4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → 🏛️ → Vism. = Visuddhi-magga     🔗📝     🔝
 Vism. 0 - Chapter 0: Introductory
Vism. 1 - Chapter 1: Description of virtue
Vism. 2 - Chapter 2: The ascetic practices
Vism. 3 - Chapter 3: Taking a meditation subject
Vism. 4 - Chapter 4: The earth kasiṇa
Vism. 5 - Chapter 5: The remaining kasinas
Vism. 6 - Chapter 6: Foulness as a meditation subject
Vism. 7 - Chapter 7: Six recollections
Vism. 8 - Chapter 8: Other recollections as meditation subjects
Vism. 9 - Chapter 9: The four divine abidings
Vism. 10 - Chapter 10: formless meditations
Vism. 11 - Chapter 11: Concentration—conclusion: nutriment and the elements
Vism. 12 - Chapter 12: The supernormal powers
Vism. 13 - Chapter 13: Other direct-knowledges
Vism. 14 - Chapter 14: The Aggregates
Vism. 15 - Chapter 15: The bases and elements
Vism. 16 - Chapter 16: The faculties and truths
Vism. 17 - Chapter 17: The soil of understanding—conclusion: dependent origination
Vism. 18 - Chapter 18: Purification of view
Vism. 19 - Chapter 19: Purification by overcoming doubt
Vism. 20 - Chapter 20: Purification by knowledge & vision of what is/is not the path
Vism. 21 - Chapter 21: Purification by knowledge and vision of the way
Vism. 22 - Chapter 22: Purification by knowledge and vision
Vism. 23 - Chapter 23: The benefits in developing understanding
Vism. 999.9 – TOC permalinks

