4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → DN‍ → DN 14    🔝
 DN 14 - DN 14 Mahā-padāna: The Great Discourse on the Harvest of Deeds
    DN 14.1 - On Past Lives
    DN 14.2 - What’s Normal For One Intent on Awakening
    DN 14.3 - The Thirty-Two Marks of a Great Man
    DN 14.4 - How He Came to be Known as VipassÄ«
    DN 14.5 - The Old Man
    DN 14.6 - The Sick Man
    DN 14.7 - The Dead Man
    DN 14.8 - The Renunciate
    DN 14.9 - The Going Forth
    DN 14.10 - A Great Crowd Goes Forth
    DN 14.11 - Vipassī’s Reflections
    DN 14.12 - The Appeal of Brahmā
    DN 14.13 - The Chief Disciples
    DN 14.14 - The Going Forth of the Large Crowd
    DN 14.15 - The 84,000 Who Had Gone Forth Previously
    DN 14.16 - The Allowance to Wander
    DN 14.17 - Being Informed by Deities

detailed TOC

 DN 14 - DN 14 Mahā-padāna: The Great Discourse on the Harvest of Deeds
    DN 14.1 - On Past Lives
    DN 14.2 - What’s Normal For One Intent on Awakening
    DN 14.3 - The Thirty-Two Marks of a Great Man
    DN 14.4 - How He Came to be Known as VipassÄ«
    DN 14.5 - The Old Man
    DN 14.6 - The Sick Man
    DN 14.7 - The Dead Man
    DN 14.8 - The Renunciate
    DN 14.9 - The Going Forth
    DN 14.10 - A Great Crowd Goes Forth
    DN 14.11 - Vipassī’s Reflections
    DN 14.12 - The Appeal of Brahmā
    DN 14.13 - The Chief Disciples
    DN 14.14 - The Going Forth of the Large Crowd
    DN 14.15 - The 84,000 Who Had Gone Forth Previously
    DN 14.16 - The Allowance to Wander
    DN 14.17 - Being Informed by Deities

14 - DN 14 Mahā-padāna: The Great Discourse on the Harvest of Deeds


(derived from B. Sujato 2018/12)
Dīgha Nikāya 14
Long Discourses 14

14.1 - On Past Lives

Mahāpadānasutta
The Great Discourse on the Harvest of Deeds
1. Pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttakathā
1. On Past Lives
Evaṃ me sutaṃ—​
So I have heard.
ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme karerikuṭikāyaṃ.
At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery, in the hut by the kareri tree.
Atha kho sambahulānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantānaṃ karerimaṇḍalamāḷe sannisinnānaṃ sannipatitānaṃ pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttā dhammī kathā udapādi:
Then after the meal, on return from alms-round, several senior mendicants sat together in the pavilion by the kareri tree and this Dhamma talk on the subject of past lives came up among them:
“itipi pubbenivāso, itipi pubbenivāso”ti.
“So it was in a past life; such it was in a past life.”
Assosi kho bhagavā dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ imaṃ kathāsallāpaṃ.
With clairaudience that is purified and superhuman, the Buddha heard that discussion among the mendicants.
Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhāyāsanā yena karerimaṇḍalamāḷo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi, nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
So he got up from his seat and went to the pavilion, where he sat on the seat spread out and addressed the mendicants:
“kāya nuttha, bhikkhave, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā;
“Mendicants, what were you sitting talking about just now?
kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā”ti?
What conversation was unfinished?”
Evaṃ vutte, te bhikkhū bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ:
The mendicants told him what had happened, adding:
“idha, bhante, amhākaṃ pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantānaṃ karerimaṇḍalamāḷe sannisinnānaṃ sannipatitānaṃ pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttā dhammī kathā udapādi:
‘itipi pubbenivāso itipi pubbenivāso’ti.
Ayaṃ kho no, bhante, antarākathā vippakatā. Atha bhagavā anuppatto”ti.
“This is the conversation that was unfinished when the Buddha arrived.”
“Iccheyyātha no tumhe, bhikkhave, pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ sotun”ti?
“Would you like to hear a Dhamma talk on the subject of past lives?”
“Etassa, bhagavā, kālo; etassa, sugata, kālo;
“Now is the time, Blessed One! Now is the time, Holy One!
yaṃ bhagavā pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ kareyya, bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti.
Let the Buddha give a Dhamma talk on the subject of past lives. The mendicants will listen and remember it.”
“Tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha sādhukaṃ manasi karotha bhāsissāmī”ti.
“Well then, mendicants, listen and pay close attention, I will speak.”
“Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ.
“Yes, sir,” they replied.
Bhagavā etadavoca:
The Buddha said this:
“Ito so, bhikkhave, ekanavutikappe yaṃ vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
“Ninety-one eons ago, the Buddha Vipassī arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Ito so, bhikkhave, ekatiṃse kappe yaṃ sikhī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
Thirty-one eons ago, the Buddha Sikhī arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Tasmiññeva kho, bhikkhave, ekatiṃse kappe vessabhū bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
In the same thirty-first eon, the Buddha Vessabhū arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Imasmiññeva kho, bhikkhave, bhaddakappe kakusandho bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
In the present fortunate eon, the Buddhas Kakusandha,
Imasmiññeva kho, bhikkhave, bhaddakappe koṇāgamano bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
Koṇāgamana,
Imasmiññeva kho, bhikkhave, bhaddakappe kassapo bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
and Kassapa arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Imasmiññeva kho, bhikkhave, bhaddakappe ahaṃ etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke uppanno.
And in the present fortunate eon, I have arisen in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi, khattiyakule udapādi.
The Buddhas Vipassī,
Sikhī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi, khattiyakule udapādi.
Sikhī,
Vessabhū, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi, khattiyakule udapādi.
and Vessabhū were born as aristocrats into aristocrat families.
Kakusandho, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho brāhmaṇo jātiyā ahosi, brāhmaṇakule udapādi.
The Buddhas Kakusandha,
Koṇāgamano, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho brāhmaṇo jātiyā ahosi, brāhmaṇakule udapādi.
Koṇāgamana,
Kassapo, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho brāhmaṇo jātiyā ahosi, brāhmaṇakule udapādi.
and Kassapa were born as brahmins into brahmin families.
Ahaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosiṃ, khattiyakule uppanno.
I was born as an aristocrat into an aristocrat family.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho koṇḍañño gottena ahosi.
Koṇḍañña was the clan of Vipassī,
Sikhī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho koṇḍañño gottena ahosi.
Sikhī,
Vessabhū, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho koṇḍañño gottena ahosi.
and Vessabhū.
Kakusandho, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho kassapo gottena ahosi.
Kassapa was the clan of Kakusandha,
Koṇāgamano, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho kassapo gottena ahosi.
Koṇāgamana,
Kassapo, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho kassapo gottena ahosi.
and Kassapa.
Ahaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho gotamo gottena ahosiṃ.
Gotama is my clan.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asītivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Vipassī lived for 80,000 years.
Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa sattativassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Sikhī lived for 70,000 years.
Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa saṭṭhivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Vessabhū lived for 60,000 years.
Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa cattālīsavassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Kakusandha lived for 40,000 years.
Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tiṃsavassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Koṇāgamana lived for 30,000 years.
Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa vīsativassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
Kassapa lived for 20,000 years.
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi appakaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ; yo ciraṃ jīvati, so vassasataṃ appaṃ vā bhiyyo.
For me these days the life-span is short, brief, and fleeting. A long-lived person lives for a century or a little more.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pāṭaliyā mūle abhisambuddho.
Vipassī was awakened at the root of a trumpet flower tree.
Sikhī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho puṇḍarīkassa mūle abhisambuddho.
Sikhī was awakened at the root of a white-mango tree.
Vessabhū, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho sālassa mūle abhisambuddho.
Vessabhū was awakened at the root of a sal tree.
Kakusandho, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho sirīsassa mūle abhisambuddho.
Kakusandha was awakened at the root of an acacia tree.
Koṇāgamano, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho udumbarassa mūle abhisambuddho.
Koṇāgamana was awakened at the root of a cluster fig tree.
Kassapo, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho nigrodhassa mūle abhisambuddho.
Kassapa was awakened at the root of a banyan tree.
Ahaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho assatthassa mūle abhisambuddho.
I was awakened at the root of a peepul tree.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa khaṇḍatissaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Vipassī had a fine pair of chief disciples named Khaṇḍa and Tissa.
Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa abhibhūsambhavaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Sikhī had a fine pair of chief disciples named Abhibhū and Sambhava.
Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa soṇuttaraṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Vessabhū had a fine pair of chief disciples named Soṇa and Uttara.
Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa vidhurasañjīvaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Kakusandha had a fine pair of chief disciples named Vidhura and Sañjīva.
Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa bhiyyosuttaraṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Koṇāgamana had a fine pair of chief disciples named Bhiyyosa and Uttara.
Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tissabhāradvājaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
Kassapa had a fine pair of chief disciples named Tissa and Bhāradvāja.
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi sāriputtamoggallānaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
I have a fine pair of chief disciples named Sāriputta and Moggallāna.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi bhikkhusatasahassaṃ, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi asītibhikkhusahassāni. Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ime tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Vipassī had three gatherings of disciples—one of 6,800,000, one of 100,000, and one of 80,000—all of them mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi bhikkhusatasahassaṃ, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi asītibhikkhusahassāni, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sattatibhikkhusahassāni. Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ime tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Sikhī had three gatherings of disciples—one of 100,000, one of 80,000, and one of 70,000—all of them mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi asītibhikkhusahassāni, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sattatibhikkhusahassāni, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi saṭṭhibhikkhusahassāni. Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ime tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Vessabhū had three gatherings of disciples—one of 80,000, one of 70,000, and one of 60,000—all of them mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi cattālīsabhikkhusahassāni. Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ayaṃ eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Kakusandha had one gathering of disciples—40,000 mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi tiṃsabhikkhusahassāni. Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ayaṃ eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Koṇāgamana had one gathering of disciples—30,000 mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi vīsatibhikkhusahassāni. Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ayaṃ eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
Kassapa had one gathering of disciples—20,000 mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi aḍḍhateḷasāni bhikkhusatāni. Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, ayaṃ eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
I have had one gathering of disciples—1,250 mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asoko nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Vipassī had as chief attendant a mendicant named Asoka.
Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa khemaṅkaro nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Sikhī had as chief attendant a mendicant named Khemaṅkara.
Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa upasanto nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Vessabhū had as chief attendant a mendicant named Upasanta.
Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa buddhijo nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Kakusandha had as chief attendant a mendicant named Buddhija.
Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa sotthijo nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Koṇāgamana had as chief attendant a mendicant named Sotthija.
Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa sabbamitto nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
Kassapa had as chief attendant a mendicant named Sabbamitta.
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi ānando nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
I have as chief attendant a mendicant named Ānanda.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa bandhumā nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
Vipassī’s father was King Bandhuma,
Bandhumatī nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
his birth mother was Queen Bandhumatī,
Bandhumassa rañño bandhumatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and their capital city was named Bandhumatī.
Sikhissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa aruṇo nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
Sikhī’s father was King Aruṇa,
Pabhāvatī nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
his birth mother was Queen Pabhāvatī,
Aruṇassa rañño aruṇavatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and their capital city was named Aruṇavatī.
Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa suppatito nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
Vessabhū’s father was King Suppatīta,
Vassavatī nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
his birth mother was Queen Vassavatī,
Suppatitassa rañño anomaṃ nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and their capital city was named Suppatīta.
Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa aggidatto nāma brāhmaṇo pitā ahosi.
Kakusandha’s father was the brahmin Aggidatta,
Visākhā nāma brāhmaṇī mātā ahosi janetti.
and his birth mother was the brahmin lady Visākhā.
Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena khemo nāma rājā ahosi.
At that time the king was Khema,
Khemassa rañño khemavatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
whose capital city was named Khemavatī.
Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa yaññadatto nāma brāhmaṇo pitā ahosi.
Koṇāgamana’s father was the brahmin Yaññadatta,
Uttarā nāma brāhmaṇī mātā ahosi janetti.
and his birth mother was the brahmin lady Uttarā.
Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena sobho nāma rājā ahosi.
At that time the king was Sobha,
Sobhassa rañño sobhavatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
whose capital city was named Sobhavatī.
Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa brahmadatto nāma brāhmaṇo pitā ahosi.
Kassapa’s father was the brahmin Brahmadatta,
Dhanavatī nāma brāhmaṇī mātā ahosi janetti.
and his birth mother was the brahmin lady Dhanavatī.
Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena kikī nāma rājā ahosi.
At that time the king was Kikī,
Kikissa rañño bārāṇasī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
whose capital city was named Benares.
Mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi suddhodano nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
My father was King Suddhodana,
Māyā nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
my birth mother was Queen Māyā,
Kapilavatthu nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosī”ti.
and our capital city was Kapilavatthu.”
Idamavoca bhagavā.
That is what the Buddha said.
Idaṃ vatvāna sugato uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṃ pāvisi.
When he had spoken, the Holy One got up from his seat and entered his dwelling.
Atha kho tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ acirapakkantassa bhagavato ayamantarākathā udapādi:
Soon after the Buddha left, those mendicants discussed among themselves:
“acchariyaṃ, āvuso, abbhutaṃ, āvuso, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā.
“It’s incredible, reverends, it’s amazing, the power and might of a Realized One!
Yatra hi nāma tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarissati, nāmatopi anussarissati, gottatopi anussarissati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarissati, sāvakayugatopi anussarissati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarissati:
For he is able to recollect the caste, names, clans, life-span, chief disciples, and gatherings of disciples of the Buddhas of the past who have become completely extinguished, cut off proliferation, cut off the track, finished off the cycle, and transcended suffering.
‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’”ti.
He knows the caste they were born in, and also their names, clans, conduct, qualities, wisdom, meditation, and freedom.
“Kiṃ nu kho, āvuso, tathāgatasseva nu kho esā dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā, yassā dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati: ‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’ti,
Is it because the Realized One has clearly comprehended the principle of the teachings that he can recollect all these things?
udāhu devatā tathāgatassa etamatthaṃ ārocesuṃ, yena tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati: ‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’”ti.
Or did deities tell him?”
Ayañca hidaṃ tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ antarākathā vippakatā hoti.
But this conversation among those mendicants was left unfinished.
Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yena karerimaṇḍalamāḷo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi.
Then in the late afternoon, the Buddha came out of retreat and went to the pavilion by the kareri tree, where he sat on the seat spread out
Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
and addressed the mendicants:
“kāya nuttha, bhikkhave, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā;
“Mendicants, what were you sitting talking about just now?
kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā”ti?
What conversation was unfinished?”
Evaṃ vutte, te bhikkhū bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ:
The mendicants told him what had happened, adding:
“idha, bhante, amhākaṃ acirapakkantassa bhagavato ayaṃ antarākathā udapādi:
‘acchariyaṃ, āvuso, abbhutaṃ, āvuso, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā.
Yatra hi nāma tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarissati, nāmatopi anussarissati, gottatopi anussarissati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarissati, sāvakayugatopi anussarissati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarissati:
“evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī”ti.
Kiṃ nu kho, āvuso, tathāgatasseva nu kho esā dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā, yassā dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati:
“evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī”ti.
Udāhu devatā tathāgatassa etamatthaṃ ārocesuṃ, yena tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati:
“evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī”’ti?
Ayaṃ kho no, bhante, antarākathā vippakatā, atha bhagavā anuppatto”ti.
“This was our conversation that was unfinished when the Buddha arrived.”
“Tathāgatassevesā, bhikkhave, dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā, yassā dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati:
“It is because the Realized One has clearly comprehended the principle of the teachings that he can recollect all these things.
‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’ti.
Devatāpi tathāgatassa etamatthaṃ ārocesuṃ, yena tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati:
And the deities also told me.
‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’ti.
Iccheyyātha no tumhe, bhikkhave, bhiyyoso mattāya pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ sotun”ti?
Would you like to hear a further Dhamma talk on the subject of past lives?”
“Etassa, bhagavā, kālo; etassa, sugata, kālo;
“Now is the time, Blessed One! Now is the time, Holy One!
yaṃ bhagavā bhiyyoso mattāya pubbenivāsapaṭisaṃyuttaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ kareyya, bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti.
Let the Buddha give a further Dhamma talk on the subject of past lives. The mendicants will listen and remember it.”
“Tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti.
“Well then, mendicants, listen and pay close attention, I will speak.”
“Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ.
“Yes, sir,” they replied.
Bhagavā etadavoca:
The Buddha said this:
“Ito so, bhikkhave, ekanavutikappe yaṃ vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
“Ninety-one eons ago, the Buddha Vipassī arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi, khattiyakule udapādi.
He was born as an aristocrat into an aristocrat family.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho koṇḍañño gottena ahosi.
His clan was Koṇḍañña.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asītivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
He lived for 80,000 years.
Vipassī, bhikkhave, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pāṭaliyā mūle abhisambuddho.
He was awakened at the root of a trumpet flower tree.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa khaṇḍatissaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
He had a fine pair of chief disciples named Khaṇḍa and Tissa.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ.
He had three gatherings of disciples—
Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi bhikkhusatasahassaṃ, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi asītibhikkhusahassāni.
one of 6,800,000, one of 100,000, and one of 80,000—
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ime tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
all of them mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asoko nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
He had as chief attendant a mendicant named Asoka.
Vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa bandhumā nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
His father was King Bandhuma,
Bandhumatī nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
his birth mother was Queen Bandhumatī,
Bandhumassa rañño bandhumatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and their capital city was named Bandhumatī.

