute 460a his community.
It is this Buddha and his community that we have invited.”


Venerable Sāriput a, I again asked the householder:
“Where is the World-honored One dwelling now?
I desire to go and visit him.”


The householder replied:
“The World-honored One is presently dwel ing at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

You can go there if you wish.”


Venerable Sāriput a, I thought:
“It wil soon be daybreak.
Let me quickly go and see the Buddha.”
Venerable Sāriput a, my desire to go and see the Buddha being so pressing, although it was stil night I suddenly had a perception of daytime brightness.
So I set out from the householder’s home and went to the town gate.
At that time, the town gate was guarded by two watchmen.
One of the watchmen stood guard during the first half of the night, permit ing people to enter without hindrance.
The other stood guard during the second half of the night, permit ing people to leave without hindrance.

Venerable Sāriput a, I thought:
“The night is not yet over.
Why?

[Because] the town gate is [stil being] guarded by [one of the] two watchmen.
One of the watchmen stands guard during the first half of the night, permitting people to enter without hindrance.
The other stands guard during the second half of the night, permit ing people to leave without hindrance.”


Venerable Sāriput a, not long after I had passed out through the town gate, the [perception of daytime] brightness suddenly vanished and everything was dark again.
Venerable Sāriputta, at that time I became afraid and my bodily hair stood on end.
[I thought]:
“May no man or invisible being harm me!”

At that moment, a divine being at the city gate radiated forth a great radiance reaching from Rājagaha up to the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.
[That divine being] came and addressed me:
Don’t be afraid, householder! Don’t be afraid, householder! Why not?
In a previous life I was a friend of yours, named Honey Vessel.
110 We were very dear and close to each other in our youth.

195
Householder, in the past I had visited Venerable Mahā Moggal āna.

Having paid homage at his feet, I sat to one side.
Venerable Mahā

Moggal āna gave me a teaching.
He exhorted, encouraged, and delighted me, and by countless skillful means explained the Dharma to me.
Having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted me, he let me take the three refuges and the five precepts.
Householder, for having taken the three refuges and kept the five precepts, with the breaking up of the body at death I was reborn in the heaven of the four great kings, and now reside at this town gate.
Go quickly, householder! Go quickly, householder! It is bet er to go than to stay here.

To urge me onward, that divine being ut ered the fol owing verses:
Acquisition of a hundred horses, ministers, and women, And of a hundred carts fil ed with gems

Is not equal to one-sixteenth [of the worth]

Of one step toward visiting the Buddha.

Even a hundred excel ent white elephants,

With gold and silver saddles,

Are not equal to one-sixteenth [of the worth]

Of one step toward visiting the Buddha.

460b

A hundred beautiful women,

Their bodies adorned with jewels and flowers,

Are not equal to one-sixteenth [of the worth]

Of one step toward visiting the Buddha.

The supremely precious woman treasure,

Adored by the wheel-turning monarch,

Is not equal to one-sixteenth [of the worth]

Of one step toward visiting the Buddha.

Having ut ered these verses, the divine being urged me further, saying:

“Go quickly, householder! Go quickly, householder! It is bet er to go than to stay here.”




Venerable Sāriput a, I thought:
“The Buddha is worthy of veneration, and the Dharma and the community of monks are worthy of veneration.
Why? Even a divine being wishes me to go and visit them.”


Venerable Sāriputta, aided by the [divine being’s] radiance, I reached the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.
At that time, the night being over, toward dawn, the World-honored One had emerged from his meditation hut and was practicing walking meditation in the open, waiting for me.
Venerable Sāriput a, in the distance I saw the Buddha’s fine appearance, outstandingly radiant like a resplendent moon amidst the stars, dazzling like a golden mountain, endowed with the features [of a Great Person], majestic and imposing.
His senses were tranquil and without obstruction, skil ful y tamed and restrained, his mind tranquil and stil .

Seeing the Buddha, I was overjoyed and approached him.
Having paid homage at his feet, I fol owed the Buddha in walking meditation.

In accordance with the custom of householders, I greeted him with this verse:

Has the World-honored One slept peaceful y,

Having fal en asleep quickly?

[He replied:
]

Like a [true] “brahmin,” I have at ained deliverance, Untainted by desires,

Having relinquished al yearning,

I have at ained peace,

With al fevers of the mind removed.

[Consequently] I have slept wel and happily.

Then, the World-honored One, having reached the end of the walking path, sat cross-legged on a prepared sit ing mat.
Venerable Sāriput a, I [again] paid homage at his feet, and sat to one side.
[Then] the World-honored One taught me the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting me, employing countless skil ful means to explain it.
He exhorted, inspired, and delighted me as he delivered the teaching of al the buddhas.

197
First he taught the beautiful Dharma that uplifts those who hear it, speaking on generosity, on virtue, on ways to rebirth in heavenly realms, on repudiating desire as dangerous, and on the round of rebirth as repugnant.
He praised desirelessness as a factor of the sublime path, and as purity.
After expounding these teachings to me, the World-honored One knew that my mind was joyous, that it had become contented, pliant, patient, uplifted, concentrated, free from doubt, free from hindrances, possessing the ability and strength to receive the true Dharma—

that is to say, the cardinal principles of the teachings of al the Buddhas.

The World-honored One taught me about suffering, its arising, its 460c

cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
As I sat there, Venerable Sāriput a, I saw the four noble truths:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path.
Just as a white cloth easily absorbs dye, so did I [absorb the teaching].
As I sat there, I saw the four noble truths:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path.

Venerable Sāriput a, [in this way] I saw the Dharma, at ained the Dharma, awakened to the pure Dharma.
Doubt was eradicated;
confusion

[concerning the Dharma] was transcended.
I would venerate no other

[teachers], never again fol ow others.
I was without uncertainty, being established in realization of the fruit [of stream-entry].
In regard to the teachings of the World-honored One I at ained freedom from vacil ation.

Then I rose from my seat, paid homage to the Buddha, [and said]:
World-honored One, henceforth I take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower.
From today onward I take refuge for my whole life, until I die.

Then, Venerable Sāriput a, I placed my palms together and said:
“World-honored One, allow me to invite you and an assembly of monks to spend the rains retreat at Sāvat hī.”


Then the Buddha asked me:
“What is your name?
How do the people of Sāvat hī address you?”


I replied:
“My name is Sudat a;
but because I regularly assist and give to the needy and the orphaned, the people of Sāvatthī call me Anāthapiṇḍika [Giver to the Needy and the Orphaned].”




Then, the World-honored One asked me further:
“Are there dwel ings [for monks] at Sāvat hī?”


I replied:
“There are [at present] no dwellings [for monks] at Sāvat hī.”


Then the World-honored One said:
“Know, householder, that if there were dwel ings [for them], monks would be able to visit and stay at [Sāvat hī].”


I then responded:
“Indeed, World-honored One.
I wil have dwel ings erected, so that monks can visit and stay at Sāvat hī.
May the World-honored One appoint someone to assist me!” And the World-honored One appointed and sent [you], Venerable Sāriput a, to assist me.

Then, having heard what the Buddha said and kept it wel in mind, I rose from my seat, paid homage to the Buddha, and, having circumambulated him three times, departed.
Having completed what I had to do at Rājagaha, I set out for Sāvat hī, together with Venerable Sāriput a.

Without entering [the town of] Sāvat hī or returning to my home, we proceeded right away [to examine] the lands outside the city, [looking for] a location that had good access;
that was not noisy in the daytime and was peaceful at night;
that was without mosquitoes, gadflies, flies, and fleas;
and that was neither too cold nor too hot;
[where] one could erect dwel ings for the Buddha and his community.

Venerable Sāriput a, at that time we saw that Prince Jeta’s Grove was the only [location] that had good access;
that was not noisy in the daytime and was peaceful at night;
that was without mosquitoes, gadflies, flies, and fleas;
and that was neither too cold nor too hot.
Having seen this, I thought:
“This is just the place where dwellings for the 461a Buddha and his community can be erected.”


Then, Venerable Sāriput a, I entered Sāvat hī.
Stil without returning home, I first approached Prince Jeta, saying:
“Prince, wil you sel me this grove?”
The prince replied:
“Know this, elder!111 I wil not sell the grove.”
A second and a third time I repeated my request:

“Prince, wil you sel me this grove?”
And a second and a third time the prince replied:
“I wil not sel the grove, not even if you pay me mil ions and mil ions [of gold pieces, enough] to cover the entire surface [of the grove].”


199
I replied:
“Prince, you have just set the price! I shal go and bring the gold.”
Then, Venerable Sāriput a, the prince and I argued about whether or not he had set the price, and final y we approached the chief magistrate in Sāvatthī to settle the matter.
The chief magistrate in Sāvat hī said to Prince Jeta:
“Prince, you have set the price.
Now accept the gold!”

Then, Venerable Sāriput a, I returned to my home in Sāvat hī to fetch the cash.
Elephants, horses, and carts were employed to transport it.
Then the mil ions and mil ions of gold pieces were taken out [and used] to cover the ground [of the grove].
But a smal portion of the ground was not covered.

Venerable Sāriput a, I thought:
“From which of my other treasuries, one that is neither too large nor too smal , should I take, so that the remaining portion can be covered?”


Then Prince Jeta said to me:
“Elder, if you have regrets, you can take back the payment and I shal keep the grove.”


I said to the prince:
“I certainly have no regrets.
I was merely thinking:
From which of my other treasuries, one that is neither too large nor too smal , should I take so that the remaining portion can be covered?”


Then Prince Jeta thought:
“The Buddha must be most worthy of veneration, and the Dharma and the community of monks must also be most worthy of veneration.
Why? [Because they] have moved this elder to make such a great offering, to spend his wealth in such a way.

I would now rather construct an enclosure with a gate on this [remaining piece of] ground and offer it to the Buddha and his community.”


Then Prince Jeta said to me:
“Enough, elder! Don’t bring any more gold to cover this [remaining] piece of ground.
I shal construct an enclosure with a gate here and offer it to the Buddha and his community.”


Venerable Sāriput a, out of compassion I gave this piece of ground to Prince Jeta.
Venerable Sāriput a, in that very summer, I constructed

[in the grove] sixteen large dwel ing places and sixty storerooms.
Venerable Sāriput a assisted me during that time.

[As for the present,] the Dharma talk that Venerable Sāriput a gave for this sick man was marvelous, very special.
Having heard this

Dharma talk delivered for a sick man, I am cured of that severe il ness, and am happy.
Venerable Sāriput a, I have now recovered from my il - 461b ness, and found peace and comfort.
Venerable Sāriput a, accept a meal

[from me]!

Venerable Sāriput a consented by remaining silent.
The householder

[Anāthapiṇḍika], having understood that Venerable Sāriput a had consented by remaining silent, rose from his seat, personal y [brought] water for washing

[his hands], and offered various kinds of fine dishes, delicious, plentiful, and easy to digest.
After the meal, he again brought the water container, and then seated himself on a small seat to one side to listen to the Dharma.
Once Anāthapiṇḍika was seated, Venerable Sāriput a expounded the Dharma to him, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him, using countless skil ful means to explain the Dharma.
Having exhorted, inspired, and delighted

[Anāthapiṇḍika], [Sāriput a] rose from his seat and departed.

At that time, the World-honored One was giving teachings, surrounded by an immense fol owing.
Seeing Venerable Sāriput a approaching in the distance, the World-honored One told the monks [in the assembly]:
The monk Sāriput a is endowed with bright wisdom, quick wisdom, lively wisdom, keen wisdom, extensive wisdom, profound wisdom, wisdom that brings release, penetrative wisdom, eloquent wisdom.

The monk Sāriput a has achieved genuine wisdom.
Why [do I say this]?

Regarding the four limbs of stream-entry taught in brief by me, the monk Sāriput a has elaborated on them with ten different explanations for the householder Anāthapiṇḍika.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

29 - MA 29 The Discourse by Mahā Koṭṭhita


29. The Discourse by Mahā Koṭṭhita
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.
At that time, in the late afternoon, Venerable Sāriput a rose from sit ing in meditation and approached Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita.
Having exchanged courteous greetings, he sat down to one side.

201
Venerable Sāriput a said to Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita:
“I would like to ask you some questions.
Would you care to hear them?”


Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita replied:
“Venerable Sāriput a, ask whatever 461c you wish.
Having heard [your questions], I wil [careful y] consider them.”


Venerable Sāriput a then asked:

Venerable friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there a condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having attained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows the unwholesome and knows the roots of the unwholesome.
What is knowledge of the unwholesome?
It is this:
evil bodily actions are unwholesome, evil verbal actions and evil mental actions are unwholesome.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the unwholesome.
What is knowledge of the roots of the unwholesome?
It is this:
greed is a root of the unwholesome;
hatred and ignorance are roots of the unwholesome.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the roots of the unwholesome.
Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows the unwholesome and the roots of the unwholesome, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭṭhita, is there another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows the wholesome and knows the roots of the wholesome.



What is knowledge of the wholesome?
It is this:
good bodily actions are wholesome, good verbal actions and good mental actions are wholesome.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the wholesome.

What is knowledge of the roots of the wholesome?
It is this:
absence of lust is a root of the wholesome;
absence of aversion and absence of ignorance are roots of the wholesome.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows the wholesome and knows their roots, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows nutriment as it real y is, knows the arising of nutriment, knows the cessation of nutriment, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of nutriment as it real y is.

What is knowledge of nutriment as it real y is?
It is this:
there are four nutriments:
the first nutriment is physical food, coarse or fine;
the second nutriment is contact;
the third nutriment is intention;
and the fourth nutriment is consciousness.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of nutriment as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of nutriment as it real y is?
It is this:
in dependence on craving, nutriment comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of nutriment as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of nutriment as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of craving, nutriment also ceases.
This is 462a reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of nutriment as it real y is.

203
What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of nutriment as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of nutriment as it really is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows nutriment as it real y is, knows the arising of nutriment, knows the cessation of nutriment, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of nutriment as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having attained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows the taints as they real y are, knows the arising of the taints, knows the cessation of the taints, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of the taints as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the taints as they real y are?
There are said to be three taints:
the taint of sensual desires, the taint of the process of existence, and the taint of ignorance.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the taints as they real y are.

What is knowledge of the arising of the taints as it real y is?
It is this:
in dependence on ignorance, the taints come to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of taints as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of the taints as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of ignorance, the taints also cease.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of taints as it really is.



What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the taints as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the taints as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows the taints as they real y are, knows the arising of the taints, knows the cessation of the taints, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of the taints as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering as it real y is.
What is knowledge of suffering as it realy is?
It is this:
birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, association with what is disliked is suffering, separation from what is loved is suffering, being unable to get what one wishes is suffering, in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of suffering as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of suffering as it real y is?
It is 462b this:
dependent on old age and death, suffering comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of suffering as it real y is.

205
What is knowledge of the cessation of suffering as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of old age and death, suffering also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of suffering as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows suffering as it real y is, knows the arising of suffering, knows the cessation of suffering, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.”


On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriputta.
It is this:
a monk knows old age and death as they real y are, knows the arising of old age and death, knows the cessation of old age and death, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of old age and death as it real y is.

What is knowledge of old age as it really is?
It is this:
old age brings hoary hair, lost teeth, deteriorating health, hunched body, unsteady step, overweight body, shortness of breath, reliance on a walking cane, shrinking flesh, sagging skin, wrinkles like pockmarks, failing sense faculties, and unsightly complexion.
This is reckoned to be old age.

What is knowledge of death?
It is this:
al living beings, in their

various forms, are subject to the ending of life, the impermanence, death, dissolution, extinction and breaking up of their life, the stopping of their vital force.
This is reckoned to be death.
This is the explanation of death and it, along with the explanation of old age that I gave just before, is what is meant by old age and death.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of old age and death as they real y are.

What is knowledge of the arising of old age and death as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on birth, old age and death come into being.

This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of old age and death as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of old age and death as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of birth, old age and death also cease.

This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of old age and death as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of old age and death as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of old age and death as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows old age and death as they real y are, knows the arising of old age and death, knows the cessation of old age and death, and knows the path

[leading to] the cessation of old age and death as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

462c

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

207
[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows birth as it real y is, knows the arising of birth, knows the cessation of birth, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of birth as it real y is.

What is knowledge of birth as it really is?
It is this:
all living beings, in their various forms, experience birth when they are born, when they arise, when they are formed, when the five aggregates come into being, and when the vital faculties are developed.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of birth as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of birth as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on the process of existence, birth comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of birth as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of birth as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of the process of existence, birth also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of birth as it really is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of birth as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of birth as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows birth as it real y is, knows the arising of birth, knows the cessation of birth, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of birth as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?



[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows the process of existence as it real y is, knows the arising of the process of existence, knows the cessation of the process of existence, and knows the path

[leading to] the cessation of the process of existence as it really is.

What is knowledge of the process of existence as it real y is?
It is this:
there are three kinds of process of existence:
the process of existence in the sensual [realm], the process of existence in the form [realm], and the process of existence in the formless [realm].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the process of existence as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of the process of existence as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on clinging, the process of existence comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of the process of existence as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of the process of existence as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of clinging, the process of existence also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of the process of existence as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the process of existence as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the process of existence as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows the process of existence as it real y is, knows the arising of the process of existence, knows the cessation of the process of existence, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of the process of existence as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very 463a good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

209
Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows clinging as it real y is, knows the arising of clinging, knows the cessation of clinging, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of clinging as it real y is.
What is knowledge of clinging as it realy is?
It is this:
there are four kinds of clinging:
clinging to sensual desires, clinging to precepts, clinging to views, and clinging to a self.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of clinging as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of clinging as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on craving, clinging comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of clinging as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of clinging as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of craving, clinging also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of clinging as it really is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of clinging as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of clinging as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows clinging as it real y is, knows the arising of clinging, knows the cessation of clinging, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of clinging as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence]

in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .



Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows craving as it real y is, knows the arising of craving, knows the cessation of craving, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of craving as it real y is.

What is knowledge of craving as it real y is?
It is this:
there are three kinds of craving:
craving [related to] the sensual [realm], craving

[related to] the form [realm], and craving [related to] the formless

[realm].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of craving as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of craving as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on feeling, craving comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of craving as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of craving as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of feeling, craving also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of craving as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of craving as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of craving as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows craving as it real y is, knows the arising of craving, knows the cessation of craving, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of craving as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence]

in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very 463b good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

211
Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows feeling as it real y is, knows the arising of feeling, knows the cessation of feeling, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of feeling as it real y is.

What is knowledge of feeling as it real y is?
It is this:
there are three kinds of feeling:
pleasant feelings, unpleasant feelings, and neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feelings.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of feeling as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of feeling as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on contact, feelings come to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of feeling as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of feeling as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of contact, feelings also cease.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of feeling as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of feeling as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of feeling as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows feeling as it real y is, knows the arising of feeling, knows the cessation of feeling, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of feeling as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence]

in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:



Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows contact as it real y is, knows the arising of contact, knows the cessation of contact, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of contact as it real y is.

What is knowledge of contact as it real y is?
It is this:
there are three kinds of contact:
pleasant contact, unpleasant contact, and neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant contact.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of contact as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of contact as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on the six sense bases, contact comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of contact as it really is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of contact as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of the six sense bases, contact also ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of contact as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of contact as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of contact as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows 463c contact as it real y is, knows the arising of contact, knows the cessation of contact, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of contact as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having arrived at the true Dharma, has at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

213
Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows the six sense bases as they real y are, knows the arising of the six sense bases, knows the cessation of the six sense bases, and knows the path [leading to]

the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the six sense bases as they real y are?
It is this:
[there is] the sense base of the eye, of the ear, of the nose, of the tongue, of the body, and the sense base of the mind.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the six sense bases as they real y are.

What is knowledge of the arising of the six sense bases as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on name-and-form, the six sense bases come to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of the six sense bases as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of name-and-form, the six sense bases also cease.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—[eight factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows the six sense bases as they real y are, knows the arising of the six sense bases, knows the cessation of the six sense bases, and knows the path

[leading to] the cessation of the six sense bases as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.



On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows name-and-form as it real y is, knows the arising of name-and-form, knows the cessation of name-and-form, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is.

What is knowledge of name?
It is this:
name consists of the four incorporeal aggregates [among the five aggregates].

What is knowledge of form?
It is this:
form consists of the four great elements and of what is derived from the four great elements.

This is the explanation of form, and it along with the explanation of name that I gave just before, is [what is meant by] name-and-form.

This is reckoned to be knowledge of name-and-form as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of name-and-form as it real y is?
It is this:
dependent on consciousness, name-and-form comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of name-and-form as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of consciousness, name-and-form also 464a ceases.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is.

215
Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows name-and-form as it real y is, knows the arising of name-and-form, knows the cessation of name-and-form, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of name-and-form as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows consciousness as it real y is, knows the arising of consciousness, knows the cessation of consciousness, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of consciousness as it real y is.

What is knowledge of consciousness as it real y is?
It is this:
there are six types of consciousness:
eye consciousness, ear [consciousness], nose [consciousness], tongue [consciousness], body [consciousness], and mind consciousness.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of consciousness as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the arising of consciousness as it real y is?

It is this:
dependent on formations, consciousness comes to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of consciousness as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the cessation of consciousness as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of formations, consciousness also ceases.

This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of consciousness as it real y is.



What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of consciousness as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of consciousness as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows consciousness as it real y is, knows the arising of consciousness, knows the cessation of consciousness, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of consciousness as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:

Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, is there yet another condition owing to which a monk accomplishes view, acquires right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, arrives at the true Dharma?

[Mahā Koṭ hita] replied:

There is, Venerable Sāriput a.
It is this:
a monk knows formations as they real y are, knows the arising of formations, knows the cessation of formations, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of formations as it real y is.

What is knowledge of formations as they real y are?
It is this:
there are three kinds of formations:
bodily formations, verbal formations, and mental formations.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of formations as they real y are.

What is knowledge of the arising of formations as they real y are?
464b It is this:
dependent on ignorance, formations come to be.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the arising of formations as it really is.

217
What is knowledge of the cessation of formations as it real y is?
It is this:
with the cessation of ignorance, formations also cease.
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the cessation of formations as it real y is.

What is knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of formations as it real y is?
It is this:
the noble eightfold path, from right view to right concentration—eight [factors].
This is reckoned to be knowledge of the path [leading to] the cessation of formations as it real y is.

Venerable Sāriput a, if there is a monk who, in this manner, knows formations as they real y are, knows the arising of formations, knows the cessation of formations, and knows the path [leading to] the cessation of formations as it real y is, then he is said to be a monk who has accomplished view, acquired right view, and, having at ained unwavering pure [confidence] in the Dharma, has arrived at the true Dharma.

On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭṭhita!” Having done so, Venerable Sāriputta was delighted and remembered it wel .

Venerable Sāriput a then asked further:
“Friend Mahā Koṭ hita, when a monk has caused ignorance to cease and knowledge to arise, what further does he need to do?”


Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita replied:
“Venerable Sāriput a, when a monk has caused ignorance to cease and knowledge to arise, there is nothing further that he needs to do.”


On hearing this, Venerable Sāriput a spoke in praise:
“Very good! Very good, friend Mahā Koṭ hita!”

Having discussed the meaning [of the Dharma] in this manner, those two venerable ones were both delighted and [would] remember [this exchange]

wel ;
they rose from their seats and departed.

30 - MA 30 The Discourse with the Parable of the Elephant’s Footprint


30. The Discourse with the Parable of the Elephant’s Footprint
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, Venerable Sāriput a addressed the monks:


Venerable friends, whatever countless wholesome states there are can al be subsumed under the four noble truths;
they are al included in the four noble truths;
the four noble truths are declared to be the foremost of al teachings.
Why? Because they encompass al wholesome states.

Venerable friends, it is just as the elephant’s footprint is foremost among the footprints of al animals, because it is the greatest, the largest.

So too, venerable friends, the countless wholesome states are al subsumed under the four noble truths;
they are al included in the four noble truths;
the four noble truths are declared to be the foremost of al teachings.

What are the four?
They are:
the noble truth of suffering, [the noble truth of] the arising of suffering, [the noble truth of] the cessation of suffering, and the noble truth of the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering.
What, venerable friends, is the noble truth of suffering?

It is this:
birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, association with what is disliked is suffering, sep- 464c aration from what is loved is suffering, being unable to get what one wishes is suffering;
in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering.

What, venerable friends, are the five aggregates af ected by clinging,

[which are] suffering?
They are:
the material form aggregate affected by clinging;
the feeling [aggregate affected by clinging];
the perception

[aggregate affected by clinging];
the formations [aggregate affected by clinging];
and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging.

What, venerable friends, is the material form aggregate affected by clinging?
It is whatever is corporeal, the four great elements and whatever is derived from the four great elements.

What, venerable friends, are the four great elements?
They are the earth element, the water [element], the fire [element], and the air element.
What, venerable friends, is the earth element?
There are, venerable friends, two kinds of earth element:
there is the internal earth element and the external earth element.

What, venerable friends, is the internal earth element?
Whatever internal y, being inside the body, is solid and solidified, whatever is internal y clung to.
And what is that?
It is:
hair of the head, hair of the body, 219
nails, teeth, coarse and fine skin, flesh, sinews, bones, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, intestines, stomach, feces, or whatever else that exists in this body, is found inside it, that is solid, solidified, and is internal y clung to.
Venerable friends, this is cal ed the internal earth element.

Venerable friends, as for the external earth element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—[yet], venerable friends, at times there is an inundation, and then the external earth element disappears.

Venerable friends, this external earth element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—is impermanent by nature, of a nature to be extinguished, of a nature to decay, changing by nature.
How much more so this short-lived body that is clung to with craving! [Yet] the unlearned, deluded worldling thinks:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
[On the other hand,] a learned noble disciple does not think:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
How could he have such a thought?
If people curse him, beat him, and become angry with him, he thinks:
“This pain that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions;
it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?
It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] painful.”


He contemplates this contact as impermanent;
and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.

Through [contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, other people come and address him with gentle phrases and soft words, he thinks:

This pleasure that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions, it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?
It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] pleasant.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent, and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.

Through [contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, some people, young, middle-aged, or old, come and subject him to various

objectionable acts—perhaps punching him, stoning him, or harming him with blade or cudgel—then he thinks:

This body that I cling to is of a coarse material substance, derived from the four great elements, born of father and mother, maintained by food and drink, always requiring to be clothed, needing to sit or lie down, to be massaged and bathed, and to endure the worst.

[This body is] subject to breaking up, extinction, and dissolution.
465a It is because of this body that I am susceptible to being punched, stoned, and harmed with blade or cudgel.

[Thinking] thus, [the noble disciple] exerts himself energetical y without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, his mind becoming one-pointed and concentrated.

He thinks:

I wil not be neglectful.
I wil exert myself energetical y without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, my mind having become one-pointed and concentrated.
This body to which I cling, let it be punched, stoned, and harmed by blade or cudgel, yet I shal energetical y train in the teaching of the World-honored One.

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has given this teaching:
Suppose that bandits have come and are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw.
If, while those bandits are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw, you were to have some change in your mind-state, or even ut er evil words, then you would be failing and regressing [in your practice].

You should think thus:

If a bandit comes and cuts my body limb from limb with a sharp saw, there wil not, because of that, be any change in my mind-state, and I wil not even ut er evil words.
I wil arouse compassion toward the person who is cutting my body limb from limb.

For his sake I shal imbue my mind with loving-kindness and dwel [mental y] pervading one direction [with loving-kindness], 221
likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, and also above and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I shal dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Venerable friends, if that monk does not, through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community, dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, then, venerable friends, this monk should feel embarrassed and ashamed, [thinking:
]

As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them;
for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

Venerable friends, just as a newlywed wife feels embarrassed and ashamed when she sees her in-laws or her husband, know that this monk is like that;
he should feel embarrassed and ashamed, [thinking:
]

As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them, for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

If, however, as a result of feeling embarrassed and ashamed, he [is then able to] dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, [thinking]:
“This is excel ent and peaceful, namely, the casting aside of the process of existence, the abandoning of craving, dispassion, and complete cessation without remainder,” then, venerable friends, this monk is reckoned to have trained ful y and abundantly.

What, venerable friends, is the water element?
Venerable friends, there are two kinds of water element:
there is the internal water element and the external water element.

What, venerable friends, is the internal water element?
Whatever internal y, inside the body, is watery, moistening, and is internal y clung

to;
that is to say, brain, brain stem, tears, sweat, snot, phlegm, pus, blood, fat, marrow, spit le, bile, urine, or whatever else exists internal y, inside the body, that is watery, moistening, and is internal y clung to—

this, venerable friends, is cal ed the internal water element.

465b

Venerable friends, as for the external water element — great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—[yet], venerable friends, at times there is a conflagration, and then the external water element disappears.

Venerable friends, this external water element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—is impermanent by nature, of a nature to be extinguished, of a nature to decay, changing by nature.
How much more so this short-lived body that is clung to with craving!

[Yet] the unlearned, deluded worldling thinks:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
[On the other hand,] a learned noble disciple does not think:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
How could he have such a thought?
If people curse him, beat him, and become angry with him, he thinks:

This pain that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions;
it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?

It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] painful.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent;
and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.
Through

[contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, other people come and address him with gentle phrases and soft words, he thinks:
This pleasure that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions, it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?
It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] pleasant.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent, and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.

Through [contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.

223
If, on a later occasion, some people, young, middle-aged, or old, come and subject him to various objectionable acts—perhaps punching him, stoning him, or harming him with blade or cudgel—then he thinks:
This body that I cling to is of a coarse material substance, derived from the four great elements, born of father and mother, maintained by food and drink, always requiring to be clothed, needing to sit or lie down, to be massaged and bathed, and to endure the worst.

[This body is] subject to breaking up, extinction, and dissolution.

It is because of this body that I am susceptible to being punched, stoned, and harmed with blade or cudgel.

[Thinking] thus, [the noble disciple] exerts himself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, his mind becomes one-pointed and concentrated.

He thinks:

I wil not be neglectful.
I wil exert myself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, my mind having become one-pointed and concentrated.
This body to which I cling, let it be punched, stoned, and harmed by blade or cudgel, yet I shal energetical y train in the teaching of the World-honored One.

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has given this teaching:
Suppose that bandits have come and are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw.
If, while those bandits are cutting your body limb from limb with a sharp saw, you were to have some change in your mind-state, or even ut er evil words, then you would be failing and regressing [in your practice].

You should think thus:

If a bandit comes and cuts my body limb from limb with a sharp saw, there wil not, because of that, be any change in my mind-465c

state, and I wil not even ut er evil words.
I wil arouse compassion toward the person who is cutting my body limb from limb.



For his sake I shal imbue my mind with loving-kindness and dwel [mental y] pervading one direction [with loving-kindness], likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, all around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I shal dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Venerable friends, if that monk does not, through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community, dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, then, venerable friends, this monk should feel embarrassed and ashamed, [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them;
for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

Venerable friends, just as a newlywed wife feels embarrassed and ashamed when she sees her in-laws or her husband, know that this monk is like that;
he should feel embarrassed and ashamed [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them, for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

If, however, as a result of feeling embarrassed and ashamed, he [is then able to] dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, [thinking]:
“This is excel ent and peaceful, namely, the casting aside of al the process of existence, the abandoning of craving, dispassion, and complete cessation without remainder,” then, venerable friends, this monk is reckoned to have trained ful y and abundantly.

What, venerable friends, is the fire element?
Venerable friends, there are two kinds of fire element:
there is the internal fire element and the external fire element.

225
What, venerable friends, is the internal fire element?
Whatever internal y, inside the body, is fiery, warming, and is internal y clung to;
that is to say, that by which the body is kept warm, that by which one becomes feverish, that by which one becomes hot and sweaty, that which gives strength, that by which food and drink are digested, or whatever else exists internal y, inside the body, that is fiery, warming, and is internal y clung to—this, venerable friends, is cal ed the internal fire element.

Venerable friends, as for the external fire element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—[yet], venerable friends, there is a time when the external fire element arises and, having arisen, burns vil ages, towns, mountain forests, and wilderness;
and having burned these, it reaches a road or reaches water, and becomes extinguished for lack of fuel.
[Yet,] venerable friends, after such conflagration, people seek to make fire, by means of dril ing wood or bamboo, or by striking flint.

Venerable friends, this external fire element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—is impermanent by nature, of a nature to be extinguished, of a nature to decay, changing by nature.
How much more so this short-lived body that is clung to with craving!

[Yet] the unlearned, deluded worldling thinks:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
[On the other hand,] a learned noble disciple does not think:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
How 466a

could he have such a thought?
If people curse him, beat him, and become angry with him, he thinks:

This pain that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions;
it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?

It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] painful.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent;
and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.
Through

[contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, other people come and address him with gentle phrases and soft words, he thinks:


This pleasure that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions, it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?
It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] pleasant.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent, and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.

Through [contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, some people, young, middle-aged, or old, come and subject him to various objectionable acts—perhaps punching him, stoning him, or harming him with blade or cudgel—then he thinks:

This body that I cling to is of a coarse material substance, derived from the four great elements, born of father and mother, maintained by food and drink, always requiring to be clothed, needing to sit or lie down, to be massaged and bathed, and to endure the worst.

[This body is] subject to breaking up, extinction, and dissolution.

It is because of this body that I am susceptible to being punched, stoned, and harmed with blade or cudgel.

[Thinking] thus, [the noble disciple] exerts himself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, his mind becoming one-pointed and concentrated.

He thinks:

I wil exert myself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, my mind having become one-pointed and concentrated.

This body to which I cling, let it be punched, stoned, and harmed by blade or cudgel, yet I shal energetical y train in the teaching of the World-honored One.

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has given this teaching:
Suppose that bandits have come and are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw.
If, while those bandits are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw, you were to have some change in 227
your mind-state, or even ut er evil words, then you would be failing and regressing [in your practice].

You should think thus:

If a bandit comes and cuts my body limb from limb with a sharp saw, there wil not, because of that, be any change in my mind-state, and I wil not even ut er evil words.
I wil arouse compassion toward the person who is cutting my body limb from limb.

For his sake I shal imbue my mind with loving-kindness and dwel [mental y] pervading one direction [with loving-kindness], likewise the second, third, and fourth directions, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I shal dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Venerable friends, if that monk does not, through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community, dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, then, venerable friends, this monk should feel embarrassed and ashamed, [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them;
for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

466b

Venerable friends, just as a newlywed wife feels embarrassed and ashamed when she sees her in-laws or her husband, know that this monk is like that;
he should feel embarrassed and ashamed [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them, for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

If, however, as a result of feeling embarrassed and ashamed, he [is then able to] dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome,

[thinking]:
“This is excel ent and peaceful, namely, the casting aside of al the process of existence, the abandoning of craving, dispassion, and complete cessation without remainder,” then, venerable friends, this monk is reckoned to have trained ful y and abundantly.

What, venerable friends, is the air element?
Venerable friends, there are two kinds of air element:
there is the internal air element and the external air element.

What, venerable friends, is the internal air element?
Whatever internal y, inside the body, is airy, moving, and is internal y clung to;
that is to say, upward winds, downward winds, winds in the bowels, coursing winds, pul ing and contracting winds, stabbing winds, pushing winds, circulating winds, winds in the limbs, out-breath, in-breath, or whatever else internal y, inside the body, is airy, moving, and is internal y clung to—this, venerable friends, is cal ed the internal wind element.

Venerable friends, as for the external wind element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—[yet], venerable friends, there are times when the external air element arises and, having arisen, knocks over houses, uproots trees, and causes landslides.
When it encounters a mountain or the face of a cliff, it stops and becomes stil .
[Yet,] friends, when the external air element becomes stil , people seek to make wind by using a fan, a palm frond, or a cloth.

Venerable friends, this external air element—great though it is, pure though it is, beyond reproach though it is—is impermanent by nature, of a nature to be extinguished, of a nature to decay, changing by nature.
How much more so this short-lived body that is clung to with craving!

[Yet] the unlearned, deluded worldling thinks:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
[On the other hand,] a learned noble disciple does not think:
“This is me,” “this is mine,” “I belong to this.”
How could he have such a thought?
If people curse him, beat him, and become angry with him, he thinks:

This pain that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions;
it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?

It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] painful.

229
He contemplates this contact as impermanent;
and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.
Through

[contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.
If, on a later occasion, other people come and address him with gentle phrases and soft words, he thinks:
This pleasure that I am experiencing is born of causes and conditions, it is not without causes and conditions.
What are the conditions?
It is dependent on contact [to be experienced as] pleasant.

He contemplates this contact as impermanent, and he contemplates feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness as impermanent.

Through [contemplation of] the elements, his mind remains stil , one-pointed, concentrated, and imperturbable.

466c

If, on a later occasion, some people, young, middle-aged, or old, come and subject him to various objectionable acts—perhaps punching him, stoning him, or harming him with blade or cudgel—then he thinks:
This body that I cling to is of a coarse material substance, derived from the four great elements, born of father and mother, maintained by food and drink, always requiring to be clothed, needing to sit or lie down, to be massaged and bathed, and to endure the worst.

[This body is] subject to breaking up, extinction, and dissolution.

It is because of this body that I am susceptible to being punched, stoned, and harmed with blade or cudgel.

[Thinking] thus, [the noble disciple] exerts himself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, his mind becoming one-pointed and concentrated.

He thinks:

I wil exert myself energetical y, without idleness, with upright body and right mindfulness, without forgetfulness and without delusion, my mind having become one-pointed and concentrated.

This body to which I cling, let it be punched, stoned, and harmed by blade or cudgel, yet I shal energetical y train in the teaching of the World-honored One.



Venerable friends, the World-honored One has given this teaching:
Suppose that bandits have come and are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw.
If, while those bandits are cut ing your body limb from limb with a sharp saw, you were to have some change in your mind-state, or even ut er evil words, then you would be failing and regressing [in your practice].

You should think thus:

If a bandit comes and cuts my body limb from limb with a sharp saw, there wil not, because of that, be any change in my mind-state, and I wil not even ut er evil words.
I wil arouse compassion toward the person who is cutting my body limb from limb.

For his sake I shal imbue my mind with loving-kindness and dwel [mental y] pervading one direction [with loving-kindness], likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, all around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, I shal dwel pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Venerable friends, if that monk does not, through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community, dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, then, venerable friends, this monk should feel embarrassed and ashamed, [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them;
for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

Venerable friends, just as a newlywed wife feels embarrassed and ashamed when she sees her in-laws or her husband, know that this monk is like that;
he should feel embarrassed and ashamed [thinking]:
As for benefits, I am without them;
as for virtuous qualities, I am without them, for I do not dwel in equanimity that is in harmony 231
with what is wholesome through [recol ecting] the Buddha, the Dharma, and the monastic community.

If, however, as a result of feeling embarrassed and ashamed, he [is then able to] dwel in equanimity that is in harmony with what is wholesome, [thinking]:
“This is excel ent and peaceful, namely, the casting aside of al the process of existence, the abandoning of craving, dispassion, and complete cessation without remainder,” then, venerable friends, this monk is reckoned to have trained ful y and abundantly.

Venerable friends, just as when a space is enclosed by timber, clay, 467a

and reeds it comes to be termed a “house,” so too, venerable friends, it is with this body:
know that when a space is enclosed by sinews, bones, skin, flesh, and blood it comes to be termed a “body.”


Venerable friends, if internal y the eye sense base is not intact,

[and if] external forms are not il uminated by light, so that no awareness occurs, then eye consciousness does not come to arise.

Venerable friends, if [however,] internal y the eye sense base is intact, [and if] external forms are il uminated by light so that awareness occurs, then eye consciousness comes to arise.