Detailed TOC

 Vism. 0 - Chapter 0: Introductory
Vism. 1 - Chapter 1: Description of virtue
    Vism. 1.1 SÄ«la-sarÅ«pādi-kathā: virtue description discussion
    Vism. 1.2 SÄ«lā-nisaṃsa-kathā: virtue benefits discussion
    Vism. 1.3 SÄ«lap-pabheda-kathā: How many divisions of virtue?
    Vism. 1.4 Pātimokkha-saṃvara-sÄ«laṃ: virtue of restraint with training rules
    Vism. 1.5 Indriya-saṃvara-sÄ«laṃ: faculty restraint virtue
    Vism. 1.6 ĀjÄ«va-pārisuddhi-sÄ«laṃ: virtue of livelihood purification
    Vism. 1.7 Paccaya-san-nissita-sÄ«laṃ: virtue concerning requisites
    Vism. 1.8 Catu-pārisuddhi-sampādana-vidhi: 4 ways purification undertakings
    Vism. 1.9 Paá¹­hama-sÄ«la-pañcakaṃ: first virtue pentad in the fivefold
    Vism. 1.10 Dutiya-sÄ«la-pañcakaṃ: second virtue of fivefold
    Vism. 1.11 SÄ«la-saṃ-kilesa-vodānaṃ: virtue with defiling and cleansing
Vism. 2 - Chapter 2: The ascetic practices
    Vism. 2.1 - 1. PaṃsukÅ«likaṅga-kathā: the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice
    Vism. 2.2 - 2. Te-cÄ«varikaṅga-kathā: the triple-robe-wearer’s practice
    Vism. 2.3 - 3. Piṇḍapātikaṅga-kathā: alms-food-eater’s practice
    Vism. 2.4 - 4. Sapadānacārikaṅga-kathā: house-to-house-seeker’s practice
    Vism. 2.5 - 5. Ekāsanikaṅga-kathā: one-sessioner’s practice
    Vism. 2.6 - 6. Patta-piṇḍikaṅga-kathā: bowl-food-eater’s practice
    Vism. 2.7 - 7. Khalu-pacchā-bhattikaṅga-kathā: later-food-refuser’s practice
    Vism. 2.8 - 8. Āraññikaṅga-kathā: forest-dweller’s practice
    Vism. 2.9 - 9. Rukkha-mÅ«likaṅga-kathā: tree-root-dweller’s practice
    Vism. 2.10 - 10. Abbhokāsikaṅga-kathā: open-air-dweller’s practice
    Vism. 2.11 - 11. Sosānikaṅga-kathā: charnel-ground-dweller’s practice
    Vism. 2.12 - 12. Yathāsanthatikaṅga-kathā: any-bed-user’s practice
    Vism. 2.13 - 13. Nesajjikaṅga-kathā: sitter’s practice
    Vism. 2.14 - Dhutaṅga-pakiṇṇaka-kathā: ascetic-practice miscellaneous discussion
Vism. 3 - Chapter 3: Taking a meditation subject
    Vism. 3.1 Samādhiekakadukavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.2 Samādhitikavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.3 Samādhicatukkavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.4 Dasapalibodhavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.5 Kammaá¹­á¹­hānadāyakavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.6 Cariyāvaṇṇanā
    Vism. 3.7 CattālÄ«sakammaá¹­á¹­hānavaṇṇanā
Vism. 4 - Chapter 4: The earth kasiṇa
    Vism. 4.1 AnanurÅ«pavihāro
    Vism. 4.2 AnurÅ«pavihāro
    Vism. 4.3 Khuddakapalibodhā
    Vism. 4.4 Bhāvanāvidhānaṃ
    Vism. 4.5 Sattasappāyā
    Vism. 4.6 Dasavidhaappanākosallaṃ
    Vism. 4.7 Nimittābhimukhapaá¹­ipādanaṃ
    Vism. 4.8 Paá¹­hamaj-jhāna-kathā: 1st jhāna discussion
        Vism. 4.8.11 gloss: vivicceva kāmehÄ«: secluded from ‘desire’, not ‘objects of’!
        Vism. 4.8.21 redefine vitakka and vicāra as ‘mount mind on object and ‘keep it glued there’
        Vism. 4.8.31 gloss: viveka: seclusion
        Vism. 4.8.32 gloss: pÄ«ti: rapture, ‘happiness’
        Vism. 4.8.40 gloss: sukha: pleasure, ‘bliss-(sukha)’
        Vism. 4.8.41 pÄ«ti part of sankhāra, sukha part of vedana
        Vism. 4.8.42 simile, man in desert tasting water, pÄ«ti is mentally caused, sukha physical
    Vism. 4.9 Pañc-aṅga-vippahÄ«nādi: 5 factors abandoned
    Vism. 4.10 Tividha-kalyāṇaṃ: 3 ways of goodness
    Vism. 4.11 Ciraá¹­á¹­hitisampādanaṃ
        Vism. 4.11.5 simile of cook, nimitta gets redefined as visual VRJ kasina
    Vism. 4.12 Nimittavaḍḍhananayo
    Vism. 4.13 PañcavasÄ«kathā
    Vism. 4.14 Dutiyaj-jhāna-kathā: 2rd jhāna discussion
    Vism. 4.15 Tatiya-j-jhāna-kathā: 3rd jhāna discussion
        Vism. 4.15.1 gloss: pÄ«tiyā ca virāgā
        Vism. 4.15.2 gloss: Upekkhako ca viharatÄ«
        Vism. 4.15.3 equanimous-observation of jhāna is the meaning out of the 6
        Vism. 4.15.4 gloss: sato ca sampajāno
        Vism. 4.15.5 gloss: sukhañca kāyena paá¹­isaṃvedetÄ«: both physical rÅ«pa-kāya body and nāma kāya included
    Vism. 4.16 Catutthaj-jhāna-kathā: 4th jhāna discussion
    Vism. 4.17 Pañcakaj-jhāna-kathā: five fold jhāna discussion
Vism. 5 - Chapter 5: The remaining kasinas
    Vism. 5.1 Āpokasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.2 Tejokasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.3 Vāyokasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.4 NÄ«lakasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.5 PÄ«takasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.6 Lohitakasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.7 Odātakasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.8 Ālokakasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.9 Paricchinnākāsakasiṇakathā
    Vism. 5.10 Pakiṇṇakakathā
Vism. 6 - Chapter 6: Foulness as a meditation subject
    Vism. 6.1 Uddhumātakādipadatthavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 6.2 Uddhumātakakammaá¹­á¹­hānaṃ
    Vism. 6.3 VinÄ«lakādikammaá¹­á¹­hānāni
    Vism. 6.4 Pakiṇṇakakathā
Vism. 7 - Chapter 7: Six recollections
    Vism. 7.1 1. Buddhānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.2 2. Dhammānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.3 3. Saṅghānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.4 4. SÄ«lānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.5 5. Cāgānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.6 6. Devatānussatikathā
    Vism. 7.7 Pakiṇṇakakathā
Vism. 8 - Chapter 8: Other recollections as meditation subjects
    Vism. 8.1 Maraṇassatikathā
    Vism. 8.2 Kāyagatāsatikathā
    Vism. 8.3 Koá¹­á¹­hāsavavatthāpanakathā
    Vism. 8.4 Ānāpānassatikathā
    Vism. 8.5 Upasamānussatikathā
Vism. 9 - Chapter 9: The four divine abidings
    Vism. 9.1 Mettābhāvanākathā
    Vism. 9.2 Karuṇābhāvanākathā
    Vism. 9.3 Muditābhāvanākathā
    Vism. 9.4 Upekkhābhāvanākathā
    Vism. 9.5 Pakiṇṇakakathā
Vism. 10 - Chapter 10: formless meditations
    Vism. 10.1 Paá¹­hamāruppavaṇṇanā
    Vism. 10.2 Viññāṇañcāyatanakathā