14.2 - What’s Normal For One Intent on Awakening


2. Bodhisattadhammatā
2. What’s Normal For One Intent on Awakening
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bodhisatto tusitā kāyā cavitvā sato sampajāno mātukucchiṃ okkami.
When Vipassī, the being intent on awakening, passed away from the group of Joyful Gods, he was conceived in his mother’s womb, mindful and aware.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (1)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto tusitā kāyā cavitvā mātukucchiṃ okkamati.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening passes away from the group of Joyful Gods, he is conceived in his mother’s womb.
Atha sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya appamāṇo uḷāro obhāso pātubhavati atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
And then—in this world with its gods, Māras and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, gods and humans—an immeasurable, magnificent light appears, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Yāpi tā lokantarikā aghā asaṃvutā andhakārā andhakāratimisā, yatthapime candimasūriyā evaṃmahiddhikā evaṃmahānubhāvā ābhāya nānubhonti, tatthapi appamāṇo uḷāro obhāso pātubhavati atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
Even in the boundless desolation of interstellar space—so utterly dark that even the light of the moon and the sun, so mighty and powerful, makes no impression—an immeasurable, magnificent light appears, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Yepi tattha sattā upapannā, tepi tenobhāsena aññamaññaṃ sañjānanti: ‘aññepi kira, bho, santi sattā idhūpapannā’ti.
And the sentient beings reborn there recognize each other by that light: ‘So, it seems other sentient beings have been reborn here!’
Ayañca dasasahassī lokadhātu saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Appamāṇo ca uḷāro obhāso loke pātubhavati atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
And this galaxy shakes and rocks and trembles. And an immeasurable, magnificent light appears in the world, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (2)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, cattāro naṃ devaputtā catuddisaṃ rakkhāya upagacchanti: ‘mā naṃ bodhisattaṃ vā bodhisattamātaraṃ vā manusso vā amanusso vā koci vā viheṭhesī’ti.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, four deities approach to guard the four directions, so that no human or non-human or anyone at all shall harm the being intent on awakening or his mother.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (3)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, pakatiyā sīlavatī bodhisattamātā hoti, viratā pāṇātipātā, viratā adinnādānā, viratā kāmesumicchācārā, viratā musāvādā, viratā surāmerayamajjappamādaṭṭhānā.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, she becomes naturally ethical. She refrains from killing living creatures, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and alcoholic drinks that cause negligence.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (4)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, na bodhisattamātu purisesu mānasaṃ uppajjati kāmaguṇūpasaṃhitaṃ, anatikkamanīyā ca bodhisattamātā hoti kenaci purisena rattacittena.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, she no longer feels sexual desire for men, and she cannot be violated by a man of lustful intent.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (5)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, lābhinī bodhisattamātā hoti pañcannaṃ kāmaguṇānaṃ. Sā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricāreti.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, she obtains the five kinds of sensual stimulation and amuses herself, supplied and provided with them.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (6)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, na bodhisattamātu kocideva ābādho uppajjati. Sukhinī bodhisattamātā hoti akilantakāyā, bodhisattañca bodhisattamātā tirokucchigataṃ passati sabbaṅgapaccaṅgiṃ ahīnindriyaṃ.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, no afflictions beset her. She’s happy and free of bodily fatigue. And she sees the being intent on awakening in her womb, complete with all his various parts, not deficient in any faculty.
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṃso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno. Tatrāssa suttaṃ āvutaṃ nīlaṃ vā pītaṃ vā lohitaṃ vā odātaṃ vā paṇḍusuttaṃ vā.
Suppose there was a beryl gem that was naturally beautiful, eight-faceted, with expert workmanship, transparent, clear, and unclouded, endowed with all good qualities. And it was strung with a thread of blue, yellow, red, white, or golden brown.
Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso hatthe karitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘ayaṃ kho maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṃso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno. Tatridaṃ suttaṃ āvutaṃ nīlaṃ vā pītaṃ vā lohitaṃ vā odātaṃ vā paṇḍusuttaṃ vā’ti.
And someone with good eyesight were to take it in their hand and examine it: ‘This beryl gem is naturally beautiful, eight-faceted, with expert workmanship, transparent, clear, and unclouded, endowed with all good qualities. And it’s strung with a thread of blue, yellow, red, white, or golden brown.’
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti, na bodhisattamātu kocideva ābādho uppajjati, sukhinī bodhisattamātā hoti akilantakāyā, bodhisattañca bodhisattamātā tirokucchigataṃ passati sabbaṅgapaccaṅgiṃ ahīnindriyaṃ.
In the same way, when the being intent on awakening is conceived in his mother’s belly, no afflictions beset her. She’s happy and free of bodily fatigue. And she sees the being intent on awakening in her womb, complete with all his various parts, not deficient in any faculty.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (7)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, sattāhajāte bodhisatte bodhisattamātā kālaṃ karoti tusitaṃ kāyaṃ upapajjati.
It’s normal that, seven days after the being intent on awakening is born, his mother passes away and is reborn in the group of Joyful Gods.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (8)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yathā aññā itthikā nava vā dasa vā māse gabbhaṃ kucchinā pariharitvā vijāyanti, na hevaṃ bodhisattaṃ bodhisattamātā vijāyati. Daseva māsāni bodhisattaṃ bodhisattamātā kucchinā pariharitvā vijāyati.
It’s normal that, while other women carry the infant in the womb for nine or ten months before giving birth, not so the mother of the being intent on awakening. She gives birth after exactly ten months.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (9)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yathā aññā itthikā nisinnā vā nipannā vā vijāyanti, na hevaṃ bodhisattaṃ bodhisattamātā vijāyati. Ṭhitāva bodhisattaṃ bodhisattamātā vijāyati.
It’s normal that, while other women give birth while sitting or lying down, not so the mother of the being intent on awakening. She only gives birth standing up.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (10)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, devā paṭhamaṃ paṭiggaṇhanti, pacchā manussā.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, gods receive him first, then humans.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (11)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, appattova bodhisatto pathaviṃ hoti, cattāro naṃ devaputtā paṭiggahetvā mātu purato ṭhapenti: ‘attamanā, devi, hohi; mahesakkho te putto uppanno’ti.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, before he reaches the ground, four deities receive him and place him before his mother, saying: ‘Rejoice, O Queen! An illustrious child is born to you.’
Ayamettha dhammatā. (12)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, visadova nikkhamati amakkhito udena amakkhito semhena amakkhito ruhirena amakkhito kenaci asucinā suddho visado.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, he emerges already clean, unsoiled by waters, mucus, blood, or any other kind of impurity, pure and clean.
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, maṇiratanaṃ kāsike vatthe nikkhittaṃ neva maṇiratanaṃ kāsikaṃ vatthaṃ makkheti, nāpi kāsikaṃ vatthaṃ maṇiratanaṃ makkheti.
Suppose a jewel-treasure was placed on a cloth from Kāsī. The jewel would not soil the cloth, nor would the cloth soil the jewel.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Ubhinnaṃ suddhattā.
Because of the cleanliness of them both.
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, visadova nikkhamati amakkhito, udena amakkhito semhena amakkhito ruhirena amakkhito kenaci asucinā suddho visado.
In the same way, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, he emerges already clean, unsoiled by waters, mucus, blood, or any other kind of impurity, pure and clean.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (13)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, dve udakassa dhārā antalikkhā pātubhavanti—ekā sītassa ekā uṇhassa yena bodhisattassa udakakiccaṃ karonti mātu ca.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, two streams of water appear in the sky, one cool, one warm, for bathing the being intent on awakening and his mother.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (14)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, sampatijāto bodhisatto samehi pādehi patiṭṭhahitvā uttarābhimukho sattapadavītihārena gacchati setamhi chatte anudhāriyamāne, sabbā ca disā anuviloketi, āsabhiṃ vācaṃ bhāsati ‘aggohamasmi lokassa, jeṭṭhohamasmi lokassa, seṭṭhohamasmi lokassa, ayamantimā jāti, natthi dāni punabbhavo’ti.
It’s normal that, as soon as he’s born, the being intent on awakening stands firm with his own feet on the ground. Facing north, he takes seven strides with a white parasol held above him, surveys all quarters, and makes this dramatic statement: ‘I am the foremost in the world! I am the eldest in the world! I am the best in the world! This is my last rebirth. Now there are no more future lives.’
Ayamettha dhammatā. (15)
This is normal in such a case.
Dhammatā esā, bhikkhave, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, atha sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya appamāṇo uḷāro obhāso pātubhavati, atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
It’s normal that, when the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, then—in this world with its gods, Māras and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, gods and humans—an immeasurable, magnificent light appears, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Yāpi tā lokantarikā aghā asaṃvutā andhakārā andhakāratimisā, yatthapime candimasūriyā evaṃmahiddhikā evaṃmahānubhāvā ābhāya nānubhonti, tatthapi appamāṇo uḷāro obhāso pātubhavati atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
Even in the boundless desolation of interstellar space—so utterly dark that even the light of the moon and the sun, so mighty and powerful, makes no impression—an immeasurable, magnificent light appears, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Yepi tattha sattā upapannā, tepi tenobhāsena aññamaññaṃ sañjānanti: ‘aññepi kira, bho, santi sattā idhūpapannā’ti.
And the sentient beings reborn there recognize each other by that light: ‘So, it seems other sentient beings have been reborn here!’
Ayañca dasasahassī lokadhātu saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati appamāṇo ca uḷāro obhāso loke pātubhavati atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
And this galaxy shakes and rocks and trembles. And an immeasurable, magnificent light appears in the world, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Ayamettha dhammatā. (16)
This is normal in such a case.