Venerable friends, the internal eye sense base and forms—[that is,] the external forms cognized by eye consciousness—belong to the material form aggregate.
Any feeling [that thus] comes to be belongs to the feeling aggregate.
Any perception [that thus] comes to be belongs to the perception aggregate.
Any volitional formation [that thus] comes to be belongs to the volitional formations aggregate.
Any consciousness

[that thus] comes to be belongs to the consciousness aggregate.
This is how one contemplates the conjunction of the aggregates.

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has also given this teaching:
“If one sees dependent origination, one sees the Dharma;
if one sees the Dharma, one sees dependent origination.”
Why?

Venerable friends, the World-honored One teaches that the five aggregates affected by clinging—the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling [aggregate affected by clinging], the perception

[aggregate affected by clinging], the formations [aggregate affected by clinging], and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging—

arise from causes and conditions.



Venerable friends, if internally the ear.
. . , the nose.
. . , the tongue.
. . , the body.
. . , the mind sense base is not intact, [and if]

external mind objects are not il uminated by light114 so that no awareness occurs, then mind consciousness does not arise.

Venerable friends, if internal y the mind sense base is intact, [and if] external mind objects are il uminated by light so that awareness occurs, then mind consciousness comes to arise.

Venerable friends, the internal mind sense base and mind objects—

[that is,] the external mind objects cognized by mind consciousness—

belong to the material form aggregate.
115 Any feeling [that thus] comes to be belongs to the feeling aggregate.
Any perception [that thus] comes to be belongs to the perception aggregate.
Any volitional formation [that thus] comes to be belongs to the volitional formations aggregate.
Any consciousness [that thus] comes to be belongs to the consciousness aggregate.
This is how one contemplates the conjunction of the aggregates.

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has also given this teaching:
“If one sees dependent origination, one sees the Dharma;
if one sees the Dharma, one sees dependent origination.”
Why?

Venerable friends, the World-honored One teaches that the five aggregates affected by clinging—the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling [aggregate affected by clinging], the perception

[aggregate affected by clinging], the formations aggregate [affected by clinging], and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging—

arise from causes and conditions.
[One who contemplates this] becomes disenchanted with past, future, and present [manifestations of the] five aggregates affected by clinging.
Being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate.
Through dispassion he becomes liberated.
Being liberated, he knows he is liberated, he knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.

There wil not be another existence.”


Venerable friends, such a monk is reckoned to have trained ful y and abundantly.

This is what the venerable Sāriput a said.
Having heard the venerable Sāriput a’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

MA 31-40



31 - MA 31 The Discourse on Discerning the Noble Truths


31. The Discourse on Discerning the Noble Truths
467b Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
This is the proper mode of teaching the Dharma, namely:
to fully encompass the four noble truths, to ful y examine them, analyze them, reveal, exhibit, describe, and announce them, and to advance [understanding] of them.

Tathāgatas in the past, without at achment and ful y awakened, employed this proper mode of teaching the Dharma, namely:
to ful y encompass the four noble truths, to ful y examine them, analyze them, reveal, exhibit, describe, and announce them, and to advance [understanding] of them.

Tathāgatas in the future, without at achments and ful y awakened, wil employ this proper mode of teaching the Dharma, namely:
to ful y encompass the four noble truths, to ful y examine them, analyze them, reveal, exhibit, describe, and announce them, and to advance [understanding] of them.

I, too, the Tathāgata of the present, without at achment and ful y awakened, employ this proper mode of teaching the Dharma, namely:
to ful y encompass the four noble truths, to ful y examine them, analyze them, reveal, exhibit, describe, and announce them, and to advance

[understanding] of them.

The monk Sāriput a is endowed with bright wisdom, quick wisdom, lively wisdom, keen wisdom, extensive wisdom, profound wisdom, wisdom that brings release, penetrative wisdom, eloquent wisdom.
The monk Sāriput a has achieved genuine wisdom.
Why [do I say this]?

Because after I teach the four noble truths in brief, the monk Sāriput a is then able to explain them to others in detail, to ful y encompass them, to fully examine them, analyze them, reveal, exhibit, describe, and announce them, and to advance [understanding] of them.

And when the monk Sāriput a teaches and explains in detail the four noble truths, analyzing them, revealing, exhibiting, describing,

and announcing them, and advancing [understanding] of them, he causes countless beings to gain insight [into them].

The monk Sāriput a is able to guide and train others through [establishing them in] right view, [while] the monk Moggal āna is able to establish them in the highest goal, namely the complete cessation of the taints.
The monk Sāriput a is like a mother, “giving birth to” his companions in the holy life, [while] the monk Moggal āna is like a nurse, nurturing his companions in the holy life.
For this reason, [their]

companions in the holy life should respect, honor, venerate, and pay homage to the monks Sāriput a and Moggal āna.
Why? The monks Sāriput a and Moggal āna seek to benefit their companions in the holy life, seek their wel -being and happiness.

Having said this, the World-honored One rose from his seat and went into his dwel ing to sit in meditation.
Then, the venerable Sāriput a addressed the monks:

Venerable friends, the World-honored One has appeared in this world for our sake.
He has widely taught and explained the four noble truths, analyzed them, revealed, exhibited, described, and announced them, and advanced [understanding] of them.
What are the four?
They are:
the noble truth of suffering, [the noble truth of] the arising of suffering,

[the noble truth of] the cessation of suffering, and the noble truth of the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering.
What, venerable friends, is the noble truth of suffering?
Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, association with what is disliked is suffering, separation from what is loved is suffering, being unable 467c to get what one wishes is suffering;
in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering.

Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “birth is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, “birth” is when living beings, in their various forms, experience birth, when they are born, when they are brought into existence, when they are formed, when the five aggregates come into being, and when the vital faculties develop—this is called birth.
[As for] “birth is suffering”—venerable friends, when living beings are born, they experience physical pain, experience it 235
throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience physical fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience strong physical fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong physical and mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends,

[when] it is said, “birth is suffering,” it is said on this basis.

Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “old age is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, “old age” is when living beings in their various forms become senile, with hoary hair, lost teeth, deteriorating health, hunched body, unsteady step, overweight body, shortness of breath, reliance on a walking cane, shrinking flesh, sagging skin, wrinkles like pockmarks, failing sense faculties, and unsightly complexion.
This is cal ed old age.

[As for] “old age is suffering”—venerable friends, when living beings become old, they experience physical pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience physical fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience strong physical fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong physical and mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “old age is suffering,” it is said on this basis.



Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “disease is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, “disease” refers to headache, sore eyes, earache, sore nose, pain in the face, sore lips, toothache, pain in the tongue, pain in the palate, sore throat, panting, coughing, vomiting, hoarseness, epilepsy, swel ing, hypersalivation, bloody phlegm, fever, emaciation, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea.
When these and the various other symptoms of disease arise, they do so in dependence on contact.

They do not arise independently of the mind, [though] they manifest in the body.
Such is disease.

[As for] “disease is suffering”—venerable friends, when living beings become diseased, they experience physical pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience physical fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental fever, experience it 468a throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience strong physical fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong physical and mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “disease is suffering,” it is said on this basis.
Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “death is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, “death” is when sentient beings, in their various forms, come to the end of life and [succumb to] impermanence;
when they die, disappear, break up, and are extinguished;
when their life span is ended, destroyed;
when their vital force shuts down.
This is cal ed death.

[As for] “death is suffering”—venerable friends, when living beings die, they experience physical pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and 237
mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience physical fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental fever, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
They experience strong physical fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience strong physical and mental fever, affliction, and anguish, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends,

[when] it is said, “death is suffering,” it is said on this basis.

Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “association with what is disliked is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, with regard to “association with what is disliked,” living beings truly have six internal sense bases;
and when, by way of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, or mind, they sense an unliked object and find themselves together with it, in company with it, associated with it, conjoined with it, then they experience suffering.
It is the same with the external sense objects, and also with [the resulting] contact, feeling, perception, volition, and craving.

Venerable friends, living beings truly consist of the six elements;
and when, by way of the earth element, water [element], fire [element], air [element], space [element], or consciousness element, they encounter an unliked object and find themselves together with it, in company with it, associated with it, conjoined with it, then they experience suffering.
This is cal ed association with what is disliked.

[As for] “association with what is disliked is suffering” —venerable friends, when living beings are associated with what they dislike, they experience physical pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends,

[when] it is said, “association with what is disliked is suffering,” it is said on this basis.



Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “separation from what is loved is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, with regard to “separation from what is loved,” living beings truly have six internal sense bases;
and when, by way of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, or mind, they sense a loved object and find themselves separated from it, not connected with it, divided from it, not associated with it, not conjoined with it, then they experience suffering.

It is the same with the external sense objects, and also with [the resulting] contact, feeling, perception, volition, and craving.
Venerable friends, living beings truly consist of the six elements;
and when, by way of the earth element, water [element], fire [element], air [element], space [element], or consciousness element, they encounter a loved object and find themselves separated from it, not connected with it, divided from it, not associated with it, not conjoined with it, then they experience suffering.
This is called separation from what is loved.
468b

[As for] “separation from what is loved is suffering”—venerable friends, when living beings are separated from what they love, they experience physical pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout;
they experience physical and mental pain, experience it throughout, feel it, feel it throughout.
Venerable friends,

[when] it is said, “separation from what is loved is suffering,” it is said on this basis.

Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “being unable to get what one wishes is suffering,” on what basis is this said?
Venerable friends, living beings, who are subject to birth, who are not free from birth, wish not to be subject to birth– but this truly cannot be achieved by

[mere] wishing.
[Living beings, who are subject to] old age.
. . , death.

. . , sorrow and lamentation, who are not free from sorrow and lamentation, wish not to be subject to sorrow and lamentation—but this too cannot be achieved by [mere] wishing.

Venerable friends, living beings who are actual y experiencing pain, which is unpleasant and disagreeable, think:
“I am experiencing pain, which is unpleasant and disagreeable.
I wish this would change 239
and become agreeable!”—but this too cannot be achieved by [mere]

wishing.

Venerable friends, living beings, who are actual y experiencing pleasure, which is agreeable, think:
“I am experiencing pleasure, which is agreeable.
I wish this could last forever, remain, and not be subject to change!”—but this too cannot be achieved by [mere] wishing.

Venerable friends, living beings who are actual y experiencing intentions and perceptions that are unpleasant and disagreeable, think:

“I am experiencing intentions and perceptions that are unpleasant and disagreeable.
I wish these would change and become agreeable!”—

but this too cannot be achieved by [mere] wishing.

Venerable friends, living beings who are actual y experiencing intentions and perceptions that are agreeable, think:
“I am experiencing intentions and perceptions that are agreeable.
I wish these could last forever, remain, and not be subject to change!”—but this too cannot be achieved by [mere] wishing.
Venerable friends, [when] it is said

“being unable to get what one wishes is suffering,” it is said on this basis.
Venerable friends, [when] it is said, “in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering,” on what basis is this said?
There are the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling [aggregate affected by clinging], the perception [aggregate affected by clinging], the formations [aggregate affected by clinging], and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging.
Venerable friends, [when]

it is said, “in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering,” it is said on this basis.

Venerable friends, the noble truth of suffering was so in the past, the noble truth of suffering wil be so in the future, and is so in the present.
It is genuinely true, not false;
it does not depart from the way things are;
it is not distorted;
it is genuinely true, exact, and valid;
it is truth that accords with the way things are.
It is what the noble ones are endowed with, what the noble ones know, what the noble ones see, what the noble ones comprehend, what the noble ones at ain, what the noble ones ful y awaken to.
For these reasons it is cal ed the “noble”

truth of suffering.



What, venerable friends, is the noble truth of the arising of suffering due to the arising of craving?
Living beings truly have craving associated with the six internal sense bases, with the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind.
When there is craving, affection, defilement, and at achment 468c associated with these, that is cal ed arising.

Venerable friends, a learned noble disciple knows:
“Thus I understand this teaching, thus I see it, thus I comprehend it, thus I contemplate it, thus I realize it.”
This is what is cal ed the noble truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving.

How does he [the noble disciple] know it thus?
If there is craving for one’s wife, children, male and female servants, messengers, retainers, fields, houses, shops, income, and wealth;
if, when working on behalf of them, there is craving, affection, defilement, and at achment, then this is cal ed arising.
[This is how] he knows this noble truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving.
It is the same with the external sense objects, and again with the [associated] contact, feeling, perception, volition, and craving.

Venerable friends, living beings truly have craving for the six elements, for the earth element, the water [element], the fire [element], the air [element], the space [element], and the consciousness element.

When there is craving, affection, defilement, and at achment associated with these, that is cal ed the arising [of suffering].

Venerable friends, a learned noble disciple knows:
“Thus I understand this teaching, thus I see it, thus I comprehend it, thus I contemplate it, thus I realize it.”
This is what is cal ed the noble truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving.

How does he [the noble disciple] know it thus?
If there is craving for one’s wife, children, male and female servants, messengers, retainers, fields, houses, shops, income, and wealth;
if, when working on behalf of them, there is craving, affection, defilement, and at achment, then this is cal ed the arising [of suffering].
[This is how] he knows this noble truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving.

Venerable friends, the noble truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving was so in the past, the noble truth of suffering

[due to] the arising of craving wil be so in the future, and is so in the 241
present.
It is genuinely true, not false;
it does not depart from the way things are;
it is not distorted;
it is genuinely true, exact, and valid;
it is truth that accords with the way things are.
It is what the noble ones are endowed with, what the noble ones know, what the noble ones see, what the noble ones comprehend, what the noble ones at ain, what the noble ones ful y awaken to.
For these reasons it is cal ed the “noble”

truth of the arising of suffering [due to] the arising of craving.

What, venerable friends, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving?
Living beings truly have craving associated with the six internal sense bases, with the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind.
[But] when one is liberated [from this craving], without defilement or at achment, [through] discarding and expel ing, through dispassion, it gets extinguished and stops—that is cal ed the cessation of suffering.

Venerable friends, a learned noble disciple knows:
“Thus I understand this teaching, thus I see it, thus I comprehend it, thus I contemplate it, thus I realize it.”
This is what is cal ed the noble truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving.
How does he know it thus?
If there is no craving for one’s wife, children, male and female servants, messengers, retainers, fields, houses, shops, income, and wealth;
if, when working on behalf of them, one is liberated [from this craving], without defilement or at achment, [through] discarding and expel ing, through dispassion, it gets extinguished and stops—that is cal ed the cessation of suffering.

This is how he knows the noble truth of the cessation of suffering

[due to] the cessation of craving.
It is the same with the external sense objects, and again with the [associated] contact, feeling, perception, volition, and craving.

469a

Venerable friends, living beings truly have craving for the six elements, for the earth element, the water [element], the fire [element], the air [element], the space [element], and the consciousness element.
[But] when one is liberated [from this craving], without defilement or at achment, [through] discarding and expel ing, through dispassion, it gets extinguished and stops—that is cal ed the cessation of suffering.



Venerable friends, a learned noble disciple knows:
“Thus I understand this teaching, thus I see it, thus I comprehend it, thus I contemplate it, thus I realize it.”
This is what is cal ed the noble truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving.
How does he know it thus?
If there is no craving for one’s wife, children, male and female servants, messengers, retainers, fields, houses, shops, income, and wealth;
if, when working on behalf of them, one is liberated [from this craving], without defilement or at achment, [through] discarding and expel ing, through dispassion, it gets extinguished and stops—that is cal ed the cessation of suffering.
This is how he knows the noble truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving.

Venerable friends, the noble truth of the cessation of suffering

[due to] the cessation of craving was so in the past, the noble truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving wil be so in the future, and is so in the present.
It is genuinely true, not false;
it does not depart from the way things are;
it is not distorted;
it is genuinely true, exact, and valid;
it is truth that accords with the way things are.

It is what the noble ones are endowed with, what the noble ones know, what the noble ones see, what the noble ones comprehend, what the noble ones at ain, what the noble ones ful y awaken to.
For these reasons it is cal ed the “noble” truth of the cessation of suffering [due to] the cessation of craving.

What, venerable friends, is the noble truth of the path [leading to]

the cessation [of suffering].
It is this:
right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

What, venerable friends, is right view?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
.

of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein is investigation, comprehensive investigation, successive investigation, investigation of phenomena, examination, comprehensive 243
examination, observation, knowledge, and realization—that is cal ed right view.

What, venerable friends, is right intention?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
.

. of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, being freed from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—

whatever therein is mental thought, comprehensive thought, appropriate thought, thinking of what should be thought of, aspiring to what should be aspired to—this is cal ed right intention.

What, venerable friends, is right speech?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. .

of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—then whatever therein, in addition to the four kinds of good verbal conduct

[abstention from lying, etc.
], constitutes abstaining and abandoning of every other kind of evil verbal conduct, not practicing it, not doing it, not condoning it, not associating with it—this is cal ed right speech.

469b

What, venerable friends, is right action?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. .

of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein, in addition to the three kinds of good bodily conduct [abstention from kil ing etc.
] constitutes abstaining and abandoning of every other kind of evil bodily conduct, not practicing it, not doing it, not condoning it, not associating with it—this is cal ed right action.



What, venerable friends, is right livelihood?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. . of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein is not seeking [to make a livelihood]

by inappropriate means, nor out of excessive desire and dissatisfaction, nor by the various forms of wrong livelihood, [such as] performing tricks or incantations, but instead seeking robes in ways that are in accordance with the Dharma, not contrary to the Dharma, seeking food, beds, and seats in ways that are in accordance with the Dharma, not contrary to the Dharma—this is cal ed right livelihood.

What, venerable friends, is right effort?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. . of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein is vigor, effort, unified diligent striving, power in progressing, focused application without remission, without decline, to rightly master the mind—this is cal ed right effort.

What, venerable friends, is right mindfulness?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. . of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the stil ness and tranquility of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein is the mind’s concordance with mindfulness, its turning away from non-mindfulness, its being comprehensively mindful, recol ecting and again recol ecting, the mind’s being straight,117

245
non-forgetfulness of what the mind is responding to—this is cal ed right mindfulness.

What, venerable friends, is right concentration?
When the noble disciple is mindful of suffering as suffering, .
. . of its arising as its arising, .
. . of its cessation as its cessation, and mindful of the path as the path;
or when he contemplates his former actions;
or when he trains to be mindful of al formations;
or when he sees the danger in al formations;
or when he sees the tranquility and calm of nirvana;
or when he, free from at achment, mindful y contemplates the mind as liberated—whatever therein is the mind’s stability, its being established in the jhānas, established accordingly, being unwavering and not scat ered, being focused, stil ed, and rightly concentrated—this is cal ed right concentration.

Venerable friends, the noble truth of the path leading to the ces-469c

sation of suffering was so in the past, the noble truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering wil be so in the future, and is so in the present.
It is genuinely true, not false;
it does not depart from the way things are;
it is not distorted;
it is genuinely true, exact, and valid;
it is truth that accords with the way things are.
It is what the noble ones are endowed with, what the noble ones know, what the noble ones see, what the noble ones comprehend, what the noble ones at ain, what the noble ones ful y awaken to.
For these reasons it is cal ed the “noble”

truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

[Sāriput a] then ut ered the fol owing verse:

The Buddha has clearly comprehended al things;

He has seen the countless wholesome and meritorious qualities, The truths of suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path;
Skil ful y revealing and explaining them.

This is what Vnerable Sāriput a said.
Having heard Venerable Sāriput a’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .




..4.. Division 4 On Extraordinary Qualities MA 32-41



32 - MA 32 The Discourse on Extraordinary Qualities [of the Buddha]


32. The Discourse on Extraordinary Qualities [of the Buddha]
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, in the late afternoon, Venerable Ānanda rose from sit ing in meditation and approached the Buddha.
After paying respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, he stood to one side and said:
World-honored One, I have heard that at the time of Kassapa Buddha the World-honored One made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha and practiced the holy life.

That at the time of Kassapa Buddha the World-honored One made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha and practiced the holy life, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that the World-honored One, having at the time of Kassapa Buddha made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha and practiced the holy life, was reborn in the Tusita heaven.

That the World-honored One, having at the time of Kassapa Buddha made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha and practiced the holy life, was reborn in the Tusita heaven, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that the World-honored One, having at the time of 470a Kassapa Buddha made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha and, having practiced the holy life, was reborn in the Tusita heaven.
The World-honored One surpassed al those who had previously been born in the Tusita heaven in three respects, namely in divine length of life, divine complexion, and divine glory.
For this 247
reason, the Tusita gods were delighted and rejoiced, exclaiming:
“This young god is most wonderful, most remarkable.
He possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power.”
Why was this?

[Because] he surpassed al those who had previously been born in the Tusita heaven in three respects, namely in divine length of life, divine complexion, and divine glory.

That the World-honored One, who at the time of Kassapa Buddha had made his initial vow [to fol ow] the path [of becoming] a buddha, had practiced the holy life, and had been reborn in the Tusita heaven;
that he surpassed al those who had previously been born in the Tusita heaven in three respects, namely in divine length of life, divine beauty, and divine glory;
[that] for this reason the Tusita gods were delighted and rejoiced, exclaiming:
“This young god is most wonderful, most remarkable.
He possesses great supernormal power,119 great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power”;
[and that this was] because he surpassed all those who had previously been born in the Tusita heaven in three respects, namely in divine length of life, divine appearance, and divine glory—[al ] this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that at the end of his life span in the Tusita heaven, when the World-honored One mindful y descended into his mother’s womb, at that moment al of heaven and earth trembled and a great light il uminated the world, including even remote and dark places, unobstructed, completely shining on places that are not il uminated by the moon or the sun, even though these possess great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power;
and because of this wonderful light, each and every sentient being came to know this:
“A remarkable being wil be born! A remarkable being wil be born!”

That at the end of his life span in the Tusita heaven, when the World-honored One mindfully descended into his mother’s womb, at that moment al of heaven and earth trembled, and a great light il uminated the world, including even remote and dark places, unobstructed, completely shining on places that are not il uminated by the moon or the sun,

even though these possess great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power;
and that because of this wonderful light, each and every sentient being came to know this:
“A remarkable being wil be born! A remarkable being wil be born!”—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that, while in his mother’s womb, the World-honored One remained mindful y [lying] on his right side.

That the World-honored One, while in his mother’s womb, remained mindful y [lying] on his right side, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that the World-honored One dwelt in his mother’s womb peaceful y and at ease.

That the World-honored One dwelt in his mother’s womb peace- 470b ful y and at ease, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that, while in his mother’s womb, the World-honored One was covered in such a way that he was not defiled by blood or semen or other impurities.
That the World-honored One, while in his mother’s womb, was covered in such a way that he was not defiled by blood or semen or other impurities, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when the World-honored One mindful y came out from his mother’s womb, at that moment al of heaven and earth trembled and a great light il uminated the world, including even remote and dark places, unobstructed, completely shining on places that are not illuminated by the moon or the sun, even though these possess great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power;
and because of this wonderful light, each and every sentient being came to know this:
“A remarkable being has been born!

A remarkable being has been born!”

That when the World-honored One mindful y came out from his mother’s womb, at that moment al of heaven and earth trembled, and a great light il uminated the world, including even remote and dark places, unobstructed, completely shining on places that are not il uminated by the moon or the sun, even though these possess great supernormal power, 249
great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power;
and that because of this wonderful light, each and every sentient being came to know this:
“A remarkable being has been born! A remarkable being has been born!”—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that the World-honored One came out from his mother’s womb peaceful y and at ease.
That the World-honored One came out from his mother’s womb peaceful y and at ease, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that, when he came out from his mother’s womb, the World-honored One was covered in such a way that he was not defiled by blood or semen or other impurities.
That the World-honored One, when he came out from his mother’s womb, was covered in such a way that he was not defiled by blood or semen, or other impurities—

this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when the World-honored One was just born, four gods, holding extremely fine pieces of cloth, stood before his mother and delighted her by exclaiming:
“This prince is most wonderful, most remarkable.
He possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power.”


That when the World-honored One was just born, four gods holding extremely fine pieces of cloth stood before his mother and delighted her by exclaiming:
“This prince is most wonderful, most remarkable.

He possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power”—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when he was just born, the World-honored One 470c

immediately took seven steps and, without fear, trepidation, or apprehension, looked in al directions.
That the World-honored One, when he was just born, immediately took seven steps and, without fear, trepidation, or apprehension, looked in al directions—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when the World-honored One was just born, there appeared before his mother a large pond brimming with water, with which she was able to cleanse herself.
That when the World-honored

One was just born, there appeared before his mother a large pond brimming with water, with which she was able to cleanse herself—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when the World-honored One was just born, two streams of water, one cool and one warm, poured down from the sky to bathe the World-honored One’s body.
That when the World-honored One was born, two streams of water, one cool and one warm, poured down from the sky to bathe the World-honored One’s body—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that when the World-honored One was just born, gods were drumming heavenly music in the sky and scattering over the World-honored One heavenly blue lotus blossoms, red lotus blossoms, scarlet lotus blossoms, white lotus blossoms, blossoms from the heavenly coral tree, and fine sandalwood incense.

That when the World-honored One was just born, gods were drumming heavenly music in the sky and scat ering over the World-honored One heavenly blue lotus blossoms, red lotus blossoms, scarlet lotus blossoms, white lotus blossoms, blossoms from the heavenly coral tree, and fine sandalwood incense—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was at the palace of his father, King Suddhodana, who was supervising the farming during the day.
Seated beneath a rose-apple tree [the World-honored One], separated from desires, separated from evil and unwholesome states, with directed-thought and evaluation, with joy and happiness born of separation, dwelled having attained the first jhāna.
At that time, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of that rose-apple tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

At that time the Sakyan [chief] Suddhodana, who was supervising the farming, approached a worker and asked:
“Worker, where is the prince?”


The worker answered:
“Your majesty, the prince is now under the rose-apple tree.”


251
Then the Sakyan Suddhodana went to the rose-apple tree.
At that time the Sakyan Suddhodana saw that, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of that rose-apple tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

Then he thought:

Now, this prince is most wonderful, most remarkable, he possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power.
Why? Because, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees have moved, but the shadow of the rose-apple tree alone has remained stil , providing shade for the prince’s body.

World-honored One, that it being past noon the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of the rose-apple tree alone had remained 471a

stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was living in the Great Forest of Vesālī.
At dawn, when the night was over, the World-honored One put on his robes, took his bowl, and entered Vesālī

to beg for food.
Having finished begging for food [and eaten his meal], he put away his robes and bowl, washed his hands and feet, and, with a sit ing mat on his shoulder, went into the forest.
Arrived beneath a palm tree, he spread his sit ing mat and sat down cross-legged.
Then, when noon had passed, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of that palm tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

Then, the Sakyan Mahānāma, who was wandering around after midday, went into the Great Forest.
He saw that, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of that palm tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

Then he thought:

The renunciant Gotama is most wonderful, most remarkable.
He possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great

merit, great and mighty power.
Why? Because, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees have moved, but the shadow of the palm tree alone has remained still, providing shade for the body of the renunciant Gotama.

World-honored One, that it being past noon the shadows of all the other trees had moved, but the shadow of the palm tree alone had remained still, providing shade for the body of the World-honored One—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.
I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was living in the Great Forest of Vesālī.
At that time the monks had placed the almsbowls outside on the ground and the bowl of the World-honored One was among them.

Then a monkey came and made off with the Buddha’s bowl.
The monks chided the monkey, afraid that it would break the Buddha’s bowl.
The Buddha told the monks, “Stop! Stop! Don’t chide it.
It wil not break the bowl.”


Then the monkey carried the Buddha’s bowl away and went to a sāla tree.
It slowly climbed the tree.
Having reached the top of the sāla tree, it took some honey and fil ed the bowl with it.
Coming slowly down from the tree, it returned and approached the Buddha.
It then respectful y offered the bowl of honey to the World-honored One, but the World-honored One did not accept it.
Then that monkey retreated to one side, took a piece of stick, and removed some insects [from the honey in the bowl].
Having removed the insects, the monkey again offered [the bowl] to the Buddha.
Again the Buddha did not accept it.

The monkey again retreated to one side, added some water to the honey, and returned to offer it to the Buddha again.
The World-honored One readily accepted it.
Seeing that the Buddha had accepted the bowl of honey, the monkey was overjoyed.
Dancing and whirling around, it departed.

That the World-honored One, by accepting a bowl of honey, made that monkey rejoice, dance, and whirl around before departing—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

253
I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was staying 471b

in Vesālī at the Gabled Hal near Monkey Lake.

At that time, the World-honored One was drying his sit ing mat in the sun, shaking and cleaning it.
Then a big untimely cloud came and covered the sky, and was about to pour down rain;
but had to wait for the World-honored One.
Having finished drying, shaking, and cleaning his sit ing mat, and having put it aside in a certain place, the World-honored One took a broom and went to the terrace of the house.
On seeing that the World-honored One had put away the sit ing mat, the big cloud began sending down torrential rain that flooded the highlands and lowlands.

That the World-honored One caused that big cloud to hold back its heavy rain that was going to flood the highlands and lowlands, until it saw that the World-honored One had put away his sit ing mat, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was living among the Vajjīs, sitting under a royal sāla tree by the Hot Spring Grove.

At that time, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of that royal sāla tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

At that time the owner of the Rāma Garden was inspecting the grove.
He saw that, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of the royal sāla tree alone had remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One.

Then he thought:

The renunciant Gotama is most wonderful and most marvelous.

He has great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power.
Why? Because, it being past noon, the shadows of al the other trees have moved, but the shadow of the royal sāla tree alone has remained stil , providing shade for the body of the renunciant Gotama.

World-honored One, that noon having passed, the shadows of al the other trees had moved, but the shadow of the royal sāla tree alone had

remained stil , providing shade for the body of the World-honored One—

this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that at one time the World-honored One was staying at the Ātumā Shrine.
At that time, at dawn, when the night was over, the World-honored One put on his robes, took his almsbowl, and entered the vil age of Ātumā to beg for food.
Having finished begging for food

[and eaten his meal], he put away his robes and bowl and washed his hands and feet.
Carrying a sit ing mat on his shoulder, he entered the shrine to meditate.

At that time, there was a great thunderstorm with hail, which kil ed four cows and two farmers.
During the [ensuing] funeral procession, the crowds were making a great noise, which was reverberating [al around].
Meanwhile the World-honored One had risen from his sit ing meditation in the late afternoon and gone out of the shrine to practice walking meditation in the open.

At that time a man among the large crowd saw that the World-honored One had risen from his sit ing meditation in the late afternoon and come out of the shrine to practice walking meditation in the open.

So he approached the Buddha and, after paying homage to [the Buddha’s] feet, fol owed him in walking meditation.

Seeing this man behind him, the Buddha asked him:
“Why is the crowd making a great noise, which is reverberating [all around]?”


The man replied:

471c

World-honored One, today there was a great thunderstorm with hail, which kil ed four cows and two farmers.
[Now,] during the funeral procession, the crowd is making a great noise, which is reverberating [al around].
World-honored One, did you not hear the sound of it then?

The World-honored One replied:
“I heard no sound.”


[The man] asked again:
“World-honored One, were you asleep then?”


[The World-honored One] answered:
“No.”


[The man] again asked:
“World-honored One, at that time you were awake [yet] you did not hear that great sound?”


255
[The World-honored One] replied:
“That is so.”


Then the man thought:

Most wonderful! Most remarkable! Extremely calm is the abiding of the Tathāgata, who is free from at achment and ful y awakened.

Why? [Because he] did not hear such a loud noise [even though]

he was awake.

That the World-honored One did not hear such a loud noise [even though] he was awake, this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that once the World-honored Once was staying at Uruvela on the bank of the Nerañjarā River under an Indian fig tree by the river, having just at ained the path of buddhahood.
At that time heavy rain fel and lasted for seven days, flooding the highlands and lowlands, and everything was under water.
In the midst of that flood the World-honored One practiced walking meditation in the open, and this caused dust to rise.

That the World-honored One practiced walking meditation in the open in the midst of that flood and this caused dust to rise—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that King Māra fol owed the Buddha for six years, seeking to find fault with him.
Being unable to find any, he became weary and turned back.
World-honored One, that King Māra fol owed the World-honored One for six years seeking to find fault with him and, being unable to find any, became weary and turned back—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

I have heard that the World-honored One remained mindful of his body unceasingly for seven years.
That the World-honored One remained mindful of his body unceasingly for seven years—this I remember as an extraordinary quality of the World-honored One.

Then, the World-honored One said:

Ānanda, remember furthermore this extraordinary quality of the Tathāgata.

Ānanda, the Tathāgata is aware of feelings as they arise, remain, and pass away, being aware of them continuously, without a moment of being

unaware of them.
Ānanda, the Tathāgata is aware of thoughts .
. . of perceptions as they arise, remain, and pass away, being aware of them continuously, without a moment of being unaware of them.
Therefore, Ānanda, remember furthermore this extraordinary quality of the Tathā-

gata.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the venerable Ānanda and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

33 - MA 33 The Discourse on [How Ānanda Became] the Attendant


33. The Discourse on [How Ānanda Became] the Attendant

Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha.
At that time, renowned, highly regarded, and virtuous senior monks and chief disciples, such as Venerable Koṇḍañña;
Venerable Assaji;
Venerable Bha ddhiya, 472a the [former] king of the Sakyas;
Venerable Mahānāma, the Koliyan;
Venerable Vappa;
Venerable Yasa;
Venerable Puṇṇa;
Venerable Vimala;
Venerable Qiehepoti;
120 Venerable Xutuoye;
121 Venerable Sāriput a;
Venerable Anuruddha;
Venerable Nanda;
Venerable Kimbila;
Venerable Revata;
Venerable Mahā Moggal āna;
Venerable Mahā Kassapa;
Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita;
Venerable Mahā Cunda;
Venerable Mahā Kaccāyana;
the venerable elder Binnoujiatuniao;
122 the venerable elder Yasa, the issuer of tokens;
and other such renowned, highly regarded, and virtuous senior monks and chief disciples who were also staying at Rājagaha, dwel ing near the leaf hut of the Buddha.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
I am now old.
My body is running down and my life span is coming to an end.
I am in need of an at endant.
Al of you consider this and recommend an at endant, one who wil look after my daily needs appropriately and who wil receive my instructions without losing their meaning.

Thereupon, Venerable Koṇḍañña rose from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said, “World-honored One, I wish to look after your daily needs appropriately and to receive your instructions without losing their meaning.”


The World-honored One said:

257
Koṇḍañña, you are old yourself.
Your body [too] is running down and your life span is coming to an end.
You need an at endant yourself.

Koṇḍañña, you may return to your seat.

Thereupon Venerable Koṇḍañña paid respect at the Buddha’s feet and returned to his seat.

In this way, Venerable Assaji;
Venerable Bhaddhiya, the [former] king of the Sakyas;
Venerable Mahānāma, [the Koliyan];
Venerable Vappa;
Venerable Yasa;
Venerable Puṇṇa;
Venerable Vimala;
Venerable Qiehepoti;
Venerable Xutuoye;
Venerable Sāriput a;
Venerable Anuruddha;
Venerable Nanda;
Venerable Kimbila;
Venerable Revata;
Venerable Mahā Mogga l āna;
Venerable Mahā Kassapa;
Venerable Mahā Koṭ hita;
Venerable Mahā Cunda;
Venerable Mahā Kaccāyana;
the venerable elder Binnoujiatuniao;
and the venerable elder Yasa, the issuer of tokens—[each in turn] rose from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his hands with palms together

[in respect] toward the Buddha, said, “World-honored One, I wish to look after your daily needs appropriately and to receive your instructions without losing their meaning.”


The World-honored One said [to each of them, and finally to Yasa]:
Yasa, you are old yourself.
Your body [too] is running down and your life span is coming to an end.
You need an at endant yourself, Yasa, you may return to your seat.

Thereupon the venerable Yasa paid respect at the Buddha’s feet and 472b returned to his seat.

At that time, the venerable Mahā Moggal āna, who was among the assembly, thought:

Whom does the World-honored One wish to have as his at endant?

Which monk does he intend to choose to look after him appropriately, and to receive his instructions without losing their meaning?
Let me enter concentration such that I [can] survey the minds of the monks in the assembly.

Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna entered concentration such that he

[could] survey the minds of the monks in the assembly.
He then knew that

the World-honored One wished to have Venerable Ānanda as his at endant.

His intention was to choose Ānanda to look after his daily needs appropriately and receive his instructions without losing their meaning.
Then Venerable Mahā Moggallāna came out of concentration and told the monks in the assembly:

Venerable friends, did you know this?
The World-honored One wishes to have Venerable Ānanda as his at endant.
His intention is to choose Ānanda to look after his daily needs appropriately and receive his instructions without losing their meaning.
Venerable friends, we should now together approach Venerable Ānanda and persuade him to become the World-honored One’s at endant.

Then the venerable Mahā Moggal āna together with the other monks approached Venerable Ānanda.
After exchanging courteous greetings, they sat down to one side.
Then, having sat down, the venerable Mahā Moggal āna said:

Venerable Ānanda, did you know this?
The Buddha wishes to have you as his at endant.
His intention is to choose you to look after his daily needs appropriately and receive his instructions without losing their meaning.

Ānanda, it is as if there were, not far from a vil age, a gabled hal with a viewing tower and an open window facing toward the east;
the sunlight at dawn would shine on its western wall.
Similarly, friend Ānanda, the World-honored One wishes to have you as his at endant.

His intention is:
“May Ānanda look after my daily needs appropriately and receive my instructions without losing their meaning.”
Friend Ānanda, may you now become the at endant of the World-honored One!

Venerable Ānanda replied:

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, I would not dare to become the at endant of the World-honored One.
Why is that?
Difficult indeed is it to at end on a buddha, a World-honored One, that is to say, to be his at endant.

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, it is as if there were a great royal elephant, ful sixty years old, proud, powerful, with tusks intact and body ful of vigor;
difficult indeed is it to come close to him, that is to say, to be 259
his keeper.
It is similar, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, with a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened;
difficult indeed is it to come close to him, that is to say, to be his at endant.
Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, this is why I would not [dare to] become the at endant [of the World-honored One].

472c

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna replied:

Friend Ānanda, listen while I tel you a parable.
The wise, on hearing a parable, understand its implication.
Friend Ānanda, it is like the flower of the cluster fig tree, which appears in the world in due time.

Friend Ānanda, the Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, has likewise appeared in the world in due time.
[Therefore], friend Ānanda, quickly become the at endant of the World-honored One, and you, [Ānanda of the] Gotama [clan], wil acquire great fruit.

Venerable Ānanda replied:

Venerable Mahā Moggallāna, if the World-honored One grants me three wishes, I wil become the Buddha’s at endant.
What are the three?

[First,] I wish not to wear robes, new or old, that [were given] to the Buddha.
[Second,] I wish not [to eat] food that was prepared special y for the Buddha.
[Third,] I wish not to see the Buddha at inappropriate times.

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, if the World-honored One grants me these three wishes, I wil become the Buddha’s at endant.

Then, having persuaded Venerable Ānanda to become the Buddha’s at endant, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna rose from his seat, circumambulated Venerable Ānanda, and returned.
[He] approached the Buddha.
After paying respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet and sit ing down to one side, he said:

World-honored One, I have persuaded the venerable friend Ānanda to become the Buddha’s at endant.
World-honored One, the venerable friend Ānanda asks that the Buddha grant him three wishes.
What are the three?
[First,] he wishes not to wear robes, new or old, that [were given] to the Buddha.
[Second,] he wishes not [to eat] food that was

prepared special y for the Buddha.
[Third,] he wishes not to see the Buddha at inappropriate times.
[Ānanda said to me:
] “Venerable Mahā

Moggal āna, if the World-honored One grants me these three wishes, I wil become the Buddha’s at endant.”


The World-honored One said:

Mahā Moggal āna, the monk Ānanda is clever and wise.
He foresees that there might be criticism from companions in the holy life, who might say, “The monk Ānanda at ends on the World-honored One for the purpose of get ing robes.”