    Vism. 10.3 Ākiñcaññāyatanakathā
    Vism. 10.4 Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanakathā
    Vism. 10.5 Pakiṇṇakakathā
Vism. 11 - Chapter 11: Concentration—conclusion: nutriment and the elements
    Vism. 11.1 Āhārepaá¹­ikkÅ«labhāvanā
    Vism. 11.2 Catudhātuvavatthānabhāvanā
    Vism. 11.3 Samādhiānisaṃsakathā
Vism. 12 - Chapter 12: The supernormal powers
    Vism. 12.1 Abhiññā-kathā: higer knowledges discussion
        Vism. 12.1.5 only one in a million can do VRJ ‘jhāna’
    Vism. 12.2 Dasa-iddhi-kathā: 10 types of power/success
    Vism. 12.3 Nandopananda-nāga-damana-kathā: Taming the Dragon Nando
Vism. 13 - Chapter 13: Other direct-knowledges
    Vism. 13.1 Dibba-sota-dhātu-kathā: divine ear element
    Vism. 13.2 Ceto-pariya-ñāṇa-kathā: mind reading knowledge
    Vism. 13.3 Pubbe-nivās-ānus-sati-ñāṇa-kathā: previous lives recollection knowledge
    Vism. 13.4 Cut-Å«papāta-ñāṇa-kathā: dying and rebirth knowledge
    Vism. 13.5 Pakiṇṇaka-kathā: miscellaneous discussion
Vism. 14 - Chapter 14: The Aggregates
    Vism. 14.1 Paññākathā
    Vism. 14.2 Paññāpabhedakathā
    Vism. 14.3 PaññābhÅ«mi-mÅ«la-sarÄ«ravavatthānaṃ
    Vism. 14.4 RÅ«pakkhandhakathā
    Vism. 14.5 Viññāṇakkhandhakathā
    Vism. 14.6 Vedanākkhandhakathā
    Vism. 14.7 Saññākkhandhakathā
    Vism. 14.8 Saṅkhārakkhandhakathā
    Vism. 14.9 AtÄ«tādivibhāgakathā
    Vism. 14.10 Kamādivinicchayakathā
Vism. 15 - Chapter 15: The bases and elements
    Vism. 15.1 Āyatanavitthārakathā
    Vism. 15.2 Dhātuvitthārakathā
Vism. 16 - Chapter 16: The faculties and truths
    Vism. 16.1 Indriyavitthārakathā
    Vism. 16.2 Saccavitthārakathā
    Vism. 16.3 Dukkhaniddesakathā
    Vism. 16.4 Samudayaniddesakathā
    Vism. 16.5 Nirodhaniddesakathā
    Vism. 16.6 Magganiddesakathā
    Vism. 16.7 Ekavidhādivinicchayakathā
Vism. 17 - Chapter 17: The soil of understanding—conclusion: dependent origination
    Vism. 17.1 Paá¹­iccasamuppādakathā
    Vism. 17.2 Avijjāpaccayāsaṅkhārapadakathā
    Vism. 17.3 Paá¹­á¹­hānapaccayakathā
    Vism. 17.4 Avijjāpaccayāsaṅkhārapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.5 Saṅkhārapaccayāviññāṇapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.6 ViññāṇapaccayānāmarÅ«papadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.7 NāmarÅ«papaccayāsaḷāyatanapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.8 Saḷāyatanapaccayāphassapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.9 Phassapaccayāvedanāpadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.10 Vedanāpaccayātaṇhāpadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.11 Taṇhāpaccayāupādānapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.12 Upādānapaccayābhavapadavitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.13 Bhavapaccayājātiādivitthārakathā
    Vism. 17.14 Bhavacakkakathā
Vism. 18 - Chapter 18: Purification of view
    Vism. 18.1 NāmarÅ«papariggahakathā
    Vism. 18.2 ArÅ«padhammānaṃ upaá¹­á¹­hānākārakathā
    Vism. 18.3 Sambahulasuttantasaṃsandanā
    Vism. 18.4 Upamāhi nāmarÅ«pavibhāvanā
Vism. 19 - Chapter 19: Purification by overcoming doubt
    Vism. 19.1 Paccayapariggahakathā
Vism. 20 - Chapter 20: Purification by knowledge & vision of what is/is not the path
    Vism. 20.1 Sammasanañāṇakathā
    Vism. 20.2 CattārÄ«sākāraanupassanākathā
    Vism. 20.3 Indriyatikkhakāraṇanavakakathā
    Vism. 20.4 RÅ«panibbattipassanākārakathā
    Vism. 20.5 ArÅ«panibbattipassanākārakathā
    Vism. 20.6 RÅ«pasattakasammasanakathā
    Vism. 20.7 ArÅ«pasattakasammasanakathā
    Vism. 20.8 Udayabbayañāṇakathā
    Vism. 20.9 Vipassanupakkilesakathā
    Vism. 20.10 Maggāmaggavavatthānakathā
Vism. 21 - Chapter 21: Purification by knowledge and vision of the way
    Vism. 21.1 Upakkilesavimuttaudayabbayañāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.2 Bhaṅgānupassanāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.3 Bhayatupaá¹­á¹­hānañāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.4 ĀdÄ«navānupassanāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.5 Nibbidānupassanāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.6 Muñcitukamyatāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.7 Paá¹­isaṅkhānupassanāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.8 Saṅkhārupekkhāñāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.9 Anulomañāṇakathā
    Vism. 21.10 Vuá¹­á¹­hānagāminÄ«vipassanākathā
Vism. 22 - Chapter 22: Purification by knowledge and vision
    Vism. 22.1 Paá¹­hamamaggañāṇakathā
    Vism. 22.2 Sotāpannapuggalakathā
    Vism. 22.3 Dutiyamaggañāṇakathā
    Vism. 22.4 Tatiyamaggañāṇakathā
    Vism. 22.5 Catutthamaggañāṇakathā
    Vism. 22.6 Arahantapuggalakathā
    Vism. 22.7 Bodhipakkhiyakathā
    Vism. 22.8 Vuá¹­á¹­hānabalasamāyogakathā
    Vism. 22.9 Pahātabbadhammapahānakathā
    Vism. 22.10 Pariññādikiccakathā
    Vism. 22.11 Pariññādippabhedakathā
Vism. 23 - Chapter 23: The benefits in developing understanding
    Vism. 23.1 Ānisaṃsapakāsanā
    Vism. 23.2 Nānākilesaviddhaṃsanakathā
    Vism. 23.3 Phalasamāpattikathā
    Vism. 23.4 Nirodhasamāpattikathā
    Vism. 23.5 Āhuneyyabhāvādisiddhikathā
    Vism. 23.6 Nigamanakathā
    Vism. 999.9 – TOC permalinks
single

Vism.

.
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Translator: Nyanamoli thera – english
Pāḷi + english arrangement from our friends at: https://tipitaka.theravada.su/toc/translations/32878
Some terms modified by frankk‍ to conform to STED

monuments and ’landmarks’, html bookmarks of interesting and important points

Vism. Is an LBT work, having major doctrinal differences with EBT (early buddhist teachings).
Many of those differences will be pointed out in ‘landmarks’, chapter section numbers that take you directly to the passage in question.
This edition of Vism., in pāḷi + english, is a single html file about 4Mb, you can type in chapter section numbers directly into html browser address line, or use the lucid24.org quicklink on the home page, for example, “vism 4.8” takes you directly to first jhāna.