14.3 - The Thirty-Two Marks of a Great Man


3. Dvattiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇā
3. The Thirty-Two Marks of a Great Man
Jāte kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassimhi kumāre bandhumato rañño paṭivedesuṃ:
When Prince Vipassī was born, they announced it to King Bandhumata:
‘putto te, deva, jāto, taṃ devo passatū’ti.
‘Sire, your son is born! Let your majesty examine him!’
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassiṃ kumāraṃ, disvā nemitte brāhmaṇe āmantāpetvā etadavoca:
When the king had examined the prince, he had the brahmin soothsayers summoned and said to them:
‘passantu bhonto nemittā brāhmaṇā kumāran’ti.
‘Gentlemen, please examine the prince.’
Addasaṃsu kho, bhikkhave, nemittā brāhmaṇā vipassiṃ kumāraṃ, disvā bandhumantaṃ rājānaṃ etadavocuṃ:
When they had examined him they said to the king:
‘attamano, deva, hohi, mahesakkho te putto uppanno, lābhā te, mahārāja, suladdhaṃ te, mahārāja, yassa te kule evarūpo putto uppanno.
‘Rejoice, O King! An illustrious son is born to you. You are fortunate, so very fortunate, to have a son such as this born in this family!’
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro dvattiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi samannāgato, yehi samannāgatassa mahāpurisassa dveva gatiyo bhavanti anaññā.
For the prince has the thirty-two marks of a great man. A great man who possesses these has only two possible destinies, no other.
Sace agāraṃ ajjhāvasati, rājā hoti cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato.
If he stays at home he becomes a king, a wheel-turning monarch, a just and principled king. His dominion extends to all four sides, he achieves stability in the country, and he possesses the seven treasures.
Tassimāni sattaratanāni bhavanti.
He has the following seven treasures:
Seyyathidaṃ—cakkaratanaṃ hatthiratanaṃ assaratanaṃ maṇiratanaṃ itthiratanaṃ gahapatiratanaṃ pariṇāyakaratanameva sattamaṃ.
the wheel, the elephant, the horse, the jewel, the woman, the treasurer, and the counselor as the seventh treasure.
Parosahassaṃ kho panassa puttā bhavanti sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā.
He has over a thousand sons who are valiant and heroic, crushing the armies of his enemies.
So imaṃ pathaviṃ sāgarapariyantaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasati.
After conquering this land girt by sea, he reigns by principle, without rod or sword.
Sace kho pana agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati, arahaṃ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭacchado.
But if he goes forth from the lay life to homelessness, he becomes a perfected one, a fully awakened Buddha, who draws back the veil from the world.
Katamehi cāyaṃ, deva, kumāro dvattiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi samannāgato, yehi samannāgatassa mahāpurisassa dveva gatiyo bhavanti anaññā.
And what are the marks which he possesses?
Sace agāraṃ ajjhāvasati, rājā hoti cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato.
Tassimāni sattaratanāni bhavanti.
Seyyathidaṃ—cakkaratanaṃ hatthiratanaṃ assaratanaṃ maṇiratanaṃ itthiratanaṃ gahapatiratanaṃ pariṇāyakaratanameva sattamaṃ.
Parosahassaṃ kho panassa puttā bhavanti sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā.
So imaṃ pathaviṃ sāgarapariyantaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasati.
After conquering this land girt by sea, he reigns by principle, without rod or sword.
Sace kho pana agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati, arahaṃ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭacchado. Ayañhi, deva, kumāro suppatiṭṭhitapādo. Yaṃ pāyaṃ, deva, kumāro suppatiṭṭhitapādo. Idampissa mahāpurisassa mahāpurisalakkhaṇaṃ bhavati. (1)
He has well-planted feet.
Imassa, deva, kumārassa heṭṭhā pādatalesu cakkāni jātāni sahassārāni sanemikāni sanābhikāni sabbākāraparipūrāni. Yampi imassa, deva, kumārassa heṭṭhā pādatalesu cakkāni jātāni sahassārāni sanemikāni sanābhikāni sabbākāraparipūrāni, idampissa mahāpurisassa mahāpurisalakkhaṇaṃ bhavati. (2)
On the soles of his feet there are thousand-spoked wheels, with rims and hubs, complete in every detail.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro āyatapaṇhī … pe … (3)
He has projecting heels.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro dīghaṅgulī … pe … (4)
He has long fingers.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro mudutalunahatthapādo … pe … (5)
His hands and feet are tender.
Ayañhi, deva kumāro jālahatthapādo … pe … (6)
His hands and feet cling gracefully.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro ussaṅkhapādo … pe … (7)
His feet are arched.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro eṇijaṅgho … pe … (8)
His calves are like those of an antelope.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro ṭhitakova anonamanto ubhohi pāṇitalehi jaṇṇukāni parimasati parimajjati … pe … (9)
When standing upright and not bending over, the palms of both hands touch the knees.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro kosohitavatthaguyho … pe … (10)
His private parts are retracted.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro suvaṇṇavaṇṇo kañcanasannibhattaco … pe … (11)
He is gold colored; his skin has a golden sheen.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro sukhumacchavī; sukhumattā chaviyā rajojallaṃ kāye na upalimpati … pe … (12)
He has delicate skin, so delicate that dust and dirt don’t stick to his body.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro ekekalomo; ekekāni lomāni lomakūpesu jātāni … pe … (13)
His hairs grow one per pore.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro uddhaggalomo; uddhaggāni lomāni jātāni nīlāni añjanavaṇṇāni kuṇḍalāvaṭṭāni dakkhiṇāvaṭṭakajātāni … pe … (14)
His hairs stand up; they’re blue-black and curl clockwise.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro brahmujugatto … pe … (15)
His body is as straight as Brahmā’s.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro sattussado … pe … (16)
He has bulging muscles in seven places.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro sīhapubbaddhakāyo … pe … (17)
His chest is like that of a lion.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro citantaraṃso … pe … (18)
The gap between the shoulder-blades is filled in.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro nigrodhaparimaṇḍalo yāvatakvassa kāyo tāvatakvassa byāmo, yāvatakvassa byāmo, tāvatakvassa kāyo … pe … (19)
He has the proportional circumference of a banyan tree: the span of his arms equals the height of his body.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro samavaṭṭakkhandho … pe … (20)
His torso is cylindrical.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro rasaggasaggī … pe … (21)
He has an excellent sense of taste.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro sīhahanu … pe … (22)
His jaw is like that of a lion.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro cattālīsadanto … pe … (23)
He has forty teeth.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro samadanto … pe … (24)
His teeth are even.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro aviraḷadanto … pe … (25)
His teeth have no gaps.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro susukkadāṭho … pe … (26)
His teeth are perfectly white.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro pahūtajivho … pe … (27)
He has a large tongue.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro brahmassaro karavīkabhāṇī … pe … (28)
He has the voice of Brahmā, like a cuckoo’s call.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro abhinīlanetto … pe … (29)
His eyes are deep blue.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro gopakhumo … pe … (30)
He has eyelashes like a cow’s.
Imassa, deva, kumārassa uṇṇā bhamukantare jātā odātā mudutūlasannibhā. Yampi imassa, deva, kumārassa uṇṇā bhamukantare jātā odātā mudutūlasannibhā, idampimassa mahāpurisassa mahāpurisalakkhaṇaṃ bhavati. (31)
Between his eyebrows there grows a tuft, soft and white like cotton-wool.
Ayañhi, deva, kumāro uṇhīsasīso. Yaṃ pāyaṃ, deva, kumāro uṇhīsasīso, idampissa mahāpurisassa mahāpurisalakkhaṇaṃ bhavati. (32)
His head is shaped like a turban.
Imehi kho ayaṃ, deva, kumāro dvattiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi samannāgato, yehi samannāgatassa mahāpurisassa dveva gatiyo bhavanti anaññā.
These are the thirty-two marks of a great man that the prince has. A great man who possesses these has only two possible destinies, no other.
Sace agāraṃ ajjhāvasati, rājā hoti cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato.
If he stays at home he becomes a king, a wheel-turning monarch.
Tassimāni sattaratanāni bhavanti.
Seyyathidaṃ—cakkaratanaṃ hatthiratanaṃ assaratanaṃ maṇiratanaṃ itthiratanaṃ gahapatiratanaṃ pariṇāyakaratanameva sattamaṃ.
Parosahassaṃ kho panassa puttā bhavanti sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā.
So imaṃ pathaviṃ sāgarapariyantaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasati.
Sace kho pana agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati, arahaṃ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭacchado’ti.
But if he goes forth from the lay life to homelessness, he becomes a perfected one, a fully awakened Buddha, who draws back the veil from the world.’

14.4 - How He Came to be Known as Vipassī


4. Vipassīsamaññā
4. How He Came to be Known as Vipassī
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā nemitte brāhmaṇe ahatehi vatthehi acchādāpetvā sabbakāmehi santappesi.
Then King Bandhuma had the brahmin soothsayers dressed in fresh clothes and satisfied all their needs.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassissa kumārassa dhātiyo upaṭṭhāpesi.
Then the king appointed nurses for Prince Vipassī.
Aññā khīraṃ pāyenti, aññā nhāpenti, aññā dhārenti, aññā aṅkena pariharanti.
Some suckled him, some bathed him, some held him, and some carried him on their hip.
Jātassa kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassissa kumārassa setacchattaṃ dhārayittha divā ceva rattiñca:
From when he was born, a white parasol was held over him night and day, with the thought:
‘mā naṃ sītaṃ vā uṇhaṃ vā tiṇaṃ vā rajo vā ussāvo vā bādhayitthā’ti.
‘Don’t let cold, heat, grass, dust, or damp bother him.’
Jāto kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahuno janassa piyo ahosi manāpo.
He was dear and beloved by many people,
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, uppalaṃ vā padumaṃ vā puṇḍarīkaṃ vā bahuno janassa piyaṃ manāpaṃ;
like a blue water lily, or a pink or white lotus.
evameva kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahuno janassa piyo ahosi manāpo.
Svāssudaṃ aṅkeneva aṅkaṃ parihariyati.
He was always passed from hip to hip.
Jāto kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro mañjussaro ca ahosi vaggussaro ca madhurassaro ca pemaniyassaro ca.
From when he was born, his voice was charming, graceful, sweet, and lovely.
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, himavante pabbate karavīkā nāma sakuṇajāti mañjussarā ca vaggussarā ca madhurassarā ca pemaniyassarā ca;
It was as sweet as the song of a cuckoo-bird found in the Himalayas.
evameva kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro mañjussaro ca ahosi vaggussaro ca madhurassaro ca pemaniyassaro ca.
Jātassa kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassissa kumārassa kammavipākajaṃ dibbacakkhu pāturahosi yena sudaṃ samantā yojanaṃ passati divā ceva rattiñca.
From when he was born, Prince Vipassī had the power of clairvoyance which manifested as a result of past deeds. He could see for a league all around both by day and by night.
Jāto kho pana, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro animisanto pekkhati seyyathāpi devā tāvatiṃsā.
And he was unblinkingly watchful, like the gods of the Thirty-Three.
‘Animisanto kumāro pekkhatī’ti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa kumārassa ‘vipassī vipassī’ tveva samaññā udapādi.
And because it was said that he was unblinkingly watchful, he came to be known as ‘Vipassī’.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā atthakaraṇe nisinno vipassiṃ kumāraṃ aṅke nisīdāpetvā atthe anusāsati.
Then while King Bandhuma was sitting in judgment, he’d sit Prince Vipassī in his lap and explain the case to him.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro pituaṅke nisinno viceyya viceyya atthe panāyati ñāyena.
And sitting there in his father’s lap, Vipassī would thoroughly consider the case and draw a conclusion using a logical procedure.
Viceyya viceyya kumāro atthe panāyati ñāyenāti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa kumārassa bhiyyoso mattāya ‘vipassī vipassī’ tveva samaññā udapādi.
So this was all the more reason for him to be known as ‘Vipassī’.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassissa kumārassa tayo pāsāde kārāpesi, ekaṃ vassikaṃ ekaṃ hemantikaṃ ekaṃ gimhikaṃ;
Then King Bandhuma had three stilt longhouses built for him—one for the winter, one for the summer, and one for the rainy season,
pañca kāmaguṇāni upaṭṭhāpesi.
and provided him with the five kinds of sensual stimulation.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro vassike pāsāde cattāro māse nippurisehi tūriyehi paricārayamāno na heṭṭhāpāsādaṃ orohatīti.
Prince Vipassī stayed in a stilt longhouse without coming downstairs for the four months of the rainy season, where he was entertained by musicians—none of them men.