Mahā Moggal āna, that the monk Ānanda is clever and wise and foresees that there might be criticism from companions in the holy life, who might say, “The monk Ānanda at ends on the World-honored One for the purpose of get ing robes,” this is an extraordinary quality of the monk Ānanda.

Mahā Moggal āna, the monk Ānanda is clever and wise.
He foresees that there might be criticism from companions in the holy life, who might say, “The monk Ānanda at ends on the World-honored One for the purpose of get ing food.”


Mahā Moggal āna, that the monk Ānanda is clever and wise and foresees that there might be criticism from companions in the holy life, who might say, “The monk Ānanda at ends on the World-honored One for the purpose of get ing food,” this is an extraordinary quality of the monk Ānanda.

Mahā Moggal āna, the monk Ānanda is skil ful in knowing the

[proper] time and in rightly discriminating the [proper] time.
He knows when it is the proper time to visit the Tathāgata, and he knows when it is not the proper time to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper 473a time for the assembly of monks or the assembly of nuns to visit the Tathāgata, and when it is not the proper time for the assembly of monks or the assembly of nuns to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper time for the assembly of laymen and laywomen to visit the Tathāgata, and when it is not the proper time for the assembly of laymen and laywomen to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper time for the many non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins to visit the Tathāgata, and 261
when it is not the proper time for the many non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins to visit the Tathāgata.
He knows whether one of the many non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins is able to discuss with the Tathā-

gata, or if one of the many non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins is not able to discuss with the Tathāgata.

He knows which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathā-

gata, wil bring him peace and wel -being;
and he knows which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathāgata, wil not bring him peace and wel -being.
He knows which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathāgata, wil cause him to teach the Dharma more eloquently;
and he knows which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathāgata, wil not cause him to teach the Dharma more eloquently.
This is said to be an extraordinary quality of the monk Ānanda.

Mahā Moggal āna, although the monk Ānanda does not possess the knowledge of others’ minds, he knows wel that the Buddha would rise from sit ing in meditation in the late afternoon to teach people, that such is the Tathāgata’s practice for today, or that such is the Tathā-

gata’s dwel ing in happiness here and now.
He speaks careful y, according to what was said, speaking the truth and not otherwise.
This is said to be an extraordinary quality of the monk Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has said, “Venerable friends, I have been at ending on the Buddha for twenty-five years, [but] that I for that reason might become conceited, that is not the case.”
That Venerable Ānanda

[is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of the venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have been at ending on the Buddha for twenty-five years and I have never gone to see him at an improper time.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to]

make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of the venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have been at ending on the Buddha for twenty-five years and I have never been scolded by the Buddha, except on one occasion, which was on account of someone else.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.



Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have received eighty thousand teachings from the Tathāgata and have memorized them without forget ing them, [but] that for that reason I might become conceited, that is not the case.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to]

make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have received eighty thousand teachings from the Tathāgata, and since the beginning I have never [needed to] ask [to hear them] again, except for one verse, 473b and that was not an easy [verse to understand].”
That Venerable Ānanda

[is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have received eighty thousand teachings from the Tathāgata, and since the beginning I have never looked to anyone else to receive teachings from.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, I have received eighty thousand teachings from the Tathāgata, and since the beginning I have never had the thought:
‘I am receiving these teachings so that I can teach them to others.
’ Venerable friends, I simply wished to discipline and calm myself in order to at ain final nirvana.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that the four assemblies come to me to listen to the Dharma, [but] that for that reason I might become conceited, that is not the case.
I do not even anticipate:
‘[If] they come and put a question, I shal answer like this and like this.
’ Rather, venerable friends, when seated [to teach], I [reply] in accordance with the meaning and with what is proper.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda has also said, “Venerable friends, it is most wonderful, most remarkable, that when the many non-Buddhist renunciants 263
or brahmins come to ask me questions, it is not the case that I should harbor any fear or apprehension, or that my body hairs should stand on end.
I do not even anticipate:
‘[If] they come and put a question, I shal answer like this and like this.
’ Rather, venerable friends, when seated

[to teach], I [reply] in accordance with the meaning and with what is proper.”
That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Again, at one time Venerable Sāriput a, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna, and Venerable Ānanda were staying on Mount Salaḷāgāra at Sāvat hī.
123 At that time, Venerable Sāriput a asked [Ānanda], “Friend Ānanda, during the twenty-five years of your at ending on the World-honored One, do you remember desire ever arising in your mind?”


Venerable Ānanda replied:
“Venerable Sāriput a, I am [only] a disciple in higher training and have not abandoned desire.”


Venerable Sāriput a again said:

Friend Ānanda, I am not asking you if you are a disciple in higher training or one beyond training.
Rather, I am asking you if you remember desire ever arising in your mind during the twenty-five years of your at ending on the World-honored One.

Venerable Sāriput a repeated the question three times:
“Friend Ānanda, during the twenty-five years of your at ending on the World-honored One, do you remember desire ever arising in your mind?”
And three times the venerable Ānanda gave the same answer:
“Venerable Sāriput a, I am [only]

a disciple in higher training and have not abandoned desire.”


473c

Venerable Sāriput a again said:

Friend Ānanda, I am not asking you if you are a disciple in higher training or one beyond training.
Rather, I am asking you if you remember desire ever arising in your mind during the twenty-five years of your at ending on the World-honored One.

Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna said:
“Friend Ānanda, answer the question right away! Answer the question right away! Do not trouble the most highly regarded elder.”




Then, Venerable Ānanda replied:

Venerable Sāriput a, from the beginning of the twenty-five years of my at ending on the World-honored One I do not remember desire ever arising in my mind.
Why is that?
[Because] I always had shame and scruple when approaching the Buddha and my wise companions in the holy life.

That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Again, at one time the World-honored One was staying on Mount Vulture Peak near Rājagaha.
At that time, the World-honored One told Ānanda:
“Ānanda, when you lie down, you should practice the lion’s way of lying down.”


Venerable Ānanda responded:
“World-honored One, what is the way of lying down of the lion, king of animals?”


The World-honored One replied:

Ānanda, the lion, king of animals, after searching for food during the day, enters a cave to sleep.
When it wants to sleep, it puts one leg on the other with tail stretched behind and lies down on its right side.
In the morning, when the night is over, it inspects its own body.
If the lion, king of animals, sees that its body is not straight, then it is not happy.
If the lion, king of animals, sees that its body is straight, then it is happy.
After rising from lying down, it goes out of the cave and growls several times.
Having growled several times, it inspects its own body again.
Having inspected its own body, it looks around to the four directions.
Having looked around to the four directions, it roars three times and then goes out to search for food.
Such is the way of lying down of the lion, king of animals.

Then the venerable Ānanda said:
“World-honored One, if such is the way of lying down of the lion, king of animals, what is a monk’s way of lying down?”


The World-honored One replied:

Ānanda, when a monk is living in dependence on a vil age or town, in the early morning, when the night is over, he puts on his robes, takes 265
his almsbowl, and then enters the vil age to beg for food, with his body wel protected, his senses guarded, and right mindfulness established.

Having finished begging for food in the vil age or town, [and eaten his meal], he puts away his robes and bowl, washes his hands and feet, and then goes to a secluded place, taking a sit ing mat with him on his shoulder.

He walks or sits in meditation under a tree or in an empty hut, purifying the mind of any hindrance.
Having spent the day practicing walking or sit ing meditation to purify the mind of any hindrance, in the first watch of the night he again practices walking or sit ing meditation to purify the mind of any hindrance.

Having practiced walking or sit ing meditation to purify the mind of any hindrance during the first watch of the night, in the middle watch 474a

of the night he enters a hut to sleep.
He folds his upper robe in four and places it on the bed, and he folds his outer robe to make a pil ow.

He lies down on his right side, placing one leg on the other, constantly maintaining clarity of perception, right mindfulness, and right at entiveness in his mind, and continuously aware of the thought of get ing up [at the proper time].

In the last watch of the night, he gets up to practice walking or sit ing meditation to purify the mind from any hindrance.
This is how a monk lies down according to the way of the lion.

Venerable Ānanda said:
“World-honored One, this is [indeed] how a monk lies down according to the way of the lion.”
Venerable Ānanda [later]

used to say:

Venerable friends, from the time the World-honored One taught me the analogy of the lion’s way of lying down, I have never slept on my left side.

That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Again, at one time the World-honored One was staying in the sāla tree grove of the Kusināra Mal as, cal ed Upavat ana.
At that time the World-honored One, who was about to at ain final nirvana, said:


Ānanda, go to the place between the twin sāla trees and arrange a bed for the Tathāgata, with the head facing north.
The Tathāgata wil at ain final nirvana during the middle watch of the night.

Having received the Tathāgata’s instruction, Venerable Ānanda went to the twin [ sāla] trees.
Between the twin trees, [he] arranged a bed for the Tathāgata, with the head facing north.
Having arranged the bed, [he] returned to the Buddha, paid respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, stood to one side, and said:

World-honored One, I have arranged a bed for the Tathāgata, between the twin [ sāla] trees with the head facing north.
May the World-honored One himself know the proper time.

Then the World-honored One bade Venerable Ānanda take him to [the place] between the twin sāla trees.
[The Buddha] folded his upper robe in four, spread it on the bed, folded his outer robe to make a pil ow, and then lay down on his right side with one foot on the other.

In the last moments [before] the Buddha’s final nirvana Venerable Ānanda, who had been at ending on the Buddha [standing behind him] with a fly whisk in hand, was wiping away tears with his hand, thinking:
Formerly assemblies of monks from al directions came, wishing to see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
Al of them could, at any time, see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
But when they hear that the World-honored One has at ained final nirvana, they wil no longer come to see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
And I too will no longer be able to see the Buddha at any time, to serve him, and pay respect to him.

Then the World-honored One asked the monks, “Where is the monk Ānanda now?”


The monks said:

World-honored One, Venerable Ānanda, who is attending on the Buddha [standing behind you] with a fly whisk in hand, is wiping away tears with his hand, thinking, “Formerly assemblies of monks 267
from al directions came, wishing to see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
Al of them could, at any time, see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
But when they hear that the World-honored One has at ained final nirvana, they wil no longer come to see the World-honored One, serve him, and pay respect to him.
And I too wil no longer be able to see the Buddha at any time, to serve him, and pay respect to him.”


474b

Then the World-honored One said:

Ānanda! Do not weep! Do not grieve! Why is that?
Ānanda, you have at ended on me respectful y, practicing loving-kindness in your bodily action, speech, and thoughts wholeheartedly from the beginning, and you have ensured my happiness and comfort without measure, without boundary, without limit.

Ānanda, as for Tathāgatas of the past, free from at achment and ful y awakened, [whatever] at endants they had, none of them surpassed you.
Ānanda, as for Tathāgatas of the future, free from atachment and ful y awakened, [whatever] at endants they wil have, none of them wil surpass you.
Ānanda, as for myself, the Tathāgata of the present, free from at achment and ful y awakened, [whatever] at endants I have had, none of them has surpassed you.

Why is that?
[Because you,] Ānanda, are skil ful in knowing the

[proper] time and in rightly discriminating the [proper] time.
You know when it is the proper time to visit the Tathāgata and you know when it is not the proper time to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper time for the assembly of monks or the assembly of nuns to visit the Tathāgata and when it is not the proper time for the assembly of monks or the assembly of nuns to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper time for the assembly of laymen and laywomen to visit the Tathāgata and when it is not the proper time for the assembly of laymen and laywomen to visit the Tathāgata;
when it is the proper time for the many non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins to visit the Tathāgata and when it is not the proper time for the many non-Buddhist renunciants and brahmins to visit the Tathāgata.



You know whether one of the many non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins is able to discuss with the Tathāgata, or if one of the many non-Buddhist renunciants or brahmins, is not able to discuss with the Tathāgata.

You know which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathā-

gata, wil bring him peace and wel -being;
and you know which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathāgata, wil not bring him peace and wel -being.
You know which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathāgata, wil cause him to teach the Dharma more eloquently;
and you know which food, if eaten, savored, and digested by the Tathā-

gata, wil not cause him to teach the Dharma more eloquently.

Moreover, Ānanda, although you do not possess the knowledge of others’ minds, you know wel that the Buddha would rise from sit ing in meditation in the late afternoon to teach people, that such is the Tathāgata’s practice for today, or that such is the Tathāgata’s dwel ing in happiness here and now.
You speak careful y according to what was said, speaking the truth and not otherwise.

Then, intending to make the venerable Ānanda happy, the World-honored One told the monks:

A wheel-turning monarch possesses four extraordinary qualities.

What are the four?
When an assembly of khat iya s goes to visit the wheel-turning monarch, then if he is silent, they are delighted at the sight of him;
and if he speaks, they are delighted to hear him.
When an assembly of brahmins .
. . of householders .
. . of renunciants goes to visit the wheel-turning monarch, then if he is silent, they are delighted at the sight of him;
and if he speaks, they are delighted to hear him.

The monk Ānanda likewise possesses four extraordinary qualities.

What are the four?
When an assembly of monks goes to visit Ānanda, 474c then if he is silent, they are delighted at the mere sight of him;
and if he speaks, they are delighted to hear [what he says].
When an assembly of nuns .
. . of laymen .
. . of laywomen goes to visit Ānanda, then if he is silent, they are delighted at the mere sight of him;
and if he speaks, they are delighted to hear [what he says].

269
Moreover, when Ānanda teaches the Dharma to an assembly, there are four extraordinary qualities [in his teaching].

What are the four?
The monk Ānanda teaches the Dharma to an assembly of monks wholeheartedly, not otherwise.
And, the assembly of monks thinks, “May Venerable Ānanda continue to teach the Dharma.

May he not stop [teaching] midway.”
The assembly of monks never grows tired of his teaching the Dharma until the monk Ānanda becomes silent of his own accord.

He teaches the Dharma to an assembly of nuns .
. . of laymen .
. .

of laywomen wholeheartedly, not otherwise.
And they think, “May Venerable Ānanda continue to teach the Dharma.
May he not stop

[teaching] midway.”
The assembly of laywomen never grows tired of his teaching the Dharma until Venerable Ānanda becomes silent of his own accord.

Again, at one time, not long after the Buddha had at ained final nirvana, Venerable Ānanda was dwel ing among the Vaj īs, in a vil age of the Vaj īs.

At that time, Venerable Ānanda was teaching the Dharma, surrounded by countless hundreds and thousands of people.
Venerable Vaj iput a was also among the assembly.
Venerable Vaj iput a thought to himself:
Is this venerable Ānanda a disciple in higher training and has not yet abandoned desire?
Let me enter concentration such that I [can] examine the venerable Ānanda’s mind.

Then Venerable Vaj iput a entered concentration such that he [could]

examine the mind of Venerable Ānanda.
By this means Venerable Vaj iput a knew that Venerable Ānanda was stil a disciple in higher training and had not yet abandoned desire.

Venerable Vaj iput a then rose from concentration and ut ered a verse to Venerable Ānanda:

Mountains and forest calm the thoughts

And make nirvana enter the mind.

[If you], [Ānanda] Gotama, meditate without distraction, Soon [you] wil realize the path of peace.



Then Venerable Ānanda, having received the instruction given by Venerable Vaj iput a, left the crowd to live in solitude and to practice diligently without being distracted.

Having left the crowd to live in solitude and to practice diligently without being distracted, he at ained ful y the summit of the holy life, for the sake of which a clansman shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path.
In this very life, he personal y at ained understanding and awakening, and dwel ed having personal y realized.
He knew as it real y was:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be 475a another existence.”


Venerable Ānanda had come to know the Dharma .
. . (and so on up to) .
. . at ained arahantship.
Venerable Ānanda said:
Venerable friends, when I was sit ing on the bed and was about to lie down, just as my head was about to touch the pil ow, al the taints were eradicated and I at ained liberation of the mind.

That Venerable Ānanda [is able to] make such a declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

Venerable Ānanda also said, “Venerable friends, I shal at ain final nirvana sit ing cross-legged.”
Then Venerable Ānanda sat cross-legged and at ained final nirvana.
That Venerable Ānanda sat cross-legged to at ain final nirvana, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Ānanda.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

34 - MA 34 The Discourse by Bakkula


34. The Discourse by Bakkula
Thus have I heard:
At one time, not long after the final nirvana of the Buddha, Venerable Bakkula was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

At that time, one afternoon while wandering around, a non-Buddhist practitioner who had been a good friend of Venerable Bakkula from the time before he had gone forth, approached Venerable Bakkula, exchanged greetings, and sat down to one side.

271
The non-Buddhist practitioner said, “Friend Bakkula, I would like to ask you a question.
Wil you listen to it?”


Venerable Bakkula replied, “Practitioner of another school, ask what you wish.
After hearing it, I wil consider it.”


The non-Buddhist practitioner asked, “Friend Bakkula, how long have you been practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline?”


Venerable Bakkula answered, “Practitioner of another school, I have been practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline for eighty years already.”


The non-Buddhist practitioner asked further:

Friend Bakkula, during your eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline, do you recal ever having had sexual inter-course?

Venerable Bakkula answered the non-Buddhist practitioner:
You should not ask such a question.
Instead [you should] ask a different question, “Friend Bakkula, during your eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline, do you recall ever having given rise to any thought of sexual desire?”
This, practitioner of another school, is the question you should ask.

Then the non-Buddhist practitioner said this:

I now ask a different question, friend Bakkula:
During your eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline, do you recal ever having given rise to any thought of sexual desire?

At this, [only] because the non-Buddhist practitioner asked the question, 475b Venerable Bakkula said to the monks:

Venerable friends, I have been practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline for eighty years, but that for this reason conceit should arise [in me], this is not the case.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:



Venerable friends, during my eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline I have never had any thought of sexual desire.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared, “Venerable friends, I have been wearing rag robes for eighty years, but that for this reason conceit should arise [in me], this is not the case.”


That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:

Venerable friends, I have been wearing rag robes for eighty years, I do not recal ever having accepted a robe from a lay fol ower, having cut up cloth to make a robe, having had other monks make a robe [for me], or having sewn a robe or bag with a needle, not even a single thread.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared, “Venerable friends, I have been begging food for eighty years, but that for this reason conceit should arise

[in me], this is not the case.”


That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:

Venerable friends, in my eighty years of begging food I do not recal ever having accepted an invitation from a lay fol ower, ever having gone beyond [the right time for] begging food, ever having begged food from a large household so as to get clean, good, very fine and luxurious food to eat, savor, and digest.
I have never looked at a woman’s face.
I do not recal ever having entered a nunnery.
I do not recal ever having exchanged greetings with a nun, or even having spoken [to a nun] on the road.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

273
Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:

Venerable friends, during my eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline I do not recal ever having trained a novice, nor do I recal ever having taught the Dharma to a lay fol ower, not even a verse of four lines.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

475c

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:

Venerable friends, during my eighty years of practicing the path in this true teaching and discipline I have never been il , not even having a headache for a moment.
I do not recal ever having taken medicine, not even a single piece of myrobalan.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared:

Venerable friends, in my eighty years of practicing sit ing meditation in the cross-legged posture, I have never leaned against a wal or a tree.

That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared, “Venerable friends, within three days and nights, I at ained the threefold realization.”


That Venerable Bakkula [was able to] make this declaration, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Again, Venerable Bakkula declared, “Venerable friends, I wil at ain final Nirvana in the cross-legged sit ing posture.”
Then Venerable Bakkula at ained final nirvana in the cross-legged sit ing posture.

That Venerable Bakkula at ained final nirvana in the cross-legged sit ing posture, this is said to be an extraordinary quality of Venerable Bakkula.

Such were the declarations made by Venerable Bakkula.
At that time, the non-Buddhist practitioner and the [Buddhist] monks, having heard these declarations, were delighted and remembered them wel .



35 - MA 35 The Discourse to the Asura


35. The Discourse to the Asura
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Verañjā, in the Yel ow Reed Grove.

At that time, when night was about to turn to dawn, Pahārāda, the asura king, son of the asura Malejā, of lofty appearance and radiant aura, approached the Buddha, bowed down at the World-honored One’s feet, and stood to one side.

The World-honored One asked:

Pahārāda, for the asura s in the ocean, is there no decline in the life span of the asura s, or in the appearance of the asura s, the joy of the asura s, or the strength of the asura s?
Do the asura s delight in the ocean?

Pahārāda, the asura king, son of the asura Malejā, replied:
World-honored One, for us asura s in the ocean there is no decline in the life span of the asura s, or in the appearance of the asura s, the joy of the asura s, or the strength of the asura s.
We asura s al delight in the ocean.

The World-honored One asked further, “Pahārāda, how many extraordinary qualities does the ocean possess that the asura s delight in on seeing them?”


Pahārāda replied:

476a

World-honored One, our ocean possesses eight extraordinary qualities that delight the asura s.
What are these eight qualities?
World-honored One, from the bottom to the surface our ocean becomes gradually larger in circumference, evenly and uniformly increasing up to the shore;
and its water is always ful but never overflowing.
World-honored One, that from the bot om to the surface our ocean becomes gradual y larger in circumference, evenly and uniformly increasing up to the shore;
and that its water is always ful but never overflowing—

this is said to be the first extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

275
Again, World-honored One, our ocean’s tide is never out of time.

World-honored One, that our ocean’s tide is never out of time—this is said to be the second extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.
Again, World-honored One, the water of our ocean is very deep, bottomless, and extremely broad, boundless.
World-honored One, that the water of our ocean is very deep, bot omless, and extremely broad, boundless—this is said to be the third extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

Again, World-honored One, the water of our ocean is salty, having everywhere the same taste.
World-honored One, that the water of our ocean is salty, having everywhere the same taste—this is said to be the fourth extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

Again, World-honored One, our ocean abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of exotic gems.
It is ful of precious materials such as gold, silver, crystal, beryl, precious stone, pearl, green jade, white jade, conch shel , coral, amber, agate, tortoise shel , ruby, and stone-bead.

World-honored One, that our ocean abounds with treasures, countless precious things, varieties of exotic jewels, being ful of precious materials, such as gold, silver, crystal, beryl, precious stone, pearl, green jade, white jade, conch shel , coral, amber, agate, tortoise shel , ruby, and stone-bead—this is said to be the fifth extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

Again, World-honored One, our ocean is the abode of mighty deities, such as asura s, gandhabba s, rakkhasa s, makara s, tortoises, crocodiles, vāruṇī serpents, [other, huge fishlike creatures such as]

timi s, timingala s, and timitimingala s.

Moreover, in the ocean dwel most wonderful and most remarkable beings with bodies as long as one hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, up to three hundred leagues, or even up to seven hundred leagues;
creatures [with such] bodies al live in the ocean.

World-honored One, that our ocean is the abode of mighty deities, 476b

such as asura s, gandhabba s, rakkhasa s, makara s, tortoises, crocodiles, vāruṇī serpents, and [other, huge fishlike creatures such as] timi s, timin-

gala s, and timitimingala s;
and that, moreover, there dwel in the ocean most wonderful and most remarkable beings with bodies as long as one hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, up to three hundred leagues, or even up to seven hundred leagues;
that creatures [with such] bodies al live in the ocean—this is said to be the sixth extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

Again, World-honored One, our ocean is pure and does not accept corpses.
If someone dies in the ocean, the body is blown by the wind and thrown up on the shore overnight.

World-honored One, that our ocean is pure and does not accept corpses, and that if someone dies in the ocean, the body is blown by the wind and thrown up on the shore overnight—this is said to be the seventh extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

Again, World-honored One, there are five large rivers of Jambudīpa that enter our ocean, namely the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Sarabhū, the Aciravatī, and the Mahī.
They al enter the great ocean, and once they have entered it, they forsake their original names and are al cal ed

“great ocean.”


World-honored One, that there are five large rivers of Jambudīpa that enter our great ocean, namely the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Sarabhū, the Aciravatī, and the Mahī;
and that they al enter the great ocean and, once they have entered it, forsake their original names and are al cal ed

“great ocean”—this is said to be the eighth extraordinary quality of our ocean, which delights the asura s.

World-honored One, these are the eight extraordinary qualities of our great ocean, which delight the asura s.
World-honored One, how many extraordinary qualities are there in the Buddha’s true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it?

The World-honored One replied:

Pahārāda, there are likewise eight extraordinary qualities of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

What are the eight?
Pahārāda, just as from the bot om to the surface the ocean becomes gradual y greater in circumference, evenly and uniformly increasing up to the shore;
and just as its water is always ful 277
but never overflowing, similarly, Pahārāda, my true teaching and discipline is [to be] gradual y practiced, gradual y trained in, gradual y completed, and gradual y taught.

Pahārāda, that my true teaching and discipline is [to be] gradual y practiced, gradual y trained in, gradual y completed, and gradual y taught—this is said to be the first extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as the ocean’s tide is never out of time, sim-476c

ilarly, Pahārāda, in my true teaching and discipline, the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen wil never, until the end of their lives, break the precepts, which I have established for these clansmen.

Pahārāda, that in my true teaching and discipline, the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen wil never, until the end of their lives, break the precepts, which I have established for these clansmen—this is said to be the second extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as the water of the ocean is very deep, bottomless, and extremely broad, boundless, similarly, Pahārāda, in my true teaching and discipline, the teachings are profound.
They are profound and bot omless, extremely broad and boundless.

Pahārāda, that in my true teaching and discipline, the teachings are profound, that they are profound and bot omless, extremely broad and boundless—this is said to be the third extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as the water of the ocean is salty, having everywhere the same taste, similarly, Pahārāda, my true teaching and discipline has the taste of dispassion, the taste of awakening, the taste of tranquility, as wel as the taste of the path.

Pahārāda, that my true teaching and discipline has the taste of dispassion, the taste of awakening, the taste of tranquility, as wel as the taste of the path—this is said to be the fourth extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as the ocean abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of exotic gems, being ful of precious materials, such as gold, silver, crystal, beryl, precious stone,

pearl, green jade, white jade, conch shel , coral, amber, agate, tortoise shel , ruby, and stone-beads, similarly, Pahārāda, my true teaching and discipline abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of “exotic gems,” such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of supernormal power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of awakening, and the eightfold noble path.

Pahārāda, that my true teaching and discipline abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of exotic gems such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of supernormal power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of awakening, and the eightfold noble path—this is said to be the fifth extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as the ocean is the abode of mighty deities, namely asura s, gandhabba s, rakkhasa s, makara s, tortoises, crocodiles, vāruṇī serpents, and [other, huge fishlike creatures such as] timi s, timingala s, and timitimingala s;
and just as in the ocean dwel most wonderful and most remarkable beings with bodies as long as one hundred leagues, 477a two hundred leagues, up to three hundred leagues, or even up to seven hundred leagues, creatures [with such] bodies al living in the ocean, similarly, Pahārāda, in my true teaching and discipline there is the community of nobles, of great spiritual beings al dwel ing within it, namely arahants and those who are on the path to arahantship, non-returners and those who are on the path to non-returning, once-returners and those who are on the path to once-returning, and stream-enterers and those who are on the path to stream-entry.

Pahārāda, that in my true teaching and discipline there is the community of nobles, of great spiritual beings that all dwell within it, namely arahants and those who are on the path to arahantship, non-returners and those who are on the path to non-returning, once-returners and those who are on the path to once-returning, and stream-enterers and those who are on the path to stream-entry—this is said to be the sixth extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

279
Again, Pahārāda, just as the ocean is pure and does not accept corpses, and if someone dies in the ocean, the body is blown by the wind and thrown up on the shore overnight, similarly, Pahārāda, in my true teaching and discipline, the noble assembly is pure;
it does not accept “corpses.”
If there are those who are without vigor, wicked, fake celibates though professing to be celibates, fake renunciants though professing to be renunciants, then even though they may be in the midst of the community of nobles, they are far away from the community of nobles and the community of nobles is far away from them.

Pahārāda, that in my true teaching and discipline, the community of nobles is pure and does not accept “corpses”;
that if there are those who are without vigor, wicked, fake celibates though professing to be celibates, fake renunciants though professing to be renunciants, who, even though they may be in the midst of the community of nobles, are far away from the community of nobles and the community of nobles is far away from them— this is said to be the seventh extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Again, Pahārāda, just as there are five large rivers of Jambudīpa that enter the ocean, namely the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Sarabhū, the Aciravatī, and the Mahī, that all enter the great ocean and, having entered it, forsake their original names and are al [just] cal ed “great ocean,” similarly, Pahārāda, in my true teaching and discipline, the khat iya clansmen who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, these forsake their original names and are al cal ed renunciants;
[also the] .
. . brahmins .
. . householders .
. . workers, who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, these forsake their original names and are al cal ed renunciants.

Pahārāda, that in my true teaching and discipline, the khat iya clansmen who shave off hair and beard, don the yel ow robe, leave home out 477b

of faith, and go forth to practice the path, these forsake their original names and are al cal ed renunciants;
[also the] .
. . brahmins .
. . householders .
. . workers who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, these

forsake their original names and are al cal ed renunciants—this is said to be the eighth extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline, having seen which the monks delight in it.

Pahārāda, these are the eight extraordinary qualities of my true teaching and discipline, which,having seen it, the monks delight in it.

Pahārāda, what do you think?
Between the eight extraordinary qualities of my true teaching and discipline and the eight extraordinary qualities of the ocean, of these two types of extraordinary qualities, which is superior, more excel ent, more wonderful, which is supreme?

Pahārāda replied:
World-honored One, the eight extraordinary qualities of the ocean are inferior to the eight extraordinary qualities of the Tathāgata’s true teaching and discipline by a thousand or ten thousand times;
they cannot be compared, likened, measured, or counted.
The eight extraordinary qualities of the World-honored One’s true teaching and discipline are superior, more excel ent, more wonderful, and supreme.
World-honored One, I now take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower.
From this day forth I take refuge until the end of my life.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Pahā -

rāda, the asura king, together with the monks, was delighted and remembered them wel .

36 - MA 36 The Discourse on Earthquakes


36. The Discourse on Earthquakes
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying in the Vaj ian country in a town named Bhūmi.
At that time, there was a violent earthquake.
As the earth was quaking violently, a gale began blowing in al four directions, meteors appeared in al four directions, and al the houses and wal s col apsed and were destroyed ut erly.

Then Venerable Ānanda saw that there was a violent earthquake, and that as the earth was quaking violently, a gale began blowing in al four directions, meteors appeared in al four directions, and al the houses and wal s col apsed and were destroyed ut erly.
Seeing this, Venerable Ānanda was 281
terrified and his body hairs stood on end.
He then approached the Buddha and, after paying respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, stood to one side, and said:

477c

World-honored One, just now the earth was quaking violently, and as the earth was quaking violently, a gale began blowing in al four directions, meteors appeared in al four directions, and al the houses and wal s col apsed and were destroyed ut erly.

Then the World-honored One spoke to Venerable Ānanda, saying:
Indeed, Ānanda.
Just now the earth was quaking violently.
Indeed, Ānanda.
As the earth was quaking violently, a gale began blowing in al four directions, meteors appeared in al four directions, and al the houses and wal s col apsed and were destroyed ut erly.

Then Venerable Ānanda asked:

World-honored One, how many causes are there due to which the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently a gale begins blowing in all four directions, meteors appear in all four directions, and all houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly?

The World-honored One replied:

Ānanda, there are three causes due to which the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently a gale begins blowing in al four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

What are the three?
Ānanda, this earth rests upon water;
the water rests upon wind;
and the wind depends upon space.
Ānanda, there comes a time when a great wind begins blowing in the sky.
When the wind begins blowing, the water becomes disturbed;
and when the water is disturbed, the earth quakes.

This is the first cause due to which the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins blowing in al four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.



Again, Ānanda, a monk who possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, is able, with the supernormal power of mastery over the mind, to develop perception of earth as minute and perception of water as infinite.

On account of this, this earth behaves according to his wish, according to his wil , being disturbed again and again, quaking again and again.

Not only a monk, a god too, who has self-mastery, one who possesses great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, is able to develop perception of earth as minute and perception of water as infinite with his supernormal power of mastery over the mind.

On account of this, this earth behaves according to his wish, according to his wil , being disturbed again and again, quaking again and again.

This is the second cause due to which the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins blowing in all four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

Again, Ānanda, if a Tathāgata wil be at aining final nirvana soon, within three months, for this reason the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins blowing in al four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

This is the third cause due to which the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins blowing in all four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

Hearing this, Venerable Ānanda began to weep and shed tears.
Placing his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, he said:
World-honored One, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that the 478a Tathāgata, who is free from at achment, ful y awakened, has accomplished [al ] meritorious deeds and acquired such extraordinary qualities.

Why is that?
[Because] the Tathāgata wil enter final nirvana soon, within three months.
[Therefore] at this time [now], the earth quakes 283
violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins to blow in al four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

Then the World-honored One said to Venerable Ānanda:
Indeed, Ānanda, indeed.
It is most wonderful, most remarkable that the Tathāgata, who is free from attachment, fully awakened, has accomplished [al ] meritorious deeds and acquired such extraordinary qualities.

Why is that?
[Because] the Tathāgata wil enter final nirvana soon, within three months.
[Therefore] at this time [now], the earth quakes violently, and as the earth quakes violently, a gale begins to blow in al four directions, meteors appear in al four directions, and al houses and wal s col apse and are destroyed ut erly.

Furthermore, Ānanda, I have approached countless hundreds and thousands of khat iya assemblies, sat and discussed with them, and made them feel at ease.
Having sat down with them, I take on an appearance that resembles their appearance, a voice that sounds like their voices, and comportment and etiquet e that resemble their comportment and etiquette.
If they ask questions, I respond to those questions.

Moreover, I teach them the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting them.
Having taught them the Dharma using countless skil ful means, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, I then disappear from that place.
After I have disappeared, they do not know who I was, whether I was human or not human.

Similarly, Ānanda, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that the Tathāgata, who is free from at achment, ful y awakened, has accomplished [al ] meritorious deeds and acquired such extraordinary qualities, has done the same with assemblies of brahmins .
. . assemblies of householders .
. . assemblies of renunciants.

[Furthermore,] Ānanda, I have approached countless hundreds and thousands of assemblies of the four celestial kings, sat and discussed with them, and made them feel at ease.

Having sat down with them, I take on an appearance that resembles their appearance, a voice that sounds like their voices, and comportment

and etiquet e that resemble their comportment and etiquet e.
If they ask questions, I respond to those questions.

Moreover, I teach them the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting them.
Having taught them the Dharma using countless skil ful means, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, I then disappear from that place.
After I have disappeared, they do not know who I was, whether I was a god or not a god.

Similarly, Ānanda, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that the Tathāgata, who is free from at achment, ful y awakened, has accomplished [al ] meritorious deeds and acquired such extraordinary qualities, has done the same with the thirty-three gods .
. . the Yama gods .
. . the Tusita gods .
. . the gods that delight in creation .
. . the gods that delight in others’ creation .
. . the gods that are the retinue of Brahmā .
. . the gods that are the at endants and ministers of Brahmā .
. . the gods of limited radiance .
. . the gods of immeasurable radiance .
. . the gods of streaming radiance .
. . the gods of limited glory .
. . the gods of immeasurable glory .
. . the gods of refulgent glory .
. . the unclouded 478b gods .
. . the gods of abundant merit .
. . the gods of great reward .
. .

the gods of non-vexation .
. . the gods of non-affliction .
. . the gods of good sight .
. . the gods of good appearance.

[Again,] Ānanda, I have approached countless hundreds of thousands of assemblies of the gods of ultimate form, sat and discussed with them, and made them feel at ease.
Having sat down with them, I take on an appearance that resembles their appearance, a voice that sounds like their voices, and comportment and etiquet e that resemble their comportment and etiquet e.
If they ask questions, I respond to those questions.

Moreover, I teach them the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting them.
Having taught them the Dharma using countless skil ful means, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, I then disappear from that place.
After I have disappeared, they do not know who I was, whether I was a god or not a god.
In this way, Ānanda, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that the Tathāgata, who is free from at achment, ful y awakened, has accomplished [al ] meritorious deeds and acquired such extraordinary qualities.

285
This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Ānanda and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

37 - MA 37 The Discourse at Campā


37. The Discourse at Campā
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was living at Campā near the Gaggarā Lake.
At that time, on the fifteenth day of the [half-]month, the day for reciting the code of rules, the World-honored One sat down on a seat prepared in front of the assembly of monks.
After sitting down, the World-honored One entered concentration and through the knowledge of others’ minds he surveyed the minds of [the monks in] the assembly.
After surveying the minds of [the monks in] the assembly, he sat silently through the first watch of the night.

Then a certain monk got up from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said:

World-honored One, the first watch of the night has ended.
It has been a long time since the Buddha and the assembly of monks gathered and sat down here.
May the World-honored One recite the code of rules!

At that time, the World-honored One remained silent and made no response.

Then the World-honored One continued to sit silently up to the middle watch of the night.
That monk again got up from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said:

World-honored One, the first watch of the night is over, the middle watch of the night is coming to an end.
It has been a long time since the Buddha and the assembly of monks gathered and sat down here.

May the World-honored One recite the code of rules!

At that time, the World-honored One again remained silent and made no response.

Then the World-honored One continued to sit silently up to the last watch of the night.
A third time that monk got up from his seat, arranged his robe

so as to bare one shoulder and, placing his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said:

World-honored One, the first watch of the night has already ended, the middle watch of the night, too, has ended, and the last watch of the night is about to end.
It is get ing close to dawn;
soon the dawn wil come.
It has been a very long time since the Buddha and the assembly of monks gathered and sat down here.
May the World-honored One 478c recite the code of rules!

Then the World-honored One said to that monk, “Among this assembly there is one monk who is impure.”


At that time Venerable Mahā Moggal āna was also among the assembly.

Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna had this thought:

In regard to which monk did the World-honored One say that among this assembly there is one monk who is impure?
Let me enter concentration such that, through the knowledge of others’ minds, I [can] survey the minds of the [monks in the] assembly.

Venerable Mahā Moggal āna then entered concentration such that, through the knowledge of others’ minds, he [could] survey the minds of the [monks in the] assembly.
Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna came to know the monk in regard to whom the World-honored One had said “Among this assembly there is one monk who is impure.”


Then Venerable Mahā Moggal āna emerged from concentration, went right in front of that monk, pul ed him by the arm, opened the door, and thrust him outside, [saying]:
“You fool, go far away, do not stay here.
You are not al owed to gather again with the assembly of monks.
Henceforth you are no longer a monk.”


Venerable Mahā Moggal āna then bolted the door and returned to where the Buddha was.
Paying respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, he stood to one side and said:

The monk in regard to whom the World-honored One had said

“Among this assembly there is one monk who is impure” has been expel ed by me.

287
World-honored One, the first watch of the night has already ended, the middle watch of the night, too, has ended, and the last watch of the night is about to end.
It is get ing close to dawn;
soon the dawn wil come.
It has been a very long time since the Buddha and the assembly of monks gathered and sat down here.
May the World-honored One recite the code of rules!

The World-honored One spoke thus:

Mahā Moggal āna, that foolish man commit ed a serious offense in troubling the World-honored One and the assembly of monks.

Mahā Moggal āna, whoever is responsible for the Tathāgata reciting the code of rules in an assembly that is not pure, his head shal split into seven pieces.
Therefore, Mahā Moggal āna, henceforth you may recite the code of rules [without me].
The Tathāgata wil not recite the code of rules again.

Why is that?
Mahā Moggal āna, just as from the bot om to the surface the ocean becomes gradual y greater in circumference, evenly and uniformly increasing up to the shore;
and just as its water is always ful but never overflowing, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, my true teaching and discipline is [to be] gradual y practiced, gradual y trained in, gradual y completed, and gradual y taught.