intro

0 - Chapter 0: Introductory


Pali
Translator: Nyanamoli thera – english, (some terms modified by frankk‍ to conform to STED)
1
1
Sīlepatiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayaṃ;
“When a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops consciousness and understanding,
Ātāpī nipako bhikkhu, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti. (saṃ. ni. 1.23);
Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious He succeeds in disentangling this tangle” (S I 13).
Iti hidaṃ vuttaṃ, kasmā panetaṃ vuttaṃ, bhagavantaṃ kira sāvatthiyaṃ viharantaṃ rattibhāge aññataro devaputto upasaṅkamitvā attano saṃsayasamugghāṭatthaṃ –
This was said. But why was it said? While the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī, it seems, a certain deity came to him in the night, and in order to do away with his doubts,
Antojaṭā bahijaṭā, jaṭāya jaṭitā pajā;
“The inner tangle and the outer tangle— This generation is entangled in a tangle.
Taṃ taṃ gotama pucchāmi, ko imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti. (saṃ. ni. 1.23) –
And so I ask of Gotama this question: Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle? ” (S I 13).
Imaṃ pañhaṃ pucchi.
he asked this question (above).
Tassāyaṃ saṅkhepattho – jaṭāti taṇhāya jāliniyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
2.Here is the meaning in brief. Tangle is a term for the network of craving.
Sā hi rūpādīsu ārammaṇesu heṭṭhupariyavasena punappunaṃ uppajjanato saṃsibbanaṭṭhena veḷugumbādīnaṃ sākhājālasaṅkhātā jaṭā viyāti jaṭā, sā panesā sakaparikkhāraparaparikkhāresu sakaattabhāvaparaattabhāvesu ajjhattikāyatanabāhirāyatanesu ca uppajjanato antojaṭā bahijaṭāti vuccati.
For that is a tangle in the sense of lacing together, like the tangle called network of branches in bamboo thickets, etc., because it goes on arising again and again up and down1 among the objects [of consciousness] beginning with what is visible. But it is called the inner tangle and the outer tangle because it arises [as craving] for one’s own requisites and another’s, for one’s own person and another’s, and for the internal and external bases [for consciousness].
Tāya evaṃ uppajjamānāya jaṭāya jaṭitā pajā.
Since it arises in this way, this generation is entangled in a tangle.
Yathā nāma veḷugumbajaṭādīhi veḷuādayo, evaṃ tāya taṇhājaṭāya sabbāpi ayaṃ sattanikāyasaṅkhātā pajā jaṭitā vinaddhā, saṃsibbitāti attho.
As the bamboos, etc., are entangled by the bamboo tangle, etc., so too this generation, in other words, this order of living beings, is all entangled by the tangle of craving—the meaning is that it is intertwined, interlaced by it.
Yasmā ca evaṃ jaṭitā.
And because it is entangled like this,
Taṃ taṃ gotama pucchāmīti tasmā taṃ pucchāmi.
so I ask of Gotama this question, that is why I ask this.
Gotamāti bhagavantaṃ gottena ālapati.
He addressed the Blessed One by his clan name as Gotama.
Ko imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti imaṃ evaṃ tedhātukaṃ jaṭetvā ṭhitaṃ jaṭaṃ ko vijaṭeyya, vijaṭetuṃ ko samatthoti pucchati.
Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle: who may disentangle this tangle that keeps the three kinds of existence entangled in this way? —What he asks is, who is capable of disentangling it?
Evaṃ puṭṭho panassa sabbadhammesu appaṭihatañāṇacāro devadevo sakkānaṃ atisakko brahmānaṃ atibrahmā catuvesārajjavisārado dasabaladharo anāvaraṇañāṇo samantacakkhu bhagavā tamatthaṃ vissajjento –
3.However, when questioned thus, the Blessed One, whose knowledge of all things is unimpeded, deity of deities, excelling Sakka (Ruler of Gods), excelling Brahmā, fearless in the possession of the four kinds of perfect confidence, wielder of the ten powers, all-seer with unobstructed knowledge, in reply to explain the meaning:
Sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayaṃ;
“When a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops consciousness and understanding,
Ātāpī nipako bhikkhu, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti. –
Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious He succeeds in disentangling this tangle.”
Imaṃ gāthamāha.
uttered this stanza (above).
2
Imissā dāni gāthāya, kathitāya mahesinā;
4. Of this same verse composed by the Great Sage.
Vaṇṇayanto yathābhūtaṃ, atthaṃ sīlādibhedanaṃ.
My task is now to set out the true sense, Divided into virtue and the rest.
Sudullabhaṃ labhitvāna, pabbajjaṃ jinasāsane;
Right hard to find, — There are here in the Victor’s Dispensation Seekers gone forth from home to homelessness,
Sīlādisaṅgahaṃ khemaṃ, ujuṃ maggaṃ visuddhiyā.
of the sure straight way Comprising virtue and the other two, that leads to purity
Yathābhūtaṃ ajānantā, suddhikāmāpi ye idha;
Have no right knowledge And who although desiring purity
Visuddhiṃ nādhigacchanti, vāyamantāpi yogino.
Who, though they strive, here gain no purity.
Tesaṃ pāmojjakaraṇaṃ, suvisuddhavinicchayaṃ;
To them, pure in expositions,
Mahāvihāravāsīnaṃ, desanānayanissitaṃ.
Relying on the teaching of the dwellers In the Great Monastery;2 let all those
Visuddhimaggaṃ bhāsissaṃ, taṃ me sakkacca bhāsato;
I shall expound the comforting Path Of Purification
Visuddhikāmā sabbepi, nisāmayatha sādhavoti.
Good men who do desire purity Listen intently to my exposition.
3.Tattha visuddhīti sabbamalavirahitaṃ accantaparisuddhaṃ nibbānaṃ veditabbaṃ.
5.Herein, purification should be understood as Nibbāna, which being devoid of all stains, is utterly pure.
Tassā visuddhiyā maggoti visuddhimaggo.
The path of purification is the path to that purification;
Maggoti adhigamūpāyo vuccati.
it is the means of approach that is called the path.
Taṃ visuddhimaggaṃ bhāsissāmīti attho.
The meaning is, I shall expound that path of purification.
So panāyaṃ visuddhimaggo katthaci vipassanāmattavaseneva desito.
6.In some instances this path of purification is taught by insight alone,3
Yathāha –
according as it is said:
"Sabbe saṅkhārā aniccāti, yadā paññāya passati;
“Formations are all impermanent: When he sees thus with understanding
Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā"ti. (dha. pa. 277);
And turns away from what is ill, That is the path to purity” (Dhp 277).
Katthaci jhānapaññāvasena.
And in some instances by jhāna and understanding,
Yathāha –
according as it is said:
"Yamhi jhānañca paññā ca, sa ve nibbānasantike"ti. (dha. pa. 372);
“He is near unto Nibbāna In whom are jhāna and understanding” (Dhp 372).
Katthaci kammādivasena.
And in some instances by deeds (kamma), etc.,
Yathāha –
according as it is said:
"Kammaṃ vijjā ca dhammo ca, sīlaṃ jīvitamuttamaṃ;
“By deeds, vision and righteousness, By virtue, the sublimest life—
Etena maccā sujjhanti, na gottena dhanena vā"ti. (ma. ni. 3.387; saṃ. ni. 1.48);
By these are mortals purified, And not by lineage and wealth” (M III 262).
Katthaci sīlādivasena.
And in some instances by virtue, etc., according as it is said:
Yathāha –
"Sabbadā sīlasampanno, paññavā susamāhito;
“He who is possessed of constant virtue,
Āraddhavīriyo pahitatto, oghaṃ tarati duttara"nti. (saṃ. ni. 1.96);
Who has understanding, and is concentrated,
Katthaci satipaṭṭhānādivasena.
Who is strenuous and diligent as well,
Yathāha –
Will cross the flood so difficult to cross” (S I 53).
"Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā - pe - nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā"ti (dī. ni. 2.373).
And in some instances by the foundations of mindfulness, etc., according as it is said: “Bhikkhus, this path is the only way for the purification of beings … for the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say, the four foundations of mindfulness” (D II 290);
Sammappadhānādīsupi eseva nayo.
and similarly in the case of the right efforts, and so on.
Imasmiṃ pana pañhābyākaraṇe sīlādivasena desito.
But in the answer to this question it is taught by virtue and the other two.
4.Tatrāyaṃ saṅkhepavaṇṇanā – sīle patiṭṭhāyāti sīle ṭhatvā, sīlaṃ paripūrayamānoyeva cettha sīle ṭhitoti vuccati.
7.Here is a brief commentary [on the stanza]. Established well in virtue: standing on virtue. It is only one actually fulfilling virtue who is here said to “stand on virtue.”
Tasmā sīlaparipūraṇena sīle patiṭṭhahitvāti ayamettha attho.
So the meaning here is this: being established well in virtue by fulfilling virtue.
Naroti satto.
A man: a living being.
Sapaññoti kammajatihetukapaṭisandhipaññāya paññavā.
Wise: possessing the kind of understanding that is born of kamma by means of a rebirth-linking with triple root-cause.
Cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayanti samādhiñceva vipassanañca bhāvayamāno, cittasīsena hettha samādhi niddiṭṭho.
Develops consciousness and understanding: develops both concentration and insight. For it is concentration that is described here under the heading of “consciousness,”
Paññānāmena ca vipassanāti.
and insight under that of “understanding.”4
Ātāpīti vīriyavā.
Ardent (ātāpin): possessing energy.
Vīriyañhi kilesānaṃ ātāpanaparitāpanaṭṭhena ātāpoti vuccati.
For it is energy that is called “ardour” (ātāpa) in the sense of burning up and consuming (ātāpana-paritāpana) defilements.
Tadassa atthīti ātāpī.
He has that, thus he is ardent.
Nipakoti nepakkaṃ vuccati paññā, tāya samannāgatoti attho.
Sagacious: it is understanding that is called “sagacity”; possessing that, is the meaning.
Iminā padena pārihārikapaññaṃ dasseti.
This word shows protective understanding.
Imasmiñhi pañhābyākaraṇe tikkhattuṃ paññā āgatā.
For understanding is mentioned three times in the reply to the question.
Tattha paṭhamā jātipaññā, dutiyā vipassanāpaññā, tatiyā sabbakiccapariṇāyikā pārihārikapaññā.
Herein, the first is naïve understanding, the second is understanding consisting in insight, while the third is the protective understanding that guides all affairs.
Saṃsāre bhayaṃ ikkhatīti bhikkhu.
He sees fear (bhayaṃ ikkhati) in the round of rebirths, thus he is a bhikkhu.
So imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti so iminā ca sīlena iminā ca cittasīsena niddiṭṭhasamādhinā imāya ca tividhāya paññāya iminā ca ātāpenāti chahi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu.