14.5 - The Old Man


5. Jiṇṇapurisa
5. The Old Man
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahūnaṃ vassānaṃ bahūnaṃ vassasatānaṃ bahūnaṃ vassasahassānaṃ accayena sārathiṃ āmantesi:
Then, after many thousand years had passed, Prince Vipassī addressed his charioteer:
‘yojehi, samma sārathi, bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni uyyānabhūmiṃ gacchāma subhūmidassanāyā’ti.
‘My dear charioteer, harness the finest chariots. We will go to a park and see the scenery.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojetvā vipassissa kumārassa paṭivedesi:
‘Yes, sir,’ replied the charioteer. He harnessed the chariots and informed the prince:
‘yuttāni kho te, deva, bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni,
‘Sire, the finest chariots are harnessed.
yassadāni kālaṃ maññasī’ti.
Please go at your convenience.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyāsi.
Then Prince Vipassī mounted a fine carriage and, along with other fine carriages, set out for the park.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto purisaṃ jiṇṇaṃ gopānasivaṅkaṃ bhoggaṃ daṇḍaparāyanaṃ pavedhamānaṃ gacchantaṃ āturaṃ gatayobbanaṃ.
Along the way he saw an elderly man, bent double, crooked, leaning on a staff, trembling as he walked, ailing, past his prime.
Disvā sārathiṃ āmantesi:
He addressed his charioteer:
‘ayaṃ pana, samma sārathi, puriso kiṃkato?
‘My dear charioteer, what has that man done?
Kesāpissa na yathā aññesaṃ, kāyopissa na yathā aññesan’ti.
For his hair and his body are unlike those of other men.’
‘Eso kho, deva, jiṇṇo nāmā’ti.
‘That, Your Majesty, is called an old man.’
‘Kiṃ paneso, samma sārathi, jiṇṇo nāmā’ti?
‘But why is he called an old man?’
‘Eso kho, deva, jiṇṇo nāma. Na dāni tena ciraṃ jīvitabbaṃ bhavissatī’ti.
‘He’s called an old man because now he has not long to live.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi jarādhammo, jaraṃ anatīto’ti?
‘But my dear charioteer, am I liable to grow old? Am I not exempt from old age?’
‘Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe jarādhammā, jaraṃ anatītā’ti.
‘Everyone is liable to grow old, Your Majesty, including you. No-one is exempt from old age.’
‘Tena hi, samma sārathi, alaṃ dānajja uyyānabhūmiyā. Itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhī’ti.
‘Well then, my dear charioteer, that’s enough of the park for today. Let’s return to the royal compound.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer and did so.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro antepuraṃ gato dukkhī dummano pajjhāyati:
Back at the royal compound, the prince, miserable and sad, was brooding:
‘dhiratthu kira, bho, jāti nāma, yatra hi nāma jātassa jarā paññāyissatī’ti.
‘Damn this thing called rebirth, since old age will come to anyone who’s born.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā sārathiṃ āmantāpetvā etadavoca:
Then King Bandhuma summoned the charioteer and said:
‘kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha? Kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti?
‘My dear charioteer, I hope the prince enjoyed himself at the park? I hope he was happy there?’
‘Na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha, na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti.
‘No, Your Majesty, the prince didn’t enjoy himself at the park.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, addasa kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto’ti?
‘But what did he see on the way to the park?’
‘Addasā kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto purisaṃ jiṇṇaṃ gopānasivaṅkaṃ bhoggaṃ daṇḍaparāyanaṃ pavedhamānaṃ gacchantaṃ āturaṃ gatayobbanaṃ.
And the charioteer told the king about seeing the old man and the prince’s reaction.
Disvā maṃ etadavoca:
“ayaṃ pana, samma sārathi, puriso kiṅkato, kesāpissa na yathā aññesaṃ, kāyopissa na yathā aññesan”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, jiṇṇo nāmā”ti.
“Kiṃ paneso, samma sārathi, jiṇṇo nāmā”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, jiṇṇo nāma na dāni tena ciraṃ jīvitabbaṃ bhavissatī”ti.
“Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi jarādhammo, jaraṃ anatīto”ti?
“Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe jarādhammā, jaraṃ anatītā”ti.

14.6 - The Sick Man


6. Byādhitapurisa
6. The Sick Man
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumassa rañño etadahosi:
Then King Bandhuma thought:
‘Mā heva kho vipassī kumāro na rajjaṃ kāresi, mā heva vipassī kumāro agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbaji, mā heva nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ assa vacanan’ti.
‘Prince Vipassī must not renounce the throne. He must not go forth from the lay life to homelessness. And the words of the brahmin soothsayers must not come true.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassissa kumārassa bhiyyoso mattāya pañca kāmaguṇāni upaṭṭhāpesi:
To prevent this he provided the prince with even more of the five kinds of sensual stimulation,
‘yathā vipassī kumāro rajjaṃ kareyya, yathā vipassī kumāro na agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajeyya, yathā nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ micchā assa vacanan’ti.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti.
with which the prince amused himself.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahūnaṃ vassānaṃ … pe …
Then, after many thousand years had passed, Prince Vipassī had his charioteer drive him to the park once more.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto purisaṃ ābādhikaṃ dukkhitaṃ bāḷhagilānaṃ sake muttakarīse palipannaṃ semānaṃ aññehi vuṭṭhāpiyamānaṃ aññehi saṃvesiyamānaṃ.
Along the way he saw a man who was ill, suffering, gravely ill, collapsed in his own urine and feces, being picked up by some and put down by others.
Disvā sārathiṃ āmantesi:
He addressed his charioteer:
‘ayaṃ pana, samma sārathi, puriso kiṃkato?
‘My dear charioteer, what has that man done?
Akkhīnipissa na yathā aññesaṃ, saropissa na yathā aññesan’ti?
For his eyes and his voice are unlike those of other men.’
‘Eso kho, deva, byādhito nāmā’ti.
‘That, Your Majesty, is called a sick man.’
‘Kiṃ paneso, samma sārathi, byādhito nāmā’ti?
‘But why is he called a sick man?’
‘Eso kho, deva, byādhito nāma appeva nāma tamhā ābādhā vuṭṭhaheyyā’ti.
‘He’s called an sick man because hopefully he will recover from that illness.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi byādhidhammo, byādhiṃ anatīto’ti?
‘But my dear charioteer, am I liable to fall sick? Am I not exempt from sickness?’
‘Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe byādhidhammā, byādhiṃ anatītā’ti.
‘Everyone is liable to fall sick, Your Majesty, including you. No-one is exempt from sickness.’
‘Tena hi, samma sārathi, alaṃ dānajja uyyānabhūmiyā, itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhī’ti.
‘Well then, my dear charioteer, that’s enough of the park for today. Let’s return to the royal compound.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer and did so.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro antepuraṃ gato dukkhī dummano pajjhāyati:
Back at the royal compound, the prince, miserable and sad, was brooding:
‘dhiratthu kira, bho, jāti nāma, yatra hi nāma jātassa jarā paññāyissati, byādhi paññāyissatī’ti.
‘Damn this thing called rebirth, since old age and sickness will come to anyone who’s born.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā sārathiṃ āmantāpetvā etadavoca:
Then King Bandhuma summoned the charioteer and said:
‘kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha, kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti?
‘My dear charioteer, I hope the prince enjoyed himself at the park? I hope he was happy there?’
‘Na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha, na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti.
‘No, Your Majesty, the prince didn’t enjoy himself at the park.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, addasa kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto’ti?
‘But what did he see on the way to the park?’
‘Addasā kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto purisaṃ ābādhikaṃ dukkhitaṃ bāḷhagilānaṃ sake muttakarīse palipannaṃ semānaṃ aññehi vuṭṭhāpiyamānaṃ aññehi saṃvesiyamānaṃ.
And the charioteer told the king about seeing the sick man and the prince’s reaction.
Disvā maṃ etadavoca:
“ayaṃ pana, samma sārathi, puriso kiṅkato, akkhīnipissa na yathā aññesaṃ, saropissa na yathā aññesan”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, byādhito nāmā”ti.
“Kiṃ paneso, samma sārathi, byādhito nāmā”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, byādhito nāma appeva nāma tamhā ābādhā vuṭṭhaheyyā”ti.
“Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi byādhidhammo, byādhiṃ anatīto”ti?
“Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe byādhidhammā, byādhiṃ anatītā”ti.
“Tena hi, samma sārathi, alaṃ dānajja uyyānabhūmiyā, itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhī”ti.
“Evaṃ, devā”ti kho ahaṃ, deva, vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsiṃ.
So kho, deva, kumāro antepuraṃ gato dukkhī dummano pajjhāyati:
“dhiratthu kira, bho, jāti nāma, yatra hi nāma jātassa jarā paññāyissati, byādhi paññāyissatī”’ti.

14.7 - The Dead Man


7. Kālaṅkatapurisa
7. The Dead Man
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumassa rañño etadahosi:
Then King Bandhuma thought:
‘mā heva kho vipassī kumāro na rajjaṃ kāresi, mā heva vipassī kumāro agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbaji, mā heva nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ assa vacanan’ti.
‘Prince Vipassī must not renounce the throne. He must not go forth from the lay life to homelessness. And the words of the brahmin soothsayers must not come true.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassissa kumārassa bhiyyoso mattāya pañca kāmaguṇāni upaṭṭhāpesi:
To prevent this he provided the prince with even more of the five kinds of sensual stimulation,
‘yathā vipassī kumāro rajjaṃ kareyya, yathā vipassī kumāro na agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajeyya, yathā nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ micchā assa vacanan’ti.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti.
with which the prince amused himself.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahūnaṃ vassānaṃ … pe …
Then, after many thousand years had passed, Prince Vipassī had his charioteer drive him to the park once more.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto mahājanakāyaṃ sannipatitaṃ nānārattānañca dussānaṃ vilātaṃ kayiramānaṃ.
Along the way he saw a large crowd gathered making a bier out of garments of different colors.
Disvā sārathiṃ āmantesi:
He addressed his charioteer:
‘kiṃ nu kho so, samma sārathi, mahājanakāyo sannipatito nānārattānañca dussānaṃ vilātaṃ kayiratī’ti?
‘My dear charioteer, why is that crowd making a bier?’
‘Eso kho, deva, kālaṅkato nāmā’ti.
‘That, Your Majesty, is for someone who’s departed.’
‘Tena hi, samma sārathi, yena so kālaṅkato tena rathaṃ pesehī’ti.
‘Well then, drive the chariot up to the departed.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā yena so kālaṅkato tena rathaṃ pesesi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer, and did so.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro petaṃ kālaṅkataṃ, disvā sārathiṃ āmantesi:
When the prince saw the corpse of the departed, he addressed the charioteer:
‘kiṃ panāyaṃ, samma sārathi, kālaṅkato nāmā’ti?
‘But why is he called departed?’
‘Eso kho, deva, kālaṅkato nāma. Na dāni taṃ dakkhanti mātā vā pitā vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā, sopi na dakkhissati mātaraṃ vā pitaraṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite’ti.
‘He’s called departed because now his mother and father, his relatives and kin shall see him no more, and he shall never again see them.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi maraṇadhammo maraṇaṃ anatīto;
‘But my dear charioteer, am I liable to die? Am I not exempt from death?
mampi na dakkhanti devo vā devī vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā;
Will the king and queen and my other relatives and kin see me no more?
ahampi na dakkhissāmi devaṃ vā deviṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite’ti?
And shall I never again see them?’
‘Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe maraṇadhammā maraṇaṃ anatītā;
‘Everyone is liable to die, Your Majesty, including you. No-one is exempt from death.
tampi na dakkhanti devo vā devī vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā;
The king and queen and your other relatives and kin shall see you no more,
tvampi na dakkhissasi devaṃ vā deviṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite’ti.
and you shall never again see them.’
‘Tena hi, samma sārathi, alaṃ dānajja uyyānabhūmiyā, itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhī’ti.
‘Well then, my dear charioteer, that’s enough of the park for today. Let’s return to the royal compound.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer and did so.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro antepuraṃ gato dukkhī dummano pajjhāyati:
Back at the royal compound, the prince, miserable and sad, was brooding:
‘dhiratthu kira, bho, jāti nāma, yatra hi nāma jātassa jarā paññāyissati, byādhi paññāyissati, maraṇaṃ paññāyissatī’ti.
‘Damn this thing called rebirth, since old age, sickness, and death will come to anyone who’s born.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā sārathiṃ āmantāpetvā etadavoca:
Then King Bandhuma summoned the charioteer and said:
‘kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha, kacci, samma sārathi, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti?
‘My dear charioteer, I hope the prince enjoyed himself at the park? I hope he was happy there?’
‘Na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā abhiramittha, na kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiyā attamano ahosī’ti.
‘No, Your Majesty, the prince didn’t enjoy himself at the park.’
‘Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, addasa kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto’ti?
‘But what did he see on the way to the park?’
‘Addasā kho, deva, kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto mahājanakāyaṃ sannipatitaṃ nānārattānañca dussānaṃ vilātaṃ kayiramānaṃ.
And the charioteer told the king about seeing the dead man and the prince’s reaction.
Disvā maṃ etadavoca:
“kiṃ nu kho so, samma sārathi, mahājanakāyo sannipatito nānārattānañca dussānaṃ vilātaṃ kayiratī”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, kālaṅkato nāmā”ti.
“Tena hi, samma sārathi, yena so kālaṅkato tena rathaṃ pesehī”ti.
“Evaṃ, devā”ti kho ahaṃ, deva, vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā yena so kālaṅkato tena rathaṃ pesesiṃ.
Addasā kho, deva, kumāro petaṃ kālaṅkataṃ, disvā maṃ etadavoca:
“kiṃ panāyaṃ, samma sārathi, kālaṅkato nāmā”ti?
“Eso kho, deva, kālaṅkato nāma.
Na dāni taṃ dakkhanti mātā vā pitā vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā, sopi na dakkhissati mātaraṃ vā pitaraṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite”ti.
“Kiṃ pana, samma sārathi, ahampi maraṇadhammo maraṇaṃ anatīto;
mampi na dakkhanti devo vā devī vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā;
ahampi na dakkhissāmi devaṃ vā deviṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite”ti?
“Tvañca, deva, mayañcamha sabbe maraṇadhammā maraṇaṃ anatītā;
tampi na dakkhanti devo vā devī vā aññe vā ñātisālohitā, tvampi na dakkhissasi devaṃ vā deviṃ vā aññe vā ñātisālohite”ti.
“Tena hi, samma sārathi, alaṃ dānajja uyyānabhūmiyā, itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhī”ti.
“Evaṃ, devā”ti kho ahaṃ, deva, vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsiṃ.
So kho, deva, kumāro antepuraṃ gato dukkhī dummano pajjhāyati:
“dhiratthu kira, bho, jāti nāma, yatra hi nāma jātassa jarā paññāyissati, byādhi paññāyissati, maraṇaṃ paññāyissatī”’ti.