Mahā Moggal āna, that my true teaching and discipline is [to be]

gradual y practiced, gradual y trained in, gradual y completed, and gradual y taught—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the ocean’s tide is never out of time, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, in my true teaching and discipline, 479a

the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen wil never, until the end of their lives, break the precepts, which I have established for these clans-people.

Mahā Moggallāna, that in my true teaching and discipline, the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen wil never, until the end of their lives, break the precepts, which I have established for these clansmen—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.



Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the water of the ocean is very deep, bot omless, and extremely broad, boundless, similarly, Mahā

Moggal āna, in my true teaching and discipline, the teachings are very deep, deep and bot omless, extremely broad and boundless.

Mahā Moggallāna, that in my true teaching and discipline, the teachings are very deep, deep and bot omless, extremely broad and boundless—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the water of the ocean is salty, having everywhere the same taste, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, my true teaching and discipline has the taste of dispassion, the taste of awakening, the taste of tranquility, as well as the taste of the path.

Mahā Moggal āna, that my true teaching and discipline has the taste of dispassion, the taste of awakening, the taste of tranquility, as well as of the taste of the path—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the ocean abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of exotic gems, being ful of precious materials, such as gold, silver, crystal, beryl, precious stone, pearl, green jade, white jade, conch shel , coral, amber, agate, tortoise shel , ruby, and stone-beads, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, my true teaching and discipline abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of “exotic gems,” such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of supernormal power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of awakening, and the eightfold noble path.

Mahā Moggal āna, that my true teaching and discipline abounds with treasures, countless precious things, and many varieties of “exotic gems,” such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of supernormal power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of awakening, and the eightfold noble path—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the ocean is the abode of mighty deities, namely asura s, gandhabba s, rakkhasa s, makara s, tortoises, 289
crocodiles, vāruṇī serpents, and [other, huge fishlike creatures such as] timi s, timingala s, and timitimingala s;
and just as in the ocean dwel most wonderful and most remarkable beings with bodies as long as one hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, up to three hundred leagues, or even up to seven hundred leagues, creatures [with such] bodies al living in the ocean, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, in my true teaching 479b

and discipline there is the community of nobles, of great spiritual beings al dwel ing within it, namely arahants, those who are on the path to arahantship, non-returners, those who are on the path to non-returning, once-returners, those who are on the path to once-returning, stream-enterers, and those who are on the path to stream-entry.

Mahā Moggal āna, that in my true teaching and discipline there is the community of nobles, of great spiritual beings that all dwell within it, namely arahants, those who are on the path to arahantship, non-returners, those who are on the path to non-returning, once-returners, those who are on the path to once-returning, stream-enterers, and those who are on the path to stream-entry—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as the ocean is pure and does not accept corpses, and if someone dies in the ocean, the body is blown by the wind and thrown up on the shore overnight, similarly, Mahā Moggal āna, in my true teaching and discipline, the noble assembly is pure;
it does not accept “corpses.”
If there are those who are without vigor, wicked, fake celibates though professing to be celibates, fake renunciants though professing to be renunciants, then even though they may be in the midst of the community of nobles, they are far away from the community of nobles and the community of nobles is far away from them.

Mahā Moggallāna, that in my true teaching and discipline, the noble assembly is pure and does not accept “corpses”;
that if there are those who are without vigor, wicked, fake celibates though professing to be celibates, fake renunciants though professing to be renunciants who, even though they may be in the midst of the community of nobles, are far away from the community of nobles and the community of nobles is far away from them—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.



Again, Mahā Moggal āna, just as there are five large rivers of Jambudīpa that enter the ocean, namely the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Sarabhū, the Aciravatī, and the Mahī, that al enter the great ocean, together with the water that the ocean dragon sends raining down from the sky, [relentlessly] as the [turning of the] axle caps [on a chariot],128

al this water cannot increase or diminish the ocean;
similarly, Mahā

Moggal āna, in my true teaching and discipline, the khat iya clansmen who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, come to abide in unshakeable liberation of the mind, having accomplished realization by themselves,

[yet], Mahā Moggal āna, the unshakeable liberation of the mind in my true teaching and discipline neither increases nor diminishes.

In the same way, the brahmins .
. . the householders .
. . the workers who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, come to abide in unshakeable liberation of the mind, having accomplished realization by themselves,

[yet], Mahā Moggal āna, the unshakeable liberation of the mind in my true teaching and discipline neither increases nor diminishes.

Mahā Moggallāna, that in my true teaching and discipline, the 479c khat iya clansmen who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, come to abide in unshakeable liberation of the mind, having accomplished realization by themselves, [yet], Mahā Moggal āna, the unshakeable liberation of the mind in my true teaching and discipline neither increases nor diminishes;
[and that] in the same way the brahmins .
. . the householders .

. . the workers who shave off hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path, come to abide in unshakeable liberation of the mind, having accomplished realization by themselves, [yet], Mahā Moggal āna, the unshakeable liberation of the mind in my true teaching and discipline neither increases nor diminishes—this is said to be an extraordinary quality of my true teaching and discipline.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Mahā Moggal āna and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

291

38 - MA 38 The [First] Discourse to the Householder Ugga


38. The [First] Discourse to the Householder Ugga
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was at Vesālī, staying in the Great Forest.
At that time, the householder Ugga, who was waited on only by women, went out of Vesālī fol owed by al his women and, [part way]

between Vesālī and the Great Forest, enjoyed himself like a king with his concubines.
Then the householder Ugga, having become very drunk on alcohol, left the women and went into the Great Forest.

The householder Ugga, very drunk on alcohol, saw from afar the World-honored One, among the trees of the forest, dignified and beautiful, like the moon amidst the stars, with radiant aura, shining like a golden mountain, endowed with majestic appearance and lofty dignity, with sense faculties calm, free of obstruction, accomplished and disciplined, with his mind calm and quiet.
On seeing the Buddha, the householder Ugga sobered up instantly;
and, having sobered up, he approached the Buddha.
Paying respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, he sat down to one side.
Then the World-honored One taught him the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him.

Having with countless skil ful means taught [Ugga] the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [he did] as al buddhas do when first teaching the true Dharma to delight their hearers:
he taught about generosity, virtue, rebirth in heaven, the disadvantages of sensual desire, and the defilement of [continued] birth and death, and he extol ed the excel ence of dispassion and the purity of the constituents of the path.

Having taught him the Dharma in this way, the Buddha knew that

[Ugga’s] mind was delighted, prepared, pliant, able to endure, uplifted, one-pointed, free of doubt, free of hindrances, capable, and strong enough to 480a receive the true teaching.
Then the World-honored One taught him the essence of the true teaching taught by al buddhas:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].

Instantly, while seated [right there], the householder Ugga saw the four noble truths:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
Just as a piece of white cloth is easily dyed, so the householder Ugga instantly, while seated [right there], saw the four noble truths:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].



Then the householder Ugga, having seen the Dharma, having at ained the Dharma, awakened of his own accord to the pure Dharma, cut off doubt and overcame uncertainty.
[For him] there was no other teacher;
he would no longer fol ow others.
Without hesitation, he abided in the realization of the fruit.
In the teaching of the World-honored One he had at ained fearlessness.

Then the householder Ugga rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and said:

World-honored One, I now take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the assembly of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower.
From this day forth I take refuge [in the Triple Gem]

until the end of my life.
World-honored One, from this day forth, I

[vow to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and keep the five precepts for the rest of my life.

Having [vowed to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and keep the five precepts for the rest of his life, the householder Ugga paid respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, circumambulated him three times, and departed.

On returning home, he promptly assembled al the women [of the house].

Having assembled them, he said:

Know that I [have vowed to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and keep the five precepts for the rest of my life.
Whoever of you wishes to [continue to] live here may do so, practicing generosity and making merit;
whoever does not wish to stay may return to her own home;
and whoever wishes to be [re]married, I wil have you [re]married.

Thereupon the first wife said to the householder Ugga:
Master, since you [have vowed] to fol ow the Buddha, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of your life, you may marry me to such and such a man.

Then the householder Ugga had that man summoned.
With his left hand holding his first wife’s arm and his right hand holding a golden pitcher [for the wedding ceremony], he told that man, “I now marry my first wife to you.”


293
Hearing this, the man was terrified, and his bodily hair stood on end.

He said to the householder Ugga, “Master, do you want to kil me?
Do you want to kil me?”


The householder replied:

I am not going to kill you.
However, I [have vowed to] follow the Buddha, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life, and for that reason I am marrying my first wife to you.

After giving away his first wife, before giving her away, and at the time of giving her away, the householder Ugga had no thought of regret.

At that time the World-honored One was surrounded by countless hundreds and thousands of people.
In that great crowd he praised the householder Ugga, [saying]:
“The householder Ugga possesses eight extraordinary qualities.”


Then after the night had passed, at dawn, a certain monk put on his robes, 480b took his almsbowl, and went to the house of the householder Ugga.
Seeing from afar that a monk was coming, the householder Ugga promptly rose from his seat and arranged his clothes so as to bare one shoulder.
Placing his palms together [in respect] toward the monk, he said “Welcome, venerable sir! The venerable one has not come here for a long time.
Please take a seat on this bed.”


Then the monk took a seat on the bed.
The householder Ugga paid respect with his head at the monk’s feet and sat to one side.
The monk said:
Householder, you have had great gains and great merit.
Why is that?

Because in an assembly of countless hundreds and thousands of people the World-honored One has praised you, [saying] “The householder Ugga possesses eight extraordinary qualities.”
Householder, what are those qualities that you possess?

The householder Ugga answered the monk, saying:

Venerable sir, [as] the World-honored One previously did not explain this further, I do not know in relation to what the World-honored One said this.
In any case, venerable sir, please hear what qualities I possess.

At one time, venerable sir, the World-honored One was staying at Vesālī, in the Great Forest.
At that time, waited on only by women, I

went out of Vesālī fol owed by them and, [part way] between Vesālī

and the Great Forest, I enjoyed myself like a king with his concubines.

At that time, venerable sir, I was very drunk on alcohol.
I left the women and went into the Great Forest.

At that time, venerable sir, very drunk on alcohol, I saw from afar the World-honored One, among the trees of the forest, dignified and beautiful, like the moon amid the stars, with radiant aura, shining like a golden mountain, endowed with handsome appearance and lofty dignity, with sense faculties calm, free of obstruction, accomplished and disciplined, with his mind calm and quiet.
On seeing the Buddha, I sobered up instantly.
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga said:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.
Moreover, venerable sir, having sobered up, I approached the Buddha.
Paying respect with my head at the Buddha’s feet, I sat to one side.
Then the World-honored One taught me the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted me.

Having with countless skil ful means taught me the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted me, [he did] as al buddhas do when first teaching the true Dharma to delight their hearers:
he taught me about generosity, virtue, rebirth in heaven, the disadvantages of sensual desire, and the defilement of [continued] birth and death, extol ing the excel ence of dispassion and the purity of the constituents of the path.
Having taught me the Dharma in this way, the Buddha knew that my mind was delighted, prepared, pliant, able to endure, uplifted, one-pointed, free of doubt, free of hindrances, capable, and strong enough to receive the true teaching.

Then the World-honored One taught me the essence of the true teaching taught by al buddhas:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
Instantly, while sit ing [right there], 480c I saw the four noble truths, namely:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
Just as a piece of white cloth is easily dyed, so, venerable sir, I instantly, while sit ing [right there], saw 295
the four noble truths, namely:
suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.
Moreover, venerable sir, having seen the Dharma, having at ained the Dharma, I awakened on my own to the pure Dharma, cut off doubt, and overcame uncertainty.

[For me] there was no other teacher;
I would no longer fol ow others.

Without hesitation, I abided in the realization of the fruit.
In the teaching of the World-honored One I had at ained fearlessness.

Then, venerable sir, I rose from my seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and said:

World-honored One, I now take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the assembly of monks.
May the World-honored One accept me as a lay fol ower.
From this day forth I take refuge [in the Triple Gem] until the end of my life.
World-honored One, from this day forth, I [vow to] follow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life.

Venerable sir, given that I [vowed to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life—and, to my knowledge, have never broken those precepts—I possess this quality, venerable sir.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.
Moreover, having [vowed to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life, I paid respect with my head at the Buddha’s feet, circumambulated him three times, and departed.
On returning home, I assembled all the women [of the house].
Having assembled them, I said:



Know that I [have vowed to] fol ow the World-honored One, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life?
Whoever of you wishes to [continue to] live here may do so, practicing generosity and making merit;
whoever does not wish to stay may return to her own home;
and whoever wishes to be

[re]married, I wil have her [re]married.

Thereupon my first wife said to me:

Master, since you [have vowed] to fol ow the Buddha, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of your life, you may marry me to such-and-such a man.

Then, venerable sir, I promptly had that man summoned.
With my left hand holding my first wife’s arm and my right hand holding a golden pitcher, I told that man, “I now marry my first wife to you.”


Hearing this, the man was terrified, and his bodily hair stood on end.
He said to me, “Master, do you want to kil me?
Do you want to kil me?”


Venerable sir, I said to him:

I am not going to kil you.
However, I [have vowed] to fol ow the Buddha, lead a life of celibacy, and observe the five precepts for the rest of my life, and for that reason I marry my first wife to you.
481a Venerable sir, after giving away my first wife, before giving her away, and at the time of giving her away, I had no thought of regret.
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.
Moreover, venerable sir, when I visit a monastic dwel ing, as soon as I see a monk I make obeisance to him.
If he is practicing walking meditation, I fol ow him in practicing walking meditation.
If he is seated, then I sit to one side and, having sat down, I listen to the Dharma.
That venerable one teaches the Dharma to me and I also [in turn] teach the Dharma to that venerable 297
one.
That venerable one asks me questions and I also ask him questions.

That venerable one answers me and I also answer him.
Venerable sir, I do not recal ever having looked down on any monk, whether he is a junior [monk], one of middle rank, or an elder.
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.
Moreover, venerable sir, when I make offerings to the assembly of monks, a deity in the sky informs me thus:

Householder, this one is an arahant, this one is on the path to arahantship, this one is a non-returner, this one is on the path to non-returning, this one is a once-returner, this one is on the path to once-returning, this one is a stream-enterer, this one is on the path to stream-entry, this one is diligent, this one is not diligent.

However, venerable sir, I do not recal that, when making offerings to the assembly of monks, I have ever discriminated among them.
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.

Moreover, venerable sir, when I make offerings to the assembly of monks, a deity in the sky informs me thus:

Householder, there is the Tathāgata, free from at achment, ful y awakened;
the teaching of the World-honored One is wel taught;
the community of nobles of the Tathāgata is progressing wel [in the practice].

Venerable sir, not out of faith in that deity’s words, nor out of delight in his words, nor because of having heard it from him, but instead by

my own purified knowledge I know:
the Tathāgata is one who is free from at achment, ful y awakened;
the teaching of the World-honored One is wel taught;
the community of nobles of the Tathāgata is progressing wel [in the practice].
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Venerable sir, I possess not only this quality.

Moreover, venerable sir, those five lower fet ers that the Buddha has declared, namely sensual desire, hatred, view of a self, clinging to precepts, and doubt, I have seen that of these five, which could bind me to returning to this world and entering a womb, not a single one has not been eradicated.
Venerable sir, I possess this quality.

The monk spoke in praise, “Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


The householder Ugga said to the monk, “May the venerable one please 481b take his meal here.”


For the householder Ugga’s sake, the monk accepted the invitation by remaining silent.
Understanding that the monk had accepted the invitation by remaining silent, the householder Ugga rose from his seat, and personal y prepared water for washing.
With his own hands he prepared assorted pure and tasty dishes to eat, savor, and digest, making sure there was enough to eat.
After [the monk] had finished eating, put aside his bowl, and washed his hands, [Ugga] took a low seat and sat to one side to listen to the Dharma.

The monk taught the householder the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him.
Having, with countless skil ful means, taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the monk] rose from his seat and departed.
He approached the Buddha.
Paying respect with his head at [the Buddha’s] feet, he sat down to one side and reported in detail the conversation he had had with the householder Ugga.

Then the World-honored One told the monks, “It was for this reason that I praised the householder Ugga, for possessing eight extraordinary qualities.”


This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

299

39 - MA 39 The [Second] Discourse to the Householder Ugga


39. The [Second] Discourse to the Householder Ugga

Thus have I heard:
At one time, not long after the Buddha had at ained final nirvana, many highly regarded senior monks were staying at Vesālī, in the Gabled Hal near Monkey Lake.
At that time, the householder Ugga was performing a lavish almsgiving for those who had come from afar, for those on a journey, for the il , and for those who were looking after the il .

He was [also] regularly preparing porridge and meals for the monastery keepers, regularly inviting groups of twenty from the [monastic] community for food, and offering food to the assembly of monks every five days.
Almsgiving on such a lavish scale is like a ship, which, while returning with a ful load of cargo worth hundreds and thousands, suddenly sinks and is lost.

An assembly of many highly regarded senior monks heard that the householder Ugga was performing such a lavish almsgiving for those who had come from afar, for those on a journey, for the il , and for those who were looking after the il ;
[while also] regularly preparing porridge and meals for the monastery keepers, regularly inviting groups of twenty from the [monastic]

community for food, and offering food to the assembly of monks every five days.
Hearing about this, they discussed it together thus:
Good friends, who could go and talk to the householder Ugga, [saying,]

“Householder, please stop! Do not perform such almsgiving again!

Later you yourself wil understand [why]”?

They had this thought:

Venerable Ānanda was the Buddha’s at endant.
He received the World-honored One’s teachings and was praised by the Buddha and by his wise companions in the holy life.
Venerable Ānanda should go and 481c

talk with the householder Ugga, [saying,] “Householder, please stop!

Do not perform such almsgiving again! Later you yourself wil understand [why].”
Good friends, let us together go to Venerable Ānanda and tel him about this mat er.

Then the assembly of many highly regarded senior monks went to Venerable Ānanda.
After exchanging greetings, they sat down to one side and said:


Venerable Ānanda, did you know that the householder Ugga is performing a lavish almsgiving for those who have come from afar, for those on a journey, for the il , and for those who are looking after the il , [while also] regularly preparing porridge and meals for the monastery keepers, regularly inviting groups of twenty from the [monastic] community for food, and offering food to the assembly of monks every five days?
Almsgiving on such lavish scale is like a ship, which, while returning with a ful load of cargo worth hundreds and thousands, suddenly sinks and is lost.
We have discussed this together thus:
Who could go and talk with the householder Ugga, [saying,]

“Householder, please stop! Do not perform such almsgiving again!

Later you yourself wil understand [why]”?

Then we thought:

Venerable Ānanda was the Buddha’s at endant.
He received the World-honored One’s teachings and was praised by the Buddha and by his wise companions in the holy life.
The venerable Ānanda should go and talk to the householder Ugga, [saying,] “Householder, stop! Do not perform such almsgiving! Later you yourself wil understand [why].”


Venerable Ānanda, may you go and talk to the householder Ugga, [saying,] “Householder, please stop! Do not perform such almsgiving again!

Later you yourself wil understand [why].”


Then Venerable Ānanda said to those highly regarded senior monks:
Good friends, the householder Ugga has a stern personality.
If I just speak for myself, I might make him very unhappy.
Good friends, on whose behalf should I speak with him?

Those highly regarded senior monks replied, “Venerable friend, speak on behalf of the assembly of monks! Spoken to on behalf of the assembly of monks, he wil have nothing to say.”


Then Venerable Ānanda silently accepted the assignment from those highly regarded senior monks.
Understanding that Venerable Ānanda had 301
consented in silence, the highly regarded senior monks rose from their seats, circumambulated Venerable Ānanda, and returned, each to his place.

Then at dawn, when the night was over, Venerable Ānanda put on his robes, took his almsbowl, and went to the house of the householder Ugga.

Seeing from afar that Venerable Ānanda was coming, the householder Ugga rose from his seat and arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder.

Placing his palms together [in respect] toward Venerable Ānanda, he said “Welcome, Venerable Ānanda! Venerable Ānanda has not come here for a long time.
Please take a seat on this bed.”


Then Venerable Ānanda took a seat on the bed.
The householder Ugga paid respect with his head at Venerable Ānanda’s feet and sat down to one side.
Venerable Ānanda said:

482a

Householder, it is known that you are performing a lavish almsgiving for people who have come from afar, for those on a journey, for the il , and for those who are looking after the il , [while also] regularly preparing porridge and meals for the monastery keepers, regularly inviting groups of twenty from the [monastic] community for food, and offering food to the assembly of monks every five days.

Almsgiving on such lavish scale is like a ship, which, while returning with a ful load of cargo worth hundreds and thousands, suddenly sinks and is lost.
Householder, please stop! Do not perform such almsgiving again! Later you yourself wil understand [why].

The householder said, “Venerable Ānanda, on whose behalf do you speak thus?”


Venerable Ānanda replied, “Householder, I speak for the assembly of monks.”


The householder said:

If Venerable Ānanda speaks for the assembly of the monks, I have no objection.
If he spoke for himself, that might make me very unhappy.

Venerable Ānanda, that I make offerings like this and perform generosity like this, even until I have given away al my wealth and property—

this is to fulfil my aspiration.
It is like the aspiration of a wheel-turning monarch.



Venerable Ānanda asked, “Householder, what is the aspiration of a wheel-turning monarch?”


The householder answered:

Venerable Ānanda, the poor from the villages think, “May I be the richest among the vil agers.”
This is their aspiration.

The rich from the vil ages think, “May I be the richest among the residents of the townships.”
This is their aspiration.

The rich from the townships think, “May I be the richest among the residents of the town.”
This is their aspiration.

The rich of the town think, “May I be the mayor of the town.”


This is their aspiration.

The mayors in the towns think, “May I be the prime minister of the state.”
This is their aspiration.

The prime ministers of the states think, “May I be the local king.”


This is their aspiration.

The local kings think, “May I be a wheel-turning monarch.”
This is their aspiration.

And the wheel-turning monarch thinks:

May I at ain ful y the summit of the holy life, for the sake of which a clansman shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path.
May I in this very life, understand personal y and dwel having realized personal y.
May I know as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.

There wil not be another existence.”


This is the aspiration [of a wheel-turning monarch].

Venerable Ānanda, that I make offerings like this and perform generosity like this, even until I have given away al my wealth and property—this is to fulfil my aspiration.
It is like the aspiration of a wheel-turning monarch.
Venerable Ānanda, I possess this quality.

Venerable Ānanda spoke in praise:
“Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

303
Moreover, Venerable Ānanda, I possess not only this quality.
Venerable 482b

Ānanda, when I visit a monastic dwel ing, as soon as I see a monk I make obeisance to him.
If he is practicing walking meditation, I fol ow him in practicing walking meditation.
If he is seated, then I sit to one side and, having sat down, I listen to the Dharma.
That venerable one teaches the Dharma to me and I also teach the Dharma to that venerable one.
That venerable one asks me questions and I also ask that venerable one questions.
That venerable one answers me and I also answer that venerable one.
Venerable Ānanda, I do not recal ever having looked down on any monk, whether he is a junior monk, one of middle rank, or an elder.
Venerable Ānanda, I possess this quality.

The venerable Ānanda spoke in praise:
“Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Moreover, Venerable Ānanda, I possess not only this quality.
Venerable Ānanda, when I offer alms to the assembly of monks, a deity in the sky informs me thus:

Householder, this one is an arahant, this one is on the path to arahantship, this one is a non-returner, this one is on the path to non-returning, this one is a once-returner, this one is on the path to once-returning, this one is a stream-enterer, this one is on the path to stream-entry, this one is diligent, this one is not diligent.

However, Venerable Ānanda, I do not recal that, when I make offerings to the assembly of monks, I have ever discriminated among them.
Venerable Ānanda, I possess this quality.

Venerable Ānanda spoke in praise:
“Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Moreover, Venerable Ānanda, I possess not only this quality.
Venerable Ānanda, when I make offerings to the assembly of monks, a deity in the sky informs me thus:



Householder, there is the Tathāgata, free from at achment, ful y awakened;
the teaching of the World-honored One is wel proclaimed;
the community of nobles of the Tathāgata is progressing wel [in the practice].

Not out of faith in that deity’s words, nor out of delight in his words, nor because of having heard it from him, but instead by my own purified knowledge I know:
there is the Tathāgata, free from at achment, ful y awakened;
the teaching of the World-honored One is wel proclaimed;
the community of nobles of the Tathāgata is progressing wel [in the practice].
Venerable Ānanda, I possess this quality.

Venerable Ānanda spoke in praise:
“Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


[The householder Ugga continued:
]

Moreover, Venerable Ānanda, I possess not only this quality.
Venerable Ānanda, I have abandoned desire, am separated from evil and unwholesome states .
. . (and so on up to) .
. . I dwel having at ained the fourth meditative jhāna.
Venerable Ānanda, I possess this quality.

Venerable Ānanda spoke in praise:
“Householder, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that you possess this quality.”


Then the householder Ugga said, “May Venerable Ānanda please take his meal here.”
For the householder Ugga’s sake, Venerable Ānanda accepted the invitation by remaining silent.
Understanding that Venerable Ānanda had accepted his invitation by remaining silent, the householder Ugga rose from his seat, and personal y prepared water for washing.
With his own hands he prepared assorted pure and tasty dishes to eat, savor, and digest, making sure 482c there was enough to eat.
After [Venerable Ānanda] had finished eating, put aside his bowl, and washed his hands, [Ugga] took a low seat and sat to one side to listen to the Dharma.

Venerable Ānanda taught the householder the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him.
Having, with countless skil ful means, taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [Venerable Ānanda] rose from his seat and departed.

305
This is what Venerable Ānanda said, Having heard Venerable Ānanda’s words, the householder Ugga was delighted and remembered them well.

40 - MA 40 The Discourse to the Householder Hatthaka


40. The Discourse to the Householder Hatthaka
Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Aggāḷava near Āḷavī, in a rosewood grove.

At that time the householder Hat haka, accompanied by five hundred eminent householders, went to the Buddha.
He paid respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet and sat down to one side.
The five hundred householders also paid respect with their heads at the Buddha’s feet and sat down to one side.
The World-honored One said, “Householder Hathaka, now you are with such a great assembly.
With what qualities are you [able to] gather such a great assembly?”


Then the householder Hat haka replied:

World-honored One, there are four qualities for gathering people taught by the World-honored One.
Charitable giving is the first, speaking friendly words is the second, providing helpful advice is the third, and being impartial is the fourth.
131 World-honored One, I [am able] to gather such a great assembly by charitable giving, or by speaking friendly words, or by providing helpful advice, or by being impartial.

The World-honored One spoke in praise:

Very good! Very good! Householder Hat haka, you [are able] to gather such a great assembly in accordance with the Dharma, to gather such a great assembly by appropriate means, to gather such a great assembly through proper causes and conditions.

Householder Hat haka, renunciants or brahmins in the past, who gathered a great assembly in accordance with the Dharma, al used these four qualities, or some of them, to gather a great assembly.

Householder Hat haka, renunciants or brahmins in the future, who wil gather a great assembly in accordance with the Dharma, wil al use these four qualities, or some of them, to gather a great assembly.



Householder Hat haka, renunciants or brahmins in the present, who gather a great assembly in accordance with the Dharma, al use these four qualities, or some of them, to gather a great assembly.

Then the World-honored One taught the Dharma to the householder Hat haka, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him.
Having used countless skil ful means to teach him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the Buddha] remained silent.

Then the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

483a

On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without ill will or quarrel, he dwelled pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. . with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world with a wel -developed [mind], boundless and exalted, immeasurable.

At that time, gathering in the Sudhamma Hal ,132 the thirty-three gods extol ed and praised the householder Hat haka, saying:
Good friends, the householder Hat haka possesses great benefits and great merit.

Why is that?
The householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and 307
delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
Then he ascended to the hal, arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. . with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fetters or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Then when the night was about to turn to dawn, the great heavenly king Vessavaṇa, of lofty appearance and radiant aura, approached the householder Hat haka and said:

Householder, you have great benefits and great merit.
Why is that?
Today on account of you the thirty-three gods gathered in the Sudhamma Hal , extol ing and praising you thus:

The householder Hatthaka has great benefits and great merit.

Why is that?
Good friends, the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.



On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the 483b inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.
“In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. . with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

At that time the householder Hat haka remained silent, he did not speak and did not look or glance at the great heavenly king, Vessavaṇa.
Why was that?
Out of respect for his concentration, to guard his concentration.

At that time, the World-honored One praised the householder Hat haka in an immeasurable assembly of hundreds and thousands of people, saying:
The householder Hat haka possesses seven marvelous and wonderful qualities.

The householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by me, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to me, and after circumambulating me three times, departed and returned home.

On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach them the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving 309
inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach them the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat and sat down cross-legged.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. . with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fetters or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Today on account of him the thirty-three gods gathered in the Sudhamma Hal , extol ing and praising him thus:

The householder Hatthaka has great benefits and great merit.

Why is that?
Good friends, the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, 483c

and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around,

everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and wel cultivated.

In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. .

with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity, free from fet ers or resentment, without il -wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

Then when the night was about to turn to dawn, the great heavenly king Vessavaṇa, of lofty appearance and radiant aura, approached the householder Hat haka and said:

Householder, you have great benefits and great merit.
Why is that?

Today on account of you the thirty-three gods gathered in the Sudhamma Hal , extol ing and praising you thus, “The householder Hat haka has great benefits and great merit.

“Why is that?
Good friends, the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

“On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

“Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

“With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, all around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil 311
or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable and well cultivated.

“In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. .

with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.”


Then at dawn, when the night was over, a certain monk put on his robes, took his almsbowl, and went to the house of the householder Hat haka.
Seeing that monk coming from afar, the householder Hat haka rose from his seat.
Placing his palms together [in respect] toward the monk, he said, “Welcome, venerable sir! The venerable one has not come here for a long time.
Please take a seat on this bed.”


Then the monk took a seat on the bed.
The householder Hat haka paid respect with his head at the monk’s feet and sat down to one side.

The monk said:

Householder, you have great benefits and great merit.
Why is that?

In an assembly of countless hundreds and thousands of people the World-honored One praised you saying, “The householder Hat haka possesses seven extraordinary qualities.

“The householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by me, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to me, and after circumambulating me three times, departed and returned home.
On arriving at the outer 484a

gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every ef ort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

“Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

“With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and

below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

“In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. .

with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

“Today on account of him the thirty-three gods gathered in the Sudhamma Hal , extol ing and praising you thus, ‘The householder Hat haka has great benefits and great merit.
Why is that?

Good friends, the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

‘On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach that person the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.

‘Then he ascended to the hal , arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

‘With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

‘In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. .

with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire 313
world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.


“Then when the night was about to turn to dawn, the great heavenly king Vessavaṇa, of lofty appearance and radiant aura, approached the householder Hat haka and said:
‘Householder, you have great benefits and great merit.
Why is that?
Today on account of you the thirty-three gods gathered in the Sudhamma Hall, extol ing and praising you thus, “The householder Hat haka has great benefits and great merit.

‘Why is that?
Good friends, the householder Hat haka, having been taught the Dharma by the Buddha, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance to the Buddha, and after circumambulating the Buddha three times, departed and returned home.

‘On arriving at the outer gate, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach them the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
On arriving at the middle gate or the inner gate, 484b

or on arriving inside, if there was someone there, he made every effort to teach them the Dharma, to exhort, encourage, and delight them.
‘Then he ascended to the hal, arranged a seat, and sat down cross-legged.

‘With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, he dwel ed pervading one direction, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth direction, and also the four intermediate directions, above, and below, al around, everywhere.
With a mind imbued with loving-kindness, free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.

‘In the same way, with a mind imbued with compassion .
. .

with empathic joy .
. . with equanimity;
free from fet ers or resentment, without il wil or quarrel, he dwel ed pervading the entire world [with a mind that is] boundless, exalted, immeasurable, and wel cultivated.
’”



“At that time the householder Hatthaka remained silent, he did not speak and did not look or glance at the great heavenly king, Vessavaṇa.

Why is that?
Out of respect for his concentration, to guard his concentration.”


Then the householder Hat haka said to the monk, “Venerable sir, at that time [when the Buddha praised me thus] were there any laypeople present?”


The monk replied, “No, there were no laypeople present,” and asked, “What fault would there be if there were laypeople present?”


The householder answered:

Venerable sir, if there had been those who had no faith in what the World-honored One said, they would for a long time derive no benefit from it, be unable to accept it, and would be reborn into an extremely bad realm of existence, experiencing immeasurable suffering.
If there had been those who did have faith in what the World-honored One said, on that account they might have come to esteem, venerate, and pay respect to me.
[But], venerable sir, I do not desire that they should [act] like that either.
Venerable sir, please take your meal here.

For the householder Hat haka’s sake, the monk accepted the invitation by remaining silent.
Understanding that the monk had accepted his invitation by remaining silent, the householder Hat haka arose from his seat, and personally prepared water for washing.
With his own hands he prepared assorted pure and tasty dishes to eat, savor, and digest, making sure there was enough to eat.
After [the monk] had finished eating, put aside his bowl, and washed his hands, [Hat haka] took a low seat and sat to one side to listen to the Dharma.

The monk taught the householder the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him.
Having, with countless skil ful means, taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the monk] arose from his seat and departed.
He approached the Buddha.

Paying respect with his head at [the Buddha’s] feet, he sat down to one side and reported in detail the conversation he had had with the householder Hat haka.

315
Then the World-honored One told the monks:

For this reason I extol ed the householder Hat haka, [saying] that he possesses seven extraordinary qualities.
Moreover, you should know that the householder Hat haka possesses an eighth extraordinary quality.

The householder Hat haka seeks nothing and desires nothing.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

MA 41-50


41 - MA 41 The Discourse on the Householder Hatthaka


41. The Discourse on the Householder Hatthaka
484c Thus have I heard:
At one time, the Buddha was staying at Aggāḷava near Āḷavī, in a rosewood grove.

At that time the World-honored One said to the monks:
The householder Hat haka possesses eight marvelous and wonderful qualities.
What are they?
The householder Hat haka has few desires;
he has faith, a sense of shame, scruples, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom.
On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have few desires?
The householder Hat haka has few desires himself, [yet] he does not wish to let others know, “I have few desires.”


[He] . .
. has faith .
. . a sense of shame .
. . scruples .
. . energy .
. .

mindfulness .
. . concentration .
. . wisdom.
The householder Hat haka has wisdom himself, [yet] he does not wish to let others know, “I have wisdom.”
On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to have few desires.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have faith?

The householder Hat haka has firm and deep faith in the Tathāgata.

His faculty of faith is stable;
he wil never fol ow other renunciants or brahmins, or gods, Māras, Brahmās, or any other beings in the world.

On account of this the householder Hatthaka is said to have faith.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have a sense of shame?
The householder Hat haka has at al times a sense of shame.
He approves of having a sense of shame and knows shame.

[He knows] that evil, unwholesome states, being defiled and afflictive,

lead to evil retribution and are the root cause for birth and death.
On account of this the householder Hatthaka is said to have a sense of shame.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have scruples?
The householder Hat haka has at al times scruples.
He approves of the scruples and knows scruples.
[He knows] that evil, unwholesome states, being defiled and afflictive, lead to evil retribution and are the root cause for birth and death.
On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to have scruples.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have energy?

The householder Hat haka has energy at al times in discarding what is evil and unwholesome, and in cultivating wholesome states.
He takes the initiative constantly and remains wholeheartedly and steadfastly established in the roots of wholesomeness, without giving up his task.

On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to have energy.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to be mindful?

The householder Hat haka internal y contemplates the body as body .

. . feeling .
. . the mind .
. . dhamma s as dhamma s.
On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to be mindful.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have concentration?
The householder Hat haka, separated from desires, separated from evil and unwholesome states .
. . (and so on up to) .
. . dwel s having at ained the fourth jhāna.
On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to have concentration.

On account of what is the householder Hat haka said to have wisdom?
The householder Hat haka develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.
On account of this the householder Hat haka is said to have wisdom.

It is on account of this that the householder Hat haka is said to have eight wonderful and marvelous qualities.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .



..5.. Division 5 On Conditions MA 42-57



42 - MA 42 The Discourse on “What is the Purpose?”


42. The Discourse on “What is the Purpose?”
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, in the late afternoon, Venerable Ānanda rose from sit ing in meditation and went to the Buddha, paid homage at his feet, stood to one side, and said:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of keeping the precepts?”


The World-honored One answered:

Ānanda, keeping the precepts has the purpose of [al owing one] to be without regret.
Ānanda, if one keeps the precepts, one at ains [the state of] being without regret.

Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of being without regret?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, being without regret has the purpose of joy.
Ānanda, if one is without regret, one at ains joy.”


Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of joy?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, joy has the purpose of rapture.
Ānanda, if one is joyful, one at ains rapture.”


Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of rapture?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, rapture has the purpose of tranquility.
Ānanda, if one has rapture, one at ains tranquility of the body.”


Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of tranquility?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, tranquility has the purpose of happiness.
Ānanda, if one has tranquility, one at ains the experience of happiness.”


319
Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of happiness?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, happiness has the purpose of concentration.
Ānanda, if one has happiness one at ains concentration of the mind.”


Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of concentration?”


The World-honored One answered:

Ānanda, concentration has the purpose of seeing things as they real y are, knowing things as they real y are.
Ānanda, if one has concentration, 485b

one attains [the ability] to see and know things as they really are.

Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of seeing and knowing things as they real y are?”


The World-honored One answered:

Ānanda, seeing and knowing things as they real y are has the purpose of disenchantment.
Ānanda, if one sees and knows things as they real y are, one at ains disenchantment.

Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of disenchantment?”


The World-honored One answered:
“Ānanda, disenchantment has the purpose of dispassion.
Ānanda, if one is disenchanted, one at ains dispassion.”


Again Ānanda asked:
“World-honored One, what is the purpose of dispassion?”


The World-honored One answered:

Ānanda, dispassion has the purpose of liberation.
Ānanda, if one is dispassionate, one at ains liberation from al lust, anger, and ignorance.

Ānanda, through keeping the precepts one has no regrets;
through having no regrets one attains joy;
through joy one attains rapture;
through rapture one at ains tranquility;
through tranquility one at ains happiness;
through happiness one at ains concentration.
Ānanda, through concentration the learned noble disciple sees and knows things as they real y are;
through seeing and knowing things as they real y are, he at ains disenchantment;
through disenchantment he at ains dispassion;


through dispassion he at ains liberation.
Through liberation he knows he is liberated:
“Birth has been ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
He knows as it real y is:
there wil not be another existence.”


Thus, Ānanda, one state is beneficial for another, one state is the means for another, and the precepts eventual y lead to the highest goal, that is to say, to crossing over from this bank to the other bank.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Ānanda and the other monks were delighted and remembered them well.

43 - MA 43 The Discourse on No [Need for] Thought


43. The Discourse on No [Need for] Thought
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One said:

Ānanda, one who keeps the precepts need not think:
“May I be free from regret!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who keep the precepts wil be free from regret.

Ānanda, one who is without regret need not think:
“May I at ain joy!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who are without regret wil at ain joy.

Ānanda, one who is joyful need not think:
“May I at ain rapture!”

Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who are joyful wil at ain rapture.

Ānanda, one who has rapture need not think:
“May I at ain tranquility!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who have rapture wil at ain tranquility of the body.

Ānanda, one who has tranquility need not think:
“May I at ain happiness!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who have tranquility 485c wil at ain the experience of happiness.

Ānanda, one who has happiness need not think:
“May I at ain concentration!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who have happiness wil at ain concentration of the mind.

Ānanda, one who has concentration need not think:
“May I see things as they real y are, know things as they real y are!” Ānanda, it 321
is a law of nature that those who have concentration wil see things as they real y are, know things as they real y are.

Ānanda, one who sees things as they real y are, who knows things as they really are, need not think:
“May I attain disenchantment!”

Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who see things as they real y are, who know things as they real y are, wil at ain disenchantment.

Ānanda, one who has disenchantment need not think:
“May I at ain dispassion!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who have disenchantment wil at ain dispassion.

Ānanda, one who has dispassion need not think:
“May I at ain liberation!” Ānanda, it is a law of nature that those who have dispassion wil at ain liberation from al lust, anger, and ignorance.

Ānanda, through keeping the precepts one has no regrets;
through having no regrets one attains joy;
through joy one attains rapture;
through rapture one at ains tranquility;
through tranquility one at ains happiness;
through happiness one at ains concentration of the mind.

Ānanda, through concentration of the mind the learned noble disciple sees and knows things as they real y are;
through seeing and knowing things as they real y are, he at ains disenchantment;
through disenchantment he at ains dispassion;
through dispassion he at ains liberation.

Through liberation he knows he is liberated:
“Birth has been ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.

He knows as it real y is:
there wil not be another existence.”


Thus, Ānanda, one state is beneficial for another, one state is the means for another, and the precepts eventual y lead to the highest goal, that is to say, the crossing over from this bank to the other bank.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Ānanda and the other monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

44 - MA 44 The Discourse on Mindfulness1


44. The Discourse on Mindfulness1
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:


If a monk is often forgetful and not rightly at entive, this is detrimental to right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness is detrimental to guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And absence of liberation is detrimental to [at aining] nirvana.
If a monk is not forgetful and has right at entiveness, the condition exists for right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
If he has right mindfulness and right at entiveness, the condition exists for guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, 486a concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if he has liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, those monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

45 - MA 45 The [First] Discourse on Shame and Scruples


45. The [First] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
If a monk is without shame or scruples, this is detrimental to love and respect.
Lack of love and respect is detrimental to faith.
Lack of faith is detrimental to right at ention.
Lack of right at ention is detrimental to right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness is detrimental to guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining] nirvana.

If, [however,] a monk has shame and scruples, the condition for love and respect exists.
If there is love and respect, the condition for 323
faith exists.
If there is faith, the condition for right at ention exists.
If there is right at ention, the condition for right mindfulness and right at entiveness exists.
If there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, the condition exists for guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things are they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, those monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

46 - MA 46 The [Second] Discourse on Shame and Scruples


46. The [Second] Discourse on Shame and Scruples
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time Venerable Sāriput a addressed the monks:
Venerable friends, if a monk is without shame or scruples, this is detrimental to love and respect.
Lack of love and respect is detrimental to faith.
Lack of faith is detrimental to right at ention.
Lack of right at ention is detrimental to right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness is detrimental to guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining] nirvana.

486b

Venerable friends, it is just as with a tree.
If the outer bark is damaged, then the sapwood does not develop successful y.
If the sapwood does not develop successful y, then the trunk, stem, heartwood, boughs and branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit al cannot develop successful y.

Venerable friends, know that it is the same with a monk.
If he is without shame or scruple, then this is detrimental to love and respect.
Lack of love and respect is detrimental to faith.
Lack of faith is detrimental to right at ention.
Lack of right at ention is detrimental to right mindfulness

and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness is detrimental to guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining] nirvana.

If, [however,] venerable friends, a monk has shame and scruple, the condition for love and respect exists.
If there is love and respect, the condition for faith exists.
If there is faith, the condition for right at ention exists.
If there is right at ention, the condition for right mindfulness and right at entiveness exists.
If there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, the condition exists for guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.

Venerable friends, it is just as with a tree.
If the outer bark is not damaged, the sapwood can develop successful y.
If the sapwood develops successful y, then the trunk, stem, heartwood, boughs and branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit al can develop successful y.

Venerable friends, know that it is the same with a monk.
If there is shame and scruples, the condition for love and respect exists.
If there is love and respect, the condition for faith exists.
If there is faith, the condition for right at ention exists.
If there is right at ention, the condition for right mindfulness and right at entiveness exists.
If there are right mindfulness and right at entiveness, the condition exists for guarding the sense faculties, keeping the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining]

nirvana.

This is what Venerable Sāriput a said.
Having heard the words of Venerable Sāriput a, those monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

325

47 - MA 47 The [First] Discourse on the Precepts


47. The [First] Discourse on the Precepts
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
If a monk breaks the precepts, then this is detrimental to being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining]

nirvana.
If, [however,] a monk keeps the precepts, the condition exists for being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing as it real y is, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.

486c

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, those monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

48 - MA 48 The [Second] Discourse on the Precepts


48. The [Second] Discourse on the Precepts
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time Venerable Sāriput a addressed the monks:
Venerable friends, if a monk breaks the precepts, this is detrimental to being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining] nirvana.

Venerable friends, it is just as with a tree.
If its roots are damaged, then the trunk, stem, heartwood, boughs and branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit al cannot develop successful y.
Venerable friends, know that it is the same with a monk.

If he breaks the precepts, then this is detrimental to being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration,

seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to [at aining]

nirvana.

If, [however], venerable friends, a monk keeps the precepts, the condition exists for being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.
Venerable friends, it is just as with a tree.
If its root is undamaged, then the trunk, stem, heartwood, boughs and branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit can al develop successful y.
Venerable friends, you should know that it is the same with a monk.
If he keeps the precepts, the condition exists for being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for [at aining] nirvana.
This is what Venerable Sāriput a said.
Having heard Venerable Sāriput a’s words, those monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

49 - MA 49 The [First] Discourse on Respect


49. The [First] Discourse on Respect
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
A monk should practice respect and be considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life.
If he does not practice respect and is not considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life, then it is impossible to fulfil even the most basic rules of proper conduct.

If the basic rules of proper conduct are not fulfil ed, then it is impossible to fulfil the rules for a learner.
If the rules for a learner are not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfill the [practices that are part of the] precept group.
143 If the precept group is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfil the [practices that are part of the] concentration group.
If the concen- 487a tration group is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfil the [practices 327
that are part of the] wisdom group.
If the wisdom group is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfil the [practices that are part of the] liberation group.
If the liberation group is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfil the [practices that are part of the] knowledge and vision of liberation group.
If the knowledge and vision of liberation group is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to at ain nirvana.

If, [however,] a monk practices respect and is considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life, it is possible to fulfil the basic rules of proper conduct.
If the basic rules of proper conduct are fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the rules for a learner.
If the rules for a learner are fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the precept group.
If the precept group is fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the concentration group.

If the concentration group is fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the wisdom group.
If the wisdom group is fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the liberation group.
If the liberation group is fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the knowledge and vision of liberation group.
If the knowledge and vision of liberation group is fulfil ed, it is possible to at ain nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

50 - MA 50 The [Second] Discourse on Respect


50. The [Second] Discourse on Respect
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
A monk should practice respect and be considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life.
If he does not practice respect and is not considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life, then it is impossible to fulfil even the most basic rules of proper conduct.

If the basic rules of proper conduct are not fulfil ed, it is impossible to fulfil the rules for a learner.
If the rules for a learner are not fulfil ed, it is impossible to guard the sense faculties, to keep the precepts, to be without regret, to experience joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment,

dispassion, and liberation.
And if liberation is not fulfil ed, it is impossible to at ain nirvana.

If, [however,] a monk does practice respect and is considerate and courteous to his companions in the holy life, then it is possible to fulfil the basic rules of proper conduct.
If the basic rules of proper conduct are fulfil ed, it is possible to fulfil the rules for a learner.
If the rules for a learner are fulfil ed, it is possible to guard the sense faculties, to keep the precepts, to be without regret, to experience joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if liberation is at ained, it is possible to at ain nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the 487b monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

MA 51-60


51 - MA 51 The Discourse on the Beginning


51. The Discourse on the Beginning
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
One cannot know the point where craving for existence began, the point before which there was no craving for existence and at which craving for existence arose.
But one can understand the causes for craving for existence.
Craving for existence is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is craving for existence conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by ignorance.
Ignorance too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is ignorance conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by the five hindrances.
The five hindrances too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

By what are the five hindrances conditioned?
The answer is:
they are conditioned by the three types of wrong conduct (bodily, verbal, and mental).
The three types of wrong conduct too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

329
By what are the three types of wrong conduct conditioned?
The answer is:
they are conditioned by failure to guard the sense faculties.

Failure to guard the sense faculties too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is failure to guard the sense faculties conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by lack of right at ention.

Lack of right at ention too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is lack of right at ention conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by lack of faith.
Lack of faith too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is lack of faith conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by hearing wrong teachings.
Hearing wrong teachings too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is hearing wrong teachings conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by association with bad friends.
Association with bad friends too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is association with bad friends conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by bad people.
That is to say, once there are bad people, there wil be association with bad friends.
Once there is association with bad friends, there will be hearing of wrong teachings.

Once there is hearing of wrong teachings, there wil be lack of faith.

Once there is lack of faith, there wil be lack of right at ention.
Once there is lack of right at ention, there wil be lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be failure to guard the sense faculties.

Once there is failure to guard the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of wrong conduct.
Once there are the three types of wrong conduct, there will be the five hindrances.
Once there are the five hindrances, there wil be ignorance.
And once there is ignorance, there wil be craving for existence.
This is how, step by step, craving for existence comes about.



[Likewise,] wisdom and liberation are conditioned;
they are not 487c without conditions.

By what are wisdom and liberation conditioned?
The answer is:
they are conditioned by the seven factors of awakening.
The seven factors of awakening too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

By what are the seven factors of awakening conditioned?
The answer is:
they are conditioned by the four establishments of mindfulness.
The four establishments of mindfulness too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

By what are the four establishments of mindfulness conditioned?

The answer is:
they are conditioned by the three types of good conduct.

The three types of good conduct too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

By what are the three types of good conduct conditioned?
The answer is:
they are conditioned by guarding the sense faculties.
Guarding the sense faculties too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is guarding of the sense faculties conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Right mindfulness and right at entiveness too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.

By what are right mindfulness and right at entiveness conditioned?

The answer is:
they are conditioned by right at ention.
Right at ention too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is right at ention conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by faith.
Faith too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is faith conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by hearing the true Dharma.
Hearing the true Dharma too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is hearing the true Dharma conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by association with good friends.
Association with good friends too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is association with good friends conditioned?
The answer is:
it is conditioned by good people.
That is to say, because there are good people, there wil be association with good friends.
Once there 331
is association with good friends, there will be hearing of the true Dharma.
Once there is hearing of the true Dharma, faith wil be engendered.
Once faith is engendered, there wil be right at ention.
Once there is right at ention, there wil be right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be guarding of the sense faculties.
Once there is guarding of the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of good conduct.
Once there are the three types of good conduct, there wil be the four establishments of mindfulness.
Once there are the four establishments of mindfulness, there wil be the seven factors of awakening.
Once there are the seven factors of awakening, there wil be wisdom and liberation.

This is how, step by step, wisdom and liberation come about.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

52 - MA 52 The [First] Discourse on Nutriments


52. The [First] Discourse on Nutriments

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
One cannot know the point at which craving for existence began, the point before which there was no craving for existence and at which craving for existence arose.
But one can understand the causes for craving for existence.
Craving for existence has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

488a

What is the nutriment of craving for existence?
The answer is:
its nutriment is ignorance.
Ignorance too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of ignorance?
The answer is:
its nutriment is the five hindrances.
The five hindrances too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the five hindrances?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the three types of wrong conduct.
The three types of wrong conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.



What is the nutriment of the three types of wrong conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is failure to guard the sense faculties.
Failure to guard the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of failure to guard the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right at ention.
Lack of right attention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of faith.
Lack of faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of lack of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing wrong teachings.
Hearing wrong teachings too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing wrong teachings?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with bad friends.
Association with bad friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of association with bad friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is bad people.

That is to say, because there are bad people, there wil be association with bad friends.
Once there is association with bad friends, there wil be hearing of wrong teachings.

Once there is hearing of wrong teachings, there wil be lack of faith.

Once there is lack of faith, there wil be lack of right at ention.
Once there is lack of right at ention, there wil be lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be failure to guard the sense faculties.
Once there is failure to guard the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of wrong conduct.
Once there are the three types of wrong conduct, there wil be the five hindrances.
Once there are the five hindrances, there wil be ignorance.
Once there is ignorance, there wil be craving for existence.

This is how, step by step, craving for existence comes about.

333
[It is just as it is] with the great ocean.
It too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the great ocean?

The answer is:
the large rivers are its nutriment.

The large rivers too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the large rivers?
The answer is:
the smal rivers are their nutriment.

The smal rivers too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the smal rivers?
The answer is:
the large streams are their nutriment.

The large streams too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the large streams?
The answer is:
the smal streams are their nutriment.

The smal streams too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the smal streams?
The answer is:
the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are their nutriment.

The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains?
The answer is:
the rain is their nutriment.

488b

At times it rains heavily and after the rain the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are fil ed with water.
The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains being fil ed, the smal streams are fil ed.

The smal streams being fil ed, the large streams are fil ed.
The large streams being fil ed, the smal rivers are fil ed.
The smal rivers being fil ed, the large rivers are fil ed.
The large rivers being fil ed, the great ocean is fil ed.
This is how, step by step, the great ocean is fil ed.
In the same way, craving for existence has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of craving for existence?
The answer is:
its nutriment is ignorance.
Ignorance too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of ignorance?
The answer is:
its nutriment is the five hindrances.
The five hindrances too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the five hindrances?
The answer is:
their

nutriment is the three types of wrong conduct.
The three types of wrong conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the three types of wrong conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is failure to guard the sense faculties.
Failure to guard the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of failure to guard the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right at ention.
Lack of right attention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of faith.
Lack of faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing wrong teachings.
Hearing wrong teachings too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing wrong teachings?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with bad friends.
Association with bad friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of association with bad friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is bad people.

That is to say, because there are bad people, there wil be association with bad friends.
Once there is association with bad friends, there wil be hearing of wrong teachings.
Once there is hearing of wrong teachings, there wil be lack of faith.
Once there is lack of faith, there wil be lack of right at ention.
Once there is lack of right at ention, there wil be lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be failure to guard the sense faculties.
Once there is failure to guard the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of wrong conduct.
Once there are the three types of wrong conduct, there wil be the five hindrances.
Once there are the five hindrances, there wil be ignorance.

335
Once there is ignorance, there wil be craving for existence.
This is how, step by step, craving for existence comes about.

[Likewise,] wisdom and liberation have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of wisdom and liberation?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the seven factors of awakening.
The seven factors of awakening too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the seven factors of awakening?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the four establishments of mindfulness 488c

The four establishments of mindfulness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the four establishments of mindfulness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is the three types of good conduct.
The three types of good conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the three types of good conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is guarding the sense faculties.
Guarding the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of guarding the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is right mindfulness and right attentiveness.
Right mindfulness and right at entiveness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is right at ention.
Right at ention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is faith.
Faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing the true Dharma.
Hearing the true Dharma too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing the true Dharma?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with good friends.
Association with good friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of association with good friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is good people.



That is to say, because there are good people, there wil be association with good friends.
Once there is association with good friends, there wil be hearing of the true Dharma.
Once there is hearing of the true Dharma, faith wil be engendered.
Once faith is engendered, there wil be right at ention.
Once there is right at ention, there wil be right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be guarding of the sense faculties.
Once there is guarding of the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of good conduct.

Once there are the three types of good conduct, there wil be the four establishments of mindfulness.
Once there are the four establishments of mindfulness, there wil be the seven factors of awakening.
Once there are the seven factors of awakening, there wil be wisdom and liberation.

This is how, step by step, wisdom and liberation come about.

[It is just as] with the great ocean.
It too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the great ocean?
The answer is:
the large rivers are its nutriment.

The large rivers too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the large rivers?
The answer is:
the smal rivers are their nutriment.

The smal rivers too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the smal rivers?
The answer is:
the large streams are their nutriment.

The large streams too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the large streams?
The answer is:
the smal streams are their nutriment.

The smal streams too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the smal streams?
The answer is:
the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are their nutriment.

The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains?
The answer is:
the rain is their nutriment.

At times it rains heavily, and after the rain the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are fil ed with water.
The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains being fil ed, the smal streams are fil ed.

337
The smal streams being fil ed, the large streams are fil ed.
The large 489a

streams being fil ed, the smal rivers are fil ed.
The smal rivers being fil ed, the large rivers are fil ed.
The large rivers being fil ed, the great ocean is filled.
This is how, step by step, the great ocean is filled.

In the same way, wisdom and liberation have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of wisdom and liberation?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the seven factors of awakening.
The seven factors of awakening too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the seven factors of awakening?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the four establishments of mindfulness.

The four establishments of mindfulness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the four establishments of mindfulness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is the three types of good conduct.
The three types of good conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the three types of good conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is guarding the sense faculties.
Guarding the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of guarding the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is right mindfulness and right attentiveness.
Right mindfulness and right at entiveness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is right at ention.
Right at ention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is faith.
Faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing the true Dharma.
Hearing the true Dharma too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing the true Dharma?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with good friends.
Association with good friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.



What is the nutriment of association with good friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is good people.
That is to say, because there are good people, there wil be association with good friends.
Once there is association with good friends, there wil be hearing of the true Dharma.

Once there is hearing of the true Dharma, faith wil be engendered.

Once faith is engendered, there wil be right at ention.
Once there is right at ention, there wil be right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Once there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be guarding of the sense faculties.
Once there is guarding of the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of good conduct.
Once there are the three types of good conduct, there wil be the four establishments of mindfulness.
Once there are the four establishments of mindfulness, there wil be the seven factors of awakening.
Once there are the seven factors of awakening, there wil be wisdom and liberation.
This is how, step by step, wisdom and liberation come about.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

53 - MA 53 The [Second] Discourse on Nutriments


53. The [Second] Discourse on Nutriments

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
One cannot know the point at which craving for existence began, the point before which there was no craving for existence and at which craving for existence arose.
But one can understand the causes for crav- 489b ing for existence.
Craving for existence has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of craving for existence?
The answer is:
its nutriment is ignorance.
Ignorance too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of ignorance?
The answer is:
its nutriment is the five hindrances.
The five hindrances too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the five hindrances?
The answer is:
their 339
nutriment is the three types of wrong conduct.
The three types of wrong conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the three types of wrong conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is failure to guard the sense faculties.
Failure to guard the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of failure to guard the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of right at ention.
Lack of right attention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of lack of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is lack of faith.
Lack of faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of lack of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing wrong teachings.
Hearing wrong teachings too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing wrong teachings?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with bad friends.
Association with bad friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of association with bad friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is bad people.

[It is just as it is] with the great ocean.
It too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the great ocean?

The answer is:
the rain is its nutriment.

At times it rains heavily and after the rain the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are fil ed with water.
The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains being fil ed, the smal streams are fil ed.

The smal streams being fil ed, the large streams are fil ed.
The large streams being fil ed, the smal rivers are fil ed.
The smal rivers being fil ed, the large rivers are fil ed.
The large rivers being fil ed, the great ocean is filled.
This is how, step by step, the great ocean is filled.

In the same way, because there are bad people, there wil be association with bad friends.
Once there is association with bad friends,

there will be hearing of wrong teachings.
Once there is hearing of wrong teachings, there wil be lack of faith.
Once there is lack of faith, there wil be lack of right at ention.
Once there is lack of right at ention, there wil be lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be failure to guard the sense faculties.
Once there is failure to guard the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of wrong conduct.
Once there are the three types of wrong conduct, there wil be the five hindrances.
Once there are the five hindrances, there wil be ignorance.

Once there is ignorance, there wil be craving for existence.
This is how, step by step, craving for existence comes about.

[Likewise,] wisdom and liberation have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of wisdom and liberation?
The answer is:
Their nutriment is the seven factors of awakening.
The seven factors of awakening too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.
489c What is the nutriment of the seven factors of awakening?
The answer is:
their nutriment is the four establishments of mindfulness.

The four establishments of mindfulness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the four establishments of mindfulness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is the three types of good conduct.
The three types of good conduct too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of the three types of good conduct?
The answer is:
their nutriment is guarding the sense faculties.
Guarding the sense faculties too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of guarding the sense faculties?
The answer is:
its nutriment is right mindfulness and right attentiveness.
Right mindfulness and right at entiveness too have their nutriment;
they are not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of right mindfulness and right at entiveness?

The answer is:
their nutriment is right at ention.
Right at ention too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

341
What is the nutriment of right at ention?
The answer is:
its nutriment is faith.
Faith too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of faith?
The answer is:
its nutriment is hearing the true Dharma.
Hearing the true Dharma too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of hearing the true Dharma?
The answer is:
its nutriment is association with good friends.
Association with good friends too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.

What is the nutriment of association with good friends?
The answer is:
its nutriment is good people.

[It is just as] with the great ocean.
It too has its nutriment;
it is not without nutriment.
What is the nutriment of the great ocean?
The answer is:
the rain is its nutriment.

At times it rains heavily and after the rain the mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains are fil ed with water.
The mountain creeks and the marshes of the plains being fil ed, the smal streams are fil ed.

The smal streams being fil ed, the large streams are fil ed.
The large streams being fil ed, the smal rivers are fil ed.
The smal rivers being fil ed, the large rivers are fil ed.
The large rivers being fil ed, the great ocean is filled.
This is how, step by step, the great ocean is filled.

In the same way, because there are good people, there wil be association with good friends.
Once there is association with good friends, there wil be hearing of the true Dharma.
Once there is hearing of the true Dharma, faith wil be engendered.
Once faith is engendered, there wil be right at ention.
Once there is right at ention, there wil be right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Once there is right mindfulness and right at entiveness, there wil be guarding of the sense faculties.

Once there is guarding of the sense faculties, there wil be the three types of good conduct.
Once there are the three types of good conduct, there wil be the four establishments of mindfulness.
Once there are the four establishments of mindfulness, there wil be the seven factors of awakening.
Once there are the seven factors of awakening, there wil be wisdom and liberation.
This is how, step by step, wisdom and liberation come about.



This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

54 - MA 54 The Discourse on [Attaining the] Wisdom of Cessation [of the Taints]


54. The Discourse on [Attaining the] Wisdom of Cessation [of the Taints]
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying among the Kurus, 490a in the Kuru city of Kammāsadhamma.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
With knowledge and vision one can at ain cessation of the taints, not without knowledge and without vision.
How does one at ain cessation of the taints by knowledge and vision?
By knowing and seeing suffering as it real y is, one at ains cessation of the taints.
By knowing and seeing, as it real y is, the origin of suffering, the ending of suffering, and the path to the ending of suffering one attains cessation of the taints.

The wisdom of cessation [of the taints] is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is the wisdom of cessation [of the taints]

conditioned?
The answer is:
the wisdom of cessation [of the taints] is conditioned by liberation.

Liberation too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is liberation conditioned?
The answer is:
liberation is conditioned by dispassion.

Dispassion too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is dispassion conditioned?
The answer is:
dispassion is conditioned by disenchantment.

Disenchantment too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is disenchantment conditioned?
The answer is:
disenchantment is conditioned by seeing and knowing things as they really are.

Seeing and knowing things as they real y are is conditioned too;
it is not without conditions.
By what is seeing and knowing things as they real y are conditioned?
The answer is:
seeing and knowing things as they real y are is conditioned by concentration.

Concentration too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is concentration conditioned?
The answer is:
concentration is conditioned by happiness.

343
Happiness too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is happiness conditioned?
The answer is:
happiness is conditioned by tranquility.

Tranquility too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is tranquility conditioned?
The answer is:
tranquility is conditioned by rapture.

Rapture too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is rapture conditioned?
The answer is:
rapture is conditioned by joy.

Joy too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is joy conditioned?
The answer is:
joy is conditioned by being without regret.

Being without regret too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is being without regret conditioned?
The answer is:
being without regret is conditioned by keeping the precepts.

Keeping the precepts too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is keeping the precepts conditioned?
The answer is:
keeping the precepts is conditioned by guarding the sense faculties.

Guarding the sense faculties too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is guarding the sense faculties conditioned?
The answer is:
guarding the sense faculties is conditioned by right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Right mindfulness and right attentiveness too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.
By what are right mindfulness and right at entiveness conditioned?
The answer is:
right mindfulness and right at entiveness are conditioned by right at ention.

Right at ention too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is right at ention conditioned?
The answer is:
right at ention is conditioned by faith.

Faith too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is faith conditioned?
The answer is:
faith is conditioned by accepting the Dharma through reflection.
Accepting the Dharma through reflection too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is accepting the Dharma through reflection conditioned?
The answer is:
accepting the Dharma through reflection is conditioned by recitation of the Dharma.



Recitation of the Dharma too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is recitation of the Dharma conditioned?
The answer is:
recitation of the Dharma is conditioned by memorizing the Dharma.

Memorizing the Dharma too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is memorizing the Dharma conditioned?
The answer is:
memorizing the Dharma is conditioned by reflecting on its meaning.

Reflecting on the meaning of the Dharma too is conditioned;
it 490b is not without conditions.
By what is reflecting on its meaning conditioned?
The answer is:
reflecting on its meaning is conditioned by hearing.

Hearing too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is hearing conditioned?
The answer is:
hearing is conditioned by listening to the true Dharma.

Listening to the true Dharma too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is listening to the true Dharma conditioned?
The answer is:
listening to the true Dharma is conditioned by approaching

[a teacher].

Approaching [a teacher] too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is approaching [a teacher] conditioned?
The answer is:
approaching [a teacher] is conditioned by having respect.

If one has respect for good friends, one hears what one has not heard before, and having heard it, benefits from it.
If there are good friends, but one does not have respect for them, then this is detrimental to having respect.

Lack of having respect is detrimental to approaching [a teacher].

Lack of approaching [a teacher] is detrimental to listening to the true Dharma.
Lack of listening to the true Dharma is detrimental to hearing.

Lack of hearing is detrimental to reflecting on the meaning of the Dharma.
Lack of reflecting on the meaning of the Dharma is detrimental to memorizing the Dharma.
Lack of memorizing the Dharma is detrimental to recitation of the Dharma.
Lack of recitation of the Dharma is detrimental to acceptance of the Dharma through reflection.
Lack of acceptance of the Dharma through reflection is detrimental to faith.

Lack of faith is detrimental to right at ention.
Lack of right at ention 345
is detrimental to right mindfulness and right at entiveness.
Lack of right mindfulness and right at entiveness is detrimental to the conditions for guarding the sense faculties, for keeping the precepts, for being without regret, for experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, for seeing and knowing things as they real y are, for disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And lack of liberation is detrimental to the condition for the wisdom of cessation [of the taints].

If, [however,] one has respect for good friends, then one hears what one has not heard before, and having heard it, benefits from it.

Therefore, if one has respect for them, the condition of having respect exists.
If there is respect, the condition for approaching [a teacher]

exists.
If there is approaching [a teacher], the condition for listening to the true Dharma exists.
If there is listening to the true Dharma, the condition for hearing exists.
If there is hearing, the condition for reflecting on the meaning of the Dharma exists.
If there is reflection on the meaning of the Dharma, the condition for memorizing the Dharma exists.
If there is memorization of the Dharma, the condition for reciting it exists.
If there is recitation of the Dharma, the condition for accepting the Dharma through reflection exists.
If there is acceptance of the Dharma through reflection, the condition for faith exists.
If there is faith, the condition for right at ention exists.
If there is right at ention, the condition for right mindfulness and right at entiveness exists.
If there are right mindfulness and right at entiveness, the conditions exist for guarding the sense faculties, for keeping the precepts, for being without regret, for experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, for seeing and knowing things as they real y are, for disenchantment, dispassion, and liberation.
And if there is liberation, the condition exists for the wisdom of cessation [of the taints].

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

55 - MA 55 The Discourse on Nirvana


55. The Discourse on Nirvana

490c Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.



At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:

[The at ainment of] nirvana is conditioned;
it is not without condition.

By what is [the at ainment of] nirvana conditioned?
The answer is:

[the at ainment of] nirvana is conditioned by liberation.

Liberation too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is liberation conditioned?
The answer is:
liberation is conditioned by dispassion.

Dispassion too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is dispassion conditioned?
The answer is:
dispassion is conditioned by disenchantment.

Disenchantment too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is disenchantment conditioned?
The answer is:
disenchantment is conditioned by seeing and knowing things as they really are.

Seeing and knowing things as they real y are is conditioned too;
it is not without conditions.
By what is seeing and knowing things as they real y are conditioned?
The answer is:
seeing and knowing things as they real y are is conditioned by concentration.

Concentration too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is concentration conditioned?
The answer is:
concentration is conditioned by happiness.

Happiness too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is happiness conditioned?
The answer is:
happiness is conditioned by tranquility.

Tranquility too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is tranquility conditioned?
The answer is:
tranquility is conditioned by rapture.

Rapture too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is rapture conditioned?
The answer is:
rapture is conditioned by joy.

Joy too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is joy conditioned?
The answer is:
Joy is conditioned by being without regret.

Being without regret too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is being without regret conditioned?
The answer is:
being without regret is conditioned by keeping the precepts.

Keeping the precepts too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

347
By what is keeping the precepts conditioned?
The answer is:
keeping the precepts is conditioned by guarding the sense faculties.

Guarding the sense faculties too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is guarding the sense faculties conditioned?
The answer is:
guarding the sense faculties is conditioned by right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Right mindfulness and right attentiveness too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.
By what are right mindfulness and right at entiveness conditioned?
The answer is:
right mindfulness and right at entiveness are conditioned by right at ention.

Right at ention too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is right at ention conditioned?
The answer is:
right at ention is conditioned by faith.

Faith too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is faith conditioned?
The answer is:
faith is conditioned by suffering.

Suffering too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is suffering conditioned?
The answer is:
suffering is conditioned by old age and death.

Old age and death too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.
By what are old age and death conditioned?
The answer is:
old age and death are conditioned by birth.

Birth too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is birth conditioned?
The answer is:
birth is conditioned by the process of existence.

The process of existence too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is the process of existence conditioned?
The answer is:
the process of existence is conditioned by clinging.

Clinging too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is clinging conditioned?
The answer is:
clinging is conditioned by craving.
Craving too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is craving conditioned?
The answer is:
craving is conditioned by feeling.

Feeling too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is feeling conditioned?
The answer is:
feeling is conditioned by contact.

Contact too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what

is contact conditioned?
The answer is:
contact is conditioned by the six senses.

The six senses too are conditioned;
they are not without condi- 491a tions.
148 By what are the six senses conditioned?
The answer is:
the six senses are conditioned by name-and-form.
Name-and-form too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.
By what is name-and-form conditioned?
The answer is:
name-and-form is conditioned by consciousness.
Consciousness too is conditioned;
it is not without conditions.

By what is consciousness conditioned?
The answer is:
consciousness is conditioned by karmic formations.
Karmic formations too are conditioned;
they are not without conditions.
By what are karmic formations conditioned?
The answer is:
karmic formations are conditioned by ignorance.

Thus, based on ignorance there are karmic formations.
Based on karmic formations there is consciousness.
Based on consciousness there is name-and-form.
Based on name-and-form there are the six senses.
Based on the six senses there is contact.
Based on contact there is feeling.
Based on feeling there is craving.
Based on craving there is clinging.
Based on clinging there is the process of existence.
Based on the process of existence there is birth.
Based on birth there is old age and death.
Based on old age and death there is suffering.

Conditioned by suffering there is faith.
Conditioned by faith there is right at ention.
Conditioned by right at ention there are right mindfulness and right at entiveness.

Conditioned by right mindfulness and right at entiveness there is guarding of the sense faculties, keeping of the precepts, being without regret, experiencing joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, seeing and knowing things as they real y are, disenchantment, dispassion, liberation.
And conditioned by liberation, nirvana is attained.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

56 - MA 56 The Discourse to Meghiya


56. The Discourse to Meghiya
Thus have I heard:
Once the Buddha was staying in Magadha, near the vil age of Jatu,150 in a cave in a lonely wild mango grove.

349
At that time Venerable Meghiya was his at endant.
Early one morning Venerable Meghiya put on his robe, took his bowl, and entered the vil age of Jatu to beg for food.
Having finished begging for food, he went to the bank of the river Kimikāḷā, where he saw a level spot cal ed the Good Mango Grove.

The water of the Kimikāḷā was pleasant and agreeable, [coming] from a clear spring and being of gentle flow, not too cold and not too warm.
Seeing this, Venerable Meghiya felt joy and thought:

This is a level spot cal ed the Good Mango Grove.
Here the water of the Kimikāḷā is pleasant and agreeable, [coming] from a clear spring and being of gentle flow, not too cold and not too warm.
If a clansman wished to practice striving,151 he should do it in such a place.
I too have something to strive for, perhaps I should practice striving [here] in this secluded place.

In the afternoon Venerable Meghiya, having finished his meal and put away his robe and bowl, washed his hands and feet, and, with his sit ing mat on his shoulder, approached the Buddha.
He paid homage at [the Buddha’s]

feet, sat to one side, and said:

World-honored One, early this morning I put on my robe, took my bowl, and entered the vil age of Jatu to beg for food.
Having finished begging for food, I went to the bank of the river Kimikāḷā, where I 491b

found a level spot cal ed Good Mango Grove.
The water of the Kimikāḷā

there was pleasant and agreeable, [coming] from a clear spring and being of gentle flow, not too cold and not too warm.
Seeing this, I felt joy and thought:

This is a level spot cal ed the Good Mango Grove.
Here the water of the Kimikāḷā is pleasant and agreeable, [coming] from a clear spring and being of gentle flow, not too cold and not too warm.
If a clansman wished to practice striving, he should do it in such a place.
I too have something to strive for, perhaps I should practice striving [here] in this secluded place.

World-honored One, I now wish to go to this secluded mango grove to practice striving.



Then the World-honored One said:

Meghiya, don’t you know, I am al by myself here, with no at endant

[apart from you].
Wait a lit le, until some other monk comes along to serve as my at endant, then you can go to that secluded mango grove to practice.

Three times the venerable Meghiya said:
“World-honored One, I now wish to go to that secluded mango grove to practice striving.”
And three times the World-honored One responded:

Meghiya, don’t you know, I am al by myself here, with no at endant

[apart from you].
Wait a lit le, until some other monk comes along to serve as my at endant, then you can go to that secluded mango grove to practice.

Then Meghiya said:

For the World-honored One there is nothing more to do, nothing that has to be done, nothing that has to be contemplated.
For me, however, there is stil more to do, there is more that has to be done, there is more to contemplate.
World-honored One, I wil go to that secluded mango grove to practice striving.

The World-honored One said:
“Meghiya, since you wish to seek striving, what else can I say?
Go, Meghiya, and do as you wish.”


Venerable Meghiya, having heard the Buddha’s words, accepted them wel , retained them wel , and repeated them wel .
He paid homage at the Buddha’s feet, circumambulated him three times, and left.
He went to the mango grove and having entered it, spread out his sit ing mat under a tree and sat cross-legged.

While Venerable Meghiya was sit ing in the mango grove three kinds of bad, unwholesome thoughts arose in him:
thoughts of desire, thoughts of hatred, and thoughts of harming.
Because of this, he recal ed the World-honored One.

In the late afternoon he rose from sitting in meditation, went to the Buddha, paid homage at his feet, and sat to one side.
He said:
351
World-honored One, I went to the mango grove, and while I was sit ing in that secluded place three kinds of bad, unwholesome thoughts arose in me:
thoughts of desire, thoughts of hatred, and thoughts of harming.

Because of that, I recal ed the World-honored One.

The World-honored One said:

Meghiya, there are five supporting conditions that are conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.
What are the five?

Meghiya, a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends—this, Meghiya, is the first supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, Meghiya, a monk observes the training in the precepts, 491c

guards [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y controls his comportment [in accordance with] proper conduct, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.
Keeping the precepts, Meghiya, is the second supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, Meghiya, a monk engages in talk about noble, meaningful mat ers, mat ers that cause the mind to become gentle, cause it to be without hindrances, namely, talk about the precepts, about concentration, wisdom, liberation, the knowledge and vision that come with liberation, talk about self-ef acement, about not enjoying socializing, about reducing desire, about contentment, abandoning,152 dispassion, extinction, sit ing in meditation, and about dependent origination.

To obtain, in this way, the [kind of] talk appropriate for renunciants, ful y, easily, without difficulty—this, Meghiya, is the third supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, Meghiya, a monk makes relentless effort to abandon what is unwholesome and to cultivate al wholesome states.
He constantly arouses the single-minded and unwavering intention to cultivate wholesome roots, without giving up his task.

This, Meghiya, is the fourth supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.



Again, Meghiya, a monk develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.

This, Meghiya, is the fifth supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Once endowed with these five supporting conditions, [a monk]

should practice further in four ways.

What are the four ways?
He practices meditation on impurity [of the body] in order to cut off desire.
He practices loving-kindness meditation in order to cut off hatred.
He practices mindfulness of breathing in order to cut off distracting thoughts.
He practices perception of impermanence in order to cut off the conceit “I am.”


Meghiya, if a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to observe the training in the precepts, guard

[against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y control his comportment [in accordance with] proper conduct, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.

Meghiya, if a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to speak about noble, meaningful mat ers, mat ers that cause the mind to become gentle, cause it to be without hindrances, namely, talk about the precepts, concentration, wisdom, liberation, about the knowledge and vision that come with liberation, talk about self-effacement, about not enjoying socializing, about reducing desire, about contentment, abandoning, dispassion, extinction, about sit ing in meditation, and about dependent origination.
He wil be able, in this way, to obtain the [kind of] talk appropriate for renunciants, fully, easily, without difficulty.

Meghiya, if a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to make relentless effort to cut off what is unwholesome and practice al wholesome states.
He wil constantly 353
arouse single-minded and unwavering intention to cultivate wholesome 492a

roots without giving up his task.

Meghiya, if a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to cultivate wisdom.
He develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.

Meghiya, if a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to practice meditation on impurity [of the body]

in order to cut off desire.
He wil practice loving-kindness meditation in order to cut off hatred.
He wil practice mindfulness of breathing in order to cut off distracting thoughts.
He wil practice the perception of impermanence in order to cut off the conceit “I am.”


Meghiya, if a monk has gained perception of impermanence, he is bound to at ain perception of no-self.

Meghiya, if a monk has at ained awareness of no-self, he is bound to completely abandon the conceit “I am” in this lifetime, to attain peace, cessation, extinction, the unconditioned, nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the venerable Meghiya and the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

57 - MA 57 The Discourse Spoken for the Monks


57. The Discourse Spoken for the Monks
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time the World-honored One addressed the monks:
There are five supporting conditions that are conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.
What are the five?

A monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends—this is the first supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.



Again, a monk observes the training in the precepts, guards [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y controls his comportment

[in accordance with] proper conduct, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.
Keeping the precepts is the second supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, a monk speaks about noble, meaningful mat ers, mat ers that cause the mind to become gentle, cause it to be without hindrances, namely, talk about the precepts, about concentration, wisdom, liberation, the knowledge and vision that come with liberation, talk about self-effacement, about not enjoying socializing, about reducing desire, about contentment, abandoning, dispassion, extinction, sit ing in seclusion, and about dependent origination.
To obtain, in this way, the [kind of] talk appropriate for renunciants, ful y, easily, without difficulty—

this is the third supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, a monk makes relentless effort to abandon what is unwholesome, and to cultivate al wholesome states.
He constantly arouses the single-minded and unwavering intention to cultivate wholesome roots, 492b and does not give up his task.
This is the fourth supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Again, a monk develops comprehension and wisdom, at ains understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ains noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.
This is the fifth supporting condition conducive to maturing liberation of the mind that has not yet matured.

Once endowed with these five supporting conditions, [a monk]

should practice further in four ways.
What are the four ways?
He practices meditation on impurity [of the body] in order to cut off desire.