He succeeds in disentangling this tangle: this bhikkhu who possesses the six things, namely, this virtue, and this concentration described under the heading of consciousness, and this threefold understanding, and this ardour
Seyyathāpi nāma puriso pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāya sunisitaṃ satthaṃ ukkhipitvā mahantaṃ veḷugumbaṃ vijaṭeyya, evameva sīlapathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāya samādhisilāyaṃ sunisitaṃ vipassanāpaññāsatthaṃ vīriyabalapaggahitena pārihārikapaññāhatthena ukkhipitvā sabbampi taṃ attano santāne patitaṃ taṇhājaṭaṃ vijaṭeyya sañchindeyya sampadāleyya.
Just as a man standing on the ground and taking up a well-sharpened knife might disentangle a great tangle of bamboos, so too, he——standing on the ground of virtue and taking up with the hand of protective-understanding exerted by the power of energy the knife of insight-understanding well-sharpened on the stone of concentration, might disentangle, cut away and demolish all the tangle of craving that had overgrown his own life’s continuity.
Maggakkhaṇe panesa taṃ jaṭaṃ vijaṭeti nāma.
But it is at the moment of the path that he is said to be disentangling that tangle;
Phalakkhaṇe vijaṭitajaṭo sadevakassa lokassa aggadakkhiṇeyyo hoti.
at the moment of fruition he has disentangled the tangle and is worthy of the highest offerings in the world with its deities.
Tenāha bhagavā –
That is why the Blessed One said:
"Sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayaṃ;
“When a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops consciousness and understanding,
Ātāpī nipako bhikkhu, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭa"nti. (saṃ. ni. 1.23);
Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious He succeeds in disentangling this tangle.”
5.Tatrāyaṃ yāya paññāya sapaññoti vutto, tatrāssa karaṇīyaṃ natthi.
8. Herein there is nothing for him to do about the [naïve] understanding on account of which he is called wise;
Purimakammānubhāveneva hissa sā siddhā.
for that has been established in him simply by the influence of previous kamma.
Ātāpī nipakoti ettha vuttavīriyavasena pana tena sātaccakārinā paññāvasena ca sampajānakārinā hutvā sīle patiṭṭhāya cittapaññāvasena vuttā samathavipassanā bhāvetabbāti imamatra bhagavā sīlasamādhipaññāmukhena visuddhimaggaṃ dasseti.
But the words ardent and sagacious mean that by persevering with energy of the kind here described and by acting in full awareness with understanding he should, having become well established in virtue, develop the serenity and insight that are described as concentration and understanding. This is how the Blessed One shows the path of purification under the headings of virtue, concentration, and understanding there.
Ettāvatā hi tisso sikkhā, tividhakalyāṇaṃ sāsanaṃ, tevijjatādīnaṃ upanissayo, antadvayavajjanamajjhimapaṭipattisevanāni, apāyādisamatikkamanupāyo, tīhākārehi kilesappahānaṃ, vītikkamādīnaṃ paṭipakkho, saṃkilesattayavisodhanaṃ, sotāpannādibhāvassa ca kāraṇaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti.
9.What has been shown so far is the three trainings, the dispensation that is good in three ways, the necessary condition for the threefold clear-vision, etc., the avoidance of the two extremes and the cultivation of the middle way, the means to surmounting the states of loss, etc., the abandoning of defilements in three aspects, prevention of transgression etc., purification from the three kinds of defilements, and the reason for the states of stream-entry and so on.
Kathaṃ?
How?
Ettha hi sīlena adhisīlasikkhā pakāsitā hoti, samādhinā adhicittasikkhā, paññāya adhipaññāsikkhā.
10.Here the training of higher virtue is shown by virtue; the training of higher consciousness, by concentration; and the training of higher understanding, by understanding.
Sīlena ca sāsanassa ādikalyāṇatā pakāsitā hoti.
The dispensation’s goodness in the beginning is shown by virtue.
"Ko cādi kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ, sīlañca suvisuddha"nti (saṃ. ni. 5.369) hi vacanato, "sabbapāpassa akaraṇa"nti (dī. ni. 2.90) ādivacanato ca sīlaṃ sāsanassa ādi, tañca kalyāṇaṃ, avippaṭisārādiguṇāvahattā.
Because of the passage, “And what is the beginning of profitable things? Virtue that is quite purified” (S V 143), and because of the passage beginning, “The not doing of any evil” (Dhp 183), virtue is the beginning of the dispensation. And that is good because it brings about the special qualities of non-remorse,5 and so on.
Samādhinā majjhekalyāṇatā pakāsitā hoti.
Its goodness in the middle is shown by concentration.
"Kusalassa upasampadā"ti (dī. ni. 2.90) ādivacanato hi samādhi sāsanassa majjhe, so ca kalyāṇo, iddhividhādiguṇāvahattā.
Because of the passage beginning, “Entering upon the profitable” (Dhp 183), concentration is the middle of the dispensation. And that is good because it brings about the special qualities of supernormal power, and so on.
Paññāya sāsanassa pariyosānakalyāṇatā pakāsitā hoti.
Its goodness in the end is shown by understanding.
"Sacittapariyodāpanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsana"nti (dī. ni. 2.90) hi vacanato, paññuttarato ca paññā sāsanassa pariyosānaṃ, sā ca kalyāṇaṃ, iṭṭhāniṭṭhesu tādibhāvāvahanato.
Because of the passage, “The purifying of one’s own mind—this is the Buddhas’ dispensation” (Dhp 183), and because understanding is its culmination, understanding is the end of the dispensation. And that is good because it brings about equipoise with respect to the desired and the undesired.
"Selo yathā ekaghano, vātena na samīrati;
“Just as a solid massive rock Remains unshaken by the wind,
Evaṃ nindāpasaṃsāsu, na samiñjanti paṇḍitā"ti. (dha. pa. 81); –
So too, in face of blame and praise The wise remain immovable” (Dhp 81).
Hi vuttaṃ.
For this is said (above).
Tathā sīlena tevijjatāya upanissayo pakāsito hoti.
11.Likewise the necessary condition for the triple clear-vision is shown by virtue.
Sīlasampattiñhi nissāya tisso vijjā pāpuṇāti, na tato paraṃ.
For with the support of perfected virtue one arrives at the three kinds of clear- vision, but nothing besides that.
Samādhinā chaḷabhiññatāya upanissayo pakāsito hoti.
The necessary condition for the six kinds of direct- knowledge is shown by concentration.
Samādhisampadañhi nissāya cha abhiññā pāpuṇāti, na tato paraṃ.
For with the support of perfected concentration one arrives at the six kinds of direct-knowledge, but nothing besides that.
Paññāya paṭisambhidāpabhedassa upanissayo pakāsito hoti.
The necessary condition for the categories of discrimination is shown by understanding.
Paññāsampattiñhi nissāya catasso paṭisambhidā pāpuṇāti, na aññena kāraṇena.
For with the support of perfected understanding one arrives at the four kinds of discrimination, but not for any other reason.6
Sīlena ca kāmasukhallikānuyogasaṅkhātassa antassa vajjanaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti, samādhinā attakilamathānuyogasaṅkhātassa.
And the avoidance of the extreme called devotion to indulgence of sense desires is shown by virtue. The avoidance of the extreme called devotion to mortification of self is shown by concentration.
Paññāya majjhimāya paṭipattiyā sevanaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti.
The cultivation of the middle way is shown by understanding.
Tathā sīlena apāyasamatikkamanupāyo pakāsito hoti, samādhinā kāmadhātusamatikkamanupāyo, paññāya sabbabhavasamatikkamanupāyo.
12.Likewise the means for surmounting the states of loss is shown by virtue; the means for surmounting the element of sense desires, by concentration; and the means for surmounting all becoming, by understanding.
Sīlena ca tadaṅgappahānavasena kilesappahānaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti, samādhinā vikkhambhanappahānavasena, paññāya samucchedappahānavasena.
And the abandoning of defilements by substitution of opposites is shown by virtue; that by suppression is shown by concentration; and that by cutting off is shown by understanding.
Tathā sīlena kilesānaṃ vītikkamapaṭipakkho pakāsito hoti, samādhinā pariyuṭṭhānapaṭipakkho, paññāya anusayapaṭipakkho.
13.Likewise prevention of defilements’ transgression is shown by virtue; prevention of obsession (by defilement) is shown by concentration; prevention of inherent tendencies is shown by understanding.
Sīlena ca duccaritasaṃkilesavisodhanaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti, samādhinā taṇhāsaṃkilesavisodhanaṃ, paññāya diṭṭhisaṃkilesavisodhanaṃ.
And purification from the defilement of misconduct is shown by virtue; purification from the defilement of craving, by concentration; and purification from the defilement of (false) views, by understanding.
Tathā sīlena sotāpannasakadāgāmibhāvassa kāraṇaṃ pakāsitaṃ hoti, samādhinā anāgāmibhāvassa, paññāya arahattassa.
14.Likewise the reason for the states of stream-entry and once-return is shown by virtue; that for the state of non-return, by concentration; that for Arahantship by understanding.
Sotāpanno hi "sīlesu paripūrakārī"ti (a. ni. 3.87) vutto, tathā sakadāgāmī.
For the stream-enterer is called “perfected in the kinds of virtue”; and likewise the once-returner.
Anāgāmī pana "samādhismiṃ paripūrakārī"ti (a. ni. 3.87).
But the non-returner is called “perfected in concentration.”
Arahā pana "paññāya paripūrakārī"ti (a. ni. 3.87).
And the Arahant is called “perfected in understanding” (see A I 233).
Evaṃ ettāvatā tisso sikkhā, tividhakalyāṇaṃ sāsanaṃ, tevijjatādīnaṃ upanissayo, antadvayavajjanamajjhimapaṭipattisevanāni, apāyādisamatikkamanupāyo, tīhākārehi kilesappahānaṃ, vītikkamādīnaṃ paṭipakkho, saṃkilesattayavisodhanaṃ, sotāpannādibhāvassa ca kāraṇanti ime nava, aññe ca evarūpā guṇattikā pakāsitā hontīti.
15.So thus far these nine and other like triads of special qualities have been shown, that is, the three trainings, the dispensation that is good in three ways, the necessary condition for the threefold clear-vision, the avoidance of the two extremes and the cultivation of the middle way, the means for surmounting the states of loss, etc., the abandoning of defilements in three aspects, prevention of transgression, etc., purification from the three kinds of defilements, and the reason for the states of stream-entry, and so on.
https://tipitaka.theravada.su/node/table/32882