14.8 - The Renunciate


8. Pabbajita
8. The Renunciate
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumassa rañño etadahosi:
Then King Bandhuma thought:
‘mā heva kho vipassī kumāro na rajjaṃ kāresi, mā heva vipassī kumāro agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbaji, mā heva nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ assa vacanan’ti.
‘Prince Vipassī must not renounce the throne. He must not go forth from the lay life to homelessness. And the words of the brahmin soothsayers must not come true.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bandhumā rājā vipassissa kumārassa bhiyyoso mattāya pañca kāmaguṇāni upaṭṭhāpesi:
To prevent this he provided the prince with even more of the five kinds of sensual stimulation,
‘yathā vipassī kumāro rajjaṃ kareyya, yathā vipassī kumāro na agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajeyya, yathā nemittānaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ micchā assa vacanan’ti.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti.
with which the prince amused himself.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bahūnaṃ vassānaṃ bahūnaṃ vassasatānaṃ bahūnaṃ vassasahassānaṃ accayena sārathiṃ āmantesi:
Then, after many thousand years had passed, Prince Vipassī had his charioteer drive him to the park once more.
‘yojehi, samma sārathi, bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni, uyyānabhūmiṃ gacchāma subhūmidassanāyā’ti.
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojetvā vipassissa kumārassa paṭivedesi:
‘yuttāni kho te, deva, bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni,
‘Sire, the finest chariots are harnessed’.
yassadāni kālaṃ maññasī’ti.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyāsi.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro uyyānabhūmiṃ niyyanto purisaṃ bhaṇḍuṃ pabbajitaṃ kāsāyavasanaṃ.
Along the way he saw a man, a renunciate with shaven head, wearing an ocher robe.
Disvā sārathiṃ āmantesi:
He addressed his charioteer:
‘ayaṃ pana, samma sārathi, puriso kiṃkato?
‘My dear charioteer, what has that man done?
Sīsampissa na yathā aññesaṃ, vatthānipissa na yathā aññesan’ti?
For his head and his clothes are unlike those of other men.’
‘Eso kho, deva, pabbajito nāmā’ti.
‘That, Your Majesty, is called a renunciate.’
‘Kiṃ paneso, samma sārathi, pabbajito nāmā’ti?
‘But why is he called a renunciate?’
‘Eso kho, deva, pabbajito nāma sādhu dhammacariyā sādhu samacariyā sādhu kusalakiriyā sādhu puññakiriyā sādhu avihiṃsā sādhu bhūtānukampā’ti.
‘He is called a renunciate because he celebrates principled and fair conduct, skillful actions, good deeds, harmlessness, and compassion for living creatures.’
‘Sādhu kho so, samma sārathi, pabbajito nāma, sādhu dhammacariyā sādhu samacariyā sādhu kusalakiriyā sādhu puññakiriyā sādhu avihiṃsā sādhu bhūtānukampā.
‘Then I celebrate the one called a renunciate, who celebrates principled and fair conduct, skillful actions, good deeds, harmlessness, and compassion for living creatures!
Tena hi, samma sārathi, yena so pabbajito tena rathaṃ pesehī’ti.
Well then, drive the chariot up to that renunciate.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā yena so pabbajito tena rathaṃ pesesi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer, and did so.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro taṃ pabbajitaṃ etadavoca:
Then Prince Vipassī said to that renunciate:
‘tvaṃ pana, samma, kiṃkato,
‘My good man, what have you done?
sīsampi te na yathā aññesaṃ, vatthānipi te na yathā aññesan’ti?
For your head and your clothes are unlike those of other men.’
‘Ahaṃ kho, deva, pabbajito nāmā’ti.
‘Sire, I am what is called a renunciate.’
‘Kiṃ pana tvaṃ, samma, pabbajito nāmā’ti?
‘But why are you called a renunciate?’
‘Ahaṃ kho, deva, pabbajito nāma, sādhu dhammacariyā sādhu samacariyā sādhu kusalakiriyā sādhu puññakiriyā sādhu avihiṃsā sādhu bhūtānukampā’ti.
‘I am called a renunciate because I celebrate principled and fair conduct, skillful actions, good deeds, harmlessness, and compassion for living creatures.’
‘Sādhu kho tvaṃ, samma, pabbajito nāma sādhu dhammacariyā sādhu samacariyā sādhu kusalakiriyā sādhu puññakiriyā sādhu avihiṃsā sādhu bhūtānukampā’ti.
‘Then I celebrate the one called a renunciate, who celebrates principled and fair conduct, skillful actions, good deeds, harmlessness, and compassion for living creatures!’

14.9 - The Going Forth


9. Bodhisattapabbajjā
9. The Going Forth
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī kumāro sārathiṃ āmantesi:
Then the prince addressed the charioteer:
‘tena hi, samma sārathi, rathaṃ ādāya itova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāhi.
‘Well then, my dear charioteer, take the chariot and return to the royal compound.
Ahaṃ pana idheva kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajissāmī’ti.
I shall shave off my hair and beard right here, dress in ocher robes, and go forth from the lay life to homelessness.’
‘Evaṃ, devā’ti kho, bhikkhave, sārathi vipassissa kumārassa paṭissutvā rathaṃ ādāya tatova antepuraṃ paccaniyyāsi.
‘Yes, Your Majesty,’ replied the charioteer and did so.
Vipassī pana kumāro tattheva kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbaji.
Then Prince Vipassī shaved off his hair and beard, dressed in ocher robes, and went forth from the lay life to homelessness.

14.10 - A Great Crowd Goes Forth


10. Mahājanakāyaanupabbajjā
10. A Great Crowd Goes Forth
Assosi kho, bhikkhave, bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā mahājanakāyo caturāsītipāṇasahassāni:
A large crowd of 84,000 people in the capital of Bandhumatī heard
‘vipassī kira kumāro kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito’ti.
that Vipassī had gone forth.
Sutvāna tesaṃ etadahosi:
It occurred to them:
‘na hi nūna so orako dhammavinayo, na sā orakā pabbajjā, yattha vipassī kumāro kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito.
‘This must be no ordinary teaching and training, no ordinary going forth in which Prince Vipassī has gone forth.
Vipassīpi nāma kumāro kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajissati, kimaṅgaṃ pana mayan’ti.
If even the prince goes forth, why don’t we do the same?’
Atha kho, so bhikkhave, mahājanakāyo caturāsītipāṇasahassāni kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā vipassiṃ bodhisattaṃ agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitaṃ anupabbajiṃsu.
Then that great crowd of 84,000 people shaved off their hair and beard, dressed in ocher robes, and followed the one intent on awakening, Vipassī, by going forth from the lay life to homelessness.
Tāya sudaṃ, bhikkhave, parisāya parivuto vipassī bodhisatto gāmanigamajanapadarājadhānīsu cārikaṃ carati.
Escorted by that assembly, Vipassī wandered on tour among the villages, towns, and capital cities.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
Then as he was in private retreat this thought came to his mind:
‘na kho metaṃ patirūpaṃ yohaṃ ākiṇṇo viharāmi, yannūnāhaṃ eko gaṇamhā vūpakaṭṭho vihareyyan’ti.
‘It’s not appropriate for me to live in a crowd. Why don’t I live alone, withdrawn from the group?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bodhisatto aparena samayena eko gaṇamhā vūpakaṭṭho vihāsi, aññeneva tāni caturāsītipabbajitasahassāni agamaṃsu, aññena maggena vipassī bodhisatto.
After some time he withdrew from the group to live alone. The 84,000 went one way, but Vipassī went another.

14.11 - Vipassī’s Reflections


11. Bodhisattaabhinivesa
11. Vipassī’s Reflections
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa vāsūpagatassa rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
Then as Vipassī, the one intent on awakening, was in private retreat this thought came to his mind:
‘kicchaṃ vatāyaṃ loko āpanno, jāyati ca jīyati ca mīyati ca cavati ca upapajjati ca, atha ca panimassa dukkhassa nissaraṇaṃ nappajānāti jarāmaraṇassa,
‘Alas, this world has fallen into trouble. It’s born, grows old, dies, passes away, and is reborn, yet it doesn’t understand how to escape from this suffering, from old age and death.
kudāssu nāma imassa dukkhassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyissati jarāmaraṇassā’ti?
Oh, when will an escape be found from this suffering, from old age and death?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati jarāmaraṇaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā jarāmaraṇan’ti?
‘When what exists is there old age and death? What is a condition for old age and death?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘jātiyā kho sati jarāmaraṇaṃ hoti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan’ti.
‘When rebirth exists there’s old age and death. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati jāti hoti, kiṃpaccayā jātī’ti?
‘When what exists is there rebirth? What is a condition for rebirth?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘bhave kho sati jāti hoti, bhavapaccayā jātī’ti.
‘When continued existence exists there’s rebirth. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati bhavo hoti, kiṃpaccayā bhavo’ti?
‘When what exists is there continued existence? What is a condition for continued existence?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘upādāne kho sati bhavo hoti, upādānapaccayā bhavo’ti.
‘When grasping exists there’s continued existence. Grasping is a condition for continued existence.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati upādānaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā upādānan’ti?
‘When what exists is there grasping? What is a condition for grasping?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘taṇhāya kho sati upādānaṃ hoti, taṇhāpaccayā upādānan’ti.
‘When craving exists there’s grasping. Craving is a condition for grasping.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati taṇhā hoti, kiṃpaccayā taṇhā’ti?
‘When what exists is there craving? What is a condition for craving?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘vedanāya kho sati taṇhā hoti, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā’ti.
‘When feeling exists there’s craving. Feeling is a condition for craving.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati vedanā hoti, kiṃpaccayā vedanā’ti?
‘When what exists is there feeling? What is a condition for feeling?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘phasse kho sati vedanā hoti, phassapaccayā vedanā’ti.
‘When contact exists there’s feeling. Contact is a condition for feeling.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati phasso hoti, kiṃpaccayā phasso’ti?
‘When what exists is there contact? What is a condition for contact?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘saḷāyatane kho sati phasso hoti, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso’ti.
‘When the six sense fields exist there’s contact. The six sense fields are a condition for contact.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā saḷāyatanan’ti?
‘When what exists are there the six sense fields? What is a condition for the six sense fields?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘nāmarūpe kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanan’ti.
‘When name and form exist there are the six sense fields. Name and form are a condition for the six sense fields.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā nāmarūpan’ti?
‘When what exists are there name and form? What is a condition for name and form?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpan’ti.
‘When consciousness exists there are name and form. Consciousness is a condition for name and form.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā viññāṇan’ti?
‘When what exists is there consciousness? What is a condition for consciousness?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘nāmarūpe kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti, nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇan’ti.
‘When name and form exist there’s consciousness. Name and form are a condition for consciousness.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpamhā, nāparaṃ gacchati.
‘This consciousness turns back from name and form, and doesn’t go beyond that.’
Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jiyyetha vā miyyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā, yadidaṃ
It is to this extent that one may be reborn, grow old, die, pass away, or reappear. That is:
nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti.
Name and form are conditions for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name and form. Name and form are conditions for the six sense fields. The six sense fields are conditions for contact. Contact is a condition for feeling. Feeling is a condition for craving. Craving is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be.
Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti’.
That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.’
‘Samudayo samudayo’ti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
‘Origination, origination.’ Such was the vision, knowledge, wisdom, realization, and light that arose in Vipassī, the one intent on awakening, regarding teachings not learned before from another.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati jarāmaraṇaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no old age and death? When what ceases do old age and death cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘jātiyā kho asati jarāmaraṇaṃ na hoti, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho’ti.
‘When rebirth doesn’t exist there’s no old age and death. When rebirth ceases, old age and death cease.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati jāti na hoti, kissa nirodhā jātinirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no rebirth? When what ceases does rebirth cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘bhave kho asati jāti na hoti, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho’ti.
‘When continued existence doesn’t exist there’s no rebirth. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati bhavo na hoti, kissa nirodhā bhavanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no continued existence? When what ceases does continued existence cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘upādāne kho asati bhavo na hoti, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho’ti.
‘When grasping doesn’t exist there’s no continued existence. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati upādānaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā upādānanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no grasping? When what ceases does grasping cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘taṇhāya kho asati upādānaṃ na hoti, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho’ti.
‘When craving doesn’t exist there’s no grasping. When craving ceases, grasping ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati taṇhā na hoti, kissa nirodhā taṇhānirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no craving? When what ceases does craving cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘vedanāya kho asati taṇhā na hoti, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho’ti.
‘When feeling doesn’t exist there’s no craving. When feeling ceases, craving ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati vedanā na hoti, kissa nirodhā vedanānirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no feeling? When what ceases does feeling cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘phasse kho asati vedanā na hoti, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho’ti.
‘When contact doesn’t exist there’s no feeling. When contact ceases, feeling ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati phasso na hoti, kissa nirodhā phassanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no contact? When what ceases does contact cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘saḷāyatane kho asati phasso na hoti, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho’ti.
‘When the six sense fields don’t exist there’s no contact. When the six sense fields cease, contact ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati saḷāyatanaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā saḷāyatananirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist are there no six sense fields? When what ceases do the six sense fields cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘nāmarūpe kho asati saḷāyatanaṃ na hoti, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho’ti.
‘When name and form don’t exist there are no six sense fields. When name and form cease, the six sense fields cease.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati nāmarūpaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā nāmarūpanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist are there no name and form? When what ceases do name and form cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘viññāṇe kho asati nāmarūpaṃ na hoti, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho’ti.
‘When consciousness doesn’t exist there are no name and form. When consciousness ceases, name and form cease.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘kimhi nu kho asati viññāṇaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā viññāṇanirodho’ti?
‘When what doesn’t exist is there no consciousness? When what ceases does consciousness cease?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo:
Then, through proper attention, Vipassī comprehended with wisdom:
‘nāmarūpe kho asati viññāṇaṃ na hoti, nāmarūpanirodhā viññāṇanirodho’ti.
‘When name and form don’t exist there’s no consciousness. When name and form cease, consciousness ceases.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi:
Then Vipassī thought:
‘adhigato kho myāyaṃ maggo sambodhāya yadidaṃ—
‘I have discovered the path to awakening. That is:
nāmarūpanirodhā viññāṇanirodho, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti.
When name and form cease, consciousness ceases. When consciousness ceases, name and form cease. When name and form cease, the six sense fields cease. When the six sense fields cease, contact ceases. When contact ceases, feeling ceases. When feeling ceases, craving ceases. When craving ceases, grasping ceases. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases. When rebirth ceases, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress cease.
Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti’.
That is how this entire mass of suffering ceases.’
‘Nirodho nirodho’ti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
‘Cessation, cessation.’ Such was the vision, knowledge, wisdom, realization, and light that arose in Vipassī, the one intent on awakening, regarding teachings not learned before from another.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bodhisatto aparena samayena pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassī vihāsi:
Some time later Vipassī meditated observing rise and fall in the five grasping aggregates.
‘iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo;
‘Such is form, such is the origin of form, such is the ending of form.
iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya atthaṅgamo;
Such is feeling, such is the origin of feeling, such is the ending of feeling.
iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo;
Such is perception, such is the origin of perception, such is the ending of perception.
iti saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṃ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṃ atthaṅgamo;
Such are choices, such is the origin of choices, such is the ending of choices.
iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti,
Such is consciousness, such is the origin of consciousness, such is the ending of consciousness.’
tassa pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato na cirasseva anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccīti.
Meditating like this his mind was soon freed from defilements by not grasping.