He practices loving-kindness meditation in order to cut off hatred.
He practices mindfulness of breathing in order to cut off distracting thoughts.
He practices perception of impermanence in order to cut off the conceit “I am.”


If a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he 355
is bound to observe the training in the precepts, to guard [against breaking] the code of rules, and skil ful y control his comportment [in accordance with] proper conduct, seeing great danger in even the slightest transgression and being apprehensive of it.

If a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to speak about noble, meaningful mat ers, mat ers that cause the mind to become gentle, cause it to be without hindrances, namely, talk about the precepts, concentration, wisdom, liberation, about the knowledge and vision that come with liberation, talk about self-effacement, about not enjoying socializing, about reducing desire, about contentment, abandoning, dispassion, extinction, about sit ing in meditation, and about dependent origination.
He wil obtain, in this way, [the kind of]

talk appropriate for renunciants, ful y, easily, without difficulty.

If a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to make relentless effort to cut off what is unwholesome and practice al wholesome states.
He wil constantly arouse single-minded and unwavering intention to cultivate wholesome roots, and wil not give up his task.

If a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to develop comprehension and wisdom, at ain understanding concerning the rise and fal of phenomena, at ain noble penetrative knowledge and discriminative understanding concerning the true cessation of suffering.

If a monk is himself a good friend [to others] and associates with good friends, keeps the company of good friends, then know that he is bound to practice meditation on impurity [of the body] in order to cut off desire.
He wil practice loving-kindness meditation in order to cut off hatred.
He wil practice mindfulness of breathing in order to cut off distracting thoughts.
He wil practice the perception of impermanence in order to cut off the conceit “I am.”
If a monk has gained perception of impermanence, he is bound to at ain perception of no-self.



If a monk has at ained awareness of no-self, he is bound to completely abandon the conceit “I am” in this lifetime, to at ain peace, cessation, extinction, the unconditioned, nirvana.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .


..6.. Division 6 On Kings MA 58-71



58 - MA 58 The Discourse on the Seven Treasures


58. The Discourse on the Seven Treasures
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
You should know that when a wheel-turning monarch appears in the world, seven treasures also appear in the world.

What are the seven?
The wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.

You should know that when a wheel-turning monarch appears in the world, these seven treasures appear in the world.

In the same way, you should know that when a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, appears in the world, there also appear in the world the seven treasures of the awakening factors.
What are the seven?
The treasure of the awakening factor of mindfulness, the awakening factor of investigation of phenomena, the awakening factor of effort, the awakening factor of joy, the awakening factor of tranquility, the awakening factor of concentration, and the treasure of the awakening factor of equanimity—these are the seven.

You should know that when a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, appears in the world, these seven awakening factors appear in the world.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

359

59 - MA 59 The Discourse on the Thirty-two Marks


59. The Discourse on the Thirty-two Marks
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, after the midday meal, the monks were sit ing together in the assembly hal discussing this topic:

Venerable friends, it is most wonderful, most remarkable, that for a great man who is endowed with the thirty-two marks there real y and truly are [only] two possibilities:

493b

If he lives the home life, he wil certainly become a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he likes.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ains seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—

these are the seven.

He wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

If, [however,] he shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path, then he wil certainly become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
His fame will spread and be known in all directions.

At that time the World-honored One was sit ing in meditation.
With the divine ear, which is pure and surpasses human [hearing], he heard the monks, sit ing together in the assembly hal after the midday meal, discussing this topic:
Venerable friends, it is most wonderful, most remarkable, that for a great man who is endowed with the thirty-two marks there real y and truly are [only] two possibilities:
If he lives the home life, he wil certainly become a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he likes.

Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ains seven treasures.
Those seven

treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.
He wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

If, [however,] he shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path, then he wil certainly become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
His fame will spread and be known in all directions.

Having heard this, in the afternoon the World-honored One rose from seclusion, went to the assembly hal , and sat down on a seat arranged before the company of monks.
He asked the monks, “What topic were you discussing while sit ing together in the assembly hal today?”


The monks answered:

World-honored One, while sit ing together in the assembly hal today, we were discussing this topic:

Venerable friends, it is most wonderful, most remarkable that for a great man who is endowed with the thirty-two marks there real y and truly are [only] two possibilities.
If he lives the home life, he wil certainly become a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he likes.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ains seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.

He wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He will certainly rule over the whole 493c earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

If, [however,] he shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path, 361
then he wil certainly become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and fully awakened.
His fame will spread and be known in all directions.

World-honored One, it was to discuss this topic that we sat together in the assembly hal .

Then the World-honored One told them:

Monks, would you like to hear from the Tathāgata the thirty-two marks, with which a so-cal ed great man is endowed, [for whom] there are real y and truly [only] two possibilities?

If he lives the home life, he wil certainly become a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he likes.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ains seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—

these are the seven.

He wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

If, [however,] he shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path, then he wil certainly become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
His fame will spread and be known in all directions.

Hearing this, the monks replied:

World-honored One, this is the right occasion.
Wel -gone One, this is the right occasion.
If the World-honored One would explain to the monks the thirty-two marks, the monks, hearing it, wil receive and retain it wel .

The World-honored One said, “Monks, listen careful y.
Listen careful y, and pay proper at ention.
I wil explain it in ful for you.”


Then the monks listened to receive instruction.



The Buddha said:

A great man’s feet stand flat and even on the earth.
This is called a great man’s mark of a great man.
Again, the soles of the feet of a great man bear the wheel with a thousand spokes, al complete.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the toes of a great man are long and slender.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the outline of a great man’s feet is level and straight.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the heels and ankles of a great man are equal and ful on both sides.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, both ankles of a great man are even.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the body hairs of a great man are turned upward.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man has webbed hands and feet, like a royal goose.

This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the hands and feet of a great man are very tender and soft like lotuses.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

494a

Again, the skin of a great man is soft and fine;
dust and water do not adhere to it.
This is called a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, every single bodily hair of a great man is separate, grows from a single pore, has a dark purple color, and curls to the right like a spiral shel .
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man’s thighs are like those of a royal deer.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man’s male organ is concealed, like that of a wel -

bred royal horse.
This is called a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the body shape of a great man is wel rounded and in proper proportion, like a banyan tree.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man, with his body not bent, without bending his body, while standing erect, can touch his knees with his hands.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

363
Again, a great man’s body is of a golden complexion like pure gold with a purple tinge.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the seven parts of a great man’s body are complete.
The seven complete parts are the two hands, the two legs, the two shoulders, and the neck.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the upper part of a great man’s body is large like that of a lion.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man’s jaws are like those of a lion.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man has a straight spine and back.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the shoulders of a great man are connected with the neck evenly and fully.
This is called a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man is equipped with forty teeth.
His teeth are even, there are no spaces between the teeth, the teeth are white, and he is able to taste the best of flavors.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man is endowed with a sweet celestial voice like that of the karavīka bird.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man has a long and wide tongue that can cover his entire face when extended from the mouth.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, the eyelashes of a great man are ful , like those of a royal ox.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man’s eyes are blue.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man has a fleshy protuberance on the crown that is round and in proportion, with the hairs curling to the right like a spiral shel .
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Again, a great man has white hairs that curl to the right growing between his eyebrows.
This is cal ed a great man’s mark of a great man.

Monks, for a great man who is endowed with these thirty-two marks there real y and truly are [only] two possibilities.
If he lives the home life, he wil certainly become a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world,

freely, as he likes.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ains seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, 494b the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.

He wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

If, [however,] he shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path, then he wil certainly become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
His fame will spread and be known in all directions.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

60 - MA 60 The Discourse on the Four Continents


60. The Discourse on the Four Continents
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time Venerable Ānanda, who was sit ing in meditation in a quiet place, reflecting, had this thought:

Very few people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures, and only few become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.
It is very rare that people in the world are able to fulfill their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures or become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.

Then, in the evening, Venerable Ānanda rose from sit ing in meditation and approached the Buddha.
Having arrived there, he made obeisance, sat down to one side, and said:

World-honored One.
Today, [while] sitting in meditation in a quiet place, reflecting, I had this thought:

Very few people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures, and only few become disenchanted 365
with sensual pleasures by the time they die.
It is very rare that people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures or become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.

The Buddha told Ānanda:

That is so.
That is so.
Very few people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures, and only few become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.
It is very rare, Ānanda, that people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures or become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.

It is extremely rare, Ānanda, extremely rare indeed, that people in the world are able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures, or become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.
On the contrary, Ānanda, many people in the world, a great many, are not able to fulfil their intentions in regard to sensual pleasures and do not become disenchanted with sensual pleasures by the time they die.
Why is that?

In the past, Ānanda, there was a king cal ed Mandhātu, a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he liked.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he at ained seven treasures.
Those seven treasures were 494c

the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these were the seven.

He had a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He certainly ruled over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

Then, Ānanda, after a very long time, King Mandhātu thought:
I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and a thousand sons.
[But] I wish that it would rain treasures in the palace for seven days until they have accumulated up to my knees.



Ānanda, because King Mandhātu was endowed with great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, as soon as he had this wishful thought, it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to his knees.

Then, Ānanda, after a very long time, King Mandhātu thought:
I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and have a thousand sons;
and it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to my knees.

I recal having heard from the ancients that there is a continent in the west cal ed Godānī, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants.
I now wish to go and see the continent of Godānī.
Having gone there, I wil subdue it completely.

Ānanda, because King Mandhātu was endowed with great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, as soon as he had this wishful thought, by means of his supernormal power he traveled there through the air, along with his fourfold army.

Ānanda, King Mandhātu soon reached the continent of Godānī

and remained there.
Ānanda, King Mandhātu subdued the continent of Godānī completely, and remained there for countless hundreds and thousands of years.

Then, Ānanda, after a very long time, King Mandhātu again thought:

I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and have a thousand sons;
and it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to my knees.
I also rule over the continent of Godānī.

I also recall having heard from the ancients that there is a continent in the east cal ed Pubbavideha, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants.
I now wish to go and see the continent of Pubbavideha.
Having gone there, I wil subdue it completely.

367
Ānanda, because King Mandhātu was endowed with great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, as soon as he had this wishful thought, by means of his supernormal power he traveled there through the air, along with his fourfold army.
Ānanda, King Mandhātu soon reached the continent of Pubba -

495a

videha and remained there.
Ānanda, King Mandhātu subdued the continent of Pubbavideha completely, and remained there for countless hundreds and thousands of years.

Then, Ānanda, after a very long time, King Mandhātu again thought:

I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and have a thousand sons;
and it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to my knees.
I also rule over the continent of Godānī and the continent of Pubbavideha.

I also recal having heard from the ancients that there is a continent in the north cal ed Ut arakuru, very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants, who have no perception of self and no possessions.
I now wish to go and see the continent of Ut arakuru, along with my retainers.
Having gone there, I wil subdue it completely.

Ānanda, because King Mandhātu was endowed with great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, as soon as he had this wishful thought, by means of his supernormal power he traveled there through the air, along with his fourfold army.

Ānanda, King Mandhātu saw from afar that the plains were white and said to his courtiers, “Do you see that the plains of Ut arakuru are white?”


The courtiers answered, “Yes, your majesty.
We see it.”


The king said further,

Did you know that that [white color] is natural white rice, which is the staple food of the people of Ut arakuru?
You too should eat this food.



Ānanda, King Mandhātu also saw from afar that on the continent of Ut arakuru there were various kinds of trees, clean, excel ent, decorative, and of various colors, which were surrounded by a fence.

He said to his courtiers:

Do you see that on the continent of Ut arakuru there are various kinds of trees, clean, excel ent, decorative, and of various colors, which are surrounded by a fence?

The courtiers answered, “Yes, your majesty.
We see them.”


The king said further:

Did you know that these trees produce clothes for the people of Ut arakuru?
The people of Ut arakuru take these clothes and wear them.
You too should take these clothes and wear them.

Ānanda, King Mandhātu soon reached the continent of Ut arakuru and remained there.
Ānanda, King Mandhātu subdued the continent of Ut arakuru completely and remained there for countless hundreds and thousands of years, along with his retainers.

Then, Ānanda, after a very long time, King Mandhātu again thought:
I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and have a thousand sons;
and it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to my knees.
I also rule over the continent of Godānī, the continent of Pubbavideha, and the continent of Ut arakuru.
I also heard from the ancients that there is a heaven 495b cal ed the heaven of the thirty-three.
I now wish to go and see the heaven of the thirty-three.

Ānanda, because King Mandhātu was endowed with great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power, as soon as he had this wishful thought, by means of his supernormal power he traveled through the air toward the sunlight, along with his fourfold army.

Ānanda, King Mandhātu saw from afar that in the heaven of the thirty-three, on Sumeru, king of mountains, there was something 369
resembling a great cloud.
He said to his courtiers, “Do you see, in the heaven of the thirty-three, on Sumeru, king of mountains, something resembling a great cloud?”


The courtiers answered, “Yes, your majesty.
We see it.”


The king said further:

Did you know that that is the coral tree of the thirty-three gods?

Under this tree the thirty-three gods, endowed with the five kinds of sensual pleasures, enjoy themselves during the four months of the summer.

Ānanda, King Mandhātu also saw from afar that in the heaven of the thirty-three, on Sumeru, king of mountains, near its southern side, there was something resembling a great cloud.
He said to his courtiers:
Do you see, in the heaven of the thirty-three, on Sumeru, king of mountains, near its southern side, something resembling a great cloud?

The courtiers answered, “Yes, your majesty.
We see it.”


The king said further:

Did you know that that is the Sudhamma Hal of the thirty-three gods?
In this Sudhamma Hal the thirty-three gods reflect on the Dharma and on its meaning for gods and human beings on the eighth day and the fourteenth [or] fifteenth day [of each lunar fortnight].

Then, Ānanda, King Mandhātu soon reached the heaven of the thirty-three.
Having reached the heaven of the thirty-three, he entered the Sudhamma Hal .
There Sakka, ruler of the gods, gave King Mandhātu half of his throne to sit on.
King Mandhātu then sat on half of the throne of Sakka, ruler of the gods.

Then [as they sat there], King Mandhātu and Sakka, ruler of the gods, were indistinguishable.
There was no difference between them in radiance, complexion, or form;
there was also no difference in movements, mannerisms, or clothing.
The only difference was in regard to the blinking of eyes.



Then, Ānanda, after a very long time King Mandhātu again thought:

I rule over Jambudīpa, which is very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
I possess the seven treasures and have a thousand sons;
and it rained treasures in the palace for seven days until they had accumulated up to my knees.
I also rule over the continent of Godānī, the continent of Pubbavideha, and the continent of Ut arakuru.

Also, I have visited the meeting of the great assembly of the thirty-three gods.
I have entered the celestial Sudhamma Hall, where Sakka, ruler of the gods, gave me half of his throne to sit on.
I was able to sit on half of the throne of Sakka, ruler of the gods.
[As we sat there,] I and Sakka, ruler of the gods, were indistinguishable.
There was no difference between us in radiance, 495c complexion, or form;
there was also no difference in movements, mannerisms, or clothing.
The only difference was in regard to the blinking of eyes.
I now want to oust Sakka, ruler of the gods, take over the other half of the throne, and become king of gods and human beings, [reigning] freely, as I like.

Ānanda, as soon as King Mandhātu had this wishful thought, before he knew it, he had fal en back to Jambudīpa, lost his supernormal powers, and become seriously il .
As King Mandhātu was dying, his courtiers went to him and said:

Your majesty, if brahmins, householders, and [your] subjects come and ask us what King Mandhātu said as he was dying, how, your majesty, should we answer these brahmins, householders, and subjects?

Then King Mandhātu told the courtiers:

If brahmins, householders, and [my] subjects come and ask you what King Mandhātu said as he was dying, you should answer like this:
“[Even though] King Mandhātu obtained the continent of Jambudīpa, his intentions were not fulfil ed by the time he died.

371
[Even though] King Mandhātu obtained the seven treasures, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.
[Even though] he had a thousand sons, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.
[Even though] for King Mandhātu treasures rained down for seven days, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.

[Even though] King Mandhātu obtained the continent of Godānī, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.
[Even though] King Mandhātu obtained the continent of Pubba -

videha, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.

[Even though] King Mandhātu obtained the continent of Ut arakuru, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.

[Even though] King Mandhātu visited the assembly of the gods, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.

[Even though] King Mandhātu was endowed with the five kinds of sensual pleasures, forms, sounds, smel s, flavors, and tactile sensations, his intentions were not fulfil ed by this by the time he died.

If brahmins, householders, and [my] subjects come and ask you what King Mandhātu said as he was dying, you should answer like this.

Then the World-honored One ut ered these verses:

[Even if it] rains wonderful treasures,

One who has desire wil not be satisfied.

Desire is suffering, devoid of pleasure—

This the wise should know.

Even if [one who has desire] obtains a mass of gold, As great as the Himalaya,

He wil not be satisfied at al —

Thus the wise reflect.

[Even on] gaining the five sublime heavenly sensual pleasures He does not delight in these five,

A [true] disciple of the Ful y Awakened One,

[Instead] wishes for the destruction of craving and for non-at achment.


Then the World-honored One said:

Ānanda, do you think that King Mandhātu of ancient times was someone other [than me]?
Do not think so.
You should know that he was me.

At that time, Ānanda, I wanted to benefit myself, to benefit others, 496a to benefit many people;
I had compassion for the whole world, and I sought prosperity, benefit, peace, and happiness for gods and human beings.

The teaching I gave at that time did not lead to the ultimate, was not the ultimate purity, not the ultimate holy life, not the ultimate completion of the holy life.
At that time I was not able to abandon birth, old age, disease, death, sorrow, and distress, and I was not able to at ain liberation from al suffering.

Ānanda, I have now appeared in this world as a Tathāgata, free of at achment, ful y awakened, perfect in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -

gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One.
I now benefit myself, benefit others, benefit many people;
I have compassion for the whole world, and I seek prosperity, benefit, peace, and happiness for gods and human beings.

The teaching I now give leads to the ultimate, is the ultimate purity, the ultimate completion of the holy life.
I have now abandoned birth, old age, sickness, death, sorrow, and distress.
I have now at ained complete liberation from suffering.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Venerable Ānanda and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

MA 61-71


61 - MA 61 The Discourse with the Cow Dung Parable


61. The Discourse with the Cow Dung Parable
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, a monk, who was sit ing in meditation reflecting in a quiet place, had this thought:

373
Is there any form that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever?
Is there any feeling, any perception, any volitional formation, any consciousness that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever?

Then, in the evening, that monk rose from sitting in meditation, approached the Buddha, made obeisance with his head [at the Buddha’s feet], and sat down to one side.
He said:

World-honored One, today I was sit ing in meditation in a quiet place, reflecting, and I had this thought:

Is there any material form that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever?
Is there any feeling, any perception, any volitional formation, any consciousness that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever?

The Buddha told the monk:

There is no material form that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever.
There is no feeling, no perception, no volitional formation, no consciousness that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever.

Then the World-honored One took up a lit le bit of cow dung with his fingernail, and said, “Monk, do you see the lit le bit of cow dung that I have taken up with my fingernail?”


496b

The monk said, “Yes, World-honored One.
I see it.”


The Buddha further told the monk:

[Smal as this is], there is not even such a smal amount of material form that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever.
[Smal as this is], there is not even such a smal amount of feeling, of perception, of volitional formations, of consciousness that is eternal and unchanging, is entirely pleasant, and exists forever.

Why is that?
Monk, I recal how, in the distant past, I practiced meritorious deeds for a long time.
Having practiced meritorious deeds for a long time, I experienced pleasant results for a long time.
Monk,

[because] in the distant past I had practiced loving-kindness for seven years, I did not come to [be born in] this world for seven cosmic periods of emergence and destruction.

When the world went to destruction, I was born into the heaven of radiance.
When the world emerged [again], I descended to take birth in a vacant Brahmā palace.
Among the Brahmās [there] I was the Great Brahmā, being the self-created heavenly king over other places for a thousand cosmic periods.
[Again,] I was Sakka, king of the gods, for thirty-six cosmic periods, and I was the khat iya king Mandhātu for countless cosmic periods.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand great elephants, equipped with fine chariot equipment, decorated with various treasures, with white pearls and jade, the chief of which was the royal elephant, Uposatha.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand horses equipped with fine chariot equipment, decorated with various treasures, gold and silver entwined with jade, the chief of which was the royal horse Valāhaka.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand chariots, decorated with four kinds of ornaments and various beautiful things, such as the hides of lions, tigers, and leopards, woven with decorations of varied colors and various decorations, very fast chariots, the chief of which was the chariot Vejayanta.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand cities, very large and pleasant, with many inhabitants, the chief of which was Kusāvatī.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand multistoried buildings, made of four kinds of precious material, gold, silver, beryl, and crystal, the chief of which was the Su -

dhamma Hal .

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand thrones, made of four kinds of precious materials, gold, silver, beryl, and crystal, and upholstered with woolen textiles, draped with brocades and fine silk fabric, with lined and quilted coverlets, and with cushions [made of] antelope hide at both ends.

375
Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand suits of clothing:
clothing of flax, clothing of brocade, clothing of silk, clothing of cot on, and clothing of antelope hide.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand women, each with a splendid, clear, bright, fresh body, of extraordinary beauty, exceeding human [beauty], almost divine [beauty], dignified beauty that delighted those who saw it, adorned with various 496c

treasures and necklaces of jade and pearl for dignified decoration, pure khattiya women, as well as countless women from other castes.

Monk, when I was the khat iya king Mandhātu, I had eighty-four thousand kinds of food, served day and night constantly for me to eat when I wished.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand kinds of food there was one that was particularly delicious and fresh, with numerous flavors, which I often ate.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand women there was one khat iya woman, the most dignified and beautiful, who often waited on me.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand suits of clothes there was one suit, of flax or brocade or silk or cot on or antelope hide, that I often wore.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand thrones there was one throne, of gold or silver or beryl or crystal, upholstered with woolen textiles, draped with brocade or fine silk fabric, with lined and quilted coverlets, and with cushions [made of] antelope hide at both ends, on which I often sat.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand multistoried buildings, there was one [made of] gold or of silver or of beryl or of crystal, cal ed the Sudhamma Hal , in which I often stayed.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand cities there was one, very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants, named Kusāvatī, in which I often resided.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand chariots there was one, decorated with various beautiful things such as the hide of lions, tigers, and leopards, woven with designs of varied colors, a chariot that was very fast, named Vejayanta, that I often rode in when visiting pleasure parks.



Monk, of those eighty-four thousand horses there was one, with bluish body and crow-like head, the royal horse named Valāhaka that I often rode when visiting pleasure parks.

Monk, of those eighty-four thousand elephants there was one whose entire body was very white and whose seven parts were perfect, the royal elephant named Uposatha that I often rode when visiting pleasure parks.

Monk, I thought:

The fruit and result of what kinds of action have caused me to be endowed today with [such] great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power?

Monk, again I thought:

The fruits and results of three kinds of action cause me to be endowed today with [such] great supernormal power, great and mighty virtue, great merit, great and mighty power.
The first is charitable giving, the second self-discipline, and the third restraint.

Contemplate on it, monk:
Al of that, the whole of it, ceased to be.
The supernormal power too was lost.
What do you think, monk?
Is material 497a form permanent or impermanent?

[The monk] answered, “It is impermanent, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked further, “If it is impermanent, is it suffering or not suffering?”


[The monk] answered, “It is suffering, [since] it changes, World-honored One.”
[The Buddha] asked further:
“If it is impermanent, suffering and subject to change, would a learned noble disciple take it as:
‘This I am, this is mine, or I belong to that’?”


[The monk] answered, “No, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked further, “What do you think, monk?
Are feeling, perception, volitional formations, and consciousness permanent or impermanent?”


[The monk] answered, “They are impermanent, World-honored One.”


377
[The Buddha] asked further, “If they are impermanent, are they suffering or not suffering?”


[The monk] answered, “They are suffering since they change, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked further:

If they are impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, would a learned noble disciple take them as:
“This I am, this is mine, or I belong to that”?

[The monk] answered, “No, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha said:
]

Therefore, monk, you should train like this:

Whatever there is of material form, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, good or bad, near or far—al that should be seen as it real y is with wisdom thus:
al that I am not, that is not mine, I do not belong to that.

Whatever there is of feeling .
. . of perception .
. . of volitional formations .
. . of consciousness, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, good or bad, near or far—al that should be seen as it real y is with wisdom thus:
al that I am not, that is not mine, I do not belong to that.

If, monk, a learned noble disciple contemplates in this way, he becomes disenchanted with material form, he becomes disenchanted with feeling, perception, volitional formations, and consciousness.
Being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate.
Having become dispassionate, he is liberated.

Having been liberated, he knows that he is liberated.
He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


Then that monk, having heard what the Buddha said, received it wel and kept it [in mind].
He rose from his seat, paid respect with his head at the Buddha’s feet, circumambulated him three times and departed.

Having received the Buddha’s instruction, that monk lived alone in a secluded place and practiced diligently, without negligence.
Having lived

alone in a secluded place and practiced diligently, without negligence—he at ained ful y the summit of the holy life, for the sake of which a clansman shaves off his hair and beard, dons the yel ow robe, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path.

In that very life, he personal y at ained understanding and awakening, and dwel ed having personal y realized.
He knew as it real y was:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.

There wil not be another existence.”


Thus that monk, having understood the Dharma (and so on up to), became an arahant.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

62 - MA 62 The Discourse on King Bimbisāra


62. The Discourse on King Bimbisāra

497b

Meeting the Buddha159

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha, who was staying in the country of Magadha with a large company of monks—a thousand monks, al free of attachment, having attained the truth, former matted-hair ascetics—was approaching Rājagaha, a city of Magadha.

Then, the king of Magadha, Bimbisāra, heard that the World-honored One, who was dwel ing in the country of Magadha with a large company of monks—a thousand monks, al free of at achment, having at ained the truth, former matted-hair ascetics—had come to Rājagaha, a city of Magadha.

Having heard that, Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, assembled his fourfold army, that is, elephant troops, cavalry, chariot troops, and infantry.
Having assembled his fourfold army, he went to visit the Buddha accompanied by countless people, [a company that was] one league in length.

Then the World-honored One, seeing from afar that Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, was coming, left the road and went to a wel -established royal banyan tree, placed his sit ing mat beneath it, and sat down cross-legged, together with the company of monks.

Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, saw from afar the World-honored One among the trees of the forest, dignified and beautiful, like the moon amidst the stars, with radiant aura, shining like a golden mountain, endowed with handsome appearance and lofty dignity, with sense faculties calm, free of 379
obstruction, accomplished and disciplined, with his mind calm and quiet.

Seeing this, [the king] descended from his chariot.

Like any khat iya king who has been [consecrated by] the sprinkling of water on his head, who is the lord of his people and reigns over the entire land, he was equipped with the five royal insignia:
first, a sword;
second, a parasol;
third, a royal headdress;
fourth, a fly whisk with bejeweled handle;
and fifth, ornate sandals.
Having put aside al of these and left the fourfold army behind, he approached the Buddha on foot.

Arriving there, he made obeisance and three times announced his name,

“World-honored One, I am the king of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisāra.”
[He said] this three times.

Then, the World-honored One said, “Great king, indeed, indeed, you are Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha.”


Then Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, having announced his name three times, made obeisance to the Buddha and sat down to one side.
Some among the citizens of Magadha made obeisance [with their heads] at the Buddha’s feet and then sat down to one side;
some exchanged greetings with the Buddha and then sat down to one side;
some saluted the Buddha with palms placed together [in respect] and then sat down to one side;
and some, having seen the Buddha from afar, sat down silently.

At that time, Venerable Uruvela Kassapa was sit ing among the company

[of monks].
Venerable Uruvela Kassapa was wel remembered by the citizens 497c of Magadha, being reckoned by them as a great and venerable teacher and a True Person, free of at achment.

Then the citizens of Magadha thought:

Does the renunciant Gotama train in the holy life under Uruvela Kassapa or does Uruvela Kassapa train in the holy life under the renunciant Gotama?

At that time the World-honored One, knowing what the citizens of Magadha were thinking, recited a verse to Venerable Uruvela Kassapa:
Uruvela [Kassapa], what did you see

That you stopped [worshiping] fire and came here?

Tel me, Kassapa,

Why do you no longer [perform] the fire sacrifice?



[Uruvela Kassapa replied:
]

I worshiped fire out of desire

For food and drink of various flavors.

[But] the vision of the middle [path] arose, like this, Therefore, I no longer delighted in [such] sacrifices.

[The Buddha asked further:
]

Kassapa, [though] your mind did not delight

In food and drink of various flavors,

Tel me, Kassapa,

Why did you not delight in [becoming] a dwel er in the heavens?

[Uruvela Kassapa replied:
]

[Since] seeing quiescence, cessation,

And the unconditioned, I do not desire [any] existence, Least of al [that of] the revered heavens.

Therefore, I no longer perform the fire sacrifice.

The World-honored One is supreme,

The World-honored One has no wrong thought,

He has realized and awakened to al things.

I have accepted [his] supreme Dharma.

Then the World-honored One said, “Kassapa, you should now display

[your] supernormal powers, in order to arouse faith and delight in the assembly.”


Then Venerable Uruvela Kassapa performed a supernatural feat such that he disappeared from his seat and appeared in the east, soaring through the air while displaying the four postures, of which the first is walking, the second standing, the third sit ing, and the fourth is reclining.

Again, he entered concentration on the fire [element].
Once Venerable Uruvela Kassapa had entered concentration on the fire [element], there emerged from his body flames of various colors:
blue, yel ow, red, and white, and amid them clear water.
When fire emerged from the lower part of his body, water emerged from the upper part of his body;
when fire emerged from the upper part of his body, water emerged from the lower part of his body.

381
In the same way [he appeared] in the south, .
. . in the west, .
. . in the north, soaring through the air while displaying the four postures, of which the first is walking, the second standing, the third sit ing, and the fourth is reclining.

Again, he entered concentration on the fire [element].
Once Venerable Uruvela Kassapa had entered concentration on the fire [element], there emerged from his body flames of various colors:
blue, yel ow, red, and white, and amid them clear water.
When fire emerged from the lower part of his body, water emerged from the upper part of his body;
when fire emerged from the upper part of his body, water emerged from the lower part of his body.
Then Venerable Uruvela Kassapa, having completed his supernatural feat, made obeisance to the Buddha and said:

498a

World-honored One, the Buddha is my master;
I am the disciple of the Buddha.
The Buddha has al -encompassing knowledge;
I do not have al -encompassing knowledge.

Then the World-honored One said, “So it is, Kassapa;
so it is, Kassapa.

I have all-encompassing knowledge;
you do not have all-encompassing knowledge.”


At that time, Venerable Uruvela Kassapa recited a verse about himself:
In the past when I was ignorant,

I sacrificed to fire in order to be liberated.

Though old, I was like one born blind.

I had wrong [view] and did not see the ultimate truth.

Now I see the superior path

Taught by the supreme nāga:

The unconditioned, final liberation from suffering.

When that is seen, birth and death are ended.

Having witnessed this, the citizens of Magadha thought:
The renunciant Gotama does not train in the holy life under Uruvela Kassapa;
Uruvela Kassapa trains in the holy life under the renunciant Gotama.



The World-honored One, knowing the thoughts of the citizens of Magadha, then taught the Dharma to Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him.

Having with countless skil ful means taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [he did] as al buddhas do when first teaching the true Dharma to delight their hearers:
he taught him about generosity, virtue, rebirth in heaven, the disadvantages of sensual desire, and the defilement of [continued] birth and death, extol ing the excel ence of dispassion and the purity of the constituents of the path.
The World-honored One gave the great king [such] teachings.

The Buddha knew that [the king’s] mind was delighted, prepared, mal-leable, able to endure, uplifted, one-pointed, free of doubt, free of the hindrances, [possessing] the ability and power to receive the true Dharma, in accordance with the essential teaching of al buddhas.
The World-honored One then taught him about suffering, its arising, its cessation and the path

[leading to its cessation]:

Great king, material form arises and ceases.
You should know the arising and ceasing of material form.
Great king, feeling .
. . perception .
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness arises and ceases.
You should know the arising and ceasing of consciousness.
Great king, just as, when it rains heavily, bubbles arise and cease on the water surface, so, great king, is the arising and ceasing of material form.
You should know the arising and ceasing of material form.
Great king, feeling .
. . perception

.
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness arises and ceases.
You should know the arising and ceasing of consciousness.

Great king, if a clansman knows the arising and ceasing of material form, then he knows that there wil not be a re-arising of [the same]

material form in the future.

Great king, if a clansman knows the arising and ceasing of feeling

.
. . perception .
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness, then he knows that there wil not be a re-arising of [the same] consciousness in the future.

Great king, if a clansman [in this way] knows material form as it real y is, then he does not become at ached to material form, does not 383
speculate about material form, does not become defiled [by] material form, does not dwel on material form, and does not delight in material form as “I am this.”


Great king, if a clansman [in this way] knows feeling .
. . perception .
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness as it real y is, then 498b

he does not become attached to consciousness, does not speculate about consciousness, does not become defiled [by] consciousness, does not dwel on consciousness, and does not delight in consciousness as “I am this.”


Great king, if a clansman does not become at ached to material form, does not speculate about material form, does not become defiled

[by] material form, does not dwell on material form, and does not delight in material form as “I am this,” then he wil no longer cling to material form in the future.

Great king, if a clansman does not become at ached to feeling .
. .

to perception .
. . to volitional formations .
. . to consciousness, does not speculate about consciousness, does not become defiled [by] consciousness, does not dwel on consciousness, and does not delight in consciousness as “I am this,” then he wil no longer cling to consciousness in the future.

Great king, such a clansman has become immeasurable, ines-timable, unlimited.
He has at ained stil ness.
If he has become detached from these five aggregates, he wil not again cling to any aggregate.

Then the citizens of Magadha thought:

If material form is impermanent, if feeling .
. . perception .
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness is impermanent, then who lives and who experiences suffering and happiness?

The World-honored One, knowing the thoughts of the citizens of Magadha, told the monks:

An ignorant worldling, one who is not learned, regards himself as “I am a self” and is at ached to that self.
However, there is no self;
there is nothing that belongs to a self;
[al this] is empty of a self and empty of anything that belongs to a self.
When phenomena arise, they arise;


when phenomena cease, they cease.
Al this is [just] a combination of causes and conditions, giving rise to suffering.
If the causes and conditions were not present, then al suffering would cease.
It is because of the combination of causes and conditions that living beings continue and al phenomena arise.
The Tathāgata, having seen al living beings continuously arising, declares:
There is birth and there is death.
With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence, in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it real y is.
If these living beings were il behaved in body, speech, and mind, if they reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and undertook actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they wil certainly go to a bad realm of existence, [even] being born in hel .
If [however] these living beings were wel behaved in body, speech, and mind, if they did not revile noble ones, held right views, and undertook actions [based on]

right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they wil certainly go to a good realm of existence, [even] to a heavenly realm.

Knowing that it is thus for them, I do not say to them, “It is the self that can feel, can talk, that gives teachings, that undertakes development, that teaches development, that experiences the fruits of good or evil actions here and there.”
Herein, some may think, “This does not match;
this cannot stand.”


[But despite their objections] these processes take place in accordance with Dharma:
Because of this, that arises;
if this cause is not present, that does not arise.
Because this exists, that exists;
if this ceases, that ceases.
That is to say:
with ignorance as condition there are volitional formations;
(and so on up to) with birth as condition there are old age and death.
If ignorance ceases, volitional formations cease;
(and so on up to) if birth ceases, old age and death cease.

[The Buddha said] “Great king, what do you think?
Is material form 498c permanent or impermanent?”


385
[The king] answered, “It is impermanent, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked again, “If it is impermanent, is it suffering or not suffering?”


[The king] answered, “It is suffering [since] it changes, World-honored One.”
[The Buddha] asked again, “If it is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, does a learned noble disciple take it as:
‘This I am, this is mine, I belong to that’?”


[The king] answered, “No, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha asked again]:
“Great king, what do you think?
Is feeling .
. .

is perception .
. . are volitional formations .
. . is consciousness permanent or impermanent?”


[The king] answered, “It is impermanent, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked again, “If it is impermanent, is it suffering or not suffering?”


[The king] answered, “It is suffering [since] it changes, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha] asked again, “If it is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, does a learned noble disciple take it as:
‘This I am, this is mine, I belong to that’?”


[The king] answered, “No, World-honored One.”


[The Buddha said:
]

Therefore, great king, you should train in this way:
Whatever material form there is, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, good or bad, far or near, al that I am not, all that is not mine, and I do not belong to that.

You should wisely contemplate it and know it as it real y is.

Great king, “Whatever feeling .
. . perception .
. . volitional formations .
. . consciousness there is, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, good or bad, far or near, al that I am not, al that is not mine, and I do not belong to that.”
You should wisely contemplate it and know it as it real y is.

Great king, if a learned noble disciple contemplates in this way, then he becomes disenchanted with material form, disenchanted with

feeling .
. . with perception .
. . with volitional formations .
. . with consciousness.
Having become disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate.

Having become dispassionate, he at ains liberation.
Having at ained liberation, he knows that he is liberated.
He knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


As the Buddha delivered this teaching, [the mind of] Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, became free of defilements, and [in regard] to al phenomena the Dharma eye arose [in him];
and [the minds of] eighty thousand gods and twelve thousand citizens of Magadha became free of defilements, and [in regard] to al phenomena the Dharma eye arose [in them].

Then Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, saw the Dharma, at ained the Dharma, realized the perfectly pure Dharma;
he discarded doubt, overcame perplexity;
he would take no other teacher, would never again fol ow another;
he was without uncertainty.

Having at ained the fruit of realization and at ained unshakeability in the Dharma of the World-honored One, [the king] rose from his seat, made obeisance [with his head] at the Buddha’s feet, and said:
World-honored One, I now take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
May the World-honored One please receive me as a lay fol ower;
from this day on until life ends, I take refuge [in the Triple Gem] for my whole life.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Seniya Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, eighty thousand gods, twelve thousand citizens 499a of Magadha, and a thousand monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

63 - MA 63 The Discourse at Vebhaḷiṅga


63. The Discourse at Vebhaḷiṅga
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying in the country of Kosala.
At that time the World-honored One was walking on a road together with a large company of monks.
On the way he smiled joyful y.

Venerable Ānanda, on seeing the World-honored One smile, placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha and said:
387
World-honored One, what is the reason for this smile?
Buddhas and Tathāgatas, free from at achment and ful y awakened, do not smile randomly, for no reason.
May I hear the meaning [of this smile]?

Then the World-honored One said:
“Ānanda, in this place the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, sat and taught [his] disciples the Dharma.”


Then Venerable Ānanda prepared a seat in that place and, with palms placed together [in respect] toward the Buddha, said:
World-honored One, may the World-honored One also sit in this place and teach his disciples the Dharma! In this way, this place wil have been made use of by two Tathāgatas, free from at achment and ful y awakened.

Then the World-honored One sat on the seat prepared in that place by Venerable Ānanda.
Having sat down, he said:

Ānanda, in this place there was an assembly hal of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
Seated in it, the Tathā-

gata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, taught his disciples the Dharma.

Ānanda, in former times in this place there was a town called Vebha ḷiṅga, very prosperous and pleasant, with many inhabitants.

Ānanda, in the town of Vebhaḷiṅga there was a great brahmin householder named Non-anger,161 who was very wealthy and prosperous, with immeasurable wealth, and possessing in abundance al kinds of livestock, property, feudatories, and manors.

Ānanda, the great brahmin householder Non-anger had a son named Ut ara, a young brahmin.
He was born to parents of pure descent.

499b

For seven generations on both his father’s and mother’s sides there was uninterrupted continuity of births without blemish.
He had learned much and retained it, and was able to recite it.
He was master of the four Vedas with their vocabularies, liturgy, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as the fifth.