1 - Chapter 1: Description of virtue



1. Description of virtue Original pali
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
Sīlasarūpādikathā Table view Original pali

1.1 Sīla-sarūpādi-kathā: virtue description discussion

6.Evaṃ anekaguṇasaṅgāhakena sīlasamādhipaññāmukhena desitopi panesa visuddhimaggo atisaṅkhepadesitoyeva hoti.
16.However, even when this path of purification is shown in this way under the headings of virtue, concentration and understanding, each comprising various special qualities, it is still only shown extremely briefly.
Tasmā nālaṃ sabbesaṃ upakārāyāti vitthāramassa dassetuṃ sīlaṃ tāva ārabbha idaṃ pañhākammaṃ hoti.
And so since that is insufficient to help all, there is, in order to show it in detail, the following set of questions dealing in the first place with virtue:
Kiṃ sīlaṃ, kenaṭṭhena sīlaṃ, kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānāni, kimānisaṃsaṃ sīlaṃ, katividhaṃ cetaṃ sīlaṃ, ko cassa saṃkileso, kiṃ vodānanti.
(i) What is virtue? (ii) In what sense is it virtue? (iii) What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause? (iv) What are the benefits of virtue? (v) How many kinds of virtue are there? (vi) What is the defiling of it? (viii) What is the cleansing of it?
Tatridaṃ vissajjanaṃ.
17.Here are the answers:
Kiṃ sīlanti pāṇātipātādīhi vā viramantassa vattapaṭipattiṃ vā pūrentassa cetanādayo dhammā.
(i) WHAT IS VIRTUE? It is the states beginning with volition present in one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or in one who fulfils the practice of the duties.
Vuttañhetaṃ paṭisambhidāyaṃ "kiṃ sīlanti cetanā sīlaṃ, cetasikaṃ sīlaṃ, saṃvaro sīlaṃ, avītikkamo sīla"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.39).
For this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “What is virtue? There is virtue as volition, virtue as consciousness-concomitant,7 virtue as restraint, [7] virtue as non- transgression” (Paṭis I 44).
Tattha cetanā sīlaṃ nāma pāṇātipātādīhi vā viramantassa vattapaṭipattiṃ vā pūrentassa cetanā.
Herein, virtue as volition is the volition present in one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or in one who fulfils the practice of the duties.
Cetasikaṃ sīlaṃ nāma pāṇātipātādīhi viramantassa virati.
Virtue as consciousness- concomitant is the abstinence in one who abstains from killing living things, and so on.
Apica cetanā sīlaṃ nāma pāṇātipātādīni pajahantassa satta kammapathacetanā.
Furthermore, virtue as volition is the seven volitions [that accompany the first seven] of the [ten] courses of action (kamma) in one who abandons the killing of living things, and so on.
Cetasikaṃ sīlaṃ nāma "abhijjhaṃ pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharatī"ti (dī. ni. 1.217) ādinā nayena vuttā anabhijjhābyāpādasammādiṭṭhidhammā.
Virtue as consciousness-concomitant is the [three remaining] states consisting of non-covetousness, non-ill will, and right view, stated in the way beginning, “Abandoning covetousness, he dwells with a mind free from covetousness” (D I 71).
Saṃvaro sīlanti ettha pañcavidhena saṃvaro veditabbo pātimokkhasaṃvaro, satisaṃvaro, ñāṇasaṃvaro, khantisaṃvaro, vīriyasaṃvaroti.
18.Virtue as restraint should be understood here as restraint in five ways: restraint by the rules of the community (pātimokkha), restraint by mindfulness, restraint by knowledge, restraint by patience, and restraint by energy.
Tattha iminā pātimokkhasaṃvarena upeto hoti samupetoti (vibha. 511) ayaṃ pātimokkhasaṃvaro.
Herein, “restraint by the Pātimokkha” is this: “He is furnished, fully furnished, with this Pātimokkha restraint.(Vibh 246)”
Rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjatīti (dī. ni. 1.213) ayaṃ satisaṃvaro.
“Restraint by mindfulness” is this: “He guards the eye faculty, enters upon restraint of the eye faculty” (D I 70).
Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, (ajitāti bhagavā;)
“The currents in the world that flow, Ajita,” said the Blessed One,
Sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;
“Are stemmed by means of mindfulness;
Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhiyyareti. (su. ni. 1041);
Restraint of currents I proclaim, By understanding they are dammed” (Sn 1035);
Ayaṃ ñāṇasaṃvaro.
“Restraint by knowledge” is this (above).
Paccayapaṭisevanampi ettheva samodhānaṃ gacchati.
and use of requisites is here combined with this.
Yo panāyaṃ khamo hoti sītassa uṇhassātiādinā (ma. ni. 1.24; a. ni. 6.58) nayena āgato, ayaṃ khantisaṃvaro nāma.
But what is called “restraint by patience” is that given in the way beginning, “He is one who bears cold and heat” (M I 10).
Yo cāyaṃ uppannaṃ kāmavitakkaṃ nādhivāsetītiādinā (ma. ni. 1.26; a. ni. 6.58) nayena āgato, ayaṃ vīriyasaṃvaro nāma.
And what is called “restraint by energy” is that given in the way beginning, “He does not endure a thought of sense desires when it arises” (M I 11);
Ājīvapārisuddhipi ettheva samodhānaṃ gacchati.
purification of livelihood is here combined with this.
Iti ayaṃ pañcavidhopi saṃvaro, yā ca pāpabhīrukānaṃ kulaputtānaṃ sampattavatthuto virati, sabbampetaṃ saṃvarasīlanti veditabbaṃ.
So this fivefold restraint, and the abstinence, in clansmen who dread evil, from any chance of transgression met with, should all be understood to be “virtue as restraint.”
Avītikkamo sīlanti samādinnasīlassa kāyikavācasiko anatikkamo.
Virtue as non-transgression is the non-transgression, by body or speech, of precepts of virtue that have been undertaken.
Idaṃ tāva kiṃ sīlanti pañhassa vissajjanaṃ.
This, in the first place, is the answer to the question, “What is virtue?
7.Avasesesu kenaṭṭhena sīlanti sīlanaṭṭhena sīlaṃ.
” [8] Now, as to the rest— 19.(ii) IN WHAT SENSE IS IT VIRTUE? It is virtue (sīla) in the sense of composing (sīlana).8
Kimidaṃ sīlanaṃ nāma.
What is this composing?
Samādhānaṃ vā, kāyakammādīnaṃ susīlyavasena avippakiṇṇatāti attho.
It is either a coordinating (samādhāna), meaning non- inconsistency of bodily action, etc., due to virtuousness;
Upadhāraṇaṃ vā, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ patiṭṭhānavasena ādhārabhāvoti attho.
or it is an upholding (upadhāraṇa),8 meaning a state of basis (ādhāra) owing to its serving as foundation for profitable states.
Etadeva hettha atthadvayaṃ saddalakkhaṇavidū anujānanti.
For those who understand etymology admit only these two meanings.
Aññe pana siraṭṭho sīlattho, sītalaṭṭho sīlatthoti evamādināpi nayenettha atthaṃ vaṇṇayanti.
Others, however, comment on the meaning here in the way beginning, “The meaning of virtue (sīla) is the meaning of head (sira), the meaning of virtue is the meaning of cool (sītala).”
8.Idāni kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānānīti ettha –
20. (iii) Now, WHAT ARE ITS CHARACTERISTIC, FUNCTION, MANIFESTATION, AND PROXIMATE CAUSE? Here:
Sīlanaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ tassa, bhinnassāpi anekadhā;
The characteristic of it is composing Even when analyzed in various ways,
Sanidassanattaṃ rūpassa, yathā bhinnassanekadhā.
As visibility is of visible data Even when analyzed in various ways.
Yathā hi nīlapītādibhedena anekadhā bhinnassāpi rūpāyatanassa sanidassanattaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ, nīlādibhedena bhinnassāpi sanidassana bhāvānatikkamanato.
Just as visibleness is the characteristic of the visible-data base even when analyzed into the various categories of blue, yellow, etc., because even when analyzed into these categories it does not exceed visible-ness,
Tathā sīlassa cetanādibhedena anekadhā bhinnassāpi yadetaṃ kāyakammādīnaṃ samādhānavasena kusalānañca dhammānaṃ patiṭṭhānavasena vuttaṃ sīlanaṃ, tadeva lakkhaṇaṃ, cetanādibhedena bhinnassāpi samādhānapatiṭṭhānabhāvānatikkamanato.
so also this same composing, described above as the coordinating of bodily action, etc., and as the foundation of profitable states, is the characteristic of virtue even when analyzed into the various categories of volition, etc., because even when analyzed into these categories it does not exceed the state of coordination and foundation.
Evaṃ lakkhaṇassa panassa –
21.While such is its characteristic:
Dussīlyaviddhaṃsanatā, anavajjaguṇo tathā;
Action to stop misconduct, then Of blamelessness in virtuous men.
Kiccasampattiatthena, raso nāma pavuccati.
Achievement as the quality Its function has a double sense.
Tasmā idaṃ sīlaṃ nāma kiccaṭṭhena rasena dussīlyaviddhaṃsanarasaṃ, sampattiatthena rasena anavajjarasanti veditabbaṃ.
So what is called virtue should be understood to have the function (nature) of stopping misconduct as its function (nature) in the sense of action, and a blameless function (nature) as its function (nature) in the sense of achievement.
Lakkhaṇādīsu hi kiccameva sampatti vā rasoti vuccati.
For under [these headings of] characteristic, etc., it is action (kicca) or it is achievement (sampatti) that is called “function” (rasa—nature).
Soceyyapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, tayidaṃ tassa viññuhi;
22. Now, virtue, so say those who know, Itself as purity will show;
Ottappañca hirī ceva, padaṭṭhānanti vaṇṇitaṃ.
And for its proximate cause they tell The pair, conscience and shame, as well.
Tayidaṃ sīlaṃ kāyasoceyyaṃ vacīsoceyyaṃ manosoceyyanti (a. ni. 3.121) evaṃ vuttasoceyyapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, soceyyabhāvena paccupaṭṭhāti gahaṇabhāvaṃ gacchati.
This virtue is manifested as the kinds of purity stated thus: “Bodily purity, verbal purity, mental purity” (A I 271); it is manifested, comes to be apprehended, as a pure state.
Hirottappañca panassa viññūhi padaṭṭhānanti vaṇṇitaṃ, āsannakāraṇanti attho.
But conscience and shame are said by those who know to be its proximate cause; its near reason, is the meaning.
Hirottappe hi sati sīlaṃ uppajjati ceva tiṭṭhati ca.
For when conscience and shame are in existence, virtue arises and persists;
Asati neva uppajjati, na tiṭṭhatīti.
and when they are not, it neither arises nor persists.
Evaṃ sīlassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānāni veditabbāni.
This is how virtue’s characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause, should be understood.
Sīlānisaṃsakathā Table view Original pali