14.12 - The Appeal of Brahmā


12. Brahmayācanakathā
12. The Appeal of Brahmā
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa etadahosi:
Then the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, thought:
‘yannūnāhaṃ dhammaṃ deseyyan’ti.
‘Why don’t I teach the Dhamma?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa etadahosi:
Then he thought:
‘adhigato kho myāyaṃ dhammo gambhīro duddaso duranubodho santo paṇīto atakkāvacaro nipuṇo paṇḍitavedanīyo.
‘This principle I have discovered is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, peaceful, sublime, beyond the scope of reason, subtle, comprehensible to the astute.
Ālayarāmā kho panāyaṃ pajā ālayaratā ālayasammuditā.
But people like attachment, they love it and enjoy it.
Ālayarāmāya kho pana pajāya ālayaratāya ālayasammuditāya duddasaṃ idaṃ ṭhānaṃ yadidaṃ idappaccayatāpaṭiccasamuppādo.
It’s hard for them to see this thing; that is, specific conditionality, dependent origination.
Idampi kho ṭhānaṃ duddasaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ.
It’s also hard for them to see this thing; that is, the stilling of all activities, the letting go of all attachments, the ending of craving, fading away, cessation, extinguishment.
Ahañceva kho pana dhammaṃ deseyyaṃ, pare ca me na ājāneyyuṃ; so mamassa kilamatho, sā mamassa vihesā’ti.
And if I were to teach the Dhamma, others might not understand me, which would be wearying and troublesome for me.’
Apissu, bhikkhave, vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ imā anacchariyā gāthāyo paṭibhaṃsu pubbe assutapubbā:
And then these verses, which were neither supernaturally inspired, nor learned before in the past, occurred to him:
‘Kicchena me adhigataṃ,
‘I’ve struggled hard to realize this,
halaṃ dāni pakāsituṃ;
enough with trying to explain it!
Rāgadosaparetehi,
This teaching is not easily understood
nāyaṃ dhammo susambudho.
by those mired in greed and hate.
Paṭisotagāmiṃ nipuṇaṃ,
Those caught up in greed can’t see
gambhīraṃ duddasaṃ aṇuṃ;
what’s subtle, going against the stream,
Rāgarattā na dakkhanti,
deep, hard to see, and very fine,
tamokhandhena āvuṭā’ti.
for they’re shrouded in a mass of darkness.’
Itiha, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa paṭisañcikkhato appossukkatāya cittaṃ nami, no dhammadesanāya.
So, as the Buddha Vipassī reflected like this, his mind inclined to remaining passive, not to teaching the Dhamma.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, aññatarassa mahābrahmuno vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya etadahosi:
Then a certain Great Brahmā, knowing what the Buddha Vipassī was thinking, thought:
‘nassati vata bho loko, vinassati vata bho loko, yatra hi nāma vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa appossukkatāya cittaṃ namati, no dhammadesanāyā’ti.
‘Oh my goodness! The world will be lost, the world will perish! For the mind of the Realized One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, inclines to remaining passive, not to teaching the Dhamma.’
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—brahmaloke antarahito vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa purato pāturahosi.
Then, as easily as a strong person would extend or contract their arm, he vanished from the Brahmā realm and reappeared in front of the Buddha Vipassī.
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā dakkhiṇaṃ jāṇumaṇḍalaṃ pathaviyaṃ nihantvā yena vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ etadavoca:
He arranged his robe over one shoulder, knelt on his right knee, raised his joined palms toward the Buddha Vipassī, and said:
‘desetu, bhante, bhagavā dhammaṃ, desetu sugato dhammaṃ,
‘Sir, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma! Let the Holy One teach the Dhamma!
santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā; assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti,
There are beings with little dust in their eyes. They’re in decline because they haven’t heard the teaching.
bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro’ti.
There will be those who understand the teaching!’
Evaṃ vutte, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho taṃ mahābrahmānaṃ etadavoca:
When he said this, the Buddha Vipassī said to him:
‘mayhampi kho, brahme, etadahosi:
‘I too thought this, Brahmā:
“yannūnāhaṃ dhammaṃ deseyyan”ti.
“Why don’t I teach the Dhamma?”
Tassa mayhaṃ, brahme, etadahosi:
Then it occurred to me:
“adhigato kho myāyaṃ dhammo gambhīro duddaso duranubodho santo paṇīto atakkāvacaro nipuṇo paṇḍitavedanīyo.
Ālayarāmā kho panāyaṃ pajā ālayaratā ālayasammuditā.
Ālayarāmāya kho pana pajāya ālayaratāya ālayasammuditāya duddasaṃ idaṃ ṭhānaṃ yadidaṃ idappaccayatāpaṭiccasamuppādo.
Idampi kho ṭhānaṃ duddasaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ.
Ahañceva kho pana dhammaṃ deseyyaṃ, pare ca me na ājāneyyuṃ; so mamassa kilamatho, sā mamassa vihesā”ti.
“If I were to teach the Dhamma, others might not understand me, which would be wearying and troublesome for me.”
Apissu maṃ, brahme, imā anacchariyā gāthāyo paṭibhaṃsu pubbe assutapubbā:
Itiha me, brahme, paṭisañcikkhato appossukkatāya cittaṃ nami, no dhammadesanāyā’ti.
So, as I reflected like this, my mind inclined to remaining passive, not to teaching the Dhamma.’
Dutiyampi kho, bhikkhave, so mahābrahmā … pe …
For a second time,
tatiyampi kho, bhikkhave, so mahābrahmā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ etadavoca:
and a third time that Great Brahmā begged the Buddha to teach.
‘desetu, bhante, bhagavā dhammaṃ, desetu sugato dhammaṃ, santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti, bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro’ti.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho brahmuno ca ajjhesanaṃ viditvā sattesu ca kāruññataṃ paṭicca buddhacakkhunā lokaṃ volokesi.
Then, understanding Brahmā’s invitation, the Buddha Vipassī surveyed the world with the eye of a Buddha, because of his compassion for sentient beings.
Addasā kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho buddhacakkhunā lokaṃ volokento satte apparajakkhe mahārajakkhe tikkhindriye mudindriye svākāre dvākāre suviññāpaye duviññāpaye appekacce paralokavajjabhayadassāvine viharante, appekacce na paralokavajjabhayadassāvine viharante.
And he saw sentient beings with little dust in their eyes, and some with much dust in their eyes; with keen faculties and with weak faculties, with good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach. And some of them lived seeing the danger in the flaw to do with the next world, while others did not.
Seyyathāpi nāma uppaliniyaṃ vā paduminiyaṃ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṃ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṃvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni anto nimuggaposīni. Appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṃvaḍḍhāni samodakaṃ ṭhitāni. Appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṃvaḍḍhāni udakā accuggamma ṭhitāni anupalittāni udakena.
It’s like a pool with blue water lilies, or pink or white lotuses. Some of them sprout and grow in the water without rising above it, thriving underwater. Some of them sprout and grow in the water reaching the water’s surface. And some of them sprout and grow in the water but rise up above the water and stand with no water clinging to them.
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho buddhacakkhunā lokaṃ volokento addasa satte apparajakkhe mahārajakkhe tikkhindriye mudindriye svākāre dvākāre suviññāpaye duviññāpaye appekacce paralokavajjabhayadassāvine viharante, appekacce na paralokavajjabhayadassāvine viharante.
In the same way, the Buddha Vipassī saw sentient beings with little dust in their eyes, and some with much dust in their eyes.
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ gāthāhi ajjhabhāsi:
Then that Great Brahmā, knowing what the Buddha Vipassī was thinking, addressed him in verse:
‘Sele yathā pabbatamuddhaniṭṭhito,
‘Standing high on a rocky mountain,
Yathāpi passe janataṃ samantato;
you can see the people all around.
Tathūpamaṃ dhammamayaṃ sumedha,
In just the same way, all-seer, wise one,
Pāsādamāruyha samantacakkhu;
ascend the palace built of Dhamma!
Sokāvatiṇṇaṃ janatamapetasoko,
You’re free of sorrow; but look at these people
Avekkhassu jātijarābhibhūtaṃ.
overwhelmed with sorrow, oppressed by rebirth and old age.
Uṭṭhehi vīra vijitasaṅgāma,
Rise, hero! Victor in battle, leader of the caravan,
Satthavāha aṇaṇa vicara loke;
wander the world without obligation.
Desassu bhagavā dhammaṃ,
Let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma!
Aññātāro bhavissantī’ti.
There will be those who understand!’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho taṃ mahābrahmānaṃ gāthāya ajjhabhāsi:
Then the Buddha Vipassī addressed that Great Brahmā in verse:
‘Apārutā tesaṃ amatassa dvārā,
‘Flung open are the doors to the deathless!
Ye sotavanto pamuñcantu saddhaṃ;
Let those with ears to hear decide their faith.
Vihiṃsasaññī paguṇaṃ na bhāsiṃ,
Thinking it would be troublesome, Brahmā, I did not teach
Dhammaṃ paṇītaṃ manujesu brahme’ti.
the sophisticated, sublime Dhamma among humans.’
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā: ‘katāvakāso khomhi vipassinā bhagavatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dhammadesanāyā’ti vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā tattheva antaradhāyi.
Then the Great Brahmā, knowing that his request for the Buddha Vipassī to teach the Dhamma had been granted, bowed and respectfully circled him, keeping him on his right, before vanishing right there.