Ānanda, young Ut ara had a good friend named Nandipāla, who

was a pot er.
Young Ut ara always cherished him.
They delighted in seeing [each other], never tiring of it.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er had taken refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
He was free of doubt in the Triple Gem, and he had no perplexity in regard to suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
He had at ained confidence, was keeping the precepts, had learned much, was generous, and was accomplished in wisdom.

[Nandipāla] abstained from kil ing, had given up kil ing, had discarded blade and cudgel.
He had shame and scruple, and a mind [ful of] loving-kindness and compassion, [wishing to] benefit al [beings], including insects.
He had purified his mind with regard to kil ing living beings.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from taking what is not given, had given up taking what is not given.
He took [only] what was given and delighted in taking [only] what was given.
He was always fond of generosity, rejoicing in it, without stinginess, and not expecting a reward.
He had purified his mind with regard to taking what is not given.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from sexual activity, had given up sexual activity.
He diligently practiced celibacy, was energetic in this good conduct, pure, without blemish, abstaining from sensual desires, having given up sexual desires.
He had purified his mind with regard to sexual activity.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from false speech, had given up false speech.
He spoke the truth, delighted in the truth, was unshakably established in the truth, was completely trustworthy, and would not deceive [anyone in] the world.
He had purified his mind with regard to false speech.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from divisive speech, had given up divisive speech.
He did not engage in divisive speech, did not intend to harm others.
Hearing something from this person he did not tel it to that person, in order to harm this person;
hearing something from that person he did not tel it to this person, in order to harm that 389
person.
He had the wish to unite those that are divided, delighting in unity.
He did not belong to any faction and did not delight in or praise factions.
He had purified his mind with regard to divisive speech.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from harsh speech, had given up harsh speech.
He had given up the type of speech that consists of words that are rough and rude in tone, offensive words that grate on the ear, that people neither enjoy nor desire, that cause others suffering and vexation, and that are not conducive to concentration.

He spoke the type of speech that consists of words that are pure, peaceful, gentle, and beneficial, that are pleasant to the ear and enter the mind, that are enjoyable and desirable, that give others happiness, words endowed with meaning, that do not make others afraid, and that conduce to others at aining concentration.
He had purified his mind with regard to harsh speech.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from frivolous speech, had given up frivolous speech.
He spoke at the [proper] time, speaking what is true, what is Dharma, what is meaningful, what is calming, delighting in speaking what is calming.
[In regard to any] mat er he would teach wel and admonish wel , in accordance with the [proper]

499c

time and in a proper way.
He had purified his mind with regard to frivolous speech.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from earning profits, had given up earning profits.
He had discarded weights and measures, discarded accepting goods, did not bind people, did not try to cheat with measures, nor did he deceive others for the sake of some smal profit.

He had purified his mind with regard to earning profits.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting widows or girls, had given up accepting widows or girls.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting widows or girls.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting male or female servants, had given up accepting male or female servants.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting male or female servants.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting elephants, horses, cat le, or sheep, had given up accepting elephants, horses, cat le,

or sheep.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting elephants, horses, cat le, or sheep.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting chickens or swine, had given up accepting chickens or swine.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting chickens or swine.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting farmlands or shops, had given up accepting farmlands or shops.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting farmlands or shops.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes, had given up accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from alcoholic beverages, had given up alcoholic beverages.
He had purified his mind with regard to alcoholic beverages.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from [using] high or wide beds, had given up [using] high or wide beds.
He had purified his mind with regard to high or wide beds.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from [using] flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics, had given up [using] flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics.
He had purified his mind with regard to flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from singing, dancing, and acting, and from going to see or hear them;
he had given up singing, dancing, and acting and going to see or hear them.
He had purified his mind with regard to singing, dancing, and acting, and going to see or hear them.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from accepting gold and silver, had given up accepting gold and silver.
He had purified his mind with regard to accepting gold and silver.

Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er abstained from eating after noon, had given up eating after noon.
He always took [only] a single meal

[each day], not eating at night, training in eating [only] at the [proper]

time.
He had purified his mind with regard to eating after noon.

391
Ānanda, for his whole life Nandipāla the pot er abstained from taking a spade or a shovel into his hand.
He did not dig the earth himself nor tel others to do so.
If water had washed out a bank so that it col-500a

lapsed, or if a rat had broken up some earth, he would take that [earth]

and use it to make his pots.
These he would put on one side and tel customers:
“If you have peas, rice, wheat, big or smal hemp seed, bi beans, or mustard seed, pour them out [as payment] and take whichever pot you wish.”


Ānanda, for his whole life Nandipāla the pot er had been looking after his father and mother, who were blind.
They were entirely dependent on others, so he looked after them.

Ānanda, when the night was over, at dawn, Nandipāla the pot er approached the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened.
Arrived there, he paid his respects and sat down to one side.

The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, taught him the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him.

Having, with countless skil ful means, taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the Tathāgata Kassapa]

remained silent.

Then, Ānanda, Nandipāla the pot er, having been taught the Dharma by the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, having been exhorted, encouraged, and delighted, rose from his seat, made obeisance at the feet of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, circumambulated him three times and left.

At that time, when the night was over, at dawn, the young brahmin Ut ara mounted a chariot [drawn by] white horses and left the town of Vebhaḷiṅga accompanied by five hundred young brahmins.
He was approaching a secluded place with the intention of teaching his disciples, who had come from several different countries, [intending] to instruct

[them in] recitation of the brahminical scriptures.

Then the young brahmin Ut ara saw from afar that Nandipāla the pot er was coming.
Seeing him, he asked, “Nandipāla, where are you coming from?”


Nandipāla replied, “I am coming from paying my respects to the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
Ut ara,

come with me and approach the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, and pay your respects!”

Then the young brahmin Ut ara replied, “Nandipāla, I do not want to see the bald-headed renunciant.
The bald-headed renunciant does not know how to at ain the path, since the path is difficult to at ain.”


Then Nandipāla the pot er took hold of the topknot of the young brahmin Ut ara and forced him to descend from the chariot.

Then the young brahmin Ut ara thought:
“This pot er Nandipāla never makes jokes and he is neither mad nor stupid;
there must certainly be a reason why he now takes hold of my topknot.”


Having thought this, he said, “Nandipāla, I wil go with you, I wil go with you.”


Nandipāla was delighted and said, “To go [with me and see the Tathāgata Kassapa] is very good.”


Then Nandipāla the potter and Uttara the young brahmin approached the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, and on arriving there, paid their respects and sat down to one side.

Nandipāla the potter said to the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from 500b at achment and ful y awakened:

World-honored One, this is my friend, the young brahmin Ut ara, who always looks on me with affection and untiringly delights in seeing me.
He has no faith or respect for the World-honored One.

May the World-honored One teach him the Dharma wel , so that he becomes delighted and comes to have faith and respect.

Then the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, taught the Dharma to Nandipāla the pot er and the young brahmin Ut ara, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting them.
Having, with countless skil ful means, taught them the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, [the Tathāgata Kassapa] remained silent.

Then, [after] the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had taught them the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and delighted them, the pot er Nandipāla and the young brahmin Ut ara rose from their seats, made obeisance at the feet of the Tathāgata Kassapa, 393
free from at achment and ful y awakened, circumambulated him three times, and departed.

Then, when they had not yet gone far on the return journey, the young brahmin Ut ara asked:

Nandipāla, having heard this sublime Dharma from the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, why do you remain at home, [why are you] unable to abandon [household life]

and train in the noble path?

Then Nandipāla the pot er replied:

Ut ara, you yourself know that for my whole life I have been looking after my father and mother, who are blind and entirely dependent on others.
It is because I am supporting and looking after my father and mother [that I cannot leave the household life].

Then the young brahmin Ut ara asked:

Nandipāla, can I leave the household life to practice the path, following the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened?
Can I receive the ful ordination, become a monk, and practice the holy life?

Then the pot er Nandipāla and the young brahmin Ut ara promptly left that place and again approached the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
Having arrived there and paid their respects, they sat down to one side.

Nandipāla the pot er said to the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened:

World-honored One, when we had not yet gone far on our return journey, this young brahmin Ut ara asked me, “Nandipāla, having heard this sublime Dharma from the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, why do you remain at home?

[Why are you] unable to abandon [household life] and train in the noble path?”




World-honored One, I replied, “Ut ara, you yourself know that for my whole life I have been looking after my father and mother, who are blind and entirely dependent on others.
It is because I am supporting and looking after my father and mother

[that I cannot leave the household life].”


[Then] Ut ara asked me further:

Nandipāla, can I leave the household life to train in the path following the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully 500c awakened?
Can I receive the ful ordination, become a monk, and practice the holy life?

May the World-honored One let him leave the household life to train in the path by giving him the ful ordination [so that he can] become a monk and practice the holy life!

The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, assented to Nandipāla’s [request] by remaining silent.

Then Nandipāla the pot er, understanding that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had assented by remaining silent, rose from his seat, paid homage with his head, circumambulated him three times and departed.

Then, soon after Nandipāla had left, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, let young Ut ara leave the household life to train in the path by giving him the ful ordination.

Having [let him] leave the household life to train in the path, and having given him the ful ordination, [the Tathāgata Kassapa] stayed for several days, as he wished, in the town of Vebhaḷiṅga.
[Then] he took his robes and bowl and, with a large company of monks, went wandering with the intention of going to Benares, a town in the Kāsi country.
Traveling unhurriedly, they reached Benares, a town in the Kāsi country.
At Benares they stayed in the Deer Park, the Place of Seers.

Then King Kiki [of Benares] heard that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, who was wandering in the Kāsi country with a large company of monks, had reached Benares and was staying in the Deer Park, the Place of Seers.

395
Hearing this, King Kiki told his charioteer, “Prepare the vehicles.

I now want to approach the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.”


Then the charioteer, having received the king’s order, immediately prepared the vehicles.
Having prepared the vehicles, [he] returned and told the king, “The fine chariots have been prepared.
They are at your majesty’s disposal.”


Then King Kiki, having mounted a fine chariot, departed from Benares and headed for the Deer Park, the Place of Seers.
Then King Kiki saw from afar the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, among the trees of the forest, dignified and beautiful, like the moon amidst the stars, with radiant aura, shining like a golden mountain, endowed with handsome appearance and lofty dignity, with sense faculties calm, free of obstruction, accomplished and disciplined, with his mind calm and quiet.

Seeing this, [the king] descended from his chariot and on foot approached the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
On arriving there, [the king] made obeisance and sat down to one side.
After King Kiki had sat down to one side, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, taught him the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him.
Having with countless skil ful means taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the Tathāgata Kassapa] remained silent.

Then, after the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had taught him the Dharma, exhorted, encouraged, and 501a

delighted him, King Kiki rose from his seat, arranged his clothes so as to bare one shoulder, placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, and said:
“May the World-honored One together with the company of monks accept my invitation [for a meal] tomorrow.”


The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accepted King Kiki’s invitation by remaining silent.

Then King Kiki, understanding that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had accepted his invitation by remaining silent, paid homage with his head, circumambulated him

three times, and departed.
Having returned home, during the night al kinds of very beautiful, fresh, and excel ent dishes were prepared in abundance for eating, savoring, and digesting.
When the night’s preparations were finished, towards dawn, seats were arranged [and a message was sent:
] “World-honored One, the time has now come;
the food is ready.
May the World-honored One come according to his time!”

Then when the night was over, at dawn, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, put on his robes and took his bowl.
Together with the company of monks, the World-honored one went to the home of King Kiki and sat on a prepared seat before the company of monks.

Then King Kiki, seeing that the Buddha and the company of monks were seated, personal y offered water for washing.
With his own hands he served al kinds of very beautiful, fresh, and excel ent dishes, making sure there was enough to eat, savor, and digest.

After the meal was finished, the utensils had been cleared away, and water for washing had been offered, [King Kiki] prepared a low seat and sat down to one side to listen to the Dharma.

Once King Kiki was seated, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, taught him the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him.
Having with countless skil ful means taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him, [the Tathāgata Kassapa] remained silent.

Then, after the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had taught him the Dharma, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him, King Kiki rose from his seat, arranged his clothes so as to bare one shoulder, placed his palms together [in respect] towards the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, and said:
May the World-honored One, together with the company of monks, accept my invitation to spend the rains retreat here in Benares!

I wil prepare five hundred rooms and five hundred beds and mat resses for the World-honored One;
and I wil provide, for the World-honored One and the company of monks, white rice like this and food of various flavors similar to what a king eats.

397
The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, said to King Kiki, “Great king, please stop, please stop! Though my heart is pleased and satisfied [by your kind offer].”


A second and a third time King Kiki placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, and said:

May the World-honored One, together with the company of monks, accept my invitation to spend the rains retreat here in Benares!

I wil prepare five hundred rooms and five hundred beds and 501b

mat resses for the World-honored One;
and I wil provide, for the World-honored One and the company of monks, white rice like this and food of various flavors similar to what a king eats.

And a second and a third time the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, said to King Kiki, “Great king, please stop, please stop! Though my heart is pleased and satisfied [by your kind offer].”


Then King Kiki could not bear it and did not like it.
His heart was ful of grief and distress, [thinking:
]

The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, together with the company of monks, does not accept my invitation to spend the rains retreat here in Benares.

Having had this thought, King Kiki told the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, “World-honored One, is there any other lay fol ower who [is able to] make offerings to the World-honored One as I do?”


The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, told King Kiki:

Yes, there is.
In your realm there is a town cal ed Vebhaḷiṅga, very prosperous and pleasant, with many inhabitants.
Great king, in that town of Vebhaḷiṅga, there is a pot er, Nandipāla.

Great king, Nandipāla the potter has taken refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
He is free of

doubt in the Triple Gem, and he has no perplexity in regard to suffering, its arising, its cessation, and the path [leading to its cessation].
He has attained confidence, is keeping the precepts, has learned much, is generous, and is accomplished in wisdom.

[Nandipāla] abstains from kil ing, has given up kil ing, having discarded blade and cudgel.
He has shame and scruple, and a mind

[ful of] loving-kindness and compassion, [wishing to] benefit al

[beings], including insects.
He has purified his mind with regard to kil ing living beings.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from taking what is not given, has given up taking what is not given.
He takes [only]

what is given and delights in taking [only] what is given.
He is always fond of generosity, rejoicing in it, without stinginess, and not expecting a reward.
He has purified his mind with regard to taking what is not given.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from sexual activity, has given up sexual activity.
He diligently practices celibacy, is energetic in this good conduct, pure, without blemish, abstaining from sensual desires, having given up sexual desires.
He has purified his mind with regard to sexual activity.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from false speech, has given up false speech.
He speaks the truth, delights in the truth, is unshakably established in the truth, is completely trustworthy, and would not deceive [anyone in] the world.
He has purified his mind with regard to false speech.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from divisive speech, has given up divisive speech.
He does not engage in divisive speech, does not intend to harm others.
Hearing something from this person he does not tel it to that person, in order to harm this person;
hearing something from that person he does not tel it to this person, in order to harm that person.
He has the wish to unite those that are divided, delighting in unity.
He does not belong to any faction and does not delight in or praise factions.
He has purified his mind with regard to divisive speech.

399
Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from harsh speech, has given up harsh speech.
He has given up the type of speech 501c

that consists of words that are rough and rude in tone, offensive words that grate on the ear, that people neither enjoy nor desire, that cause others suffering and vexation, and that are not conducive to concentration.

He speaks the type of speech that consists of words that are pure, peaceful, gentle, and beneficial, that are pleasant to the ear and enter the mind, that are enjoyable and desirable, that give others happiness, words endowed with meaning, that do not make others afraid and that help others to at ain concentration.
He has purified his mind with regard to harsh speech.

Great king, Nandipāla the potter abstains from frivolous speech, has given up frivolous speech.
He speaks at the [proper]

time, speaking what is true, what is Dharma, what is meaningful, what is calming, delighting in speaking what is calming.
[In regard to any] mat er he teaches wel and admonishes wel , in accordance with the [proper] time and in a proper way.
He has purified his mind with regard to frivolous speech.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from earning profits, has given up earning profits.
He has discarded weights and measures, discarded accepting goods, he does not bind people, he does not try to cheat with measures, nor does he deceive others for the sake of some smal profit.
He has purified his mind with regard to earning profits.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from accepting widows or girls, has given up accepting widows or girls.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting widows or girls.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from accepting male or female servants, has given up accepting male or female servants.

He has purified his mind with regard to accepting male or female servants.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from accepting elephants, horses, cat le, or sheep, has given up accepting elephants,

horses, cat le or sheep.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting elephants, horses, cat le, or sheep.

Great king, Nandipāla the potter abstains from accepting chickens or swine, has given up accepting chickens or swine.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting chickens or swine.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from accepting farmlands or shops, has given up accepting farmlands or shops.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting farmlands or shops.

Great king, Nandipāla the potter abstains from accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes, has given up accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting uncooked rice, wheat, or legumes.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from alcoholic beverages, has given up alcoholic beverages.
He has purified his mind with regard to alcoholic beverages.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from [using] high or wide beds, has given up [using] high or wide beds.
He has purified his mind with regard to high or wide beds.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from [using] flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics, has given up [using]

flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics.
He has purified his mind with regard to flower garlands, necklaces, perfumes, and cosmetics.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from singing, dancing, and acting, and from going to see or hear them;
he has given up singing, dancing, and acting, and going to see or hear them.

He has purified his mind with regard to singing, dancing, and acting, and going to see or hear them.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from accepting gold 502a and silver, has given up accepting gold and silver.
He has purified his mind with regard to accepting gold and silver.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er abstains from eating after noon, has given up eating after noon.
He always takes [only] a single meal [each day], not eating at night, training in eating at 401
the [proper] time.
He has purified his mind with regard to eating after noon.

Great king, for his whole life Nandipāla the pot er abstains from taking a spade or a shovel into his hand;
he does not dig the earth himself nor tel others to do so.
If water has washed out a bank so that it has col apsed, or if a rat has broken up some earth, he takes that [earth] and uses it to make his pots.
These he puts on one side and tel s customers, “If you have peas, rice, wheat, big or smal hempseed, bi beans, or mustard seed, pour them out

[as payment] and take whichever pot you wish.”


Great king, for his whole life Nandipāla the pot er has been looking after his father and mother, who are blind.
They are entirely dependent on others, so he is looking after them.

Great king, I recal that in the past I was staying at the town of Vebhaḷiṅga.
Great king, at that time, at dawn, having put on my robes and taken my almsbowl, I entered the town of Vebha ḷiṅga to beg for food.
Having done the almsround in [proper] sequence

[from house to house], I arrived at the home of Nandipāla the pot er.

At that time Nandipāla was not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
Great king, I asked the parents of Nandipāla the pot er, “Elders, where is the pot er now?”


They answered me, “World-honored One, [our] supporter is temporarily not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
Wel -gone One, [our] supporter is temporarily not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
World-honored One, there is boiled wheat and rice in the bamboo basket and there is bean soup in the pot.
May the World-honored One himself take what he wishes, out of compassion!”

Then, great king, in accordance with the law of Ut arakuru, I took rice and soup from the bamboo basket and the pot and departed.

Later, when Nandipāla the pot er returned home and discovered that the rice and soup in the bamboo basket and the pot had diminished, he asked his parents, “Who has taken the soup and rice?”




His parents answered, “Good son, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, came here today on his almsround.
He took rice and soup from the bamboo basket and the pot and departed.”


Hearing this, Nandipāla the pot er thought:
“It is an excel ent benefit, a great merit for us, that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, felt free [to take what] he wished at our home.”
Delighted, he sat down cross-legged with calm and quiet mind, and remained thus for seven days.
His delight and happiness continued for [altogether] fifteen days;
and his parents also experienced delight and happiness for seven days.

Again, great king, I recal that in the past I was staying at the town of Vebhaḷiṅga.
Great king, at that time, at dawn, having put 502b on my robes and taken my almsbowl, I entered the town of Vebhaḷiṅga to beg for food.
Having done the almsround in due order, I arrived at the home of Nandipāla the pot er.

At that time, Nandipāla was not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
Great king, I asked the parents of Nandipāla the pot er, “Elders, where is the pot er now?”


They answered me, “World-honored One, [our] supporter is temporarily not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
Wel -gone One, [our] supporter is temporarily not at home, having left on account of some smal mat er.
World-honored One, there is rice in the big pot and there is soup in the smal pot.
May the World-honored One himself take what he wishes, out of [compassion]!”

Great king, in accordance with the law of Ut arakuru, I took rice and soup from the big pot and the small pot and departed.

Later when Nandipāla the pot er returned home and discovered that the rice in the big pot and the soup in the smal pot had diminished, he asked his parents, “Who has taken rice from the big pot and soup from the smal pot?”
His parents answered, “Good son, the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, came here today on his alms-round, and he took rice and soup from the big pot and the smal pot and departed.”


403
Hearing this, Nandipāla the pot er thought:
“It is an excel ent benefit, a great merit for us, that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, felt free [to take what] he wished at our home.”
Delighted, he sat down cross-legged with calm and quiet mind, and remained so for seven days.
His delight continued for [altogether] fifteen days;
and his parents also experienced joy and happiness for seven days.

Again, great king, I recal that in the past I was spending the rains retreat in dependence on the town of Vebhaḷiṅga.
Great king, at that time my newly built hut had not yet been roofed in.
The old pot er hut of Nandipāla the pot er had been newly roofed in.

Great king, I told my at endant monks, “Go and demolish the

[roof of] the old pot er hut of Nandipāla the pot er and bring it to roof my hut!”

Then the at endant monks, fol owing my instruction, went to the home of Nandipāla the pot er, demolished [the roof of] the old potter hut, bound it together, and brought it to roof my hut.

The parents of Nandipāla the pot er heard the [sound of the roof] of the old pot er hut being demolished.
Hearing it, they asked,

“Who is demolishing [the roof of] the old pot er hut of Nandipāla the pot er?”


The at endant monks answered, “Elders, we are the at endant monks of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.
We are demolishing [the roof of] the old pot er hut of Nandipāla the pot er, binding it together, and taking it in order to roof the hut of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.”


The parents of Nandipāla the pot er said, “Venerable ones, 502c

take away whatever you wish, without limitation!”

Later, when Nandipāla the pot er returned home and discovered that the [roof of] the old pot er hut had been demolished, he asked his parents, “Who has demolished [the roof] of my old pot er hut?”
His parents answered, “Good son, today the atendant monks of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened,

demolished [the roof of] the old pot er hut, bound it together, and took it away to roof the hut of the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened.”


Hearing this, Nandipāla the pot er thought:
“It is an excel ent benefit, a great merit for us, that the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, felt free [to take what] he wished at our home.”
Delighted, he sat down cross-legged with calm and quiet mind, and remained so for seven days.
His joy and happiness continued for [altogether] fifteen days;
and his parents also experienced joy and happiness for seven days.

Great king, the old pot er hut of Nandipāla the pot er was not affected by rain for the entire four months of that rainy season.
Why was that?
Because it was covered by the mighty power of a Buddha.

Great king, Nandipāla the pot er was able to bear it, did not dislike it, and had no grief or distress in his heart [on thinking]:

“The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, felt free [to do as] he wished at our home.”
You, great king, could not bear it and did dislike it, and you had great grief and distress in your heart [on thinking]:
“The Tathāgata Kassapa, free from attachment and fully awakened, together with the company of monks, does not accept my invitation to spend the rains retreat here in Benares.”


Then the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, taught the Dharma to King Kiki, exhorting, encouraging, and delighting him.
Having, with countless skil ful means, taught him the Dharma, having exhorted, encouraged, and delighted him,

[the Tathāgata Kassapa] rose from his seat and departed.

Then, not long after the Tathāgata Kassapa, free from at achment and ful y awakened, had left, King Kiki told his at endants,

“Fil five hundred chariots with white rice and food of various flavors, similar to what a king eats, take them to the home of Nandipāla the pot er, and tel him, ‘Nandipāla, King Kiki sends these five hundred chariots of white rice and food of various flavors, similar to what a king eats, to be offered to you.
You should accept them now out of compassion!’”

405
Then the at endants, having received these instructions of the king, fil ed five hundred chariots with white rice and food of various flavors, similar to what a king eats, took them to the home of Nandipāla the pot er, and told him, “Nandipāla, King Kiki sends these five hundred chariots of white rice and food of various flavors, 503a

similar to what a king eats, to be offered to you.
You should accept them now out of compassion!”

Then Nandipāla the pot er politely declined and did not accept

[the offering], tel ing the at endants, “Noble friends, in King Kiki’s household and country there are many great affairs which require vast expense.
Knowing this, I do not accept [his offering].”


The Buddha said to Ānanda:

What do you think?
Do you think that the young brahmin Ut ara was someone other [than me]?
Do not think so.
You should know that he was me.

At that time, Ānanda, I wanted to benefit myself, to benefit others, to benefit many people;
I had compassion for the whole world, and I sought prosperity, benefit, peace, and happiness for gods and human beings.

In the teaching taught at that time I did not reach the ultimate, the ultimate purity, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate completion of the holy life.
At that time I was not able to abandon birth, old age, disease, death, sorrow, and distress, and I was not able to at ain liberation from al suffering.

Ānanda, I have now appeared in this world as a Tathāgata, free of at achment, ful y awakened, perfect in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -

gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a Buddha, a Fortunate One.
I now benefit myself, benefit others, benefit many people;
I have compassion for the whole world, and I seek prosperity, benefit, peace, and happiness for gods and human beings.

The teaching I now give leads to the ultimate, is the ultimate purity, the ultimate completion of the holy life.
I have now abandoned birth,

old age, sickness, death, sorrow, and distress.
I have now at ained complete liberation from suffering.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the venerable Ānanda and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

64 - MA 64 The Discourse on the Divine Messengers


64. The Discourse on the Divine Messengers
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvat hī, in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and as they are reborn handsome or ugly, excellent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it real y is.

If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, 503b and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, in a heavenly realm.

It is just as, when it is raining heavily and bubbles are appearing and disappearing on the water surface, then if a man with good eyesight is standing in a place [close by], he [can] observe the [bubbles] as they appear and as they disappear.
In the same way, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and as they are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it real y is.

407
If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, in a heavenly realm.

It is just as, when it is raining heavily and the raindrops are fal ing on higher [places] or on lower [places], then if a man with good eyesight is standing in a place [close by], he [can] observe them as they fal on higher [places] or on lower [places].
In the same way, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence, in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it real y is.

If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, even in a heavenly realm.

It is just as if there were a beryl gem, natural y pure and clear, without any flaw or impurity, eight-faceted, wel cut, which is strung on a fine thread colored blue, yel ow, red, black, or white;
if a man with good eyesight is standing in a place [close by], he [can] observe this beryl gem, natural y pure and clear, without any flaw or impurity, eight-faceted, wel cut, which is strung on a fine thread colored blue, yellow, red, black, or white.
In the same way, with the divine eye,

which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it real y is.

If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based 503c on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, in a heavenly realm.

It is just as if there were two rooms connected by a single door through which many people go in or out;
if a man with good eyesight is standing in a place [close by], he [can] observe them as they go in or out.
In the same way, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence in accordance with their [previous] deeds.

I see this as it real y is.

If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, in a heavenly realm.

It is just as a man with good eyesight, standing on top of a tal building, [can] observe the people below coming and going, circling around, sit ing, lying, walking, or [even] jumping.
In the same way, 409
with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses human [vision], I see beings as they die and are reborn handsome or ugly, excel ent or not excel ent, as they come and go between good or bad realms of existence in accordance with their [previous] deeds.
I see this as it really is.

If these beings were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, reviled noble ones, held wrong views, and performed actions [based on] wrong views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a bad realm of existence, in hel .

If [however] these beings were wel conducted in body, speech, and mind, did not revile noble ones, held right views, and performed actions [based on] right views, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they certainly are reborn in a good realm of existence, in a heavenly realm.

If a being, born in the human realm, was unfilial to his parents, did not respect renunciants and brahmins, did not behave honestly, did not do meritorious acts, and was not afraid of the results that evil deeds bring in the next life, then because of these causes and conditions, at the breaking up of the body, after death, he is born in the realm of King Yama.

King Yama’s wardens bring [the culprit] to him, saying:
Your majesty, formerly, while a human, this being was unfilial to his parents, did not respect renunciants and brahmins, did not behave honestly, did not do meritorious acts, and was not afraid of the results that evil deeds bring in the next life.
May your majesty judge his evil deeds!

504a

Then King Yama employs [the parable of] the first divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him:
“Did you ever see the coming of the first divine messenger?”


The man answers, “No, your majesty, I did not see him.”


King Yama asks again:

Have you never seen, in a vil age or town, a smal infant, male or female, with weak, tender body, lying in its own excrement and

urine, unable to tel its parents:
“Father, mother, take me away from this dirty place! Bathe this body and make it clean!”?

The man answers, “I have seen it, your majesty.”


King Yama asks again:

On recal ing this later, why did you not think, “I myself am [also]

subject to the law of birth, I am not exempt from birth, and therefore I should do good acts of body, speech, and mind”?

The man says, “Your majesty, I was truly corrupt.
Wil my prolonged decadence [cause me] enduring loss?”


King Yama says:

You truly were corrupt, and your prolonged decadence [wil cause you] enduring loss.
Now I wil examine and punish you as a negligent person acting with negligence.
Your evil actions were not done by your parents, nor by kings, gods, renunciants, or brahmins.

You did the evil and unwholesome actions yourself.
Therefore, you wil now certainly experience retribution [for them].

Having employed [the parable of] the first divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, King Yama also employs [the parable of] the second divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him:
“Did you ever see the coming of the second divine messenger?”


The man answers, “No, your majesty, I did not see him.”


Then King Yama asks again:

Have you never seen, in a village or town, a very old man or woman, excessively aged, in great pain and near death, with teeth fal en out and hair gone white, with hunched body, walking supported by a stick, and with body trembling?

That man answers, “I have seen it, your majesty.”


King Yama asks again:

On recal ing this later, why did you not think, “I myself am [also]

411
subject to old age, I am not exempt from old age, and therefore I should do good acts of body, speech, and mind”?

The man says, “Your majesty, I was truly corrupt.
Wil my prolonged decadence [cause me] enduring loss?”


King Yama says:

You truly were corrupt, and [your] prolonged decadence [will cause you] enduring loss.
Now I wil examine and punish you as a negligent person acting with negligence.
Your evil actions were not done by your parents, nor by kings, gods, renunciants, or brahmins.
You did the evil and unwholesome actions yourself.
Therefore, you will now certainly experience retribution [for them].

Having employed [the parable of] the second divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, King Yama employs [the parable of] the third divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him:
“Did you ever see the coming of the third divine messenger?”


The man answers, “No, your majesty, I did not see him.”


King Yama asks again:

504b

Have you never seen, in a vil age or town, a man or a woman who is seriously il , sit ing or lying on a bed or couch, or on the ground, with extreme pain, severe pain arising in the body, which is [total y]

undesired and wil [eventual y] cause death?

The man answers, “I have seen it, your majesty.”


King Yama asks again:

On recal ing this later, why did you not think, “I myself am [also]

subject to disease, I am not exempt from disease, and therefore I should do good acts of body, speech, and mind”?

The man says, “Your majesty, I was truly corrupt.
Wil [my] prolonged decadence [cause me] enduring loss?”


King Yama says:

You truly were corrupt, and your prolonged decadence [wil cause

you] enduring loss.
Now I wil examine and punish you as a negligent person acting with negligence.
Your evil actions were not done by your parents, nor by kings, gods, renunciants, or brahmins.

You did the evil and unwholesome actions yourself.
Therefore, you wil now certainly experience retribution [for them].

Having employed [the parable of] the third divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, King Yama employs [the parable of] the fourth divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him:
“Did you ever see the coming of the fourth divine messenger?”


The man answers, “No, your majesty, I did not see him.”


The King Yama asks again:

Have you never seen, in a vil age or town, a man or a woman, at the time of death, or already one day dead, or two days, or up to six or seven days dead, pecked at by crows, eaten by jackals and wolves, or already burned by fire, buried in the ground, or rot en and decaying?

The man answers, “I have seen it, your majesty.”


King Yama asks again:

On recal ing this later, why did you not think, “I myself am [also]

subject to death, I am not exempt from death, and therefore I should do good acts of body, speech, and mind”?

The man says, “Your majesty, I was truly corrupt.
Wil my prolonged decadence [cause me] enduring loss?”


King Yama says:

You truly were corrupt, and your prolonged decadence [wil cause you] enduring loss.
Now I wil examine and punish you as a negligent person acting with negligence.
Your evil actions were not done by your parents, nor by kings, gods, renunciants, or brahmins.

You did the evil and unwholesome actions yourself.
Therefore, you wil now certainly experience retribution [for them].

413
Having employed [the parable of] the fourth divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, King Yama employs [the parable of] the fifth divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, “Did you ever see the coming of the fifth divine messenger?”


The man answers, “No, your majesty, I did not see him.”


King Yama asks again:

Have you never seen that the officers of the king arrest criminals and punish them with various tortures such as cutting off their hands or cut ing off their feet, or cut ing off both hands and feet, or cut ing off their ears, or cut ing off their nose, or cut ing off both ears and nose, chopping or cut ing [them to pieces], tearing out their beard, or tearing out their hair, or tearing out both beard and hair, put ing them in a cage and set ing fire to their clothing, or wrapping them in straw and set ing fire to it, put ing [them] in 504c

the bel y of an iron donkey, in the mouth of an iron pig, or in the mouth of an iron tiger that is then [heated] with fire, placing them in a copper cauldron or an iron cauldron and boiling them, or cutting them into pieces, or stabbing them with a sharp fork, or hook-ing them with hooks, or laying them down on an iron bed and scalding them with boiling oil, or sit ing them in an iron mortar and pounding them with an iron pestle, or [having them be bit en by] serpents, snakes, and lizards, or whipping them with whips, or beating them with sticks, or hit ing them with clubs, or impaling them alive on a tal post, or cut ing off their heads?

The man answered, “I have seen it, your majesty.”


King Yama asks again, “On recal ing this later, why did you not think, ‘I am subject, here and now in the present, to the [effects of past]

evil, unwholesome [deeds]’?”


The man says, “Your majesty, I was truly corrupt.
Wil my prolonged decadence [cause me] enduring loss?”


King Yama says:

You truly were corrupt, and your prolonged decadence [wil cause

you] enduring loss.
Now I wil examine and punish you as a negligent person who acted with negligence.
Your evil actions were not done by your parents, nor by kings, gods, renunciants, or brahmins.
You did the evil and unwholesome actions yourself.
Therefore, you wil now certainly experience retribution [for them].”


Having employed [the parable of] the fifth divine messenger to thoroughly question, examine, teach, and reprimand him, King Yama hands him over to the wardens of hel .
The wardens of hel take hold of him and put him into the great hel with four gates.

[Then the Buddha] recited a verse:

It has four columns and four gates,

Its twelve sides are surrounded by

Wal s made of iron,

Above, it is covered with an iron [roof].

Inside the hel the floor is of iron,

Iron, al ablaze with flames and fire.

It is immeasurable leagues in depth,

Reaching to the bot om of the earth.

[It is] extremely harsh, unbearable.

The light of its fire is hard to look at.

Seeing it, one’s body hairs stand on end,

Out of fear and terror of this great suffering.

[That man], reborn in [this] hel ,

Descends head over heels,

[Because he] reviled noble ones,

Who are disciplined, wel purified.
[There comes] a time after a very long period when, for the sake of those beings, the eastern gate of the great hel with four gates opens.

After the eastern gate has opened, those beings rush towards it, seeking a safe place, a refuge.

[But when] countless hundreds and thousands of beings have gathered there, the eastern gate of the hel closes again on its own.
The 415
[beings] inside experience extreme suffering, weeping and wailing, lying on the ground in ut er despair;
yet they are unable to die until

[the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, [after] a very long period the southern gate .
. . the western 505a

gate .
. . the northern gate opens.
After the northern gate has opened, those beings rush toward it, seeking a safe place, a refuge.
[But when]

countless hundreds and thousands of beings have gathered there, the northern gate of the hel closes again on its own.
The [beings] inside experience extreme suffering, weeping and wailing, lying on the ground in ut er despair;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, after a very long period, those beings emerge from the great hel with four gates.
After [having been] in the great hel With four gates, they appear in the [great] hel with a high peak, which is burning with fire within [yet] not [manifesting] smoke or flames.
They are forced to walk on it, to walk to and fro and round and round.
The skin, flesh, and blood of their two feet disappears [through being burnt]

when they put their feet down, but it reappears and becomes as before once they lift their feet up.
They are punished in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, after a very long period, those beings emerge from the great hel with a high peak.
After [having been] in the great hel with a high peak, they appear in the great hel of excrement, which is fil ed with excrement, countless thousands of feet deep.
Those beings al fal into it.
Inside the great hel of excrement there appear numerous worms cal ed lingqu-lai, with white body, black head, and a needle-like mouth.

These worms gnaw into the feet of those beings and devour them.

Having devoured the feet, they gnaw into and devour the calf bones.

Having devoured the calf bones, they gnaw into and devour the thigh bones.
Having devoured the thigh bones, they gnaw into and devour the hip bones.
Having devoured the hipbones, they gnaw into and devour the back bones.



Having devoured the back bones, they gnaw into and devour the shoulder bones, the neck bones, and the skul .
Having devoured the skul , they eat the brain.
Those beings are tormented in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, after a very long period, those beings emerge from the great hel of excrement.
After [having been] in the great hel of excrement, they appear in the great hel of the iron-leaved forest.
Having seen it, those beings have an impression of coolness and they think:

“Let us go there quickly to cool down!” Those beings go toward [this forest], seeking a safe place, a refuge.

Then the countless hundreds and thousands of beings that have gathered enter the great hel of the iron-leaved forest.
In the great hel of the iron-leaved Forest, a great hot wind blows from the four directions.
After the blowing of the hot wind, the iron leaves fal .
When the iron leaves fal , they cut the hands, the feet, or the hands and feet;
they cut the ears, the nose, or the ears and nose, as well as other limbs.

[Those beings] have their bodies cut and smeared with blood for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, in the great hel of the iron-leaved forest there appear giant 505b dogs with very long fangs.
They bite those beings, tearing off their skin from foot to head and eating it, or tearing off their skin from head to foot and eating it.
[Those beings] are tormented in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, in the great hel of the iron-leaved forest there appear giant ravens with two heads and iron beaks.
They stand on the forehead of those beings, pick out their living eyes and swal ow them, split the skul with their beak, and take out the brain and eat it.
Those beings are tormented in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of 417
years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, after a very long period those beings emerge from the great hel of the iron-leaved forest.
After [having been] in the great hel of the iron-leaved forest, they appear in the great hel of the iron sword-tree forest.

Those great iron sword-trees are one league high and have thorns some six feet long.
Those beings are made to climb up and down them.

When they climb up the trees, the thorns turn downward.
When they climb down the trees, the thorns turn upward.
The thorns of the sword-trees pierce those beings, piercing their hands, their feet, or their hands and feet;
piercing their ears, their nose, or their ears and nose, as wel as the other limbs.
[Those beings] have their bodies pierced and smeared with blood for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, after a very long period, those beings emerge from the great hel of the iron sword-tree forest.
After [having been] in the great hel of the iron sword-tree forest they appear by [the side of] the caustic river, which has very high banks surrounded everywhere by thorns.

The caustic water is boiling and very dark.

Seeing this, those beings have the impression that this is cool water

[thinking]:
“There wil be cool water.”
Having this impression, they think,

“Let us go there, bathe in it, and drink as we please, to quickly cool down and be at ease.”
Those beings, competing with one another, run toward

[the caustic river] and enter it, seeking a pleasant place, a refuge.