1.2 Sīlā-nisaṃsa-kathā: virtue benefits discussion

9.Kimānisaṃsaṃ sīlanti avippaṭisārādianekaguṇapaṭilābhānisaṃsaṃ.
23.(iv) WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF VIRTUE? Its benefits are the acquisition of the several special qualities beginning with non-remorse.
Vuttañhetaṃ – "avippaṭisāratthāni kho, ānanda, kusalāni sīlāni avippaṭisārānisaṃsānī"ti (a. ni. 11.1).
For this is said: “Ānanda, profitable habits (virtues) have non-remorse as their aim and non-remorse as their benefit” (A V 1).
Aparampi vuttaṃ "pañcime gahapatayo ānisaṃsā sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
Also it is said further: “Householder, there are these five benefits for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue.
Katame pañca?
What five?
Idha gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno appamādādhikaraṇaṃ mahantaṃ bhogakkhandhaṃ adhigacchati, ayaṃ paṭhamo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
Here, householder, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, obtains a large fortune as a consequence of diligence; this is the first benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue.
Puna caparaṃ gahapatayo sīlavato sīlasampannassa kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati, ayaṃ dutiyo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
Again, of one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, a fair name is spread abroad; this is the second benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue.
Puna caparaṃ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno yaññadeva parisaṃ upasaṅkamati yadi khattiyaparisaṃ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṃ yadi gahapatiparisaṃ yadi samaṇaparisaṃ, visārado upasaṅkamati amaṅkubhūto, ayaṃ tatiyo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
Again, whenever one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, enters an assembly, whether of khattiyas (warrior- nobles) or brahmans or householders or ascetics, he does so without fear or hesitation; this is the third benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue.
Puna caparaṃ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno asammūḷho kālaṃ karoti, ayaṃ catuttho ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
Again, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, dies unconfused; this is the fourth benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue.
Puna caparaṃ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, ayaṃ pañcamo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāyā"ti (dī. ni. 2.150; a. ni. 5.213; mahāva. 285).
Again, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, on the breakup of the body, after death, reappears in a happy destiny, in the heavenly world; this is the fifth benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue” (D II 86).
Aparepi "ākaṅkheyya ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabrahmacārīnaṃ piyo ca assaṃ manāpo ca garu ca bhāvanīyo cāti, sīlesvevassa paripūrakārī"tiādinā (ma. ni. 1.65) nayena piyamanāpatādayo āsavakkhayapariyosānā anekā sīlānisaṃsā vuttā.
There are also the many benefits of virtue beginning with being dear and loved and ending with destruction of cankers described in the passage beginning, “If a bhikkhu should wish, ‘May I be dear to my fellows in the life of purity and loved by them, held in respect and honoured by them,’ let him perfect the virtues” (M I 33).
Evaṃ avippaṭisārādianekaguṇānisaṃsaṃ sīlaṃ.
This is how virtue has as its benefits the several special qualities beginning with non-remorse.
Apica –
24.Furthermore:
Sāsane kulaputtānaṃ, patiṭṭhā natthi yaṃ vinā;
Without which virtue clansmen find No footing in the dispensation?
Ānisaṃsaparicchedaṃ, tassa sīlassa ko vade.
Dare anyone a limit place On benefits that virtue brings,
Na gaṅgā yamunā cāpi, sarabhū vā sarasvatī;
No Ganges, and no Yamunā No Sarabhū, Sarassathī,
Ninnagā vāciravatī, mahī vāpi mahānadī.
Or flowing Aciravatī, Or noble River of Mahī,
Sakkuṇanti visodhetuṃ, taṃ malaṃ idha pāṇinaṃ;
Is able to wash out the stain In things that breathe here in the world;
Visodhayati sattānaṃ, yaṃ ve sīlajalaṃ malaṃ.
For only virtue’s water can Wash out the stain in living things.
Na taṃ sajaladā vātā, na cāpi haricandanaṃ;
No breezes that come bringing rain, No balm of yellow sandalwood,
Neva hārā na maṇayo, na candakiraṇaṅkurā.
No necklaces beside, or gems Or soft effulgence of moonbeams,
Samayantīdha sattānaṃ, pariḷāhaṃ surakkhitaṃ;
Can here avail to calm and soothe Men’s fevers in this world; whereas
Yaṃ sameti idaṃ ariyaṃ, sīlaṃ accantasītalaṃ.
This noble, this supremely cool, Well-guarded virtue quells the flame.
Sīlagandhasamo gandho, kuto nāma bhavissati;
Where is there to be found the scent That can with virtue’s scent compare,
Yo samaṃ anuvāte ca, paṭivāte ca vāyati.
And that is borne against the wind As easily as with it?
Saggārohaṇasopānaṃ, aññaṃ sīlasamaṃ kuto;
Where Can such another stair be found That climbs, as virtue does, to heaven?
Dvāraṃ vā pana nibbāna, nagarassa pavesane.
Or yet another door that gives Onto the City of Nibbāna?
Sobhantevaṃ na rājāno, muttāmaṇivibhūsitā;
Shine as they may, there are no kings Adorned with jewellery and pearls
Yathā sobhanti yatino, sīlabhūsanabhūsitā.
That shine as does a man restrained Adorned with virtue’s ornament.
Attānuvādādibhayaṃ, viddhaṃsayati sabbaso;
Virtue entirely does away With dread of self-blame and the like;
Janeti kittihāsañca, sīlaṃ sīlavataṃ sadā.
Their virtue to the virtuous Gives gladness always by its fame.
Guṇānaṃ mūlabhūtassa, dosānaṃ balaghātino;
This root of all good qualities Robs of its power every fault.
Iti sīlassa viññeyyaṃ, ānisaṃsakathāmukhanti.
From this brief sketch it may be known How virtue brings reward, and how
Sīlappabhedakathā Table view Original pali