14.13 - The Chief Disciples


13. Aggasāvakayuga
13. The Chief Disciples
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa etadahosi:
Then the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, thought:
‘kassa nu kho ahaṃ paṭhamaṃ dhammaṃ deseyyaṃ,
‘Who should I teach first of all?
ko imaṃ dhammaṃ khippameva ājānissatī’ti?
Who will quickly understand this teaching?’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa etadahosi:
Then he thought:
‘ayaṃ kho khaṇḍo ca rājaputto tisso ca purohitaputto bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā paṭivasanti paṇḍitā viyattā medhāvino dīgharattaṃ apparajakkhajātikā.
‘That Khaṇḍa, the king’s son, and Tissa, the high priest’s son, are astute, competent, clever, and have long had little dust in their eyes.
Yannūnāhaṃ khaṇḍassa ca rājaputtassa, tissassa ca purohitaputtassa paṭhamaṃ dhammaṃ deseyyaṃ, te imaṃ dhammaṃ khippameva ājānissantī’ti.
Why don’t I teach them first of all? They will quickly understand this teaching.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—bodhirukkhamūle antarahito bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā kheme migadāye pāturahosi.
Then, as easily as a strong person would extend or contract their arm, he vanished from the tree of awakening and reappeared near the capital city of Bandhumatī, in the deer park named Sanctuary.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho dāyapālaṃ āmantesi:
Then the Buddha Vipassī addressed the park keeper:
‘ehi tvaṃ, samma dāyapāla, bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ pavisitvā khaṇḍañca rājaputtaṃ tissañca purohitaputtaṃ evaṃ vadehi—
‘My dear park keeper, please enter the city and say this to the king’s son Khaṇḍa and the high priest’s son Tissa:
vipassī, bhante, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ anuppatto kheme migadāye viharati, so tumhākaṃ dassanakāmo’ti.
“Sirs, the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, has arrived at Bandhumatī and is staying in the deer park named Sanctuary. He wishes to see you.”’
‘Evaṃ, bhante’ti kho, bhikkhave, dāyapālo vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa paṭissutvā bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ pavisitvā khaṇḍañca rājaputtaṃ tissañca purohitaputtaṃ etadavoca:
‘Yes, sir,’ replied the park keeper, and did as he was asked.
‘vipassī, bhante, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ anuppatto kheme migadāye viharati; so tumhākaṃ dassanakāmo’ti.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, khaṇḍo ca rājaputto tisso ca purohitaputto bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojāpetvā bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā niyyiṃsu. Yena khemo migadāyo tena pāyiṃsu.
Then the king’s son Khaṇḍa and the high priest’s son Tissa had the finest carriages harnessed. Then they mounted a fine carriage and, along with other fine carriages, set out from Bandhumatī for the Sanctuary.
Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā yānā paccorohitvā pattikāva yena vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho tenupasaṅkamiṃsu. upasaṅkamitvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu.
They went by carriage as far as the terrain allowed, then descended and approached the Buddha Vipassī on foot. They bowed and sat down to one side.
Tesaṃ vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho anupubbiṃ kathaṃ kathesi, seyyathidaṃ—
The Buddha Vipassī taught them step by step, with
dānakathaṃ sīlakathaṃ saggakathaṃ kāmānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi.
a talk on giving, ethical conduct, and heaven. He explained the drawbacks of sensual pleasures, so sordid and corrupt, and the benefit of renunciation.
Yadā te bhagavā aññāsi kallacitte muducitte vinīvaraṇacitte udaggacitte pasannacitte, atha yā buddhānaṃ sāmukkaṃsikā dhammadesanā, taṃ pakāsesi—
And when he knew that their minds were ready, pliable, rid of hindrances, joyful, and confident he explained the special teaching of the Buddhas:
dukkhaṃ samudayaṃ nirodhaṃ maggaṃ.
suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path.
Seyyathāpi nāma suddhaṃ vatthaṃ apagatakāḷakaṃ sammadeva rajanaṃ paṭiggaṇheyya;
Just as a clean cloth rid of stains would properly absorb dye,
evameva khaṇḍassa ca rājaputtassa tissassa ca purohitaputtassa tasmiṃyeva āsane virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi:
in that very seat the stainless, immaculate vision of the Dhamma arose in the king’s son Khaṇḍa and the high priest’s son Tissa:
‘yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamman’ti.
‘Everything that has a beginning has an end.’
Te diṭṭhadhammā pattadhammā viditadhammā pariyogāḷhadhammā tiṇṇavicikicchā vigatakathaṅkathā vesārajjappattā aparappaccayā satthusāsane vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ etadavocuṃ:
They saw, attained, understood, and fathomed the Dhamma. They went beyond doubt, got rid of indecision, and became self-assured and independent of others regarding the Teacher’s instructions. They said to the Buddha Vipassī:
‘abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante.
‘Excellent, sir! Excellent!
Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya: “cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī”ti; evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito.
As if he were righting the overturned, or revealing the hidden, or pointing out the path to the lost, or lighting a lamp in the dark so people with good eyes can see what’s there, the Buddha has made the teaching clear in many ways.
Ete mayaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma dhammañca.
We go for refuge to the Blessed One, to the teaching, and to the mendicant Saṅgha.
Labheyyāma mayaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyāma upasampadan’ti.
Sir, may we receive the going forth and ordination in the Buddha’s presence?’
Alatthuṃ kho, bhikkhave, khaṇḍo ca rājaputto, tisso ca purohitaputto vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa santike pabbajjaṃ alatthuṃ upasampadaṃ.
And they received the going forth, the ordination in the Buddha Vipassī’s presence.
Te vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi;
Then the Buddha Vipassī educated, encouraged, fired up, and inspired them with a Dhamma talk.
saṅkhārānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ nibbāne ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi.
He explained the drawbacks of conditioned phenomena, so sordid and corrupt, and the benefit of extinguishment.
Tesaṃ vipassinā bhagavatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dhammiyā kathāya sandassiyamānānaṃ samādapiyamānānaṃ samuttejiyamānānaṃ sampahaṃsiyamānānaṃ nacirasseva anupādāya āsavehi cittāni vimucciṃsu.
Being taught like this their minds were soon freed from defilements by not grasping.

14.14 - The Going Forth of the Large Crowd


14. Mahājanakāyapabbajjā
14. The Going Forth of the Large Crowd
Assosi kho, bhikkhave, bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā mahājanakāyo caturāsītipāṇasahassāni:
A large crowd of 84,000 people in the capital of Bandhumatī heard
‘vipassī kira bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ anuppatto kheme migadāye viharati.
that the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, had arrived at Bandhumatī and was staying in the deer park named Sanctuary.
Khaṇḍo ca kira rājaputto tisso ca purohitaputto vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa santike kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā’ti.
And they heard that the king’s son Khaṇḍa and the high priest’s son Tissa had shaved off their hair and beard, dressed in ocher robes, and gone forth from the lay life to homelessness in the Buddha’s presence.
Sutvāna nesaṃ etadahosi:
It occurred to them:
‘na hi nūna so orako dhammavinayo, na sā orakā pabbajjā, yattha khaṇḍo ca rājaputto tisso ca purohitaputto kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā.
‘This must be no ordinary teaching and training, no ordinary going forth in which the king’s son Khaṇḍa and the high priest’s son Tissa have gone forth.
Khaṇḍo ca rājaputto tisso ca purohitaputto kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajissanti, kimaṅgaṃ pana mayan’ti.
If even they go forth, why don’t we do the same?’
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahājanakāyo caturāsītipāṇasahassāni bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā nikkhamitvā yena khemo migadāyo yena vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu.
Then those 84,000 people left Bandhumatī for the deer park named Sanctuary, where they approached the Buddha Vipassī, bowed and sat down to one side.
Tesaṃ vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho anupubbiṃ kathaṃ kathesi.
The Buddha Vipassī taught them step by step, with
Seyyathidaṃ—dānakathaṃ sīlakathaṃ saggakathaṃ kāmānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṅkilesaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi.
a talk on giving, ethical conduct, and heaven. He explained the drawbacks of sensual pleasures, so sordid and corrupt, and the benefit of renunciation.
Yadā te bhagavā aññāsi kallacitte muducitte vinīvaraṇacitte udaggacitte pasannacitte, atha yā buddhānaṃ sāmukkaṃsikā dhammadesanā, taṃ pakāsesi—
And when he knew that their minds were ready, pliable, rid of hindrances, joyful, and confident he explained the special teaching of the Buddhas:
dukkhaṃ samudayaṃ nirodhaṃ maggaṃ.
suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path.
Seyyathāpi nāma suddhaṃ vatthaṃ apagatakāḷakaṃ sammadeva rajanaṃ paṭiggaṇheyya;
Just as a clean cloth rid of stains would properly absorb dye,
evameva tesaṃ caturāsītipāṇasahassānaṃ tasmiṃyeva āsane virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi:
in that very seat the stainless, immaculate vision of the Dhamma arose in those 84,000 people:
‘yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamman’ti.
‘Everything that has a beginning has an end.’
Te diṭṭhadhammā pattadhammā viditadhammā pariyogāḷhadhammā tiṇṇavicikicchā vigatakathaṃkathā vesārajjappattā aparappaccayā satthusāsane vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ etadavocuṃ:
They saw, attained, understood, and fathomed the Dhamma. They went beyond doubt, got rid of indecision, and became self-assured and independent of others regarding the Teacher’s instructions. They said to the Buddha Vipassī:
‘abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante.
‘Excellent, sir! Excellent!’
Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya: “cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī”ti; evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito.
And just like Khaṇḍa and Tissa they asked for and received ordination. Then the Buddha taught them further.
Ete mayaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma dhammañca bhikkhusaṃghañca.
Labheyyāma mayaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ labheyyāma upasampadan’ti.
Alatthuṃ kho, bhikkhave, tāni caturāsītipāṇasahassāni vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa santike pabbajjaṃ, alatthuṃ upasampadaṃ.
Te vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi;
saṅkhārānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṅkilesaṃ nibbāne ānisaṃsaṃ pakāsesi.
Tesaṃ vipassinā bhagavatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dhammiyā kathāya sandassiyamānānaṃ samādapiyamānānaṃ samuttejiyamānānaṃ sampahaṃsiyamānānaṃ nacirasseva anupādāya āsavehi cittāni vimucciṃsu.
Being taught like this their minds were soon freed from defilements by not grasping.

14.15 - The 84,000 Who Had Gone Forth Previously


15. Purimapabbajitānaṃ dhammābhisamaya
15. The 84,000 Who Had Gone Forth Previously
Assosuṃ kho, bhikkhave, tāni purimāni caturāsītipabbajitasahassāni:
The 84,000 people who had gone forth previously also heard:
‘vipassī kira bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ anuppatto kheme migadāye viharati, dhammañca kira desetī’ti.
‘It seems the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, has arrived at Bandhumatī and is staying in the deer park named Sanctuary. And he is teaching the Dhamma!’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, tāni caturāsītipabbajitasahassāni yena bandhumatī rājadhānī yena khemo migadāyo yena vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu.
Then they too went to see the Buddha Vipassī, realized the Dhamma, went forth, and became freed from defilements.