Then the countless hundreds and thousands of beings that have gathered there fal into the caustic river.
Having fal en into the caustic river, they are swept downstream, or swept upstream, or swept downstream and upstream.
As those beings are swept downstream, swept upstream, or swept downstream and upstream, their skin is cooked and peels off, their flesh is cooked and peels off, their skin and flesh are cooked and peel off, [until] only the skeleton remains.
On both banks of the caustic river there are wardens of hel holding swords, big clubs,

and iron hooks in their hands.
When those beings want to climb up on to the bank, the wardens of hel push them back again.

Again, on both banks of the caustic river there are wardens of hel , holding hooks and nets in their hands.
With the hooks they pul those beings out of the caustic river and put them on the ground of red-hot iron, burning, glowing, and al ablaze.
They lift those beings up and 505c then throw them on the ground [again], rol them [al over] the ground, and ask them, “Where do you come from?”
Those beings answer, “We do not know where we come from, but we are now suffering from great hunger.”


Those wardens of hel then put those beings on a bed of red-hot iron, which is burning, glowing, and al ablaze, forcing them to sit on it.
They open their mouths with red-hot iron pincers, and put red-hot iron bal s, burning brightly and al ablaze, into their mouths.
Those red-hot iron bal s burn the lips.
Having burned the lips, they burn the tongue.
Having burned the tongue, they burn the palate.
Having burned the palate, they burn the throat.
Having burned the throat, they burn the heart.
Having burned the heart, they burn the large intestine.
Having burned the large intestine, they burn the smal intestine.
Having burned the smal intestine, they burn the stomach.
Having burned the stomach, they come out from the lower part of the body.
Those [beings] are tormented in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of]

their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

Again, the wardens of hel ask those beings, “Where do you want to go?”
Those beings answer, “We do not know where we want to go, but we are suffering from great thirst.”
The wardens of hel then put those beings on a bed of red-hot iron, which is burning, glowing, and al ablaze, forcing them to sit on it.
They open their mouths with red-hot iron pincers, and pour boiling molten copper into their mouths.

That boiling molten copper burns the lips.
Having burned the lips, it burns the tongue.
Having burned the tongue, it burns the palate.
Having burned the palate, it burns the throat.
Having burned the throat, it burns the heart.
Having burned the heart, it burns the large intestine.
Having 419
burned the large intestine, it burns the smal intestine.
Having burned the smal intestine, it burns the stomach.
Having burned the stomach, it comes out from the lower part of the body.
The [beings] are tormented in this way for countless hundreds and thousands of years, enduring extreme pain;
yet they are unable to die until [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions have been completely exhausted.

If those beings in hel have [stil ] not completely exhausted [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions, have not exhausted al of it, have not exhausted it without any remainder, then those beings again fal into the caustic river, are again [made to climb] up and down the [trees] in the great hel of the iron sword-tree forest, have to again enter the great hel of the iron-leaved forest, fal again into the great hel of excrement, are again made to walk to and fro in the great hel with a high peak, and again have to enter the great hel with four gates.

If [however,] those beings in hel have completely exhausted [the results of] their evil and unwholesome actions, exhausted all of it, exhausted it without any remainder, then some of those beings proceed to the [realm of] beasts, some fal into the [realm of] hungry ghosts, and some are reborn in a heavenly realm.

If a being was formerly a human who was unfilial to his parents, who had no respect for renunciants and brahmins, behaved dishonestly, did no meritorious acts, and was not afraid of the results that evil deeds 506a

bring in the next life—then such a being experiences such undesirable, inconceivably unpleasant and painful results, as in those hel s.

If [however,] a being was formerly a human who was filial to his parents, who had respect for renunciants and brahmins, behaved honestly, did meritorious acts, and was afraid of the results that evil deeds bring in the next life—then such a being experiences such desirable, conceivably pleasant and happy results, as in a heavenly palace in the sky.
In the past, King Yama made the fol owing aspiration [while] in his pleasure park:
when this life ends, may I be reborn in the human realm! If there are very wealthy and prosperous clans, with immeasurable wealth, and possessing in abundance all kinds of livestock,

property, feudatories, and manors—that is, a great clan of khattiya householders, a great clan of brahmin householders, or a great clan of merchant householders, or any other such very wealthy and prosperous clan, with immeasurable wealth, and possessing in abundance al kinds of livestock, property, feudatories, and manors—may I be reborn in such a family!

Having been born there, may I develop my faculty of understanding, and may I gain pure confidence in the true Dharma and discipline taught by a Tathāgata! Having gained pure confidence, may I shave off hair and beard, don the robes of a monk, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path! [Just] as a clansman, who shaves off his hair and beard, dons the robes of a monk, leaves home out of faith, and goes forth to practice the path [in order] to establish the unsurpassable holy life, [so too, may I] in that very life, personal y at ain understanding and awakening, and dwel having personal y realized it, knowing as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


In the past, King Yama had made this aspiration [while] in his pleasure park;
and he recited these verses:

Reprimanded by the divine messengers,

A man who has been negligent,

Wil feel distress and grief for a long time.

He is reckoned as hindered by harmful desires.

Reprimanded by the divine messengers,

A truly superior person,

Wil not be negligent again,

[But wil practice] the wel -taught, wonderful, noble Dharma.

Seeing clinging causes him to be fearful,

And to aspire to the extinction of birth and old age.

[Once he is] free of clinging, [having] extinguished it without remainder,

That is the end of birth and old age.

That [person] at ains the happiness of peace,

421
At ains cessation in this lifetime,

Transcending al that is fearful,

And crossing over this worldly stream.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

506b

65 - MA 65 The Discourse with the Raven Parable


65. The Discourse with the Raven Parable

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

At that time, the World-honored One addressed the monks:
In the past, when a wheel-turning monarch wanted to test his jewel-treasure, he assembled his fourfold army, that is, elephant troops, cavalry, chariot troops, and infantry.
The fourfold army having been assembled, in the dark of night, at midnight, a tal banner was raised, the jewel was placed on top of it, and it was taken out to the pleasure park.

The bril iance of the jewel il uminated the fourfold army, and its light extended over an area measuring half a league in [any] direction.

At that time, there was a brahmin who had this thought:
“I would like to go and see the wheel-turning monarch, together with his fourfold army, and look at the beryl jewel.”
Then that brahmin thought again,

“For the time being, never mind about visiting the wheel-turning monarch with his fourfold army, and looking at the beryl jewel.
I would rather go into the forest.”
So, the brahmin approached the forest.
Having arrived there, he entered and went to the foot of a tree.

Not long after he had sat down, an ot er came by.
Seeing it, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, ot er, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


[The ot er] answered, “Brahmin, in earlier times this pond was fed to the brim by a clear spring, had many lotus roots and flowers, and was ful of fish and turtles.
I formerly [lived] in dependence on it, but now it has dried up.
Brahmin, you should know that I want to leave it, to live in a large river.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”




Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the ot er left.

The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.
Again, there came a jiu-mu bird.
164 Seeing it, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, jiu-mu bird, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


[The bird] answered, “Brahmin, in earlier times this pond was fed 506c to the brim by a clear spring, had many lotus roots and flowers, and was ful of fish and turtles.
I formerly [lived] in dependence on it, but now it has dried up.
Brahmin, you should know that I want to leave it, to nest in a place where dead cat le are col ected and to live in dependence on it, .
. . or dead donkeys, .
. . or to nest in a place where dead human beings are col ected and to live in dependence on it.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


Having had this exchange with the brahmin, the jiu-mu bird left.

The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.

Again, there came a vulture.
Seeing it, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, vulture, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The vulture] answered, “Brahmin, I am going from one large grave[yard] to another large grave[yard], places for [those who have been] harmed and kil ed.
I now want to feed on the flesh of dead elephants, dead horses, dead cattle, and dead human beings.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the vulture left.

The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.

Again, there came a bird that feeds on vomit.
Seeing it, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, bird that feeds on vomit, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


[The bird that feeds on vomit] answered, “Brahmin, did you see the vulture just now?
I eat its vomit.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


Having had this exchange with the brahmin, the bird that feeds on vomit left.
The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.

Again, there came a jackal.
Having seen it, the brahmin asked,

“Welcome, jackal, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


423
[The jackal] answered, “Brahmin, I am going from one deep ravine to another deep ravine, from one dense jungle to another dense jungle, and from one secluded place to another secluded place.
I now want to feed on the flesh of dead elephants, dead horses, dead cat le, and dead human beings.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the jackal left.

The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.

Again, there came a raven.
Seeing it, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, raven, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


[The raven] answered, “Brahmin, you crazy person, why do you ask me, ‘Where are you coming from and where do you want to go?
’?”

Then, having reprimanded the brahmin to his face, the raven left.

The brahmin [remained] sit ing there as before.

Again, there came an ape.
Having seen it, the brahmin asked,

“Welcome, ape, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”


[The ape] answered, “Brahmin, I am going from one garden to another garden, from one pleasure park to another pleasure park, from one forest to another forest, to drink at clear springs and eat good fruits.

I want to leave now, [though] I am not afraid of people.”


Having had this exchange with the brahmin, the ape left.

507a

The Buddha told the monks:

I have delivered these parables and want [you] to understand their meaning.
You should know that this teaching has a [deeper] meaning.

What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with] “Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the otter left”?
Suppose there is a monk who lives in dependence on a vilage or town.
At dawn this monk puts on his robes, takes his bowl, and enters the vil age to beg for food, without protecting himself, without guarding his sense faculties, without establishing right mindfulness.
He nevertheless teaches the Dharma as taught by the Buddha or by one of [the Buddha’s] disciples.
Because of this he obtains the benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mat ress, and medicine.
He is

supplied with al [he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes at ached to them, seduced by them, not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be living the] holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
seeing the ot er, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, ot er, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The ot er] answered, “Brahmin, in earlier times this pond was fed to the brim by a clear spring, had many lotus roots and flowers, and was ful of fish and turtles.
I formerly

[lived] in dependence on it, but now it has dried up.
Brahmin, you should know that I want to leave it, to live in a large river.
I now want to leave, I am afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
[He] is immersed in evil, unwholesome, and defiled states that are the origin of future existence and have vexation and suffering as their fruit, being the cause of birth, old age, disease, and death.

Therefore, monks, do not act like that ot er;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwel in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, begging for food in [proper] sequence [from house to house].
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.

What is the meaning of the parable that I delivered [that concludes with] “Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the jiu-mu bird left”?

Suppose there is a monk who lives in dependence on a vil age or town.
At dawn this monk puts on his robes, takes his bowl, and enters the vil age to beg for food without protecting himself, without guarding his sense faculties, without establishing right mindfulness.
He enters another’s house and teaches the Dharma as taught by the Buddha or by [one of the Buddha’s] disciples.
Because of this he obtains the 425
benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mat ress, and medicine, al [that he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes at ached to them, seduced by them, not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be living the] holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
seeing 507b

the jiu-mu bird, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, jiu-mu bird, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The bird] answered,

“Brahmin, in earlier times this pond was fed to the brim by a clear spring, had many lotus roots and flowers, and was full of fish and turtles.
I formerly [lived] in dependence on it, but now it has dried up.

Brahmin, you should know that I want to leave it, to nest in a place where dead cat le are col ected and to live in dependence on it, .
. . or dead donkeys, .
. . or to nest in a place where dead human beings are col ected and to live in dependence on it.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
[He] is immersed in evil, unwholesome, and defiled states that are the origin of future existence and have vexation and suffering as their fruit, being the cause of birth, old age, disease, and death.

Therefore, monks, do not act like that jiu-mu bird;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwell in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, and beg for food in [proper] sequence.
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.

What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with] “Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the vulture left”?
Suppose there is a monk who lives in dependence on a vilage or town.
At dawn this monk puts on his robes, takes his bowl, and enters the vil age to beg for food without protecting himself, without guarding

his sense faculties, without establishing right mindfulness.
He enters another’s house and teaches the Dharma as taught by the Buddha or by [one of the Buddha’s] disciples.
Because of this he obtains the benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mat ress, and medicine, al [that he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes at ached to them, seduced by them, not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be practicing] the holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
seeing the vulture, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, vulture, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The vulture] answered, “Brahmin, I am going from one large grave[yard] to another large grave[yard], places for [those who have been] harmed and kil ed.
I now want to feed on the flesh of dead elephants, dead horses, dead cat le, and dead human beings.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
Therefore, monks, do not act like that vulture;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwell in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, and beg for food in [proper] sequence.
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.

507c

What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with:
] “Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the bird that feeds on vomit left”?

Suppose there is a monk who lives in dependence on a vil age or town.
At dawn this monk puts on his robes, takes his bowl, and enters the vil age to beg for food without protecting himself, without guarding his sense faculties, without establishing right mindfulness.
He enters a nunnery and teaches the Dharma as taught by the Buddha or by one of [the Buddha’s] disciples.
Those nuns then enter some houses to explain [what is] good and [what is] evil, accept the offerings of the 427
faithful, and bring them to the monk.
Because of this he obtains the benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mat ress, and medicine, al [that he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes at ached to them, seduced by them, not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be practicing] the holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
seeing the bird that feeds on vomit, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, bird that feeds on vomit, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The bird that feeds on vomit] answered, “Brahmin, did you see the vulture just now?
I eat its vomit.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
Therefore, monks, do not act like that bird that feeds on vomit;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwel in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, and beg for food in [proper] sequence.
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.

What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with],

“Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the jackal left”?

Suppose there is a monk who dwel s in dependence on a poor village.
If he knows that within a certain vil age or wal ed town there are many companions in the holy life who are wise and energetic, then he keeps away from it.
But if he knows that within that vil age or wal ed town there are no companions in the holy life who are wise and energetic, then he comes and stays in it for nine months or for ten months.

On seeing him, monks ask, “Venerable friend, where are you dwel ing?”


Then he answers, “Venerable friends, I am dwel ing in dependence on such-and-such a poor vil age or town.”


Hearing this, the monks think, “This venerable one practices what is difficult to practice.
Why is that?
This venerable one is able to dwel

in dependence on such-and-such a poor vil age or town.”
The monks then al respect him, revere him, and provide him with food.
Because of this he obtains the benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mattress, and medicine, all [that he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes at ached to them, seduced by them, 508a not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be practicing] the holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
seeing the jackal, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, jackal, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The jackal] answered,

“Brahmin, I am going from one deep ravine to another deep ravine, from one dense jungle to another dense jungle, and from one secluded place to another secluded place.
I now want to feed on the flesh of dead elephants, dead horses, dead cat le, and dead human beings.
I want to leave now, I am afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
Therefore, monks, do not act like that jackal;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwell in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, and beg for food in [proper] sequence.
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.

What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with], “Then, having reprimanded the brahmin to his face, the raven left”?
Suppose there is a monk who spends the rains retreat in dependence on a poor and secluded place.
If he knows that within a certain vil age or wal ed town there are many companions in the holy life who are wise and energetic, he keeps away from it.
But if he knows that within that vil age or wal ed town there are no companions in the holy life who are wise and energetic, he comes and stays in it for two months 429
or for three months.
On seeing him, monks ask, “Venerable friend, where are you passing the rains retreat?”
Then he answers, “Venerable friends, I am passing the rains retreat in dependence on such-and-such a poor and secluded place.
I am not like those fools who are equipped with a bed and provided with the five necessities, and live surrounded by them;
who, whether before noon or after noon, whether after noon or before noon, have their mouths [ready to] savor tastes and have tastes [ready] to be savored by their mouths;
who beg and demand again and again.”


Hearing this, those monks think, “This venerable one practices what is difficult to practice.
Why is that?
This venerable one is able to spend the rains retreat in dependence on such-and-such a poor and secluded place.”
The monks then al respect, revere, and provide food

[for him].
Because of this he obtains the benefit of clothing and bedding, food and drink, bed and mat ress, and medicine, al [that he needs] to live.
Having obtained these benefits, he becomes attached to them, seduced by them, not seeing the danger in them, unable to relinquish them, using them as he wishes.

That monk practices bad conduct, develops unwholesome states, goes to extremes, and gives rise to harm and decay.
He is not living the holy life, yet claims [to be practicing] the holy life.
He is not a renunciant, yet claims [to be] a renunciant.
It is just as [in the parable]:
508b

seeing the raven, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, raven, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The raven] answered,

“Brahmin, you are crazy.
Why do you ask me, ‘Where are you coming from and where do you want to go?
’”

The monk I spoke of is just like that.
Therefore, monks, do not act like that raven;
do not rely on what is against the Dharma for your livelihood.
With pure conduct of body, speech, and mind, dwell in secluded places, wear rag robes, always beg for food, and beg for food in [proper] sequence.
Be of few wishes and contented, abide happily, in detachment, and practice energetical y, establishing right mindfulness, right at entiveness, right concentration, and right wisdom.
Be always detached and train in this way.



What is the meaning of the parable I delivered [that concludes with], “Then, having had this exchange with the brahmin, the ape left”?

Suppose there is a monk who lives in dependence on a vil age or town.
At dawn this monk puts on his robes, takes his bowl, and enters the vil age to beg for food, with his body protected, with his sense faculties guarded, and with right mindfulness established.
Having returned from begging for food in the vil age or town, and having finished his meal, put away his robe and bowl, and washed his hands and feet, in the afternoon he puts his sitting mat on his shoulder and goes to a secluded place, to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut.
He arranges his sit ing mat and sits down cross-legged, keeping his body straight, with right intention, with mindfulness not scat ered.
[He] eliminates covetousness and has no avarice in his mind.
On seeing another’s wealth and means of livelihood, he does not give rise to covetousness

[such as]:
“I wish I could get [that].”


[Thus] he purifies his mind of covetousness.
Likewise, [he purifies his mind of] hatred .
. . sloth and torpor .
. . restlessness and worry .
. .

[he] eliminates doubt and transcends perplexity in regard to wholesome states.
[Thus] he purifies his mind of doubt.
Having cut off these five hindrances, the imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, having abandoned desires, and evil and unwholesome states .
. . (and so on up to) .
. . he dwel s having at ained the fourth jhāna.

When he has at ained concentration in this way, his mind being purified, without blemish, free of vexation, mal eable, wel established, having at ained imperturbability, he directs his mind to the realization of the higher knowledge of the destruction of the taints.

He then knows as it real y is:
“This is suffering.”
He knows as it real y is:
“This is the arising of suffering.
This is the cessation of suffering.
This is the path [leading to] the cessation of suffering.”
He knows as it real y is:
“These are the taints.
This is the arising of the taints.
This is the cessation of the taints.
This is the path [leading to]

the cessation of the taints.”
He knows it like this.

Seeing it like this, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of existence, and from the taint of ignorance.

431
Being liberated, he knows that he is liberated, and he knows as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”
It is as [in the parable]:
seeing the ape, the brahmin asked, “Welcome, ape, where are you coming from and where do you want to go?”
[The ape]

508c

answered, “Brahmin, I am going from one garden to another garden, from one pleasure park to another pleasure park, from one forest to another forest, to drink at clear springs and eat good fruits.
I now want to leave, [though] I am not afraid of people.”


The monk I spoke of is just like that.
Therefore, monks, do not act like that ot er, do not act like that jiu-mu [bird], do not act like that vulture, do not act like that bird that feeds on vomit, do not act like that jackal, do not act like that raven.
[You] should act like that ape.

Why is that?
In this world a True Person, without at achment, is like that ape.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, the monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

66 - MA 66 The Discourse on Origins


66. The Discourse on Origins

Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying at Benares, in the Deer Park, the Place of Seers.

At that time, the monks were seated together in the assembly hal after the midday meal on account of some smal mat er and had the fol owing discussion:

Venerable friends, what do you say?
Which is better for a lay follower—that a monk, who keeps the precepts of the sublime Dharma and is endowed with imposing deportment should enter his house to receive food, or that he [should gain] material benefits a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand times each day?

A certain monk said:

Venerable friends, what is the use of material benefits a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand times?
Only this is important, namely that a monk who keeps the precepts of the sublime Dharma and is endowed

with imposing deportment should enter his house to receive food, not that [he should gain] material benefits a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand times each day.

At that time Venerable Anuruddha was seated among the assembly.
Then the Venerable Anuruddha addressed the monks:

Venerable friends, what is the use of material benefits a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand times, or [even] more than that?
Only this is important, namely that a monk who keeps the precepts of the sublime Dharma and is endowed with imposing deportment should enter his house to receive food, not [that he should gain] material benefits a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand times a day.
Why is that?

I recal how, in the distant past, I was a poor man in this country of Benares.
I relied on gleaning to earn my living.
At that time, the country of Benares was afflicted by drought, early frost, and locusts, so [the crops] did not ripen.
The people suffered from famine and almsfood was difficult to obtain.

At that time, there was a paccekabuddha named Upariṭ ha,165 who was living in dependence on Benares.
Then, when the night was over, at dawn, the paccekabuddha Upariṭ ha put on his robes, took his bowl, and went into Benares to beg for food.
At that time, in the morning, I was going out of Benares to glean.
Venerable friends, as I was going 509a out, I saw the paccekabuddha Upariṭ ha coming in.
Then the pacceka -

buddha Upariṭ ha, having come in carrying an empty bowl, went out

[again] with the bowl empty as before.

Venerable friends, at that time I was returning to Benares from gleaning, and saw the paccekabuddha Upariṭ ha going out again.
Seeing me, he thought:

As I was coming in at dawn, I saw this person going out;
now as I am going out, I see this person again, coming in.
This person may not yet have had his meal.
Let me now fol ow this person.

Then the paccekabuddha followed me like a shadow following a form.
Venerable friends, when I had got back home with my gleanings, I put down what I had gathered, and turning around, I saw that the 433
paccekabuddha Upariṭ ha had been fol owing me like a shadow following a form.
Seeing him, I thought:

As I was going out at dawn, I saw this seer entering the city to beg for food.
Now this seer may not yet have obtained any food.

Let me forgo my own meal and give it to this seer!

Thinking this, I gave my meal to the paccekabuddha saying, “Seer, you should know that this food is my portion.
May you accept it out of compassion!”

Then the paccekabuddha replied to me saying:
Householder, you should know that this year [the country] is afflicted by drought, early frost, and locusts, [so] the five crops do not ripen.
The people are suffering from famine and almsfood is difficult to obtain.
Put half of [the food] into my bowl, and eat the other half yourself, so that [we] can both survive.
That would be bet er.

I said further:

Seer, you should know that in my home I have a pot and a stove, firewood, grains, and rice;
moreover, I have no restrictions as to when I may eat and drink.
Seer, out of compassion for me, accept the whole meal!

So the paccekabuddha accepted the whole meal out of compassion.

Venerable friends, because of the merit of giving him a bowlful of food, I was reborn in a heavenly realm seven times, becoming king of the gods;
and I was reborn as a human being seven times, becoming the king of human beings.
Venerable friends, because of the merit of giving him a bowlful of food, I was reborn in Sakya clans that were very wealthy and prosperous, possessing in abundance al kinds of livestock, feudatories, and manors, limitless wealth and endowed with valuable treasures.

Venerable friends, because of the merit of giving him a bowlful of food, I gave up kingship worth hundreds, thousands, mil ions of gold coins, not to mention various other possessions, and went forth

to practice the path.
Venerable friends, because of the merit of giving him a bowlful of food, I was regarded and treated with admiration by kings, ministers, brahmins, householders, and al the citizens, and was regarded with respect by the four assemblies of monks, nuns, male lay fol owers, and female lay fol owers.

Venerable friends, because of the merit of giving him a bowlful of food, I was constantly invited by people to accept food and drink, 509b clothing and bedding, woolen blankets, carpets, beds and mat resses, shawls, medicine, and al [that is required for] living, and I never failed to receive invitations.

Had I known at that time that that renunciant was a True Person, free of at achment, then the merit I gained would have been multiplied again.
I would have received a great reward, the most excel ent of benefits, its bright splendor boundless and vast.

Then the Venerable Anuruddha, a True Person, free of at achment, who had at ained right liberation, ut ered this verse:
I recal how in the past I was poor,

Relying entirely on gleaning to earn a living.

Already short of food, I offered it to the renunciant Upariṭ ha, of utmost virtue.

Because of this, I was reborn in the Sakya clan,

Given the name Anuruddha.

Knowing wel how to sing and dance,

I made merry and constantly delighted [in it].

[Then] I got to see the World-honored One,

Ful y awakened, [preaching the Dharma that is] like ambrosia.

When I saw him, confidence and joy arose in me,

And I gave up the household life to train in the path.

I at ained the recol ection of past lives,

Knowing my former births.

[I saw that] I was [previously] born among the thirty-three gods, Dwel ing there for seven [life]times.

435
I was [born] seven times here, in addition to the seven times there.

[Thus,] I had experienced fourteen [life]times

In the human realm and in the heavens,

Without ever descending into a bad realm.

I now [also] know the death and rebirth

Of beings, their destinations as they depart and are reborn.

I know [the states of] mind of others, right or wrong, And the five kinds of enjoyment of the noble ones.

[Having] at ained the fivefold jhāna,

[By] constantly quieting and silencing the mind,

Having at ained quiescence, rightly abiding,

I have gained the purified divine eye.

What is considered training in the path,

Secluded, having given up the household life,

I now have obtained its benefit,

And entered the sphere of the Buddha.

I take no delight in death,

Nor do I wish for rebirth.

When the time comes, when it is appropriate,

With right mindfulness and at entiveness established, In the Bamboo Grove at Vesālī,

My life wil end.

Beneath the bamboos of the grove,

[I shal at ain] nirvana without remainder.

At that time, the World-honored One was sit ing in meditation, and with the divine ear, which is purified and surpasses human [hearing], he heard the monks, sit ing together in the assembly hal after the midday meal, discussing this topic.

Having heard it, in the late afternoon the World-honored One rose from sit ing in meditation, went to the assembly hal and sat on a seat arranged 509c before the assembly of monks.
He asked the monks, “On account of what mat er are you assembled in the assembly hal today?”




Then the monks answered:

World-honored One, we are assembled in the assembly hall today because Venerable Anuruddha was teaching the Dharma in relation to events of the past.

Then the World-honored One told the monks, “Would you like to hear the Tathāgata teach the Dharma in relation to an event of the future?”


The monks answered:

World-honored One, now is the right occasion.
Wel -gone One, now is the right occasion.
If the World-honored One would teach the monks the Dharma in relation to an event of the future, the monks, hearing it, wil receive and remember it wel .

The World-honored One said, “Listen careful y, monks.
Listen careful y and pay proper at ention, and I wil explain it to you in ful .”


Then the monks listened in order to receive instruction.
The World-honored One said:

Monks, in the distant future the human life span wil be eighty thousand years.
167 When the human life span is eighty thousand years, [this continent of] Jambudīpa wil be very wealthy and pleasant, with many inhabitants;
vil ages and cities wil be as close [together] as a single cock’s flight.
Monks, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, women wil get married at the age of five hundred.
Monks, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, there wil be only such problems as [being afflicted by] cold or heat, [having to] defecate and urinate, [having sexual] desires, [having to] eat and drink, and old age.

There wil be no other afflictions.
Monks, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, there wil be a king cal ed Saṅkha, a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he likes.
Being a righteous Dharma king, he wil at ain seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.
He wil have a thousand sons, of handsome appearance, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
He wil 437
certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade and cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.
He wil have a great golden banner, gloriously decorated with various precious things, a thousand feet in height when raised, and sixteen feet in circumference.
He wil have it set up;
and after it has been set up, beneath it he wil make offerings of food and drink, clothes and bedding, vehicles, flower garlands, scat ered flowers, perfume, dwel ings, mat resses, woolen blankets, shawls, servants, and lamps, offering these to renunciants and brahmins, [as wel as to] those in poverty, those without kin, and beggars from far away.

Having made these offerings, he wil then shave off his hair and beard, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path.
[He wil do like those] clansmen, who shave off their hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path until the unsurpassable holy life has been established.
He will, in that lifetime, personally

[at ain] understanding and awakening, and dwel having personal y realized it.
He wil know as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


510a

At that time Venerable Ajita was seated among the assembly.
Then Venerable Ajita rose from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder, placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, and said:
World-honored One, in the distant future when the human life span is eighty thousand years, may I become a king cal ed Saṅkha, a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as I like.
Being a righteous Dharma king, I wil at ain seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—

these are the seven.
I wil have a thousand sons, of handsome appearance, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
I wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.
[I

wil ] have a great golden banner, gloriously decorated with various precious things, a thousand feet in height when raised, and sixteen feet in circumference.
I will have it set up;
and after it has been set up, beneath it I wil make offerings of food and drink, clothes and bedding, vehicles, flower garlands, scat ered flowers, perfume, dwel ings, mattresses, woolen blankets, shawls, servants, and lamps, offering these to renunciants and brahmins, [as wel as to] those in poverty, those without kin, and beggars from far away.
Having made these offerings, I wil then shave off my hair and beard, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path.
[I wil do like those] clansmen, who shave off their hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path until the unsurpassable holy life has been established.
I wil , in this very life, personal y at ain understanding and awakening, and dwel having personal y realized it.
I wil understand as it real y is:

“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


Then the World-honored One reprimanded Venerable Ajita:
You foolish man, accepting to die one more time and [only] then trying to end it! Why is that?
Because you have the thought:
World-honored One, in the distant future when the human life span is eighty thousand years, I wil be a king cal ed Saṅkha, a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as I like.
Being a righteous Dharma king, I wil at ain seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.
I wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
I wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.
[I wil ] have a great golden banner, gloriously decorated with various precious things, a thousand feet 439
in height when raised, and sixteen feet in circumference.
I wil 510b

have it set up;
and after it has been set up, beneath it I wil make offerings of food and drink, clothes and bedding, vehicles, flower garlands, scat ered flowers, perfume, dwel ings, mat resses, woolen blankets, shawls, servants, and lamps, offering these to renunciants and brahmins, [as wel as to] those in poverty, those without kin, and beggars from far away.
Having made these offerings, I wil then shave off my hair and beard, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path.
[I wil do like those] clansmen, who shave off their hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path until the unsurpassable holy life has been established.
I wil , in this lifetime, personal y at ain understanding and awakening, and dwel having personal y realized it.
I wil understand as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There will not be another existence.”


The World-honored One said:

Ajita, in the distant future when the human life span is eighty thousand years, you will be a king called Saṅkha, a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as you like.
Being a righteous Dharma king, you wil at ain seven treasures.
Those seven treasures are the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these are the seven.
You wil have a thousand sons, handsome, brave, fearless, and able to overcome others.
You wil certainly rule over the whole earth, as far as the ocean, without relying on blade or cudgel, just by teaching the Dharma, bringing peace and happiness.

[You] wil have a great golden banner, gloriously decorated with various precious things, a thousand feet in height when raised, and sixteen feet in circumference.
You wil have it set up;
and after it has been set up, beneath it you wil make offerings of food and drink, clothes and bedding, vehicles, flower garlands, scat ered flowers, perfume,

dwel ings, mat resses, woolen blankets, shawls, servants, and lamps, offering these to renunciants and brahmins, [as well as to] those in poverty, those without kin, and beggars from far away.

Having made these offerings, you wil then shave off your hair and beard, don the yel ow robe, leave the household life out of faith, and go forth to practice the path.
[You wil do like those] clansmen who shave off their hair and beards, don the yel ow robe, leave home out of faith, and go forth to practice the path until the unsurpassable holy life has been established.
You wil , in this lifetime, personal y at ain understanding and awakening, and dwel having personal y realized it.
You wil understand as it real y is:
“Birth is ended, the holy life has been established, what was to be done has been done.
There wil not be another existence.”


The Buddha addressed the monks:

In the distant future, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, there will be a buddha called Metteyya Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One—just as I now have become a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One.

In this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, he wil [at ain] understanding and 510c awakening by himself and dwel having personal y realized it—just as, in this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants and brahmins, from human beings to gods, I have [at ained] understanding and awakening by myself, and dwel having personal y realized it.

He wil teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity—just as I now teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in 441
the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.

He wil spread widely the holy life, revealing it widely to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods—just as I now spread widely the holy life, revealing it wel to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods.
He wil have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks—just as I now have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks.

At that time Venerable Met eyya was seated among the assembly.
Then Venerable Met eyya rose from his seat, arranged his robe so as to bare one shoulder, placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha, and said:
World-honored One, in the distant future, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, may I become a buddha called Metteyya Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Well-gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One—just as the World-honored One now is a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, a teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One.
In this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, I wil [at ain] understanding and awakening by myself and dwel having personal y realized it—just as, in this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, the World-honored One has [at ained] understanding and awakening by himself, and dwel s having personal y realized it.

I wil teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity—just as the World-honored One now teaches the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.



I wil spread widely the holy life, revealing it widely to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods—just as the World-honored One now spreads widely the holy life, revealing it wel to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods.
I wil have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks—just as the World-honored One now has a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks.

Then the World-honored One praised Met eyya, saying:
Very good, very good, Metteyya! You have expressed a wonderful wish, namely to lead great assemblies.
Why is that?
You had this thought:

World-honored One, in the distant future, when the human life 511a span is eighty thousand years, may I become a buddha called Met eyya Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Well-gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One—

just as the World-honored One now is a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One.

In this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, I wil [at ain] understanding and awakening by myself and dwel having personal y realized it—just as, in this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants and brahmins, from human beings to gods, the World-honored One has [at ained] understanding and awakening by himself, and dwel s having personal y realized it.

I wil teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity—

just as the World-honored One now teaches the Dharma that is 443
sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.

I wil spread widely the holy life, revealing it widely to innumerable great assemblies, from human beings to gods—just as the World-honored One now spreads widely the holy life, revealing it wel to innumerable great assemblies, from human beings to gods.
I wil have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks—just as the World-honored One now has a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks.

The Buddha also told Met eyya:

Met eyya, in the distant future, when the human life span is eighty thousand years, you wil be a buddha cal ed Met eyya Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One—just as I now am a Tathāgata, free from at achment and ful y awakened, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, a Wel -gone One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and human beings, a buddha, a Fortunate One.

In this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants, and brahmins, from human beings to gods, you wil [at ain] understanding and awakening by yourself and dwel having personal y realized it—just as, in this world with its gods, Māras, Brahmās, renunciants and brahmins, from human beings to gods, I have [at ained] understanding and awakening by myself, and dwel having personal y realized it.

You wil teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity—just as I now teach the Dharma that is sublime in the beginning, sublime in the middle, and also sublime in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, revealing a holy life endowed with purity.

You wil spread widely the holy life, revealing it widely to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods—just as I now spread

widely the holy life, revealing it wel to countless great assemblies, from human beings to gods.
You wil have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks—just as I now have a community of countless hundreds and thousands of monks.

At that time, Venerable Ānanda was holding a fly whisk and at ending on the Buddha.
Then the World-honored One turned to him and said, “Ānanda, 511b bring me the robes woven with golden thread.
I now wish to present them to the monk Met eyya.”


Then Venerable Ānanda, fol owing the instruction of the World-honored One, brought the robes woven with golden thread and gave them to the World-honored One.
Then, having received from Venerable Ānanda the robes woven with golden thread, the World-honored One said:

Met eyya, take these robes woven with golden thread from the Tathāgata and offer them to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.
Why? Met eyya, al Tathāgatas, free from at achment and ful y awakened, are the protectors of the world, seeking its prosperity, benefit, peace, and happiness.

Then Venerable Met eyya, having taken the robes woven with golden thread from the Tathāgata, offered them to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the community of monks.

At that time, Māra the Bad had this thought:

The renunciant Gotama, who is staying at Benares, in the Deer Park, the Place of Seers, is teaching his disciples the Dharma for the sake of the future.
Let me go and hinder and confuse them.

Then Māra the Bad approached the Buddha.
Having arrived there, he recited a verse to the Buddha:

One wil certainly at ain

The most wonderful appearance

Wearing flower garlands and jade necklaces on one’s body And bril iant pearls on ones arms,

If one stays in the town of Ketumatī,

In the realm of King Saṅkha.

445
Thereupon the World-honored One thought:
“This Māra the Bad has come here, wanting to hinder and confuse [my disciples].”
Knowing [this], the World-honored One recited a verse to Māra the Bad:
One wil certainly at ain [the state]

Free of oppression, free of doubt and delusion,

Eradicating birth, old age, disease, and death,

[At aining] freedom from the taints, completing what has to be done, If one practices the holy life

In the realm of Met eyya.

Then Māra the Bad again recited a verse:

One wil certainly obtain

Fame and superior, excel ent clothes

Sandalwood [oil] to apply to the body,

And an even, straight, beautiful, and slender body, If one stays in the town of Ketumatī,

In the realm of King Saṅkha.

Then, the World-honored One again recited a verse:

One wil certainly at ain [the state] of

Non-ownership and homelessness,

Holding no golden treasures in his hands,

Free from activity, with nothing to fear,

If one practices the holy life

In the realm of Met eyya.

511c

Then Māra the Bad again recited a verse:

One wil certainly obtain

Fame, wealth, and fine food and drink.

Knowing wel how to sing and dance,

[One] wil make merry and constantly delight [in it].

If one stays in the town of Ketumatī,

In the realm of King Saṅkha.

Then, the World-honored One again recited a verse:



One wil certainly cross to the other shore,

As a bird breaks a net and escapes,

And achieve jhāna, abiding in it freely,

Possessed of happiness, always joyful.

Māra, you must know

That I have overcome [you].

Then King Māra thought:
“The World-honored One knows me.
The Wel -gone One has seen me.”
Anxious, worried, aggrieved, and unable to remain there, he suddenly disappeared from that place.

This is what the Buddha said.
Having heard the Buddha’s words, Met eyya, Ajita, the venerable Ānanda, and the [other] monks were delighted and remembered them wel .

67 - MA 67 The Discourse on Mahādeva’s Mango Grove


67. The Discourse on Mahādeva’s Mango Grove
Thus have I heard:
At one time the Buddha was staying in the country of Videha together with a large company of monks.
They approached Mithilā

and stayed in Mahādeva’s Mango Grove.
On that occasion, while on the journey, the World-honored One smiled joyful y.

Venerable Ānanda, on seeing the World-honored One smile, placed his palms together [in respect] toward the Buddha and said:
World-honored One, what is the reason for this smile?
Tathāgatas, free from at achment and ful y awakened, do not smile randomly, for no reason.
May I hear the meaning [of this smile].

Then the World-honored One told him:

Ānanda, in the distant past, in a different era, there was in this Mango 512a Grove at Mithilā a king named Mahādeva.
He was a wheel-turning monarch, intel igent and wise, equipped with a fourfold army to reign over the entire world, freely, as he liked.
Being a righteous Dharma king he possessed seven treasures and had acquired four kinds of success.
Ānanda, what were the seven treasures that King Mahādeva possessed?
They were the wheel treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse 447
treasure, the jewel treasure, the woman treasure, the steward treasure, and the counselor treasure—these were the seven.

Ānanda, what is reckoned to be King Mahādeva’s possession of the wheel treasure?
Ānanda, at one time on the fifteenth day of the

[half-]month, the time for reciting the code of rules, after having bathed, King Mahādeva ascended to the main hal .
[Then] the divine wheel treasure manifested, coming from the east.
It had a thousand spokes, was complete in every aspect, pure and natural, not man-made, flamelike in color, bright and shining.

On seeing it, King Mahādeva delighted and rejoiced, thinking to himself:

The auspicious wheel treasure has arisen! The wonderful wheel treasure has arisen! I heard from the ancients thus:
if a duly anointed khat iya king, on the fifteenth day of the [half-]month, the time for reciting the code of rules, after having bathed, ascends to the main hal , and the divine wheel treasure manifests, coming from the east, with a thousand spokes, complete in every aspect, pure and natural, not man-made, flamelike in color, bright and shining, then he will become a wheel-turning monarch.
Will I not be a wheel-turning monarch?

Ānanda, in those former times, when King Mahādeva