14.16 - The Allowance to Wander


16. Cārikāanujānana
16. The Allowance to Wander
Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā mahābhikkhusaṅgho paṭivasati aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ.
Now at that time a large Saṅgha of 6,800,000 mendicants were residing at Bandhumatī.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
As the Buddha Vipassī was in private retreat this thought came to his mind:
‘mahā kho etarahi bhikkhusaṅgho bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā paṭivasati aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ, yannūnāhaṃ bhikkhū anujāneyyaṃ:
‘The Saṅgha residing at Bandhumatī now is large. What if I was to urge them:
“caratha, bhikkhave, cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ;
“Wander forth, mendicants, for the welfare and happiness of the people, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans.
mā ekena dve agamittha;
Let not two go by one road.
desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetha.
Teach the Dhamma that’s good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased. And reveal a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure.
Santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti,
There are beings with little dust in their eyes. They’re in decline because they haven’t heard the teaching.
bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro.
There will be those who understand the teaching!
Api ca channaṃ channaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatī rājadhānī upasaṅkamitabbā pātimokkhuddesāyā”’ti.
But when six years have passed, you must all come to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.”’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, aññataro mahābrahmā vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—brahmaloke antarahito vipassissa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa purato pāturahosi.
Then a certain Great Brahmā, knowing what the Buddha Vipassī was thinking, as easily as a strong person would extend or contract their arm, vanished from the Brahmā realm and reappeared in front of the Buddha Vipassī.
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yena vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ etadavoca:
He arranged his robe over one shoulder, knelt on his right knee, raised his joined palms toward the Buddha Vipassī, and said:
‘evametaṃ, bhagavā, evametaṃ, sugata.
‘That’s so true, Blessed One! That’s so true, Holy One!
Mahā kho, bhante, etarahi bhikkhusaṃgho bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā paṭivasati aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ, anujānātu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhū:
The Saṅgha residing at Bandhumatī now is large. Please urge them to wander, as you thought.
“caratha, bhikkhave, cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ;
mā ekena dve agamittha;
desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetha.
Santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti, bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro”ti.
Api ca, bhante, mayaṃ tathā karissāma yathā bhikkhū channaṃ channaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ upasaṅkamissanti pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
And sir, I’ll make sure that when six years have passed the mendicants will return to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.’
Idamavoca, bhikkhave, so mahābrahmā.
That’s what that Great Brahmā said.
Idaṃ vatvā vipassiṃ bhagavantaṃ arahantaṃ sammāsambuddhaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā tattheva antaradhāyi.
Then he bowed and respectfully circled the Buddha Vipassī, keeping him on his right side, before vanishing right there.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito bhikkhū āmantesi:
Then in the late afternoon, the Buddha Vipassī came out of retreat and addressed the mendicants, telling them all that had happened. Then he said:
‘idha mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
“mahā kho etarahi bhikkhusaṅgho bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā paṭivasati aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ.
Yannūnāhaṃ bhikkhū anujāneyyaṃ—
caratha, bhikkhave, cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ;
mā ekena dve agamittha;
desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetha.
Santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti, bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro.
Api ca channaṃ channaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatī rājadhānī upasaṅkamitabbā pātimokkhuddesāyā”’ti.
Atha kho, bhikkhave, aññataro mahābrahmā mama cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—brahmaloke antarahito mama purato pāturahosi.
Atha kho so, bhikkhave, mahābrahmā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yenāhaṃ tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā maṃ etadavoca:
‘evametaṃ, bhagavā, evametaṃ, sugata.
Mahā kho, bhante, etarahi bhikkhusaṅgho bandhumatiyā rājadhāniyā paṭivasati aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ.
Anujānātu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhū—
caratha, bhikkhave, cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ;
mā ekena dve agamittha;
desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ … pe …
santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti, bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāroti.
Api ca, bhante, mayaṃ tathā karissāma, yathā bhikkhū channaṃ channaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ upasaṅkamissanti pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
Idamavoca, bhikkhave, so mahābrahmā.
Idaṃ vatvā maṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā tattheva antaradhāyi.
‘Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, caratha cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ;
‘Wander forth, mendicants, for the welfare and happiness of the people, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans.
mā ekena dve agamittha;
Let not two go by one road.
desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetha.
Teach the Dhamma that’s good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased. And reveal a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure.
Santi sattā apparajakkhajātikā, assavanatā dhammassa parihāyanti,
There are beings with little dust in their eyes. They’re in decline because they haven’t heard the teaching.
bhavissanti dhammassa aññātāro.
There will be those who understand the teaching!
Api ca, bhikkhave, channaṃ channaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatī rājadhānī upasaṅkamitabbā pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
But when six years have passed, you must all come to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.’
Atha kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yebhuyyena ekāheneva janapadacārikaṃ pakkamiṃsu.
Then most of the mendicants departed to wander the country that very day.
Tena kho pana samayena jambudīpe caturāsīti āvāsasahassāni honti.
Now at that time there were 84,000 monasteries in India.
Ekamhi hi vasse nikkhante devatā saddamanussāvesuṃ:
And when the first year came to an end the deities raised the cry:
‘nikkhantaṃ kho, mārisā, ekaṃ vassaṃ;
‘Good sirs, the first year has ended.
pañca dāni vassāni sesāni;
Now five years remain.
pañcannaṃ vassānaṃ accayena bandhumatī rājadhānī upasaṅkamitabbā pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
When five years have passed, you must all go to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.’
Dvīsu vassesu nikkhantesu …
And when the second year …
tīsu vassesu nikkhantesu …
the third year …
catūsu vassesu nikkhantesu …
the fourth year …
pañcasu vassesu nikkhantesu devatā saddamanussāvesuṃ:
the fifth year came to an end, the deities raised the cry:
‘nikkhantāni kho, mārisā, pañcavassāni;
‘Good sirs, the fifth year has ended.
ekaṃ dāni vassaṃ sesaṃ;
Now one year remains.
ekassa vassassa accayena bandhumatī rājadhānī upasaṅkamitabbā pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
When one year has passed, you must all go to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.’
Chasu vassesu nikkhantesu devatā saddamanussāvesuṃ:
And when the sixth year came to an end the deities raised the cry:
‘nikkhantāni kho, mārisā, chabbassāni,
‘Good sirs, the sixth year has ended.
samayo dāni bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ upasaṅkamituṃ pātimokkhuddesāyā’ti.
Now is the time that you must go to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code.’
Atha kho te, bhikkhave, bhikkhū appekacce sakena iddhānubhāvena appekacce devatānaṃ iddhānubhāvena ekāheneva bandhumatiṃ rājadhāniṃ upasaṅkamiṃsu pātimokkhuddesāyāti.
Then that very day the mendicants went to Bandhumatī to recite the monastic code. Some went by their own psychic power, and some by the psychic power of the deities.
Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho bhikkhusaṅghe evaṃ pātimokkhaṃ uddisati:
And there the Blessed One Vipassī, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha, recited the monastic code thus:
‘Khantī paramaṃ tapo titikkhā,
‘Patient acceptance is the highest austerity.
Nibbānaṃ paramaṃ vadanti buddhā;
Extinguishment is the highest, say the Buddhas.
Na hi pabbajito parūpaghātī,
No true renunciate injures another,
Na samaṇo hoti paraṃ viheṭhayanto.
nor does an ascetic hurt another.
Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ,
Not to do any evil;
kusalassa upasampadā;
to undertake the good;
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ,
to purify one’s mind:
etaṃ buddhānasāsanaṃ.
this is the instruction of the Buddhas.
Anūpavādo anūpaghāto,
Not speaking ill nor doing harm;
Pātimokkhe ca saṃvaro;
restraint in the monastic code;
Mattaññutā ca bhattasmiṃ,
moderation in eating;
Pantañca sayanāsanaṃ;
staying in remote lodgings;
Adhicitte ca āyogo,
commitment to the higher mind—
Etaṃ buddhānasāsanan’ti.
this is the instruction of the Buddhas.’

14.17 - Being Informed by Deities


17. Devatārocana
17. Being Informed by Deities
Ekamidāhaṃ, bhikkhave, samayaṃ ukkaṭṭhāyaṃ viharāmi subhagavane sālarājamūle.
At one time, mendicants, I was staying near Ukkaṭṭhā, in the Subhaga Forest at the root of a magnificent sal tree.
Tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
As I was in private retreat this thought came to mind:
‘na kho so sattāvāso sulabharūpo, yo mayā anāvutthapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā aññatra suddhāvāsehi devehi.
‘It’s not easy to find an abode of sentient beings where I haven’t previously abided in all this long time, except for the gods of the pure abodes.
Yannūnāhaṃ yena suddhāvāsā devā tenupasaṅkameyyan’ti.
Why don’t I go to see them?’
Atha khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—ukkaṭṭhāyaṃ subhagavane sālarājamūle antarahito avihesu devesu pāturahosiṃ.
Then, as easily as a strong person would extend or contract their arm, I vanished from the Subhaga Forest and reappeared with the Aviha gods.
Tasmiṃ, bhikkhave, devanikāye anekāni devatāsahassāni anekāni devatāsatasahassāni yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā maṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho, bhikkhave, tā devatā maṃ etadavocuṃ:
In that order of gods, many thousands, many hundreds of thousands of deities approached me, bowed, stood to one side, and said to me:
‘ito so, mārisā, ekanavutikappe yaṃ vipassī bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke udapādi.
‘Ninety-one eons ago, good sir, the Buddha Vipassī arose in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Vipassī, mārisā, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho khattiyo jātiyā ahosi, khattiyakule udapādi.
He was born as an aristocrat into an aristocrat family.
Vipassī, mārisā, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho koṇḍañño gottena ahosi.
Koṇḍañña was his clan.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asītivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi.
He lived for 80,000 years.
Vipassī, mārisā, bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pāṭaliyā mūle abhisambuddho.
He was awakened at the root of a trumpet flower tree.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa khaṇḍatissaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
He had a fine pair of chief disciples named Khaṇḍa and Tissa.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi aṭṭhasaṭṭhibhikkhusatasahassaṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi bhikkhusatasahassaṃ. Eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi asītibhikkhusahassāni. Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa ime tayo sāvakānaṃ sannipātā ahesuṃ sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
He had three gatherings of disciples—one of 6,800,000, one of 100,000, and one of 80,000—all of them mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa asoko nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
He had as chief attendant a mendicant named Asoka.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa bandhumā nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
His father was King Bandhuma,
Bandhumatī nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
his birth mother was Queen Bandhumatī,
Bandhumassa rañño bandhumatī nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and their capital city was named Bandhumatī.
Vipassissa, mārisā, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa evaṃ abhinikkhamanaṃ ahosi evaṃ pabbajjā evaṃ padhānaṃ evaṃ abhisambodhi evaṃ dhammacakkappavattanaṃ.
And such was his renunciation, such his going forth, such his striving, such his awakening, and such his rolling forth of the wheel of Dhamma.
Te mayaṃ, mārisā, vipassimhi bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ caritvā kāmesu kāmacchandaṃ virājetvā idhūpapannā’ti …
And good sir, after leading the spiritual life under that Buddha Vipassī we lost our desire for sensual pleasures and were reborn here.’
pe …
And other deities came and similarly recounted the details of the Buddhas Sikhī, Vessabhū, Kakusandha, Koṇāgamana, and Kassapa.
Tasmiṃyeva kho, bhikkhave, devanikāye anekāni devatāsahassāni anekāni devatāsatasahassāni yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā maṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho, bhikkhave, tā devatā maṃ etadavocuṃ:
In that order of gods, many hundreds of deities approached me, bowed, stood to one side, and said to me:
‘imasmiṃyeva kho, mārisā, bhaddakappe bhagavā etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho loke uppanno.
‘In the present fortunate eon, good sir, you have arisen in the world, perfected and fully awakened.
Bhagavā, mārisā, khattiyo jātiyā khattiyakule uppanno.
You were born as an aristocrat into an aristocrat family.
Bhagavā, mārisā, gotamo gottena.
Gotama is your clan.
Bhagavato, mārisā, appakaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ yo ciraṃ jīvati, so vassasataṃ appaṃ vā bhiyyo.
For you the life-span is short, brief, and fleeting. A long-lived person lives for a century or a little more.
Bhagavā, mārisā, assatthassa mūle abhisambuddho.
You were awakened at the root of a peepul tree.
Bhagavato, mārisā, sāriputtamoggallānaṃ nāma sāvakayugaṃ ahosi aggaṃ bhaddayugaṃ.
You have a fine pair of chief disciples named Sāriputta and Moggallāna.
Bhagavato, mārisā, eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi aḍḍhateḷasāni bhikkhusatāni. Bhagavato, mārisā, ayaṃ eko sāvakānaṃ sannipāto ahosi sabbesaṃyeva khīṇāsavānaṃ.
You have had one gathering of disciples—1,250 mendicants who had ended their defilements.
Bhagavato, mārisā, ānando nāma bhikkhu upaṭṭhāko ahosi aggupaṭṭhāko.
You have as chief attendant a mendicant named Ānanda.
Bhagavato, mārisā, suddhodano nāma rājā pitā ahosi.
Your father is King Suddhodana,
Māyā nāma devī mātā ahosi janetti.
your birth mother was Queen Māyā,
Kapilavatthu nāma nagaraṃ rājadhānī ahosi.
and your capital city was Kapilavatthu.
Bhagavato, mārisā, evaṃ abhinikkhamanaṃ ahosi evaṃ pabbajjā evaṃ padhānaṃ evaṃ abhisambodhi evaṃ dhammacakkappavattanaṃ.
And such was your renunciation, such your going forth, such your striving, such your awakening, and such your rolling forth of the wheel of Dhamma.
Te mayaṃ, mārisā, bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ caritvā kāmesu kāmacchandaṃ virājetvā idhūpapannā’ti.
And good sir, after leading the spiritual life under you we lost our desire for sensual pleasures and were reborn here.’
Atha khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, avihehi devehi saddhiṃ yena atappā devā tenupasaṅkamiṃ … pe …
Then together with the Aviha gods I went to see the Atappa gods …
atha khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, avihehi ca devehi atappehi ca devehi saddhiṃ yena sudassā devā tenupasaṅkamiṃ.
the Gods Fair to See …
Atha khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, avihehi ca devehi atappehi ca devehi sudassehi ca devehi saddhiṃ yena sudassī devā tenupasaṅkamiṃ. Atha khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, avihehi ca devehi atappehi ca devehi sudassehi ca devehi sudassīhi ca devehi saddhiṃ yena akaniṭṭhā devā tenupasaṅkamiṃ. Tasmiṃ, bhikkhave, devanikāye anekāni devatāsahassāni anekāni devatāsatasahassāni yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu, upasaṅkamitvā maṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho, bhikkhave, tā devatā maṃ etadavocuṃ:
and the Fair Seeing Gods. Then together with all these gods I went to see the Gods of Akaniá¹­á¹­ha, where we had a similar conversation.
Iti kho, bhikkhave, tathāgatassevesā dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā, yassā dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati ‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ’ itipi.
And that is how the Realized One is able to recollect the caste, names, clans, life-span, chief disciples, and gatherings of disciples of the Buddhas of the past who have become completely extinguished, cut off proliferation, cut off the track, finished off the cycle, and transcended suffering. It is both because I have clearly comprehended the principle of the teachings,
‘Evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ’ itipīti.
Devatāpi tathāgatassa etamatthaṃ ārocesuṃ, yena tathāgato atīte buddhe parinibbute chinnapapañce chinnavaṭume pariyādinnavaṭṭe sabbadukkhavītivatte jātitopi anussarati, nāmatopi anussarati, gottatopi anussarati, āyuppamāṇatopi anussarati, sāvakayugatopi anussarati, sāvakasannipātatopi anussarati ‘evaṃjaccā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ’ itipi.
and also because the deities told me.”
‘Evaṃnāmā evaṅgottā evaṃsīlā evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ’ itipī”ti.
Idamavoca bhagavā.
That is what the Buddha said.
Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
Satisfied, the mendicants were happy with what the Buddha said.


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