1.3 Sīlap-pabheda-kathā: How many divisions of virtue?

10.Idāni yaṃ vuttaṃ katividhaṃ cetaṃ sīlanti, tatridaṃ vissajjanaṃ.
25. (v) Now, here is the answer to the question, HOW MANY KINDS OF VIRTUE ARE THERE?
Sabbameva tāva idaṃ sīlaṃ attano sīlanalakkhaṇena ekavidhaṃ.
1.Firstly all this virtue is of one kind by reason of its own characteristic of composing.
Cārittavārittavasena duvidhaṃ.
2.It is of two kinds as keeping and avoiding.
Tathā ābhisamācārikaādibrahmacariyakavasena, viratiavirativasena, nissitānissitavasena, kālapariyantaāpāṇakoṭikavasena, sapariyantāpariyantavasena, lokiyalokuttaravasena ca.
3.Likewise as that of good behaviour and that of the beginning of the life of purity, 4.As abstinence and non-abstinence, 5.As dependent and independent, 6.As temporary and lifelong, 7.As limited and unlimited, 8.As mundane and supramundane.
Tividhaṃ hīnamajjhimapaṇītavasena.
9.It is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.
Tathā attādhipateyyalokādhipateyyadhammādhipateyyavasena, parāmaṭṭhāparāmaṭṭhapaṭippassaddhivasena, visuddhāvisuddhavematikavasena, sekkhāsekkhanevasekkhanāsekkhavasena ca.
10.Likewise as giving precedence to self, giving precedence to the world, and giving precedence to the Dhamma, 11.As adhered to, not adhered to, and tranquillized. 12.As purified, unpurified, and dubious. 13.As that of the trainer, that of the non-trainer, and that of the neither-trainer- nor-non-trainer.
Catubbidhaṃ hānabhāgiyaṭhitibhāgiyavisesabhāgiyanibbedhabhāgiyavasena.
14.It is of four kinds as partaking of diminution, of stagnation, of distinction, of penetration.
Tathā bhikkhubhikkhunīanupasampannagahaṭṭhasīlavasena, pakatiācāradhammatāpubbahetukasīlavasena, pātimokkhasaṃvaraindriyasaṃvaraājīvapārisuddhipaccayasannissitasīlavasena ca.
15.Likewise as that of bhikkhus, of bhikkhunīs, of the not-fully-admitted, of the laity, 16.As natural, customary, necessary, due to previous causes, 17.As virtue of Pātimokkha restraint, of restraint of sense faculties, of purification of livelihood, and that concerning requisites.
Pañcavidhaṃpariyantapārisuddhisīlādivasena.
18.It is of five kinds as virtue consisting in limited purification, etc.;
Vuttampi cetaṃ paṭisambhidāyaṃ "pañca sīlāni – pariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ, apariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ, paripuṇṇapārisuddhisīlaṃ, aparāmaṭṭhapārisuddhisīlaṃ, paṭippassaddhipārisuddhisīla"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.37).
for this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “Five kinds of virtue: virtue consisting in limited purification, virtue consisting in unlimited purification, virtue consisting in fulfilled purification, virtue consisting in unadhered-to purification, virtue consisting in tranquillized purification” (Paṭis I 42).
Tathā pahānaveramaṇīcetanāsaṃvarāvītikkamavasena.
19.Likewise as abandoning, refraining, volition, restraint, and non-transgression.
11.Tattha ekavidhakoṭṭhāse attho vuttanayeneva veditabbo.
26. 1. Herein, in the section dealing with that of one kind, the meaning should be understood as already stated.
Duvidhakoṭṭhāse yaṃ bhagavatā "idaṃ kattabba"nti paññattasikkhāpadapūraṇaṃ, taṃ cārittaṃ.
2. In the section dealing with that of two kinds: fulfilling a training precept announced by the Blessed One thus: “This should be done” is keeping;
Yaṃ "idaṃ na kattabba"nti paṭikkhittassa akaraṇaṃ, taṃ vārittaṃ.
not doing what is prohibited by him thus: “This should not be done” is avoiding.
Tatrāyaṃ vacanattho.
Herein, the word- meaning is this:
Caranti tasmiṃ sīlesu paripūrakāritāya pavattantīti cārittaṃ.
they keep (caranti) within that, they proceed as people who fulfil the virtues, thus it is keeping (cāritta);
Vāritaṃ tāyanti rakkhanti tenāti vārittaṃ.
they preserve, they protect, they avoid, thus it is avoiding.
Tattha saddhāvīriyasādhanaṃ cārittaṃ, saddhāsādhanaṃ vārittaṃ.
Herein, keeping is accomplished by faith and energy; avoiding, by faith and mindfulness.
Evaṃ cārittavārittavasena duvidhaṃ.
This is how it is of two kinds as keeping and avoiding.
Dutiyaduke abhisamācāroti uttamasamācāro.
27. 3. In the second dyad good behaviour is the best kind of behaviour.
Abhisamācāro eva ābhisamācārikaṃ.
Good behaviour itself is that of good behaviour;
Abhisamācāraṃ vā ārabbha paññattaṃ ābhisamācārikaṃ, ājīvaṭṭhamakato avasesasīlassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
or what is announced for the sake of good behaviour is that of good behaviour.
Maggabrahmacariyassa ādibhāvabhūtanti ādibrahmacariyakaṃ, ājīvaṭṭhamakasīlassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for virtue other than that which has livelihood as eighth.9 It is the initial stage of the life of purity consisting in the path, thus it is that of the beginning of the life of purity. This is a term for the virtue that has livelihood as eighth.
Tañhi maggassa ādibhāvabhūtaṃ, pubbabhāgeyeva parisodhetabbato.
It is the initial stage of the path because it has actually to be purified in the prior stage too.
Tenāha – "pubbeva kho panassa kāyakammaṃ vacīkammaṃ ājīvo suparisuddho hotī"ti (ma. ni. 3.431).
Hence it is said: “But his bodily action, his verbal action, and his livelihood have already been purified earlier” (M III 289).
Yāni vā sikkhāpadāni khuddānukhuddakānīti vuttāni, idaṃ ābhisamācārikasīlaṃ.
Or the training precepts called “lesser and minor” (D II 154) are that of good behaviour;
Sesaṃ ādibrahmacariyakaṃ.
the rest are that of the beginning of the life of purity.
Ubhatovibhaṅgapariyāpannaṃ vā ādibrahmacariyakaṃ.
Or what is included in the Double Code (the bhikkhus’ and bhikkhunīs’ Pātimokkha) is that of the beginning of the life of purity;
Khandhakavattapariyāpannaṃ ābhisamācārikaṃ.
and that included in the duties set out in the Khandhakas [of Vinaya] is that of good behaviour.
Tassa sampattiyā ādibrahmacariyakaṃ sampajjati.
Through its perfection that of the beginning of the life of purity comes to be perfected.
Tenevāha – "so vata, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ābhisamācārikaṃ dhammaṃ aparipūretvā ādibrahmacariyakaṃ dhammaṃ paripūressatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī"ti (a. ni. 5.21).
Hence it is said also “that this bhikkhu shall fulfil the state consisting in the beginning of the life of purity without having fulfilled the state consisting in good behaviour—that is not possible” (A III 14–15).
Evaṃ ābhisamācārikaādibrahmacariyakavasena duvidhaṃ.
So it is of two kinds as that of good behaviour and that of the beginning of the life of purity.
Tatiyaduke pāṇātipātādīhi veramaṇimattaṃ viratisīlaṃ.
28.4.In the third dyad virtue as abstinence is simply abstention from killing living things, etc.;
Sesaṃ cetanādi aviratisīlanti evaṃ viratiavirativasena duvidhaṃ.
the other kinds consisting in volition, etc., are virtue as non-abstinence. So it is of two kinds as abstinence and non-abstinence.
Catutthaduke nissayoti dve nissayā taṇhānissayo ca diṭṭhinissayo ca.
29.5.In the fourth dyad there are two kinds of dependence: dependence through craving and dependence through [false] views.
Tattha yaṃ "imināhaṃ sīlena devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā"ti (dī. ni. 3.320; ma. ni. 1.186; a. ni. 5.206; 7.50) evaṃ bhavasampattiṃ ākaṅkhamānena pavattitaṃ, idaṃ taṇhānissitaṃ.
Herein, that produced by one who wishes for a fortunate kind of becoming thus, “Through this virtuous conduct [rite] I shall become a [great] deity or some [minor] deity” (M I 102), is dependent through craving.
Yaṃ "sīlena suddhī"ti evaṃ suddhidiṭṭhiyā pavattitaṃ, idaṃ diṭṭhinissitaṃ.
That produced through such [false] view about purification as “Purification is through virtuous conduct” (Vibh 374) is dependent through [false] view.
Yaṃ pana lokuttaraṃ lokiyañca tasseva sambhārabhūtaṃ, idaṃ anissitanti evaṃ nissitānissitavasena duvidhaṃ.
But the supramundane, and the mundane that is the prerequisite for the aforesaid supramundane, are independent. So it is of two kinds as dependent and independent.
Pañcamaduke kālaparicchedaṃ katvā samādinnaṃ sīlaṃ kālapariyantaṃ.
30. 6. In the fifth dyad temporary virtue is that undertaken after deciding on a time limit.
Yāvajīvaṃ samādiyitvā tatheva pavattitaṃ āpāṇakoṭikanti evaṃ kālapariyantaāpāṇakoṭikavasena duvidhaṃ.
Lifelong virtue is that practiced in the same way but undertaking it for as long as life lasts. So it is of two kinds as temporary and lifelong.
Chaṭṭhaduke lābhayasañātiaṅgajīvitavasena diṭṭhapariyantaṃ sapariyantaṃ nāma.
31.7.In the sixth dyad the limited is that seen to be limited by gain, fame, relatives, limbs, or life.
Viparītaṃ apariyantaṃ.
The opposite is unlimited.
Vuttampi cetaṃ paṭisambhidāyaṃ "katamaṃ taṃ sīlaṃ sapariyantaṃ?
And this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “What is the virtue that has a limit?
Atthi sīlaṃ lābhapariyantaṃ, atthi sīlaṃ yasapariyantaṃ, atthi sīlaṃ ñātipariyantaṃ, atthi sīlaṃ aṅgapariyantaṃ, atthi sīlaṃ jīvitapariyantaṃ.
There is virtue that has gain as its limit, there is virtue that has fame as its limit, there is virtue that has relatives as its limit, there is virtue that has limbs as its limit, there is virtue that has life as its limit.
Katamaṃ taṃ sīlaṃ lābhapariyantaṃ?
What is virtue that has gain as its limit?
Idhekacco lābhahetu lābhapaccayā lābhakāraṇā yathāsamādinnaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ vītikkamati, idaṃ taṃ sīlaṃ lābhapariyanta"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.38).
Here someone with gain as cause, with gain as condition, with gain as reason, transgresses a training precept as undertaken: that virtue has gain as its limit” (Paṭis I 43),
Eteneva upāyena itarānipi vitthāretabbāni.
and the rest should be elaborated in the same way.
Apariyantavissajjanepi vuttaṃ "katamaṃ taṃ sīlaṃ na lābhapariyantaṃ?
Also in the answer dealing with the unlimited it is said: “What is virtue that does not have gain as its limit?
Idhekacco lābhahetu lābhapaccayā lābhakāraṇā yathāsamādinnaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ vītikkamāya cittampi na uppādeti, kiṃ so vītikkamissati, idaṃ taṃ sīlaṃ na lābhapariyanta"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.38).
Here someone does not, with gain as cause, with gain as condition, with gain as reason, even arouse the thought of transgressing a training precept as undertaken, how then shall he actually transgress it? That virtue does not have gain as its limit” (Paṭis I 44),
Etenevupāyena itarānipi vitthāretabbāni.
and the rest should be elaborated in the same way.
Evaṃ sapariyantāpariyantavasena duvidhaṃ.
So it is of two kinds as limited and unlimited.
Sattamaduke sabbampi sāsavaṃ sīlaṃ lokiyaṃ.
32.8.In the seventh dyad all virtue subject to cankers is mundane;
Anāsavaṃ lokuttaraṃ.
that not subject to cankers is supramundane.
Tattha lokiyaṃ bhavavisesāvahaṃ hoti bhavanissaraṇassa ca sambhāro.
Herein, the mundane brings about improvement in future becoming and is a prerequisite for the escape from becoming,
Yathāha – "vinayo saṃvaratthāya, saṃvaro avippaṭisāratthāya, avippaṭisāro pāmojjatthāya, pāmojjaṃ pītatthāya, pīti passaddhatthāya, passaddhi sukhatthāya, sukhaṃ samādhatthāya, samādhi yathābhūtañāṇadassanatthāya, yathābhūtañāṇadassanaṃ nibbidatthāya, nibbidā virāgatthāya, virāgo vimuttatthāya, vimutti vimuttiñāṇadassanatthāya, vimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ anupādāparinibbānatthāya, etadatthā kathā, etadatthā mantanā, etadatthā upanisā, etadatthaṃ sotāvadhānaṃ, yadidaṃ anupādācittassa vimokkho"ti (pari. 366).
according as it is said: “Discipline is for the purpose of restraint, restraint is for the purpose of non- remorse, non-remorse is for the purpose of gladdening, gladdening is for the purpose of happiness, happiness is for the purpose of tranquillity, tranquillity is for the purpose of bliss-(sukha), bliss-(sukha) is for the purpose of concentration, concentration is for the purpose of correct knowledge and vision, correct knowledge and vision is for the purpose of dispassion, dispassion is for the purpose of fading away [of greed], fading away is for the purpose of deliverance, deliverance is for the purpose of knowledge and vision of deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance is for the purpose of complete extinction [of craving, etc.] through not clinging. Talk has that purpose, counsel has that purpose, support has that purpose, giving ear has that purpose, that is to say, the liberation of the mind through not clinging” (Vin V 164).
Lokuttaraṃ bhavanissaraṇāvahaṃ hoti paccavekkhaṇañāṇassa ca bhūmīti evaṃ lokiyalokuttaravasena duvidhaṃ.
The supramundane brings about the escape from becoming and is the plane of reviewing knowledge. So it is of two kinds as mundane and supramundane.
12.Tikesu paṭhamattike hīnena chandena cittena vīriyena vīmaṃsāya vā pavattitaṃ hīnaṃ.
33. 9. In the first of the triads the inferior is produced by inferior zeal, [purity of] consciousness, energy, or inquiry;
Majjhimehi chandādīhi pavattitaṃ majjhimaṃ.
the medium is produced by medium zeal, etc.;
Paṇītehi paṇītaṃ.
the superior, by superior (zeal, and so on).
Yasakāmatāya vā samādinnaṃ hīnaṃ.
That undertaken out of desire for fame is inferior;
Puññaphalakāmatāya majjhimaṃ.
that undertaken out of desire for the fruits of merit is medium;
Kattabbamevidanti ariyabhāvaṃ nissāya samādinnaṃ paṇītaṃ.
that undertaken for the sake of the noble state thus, “This has to be done” is superior.
"Ahamasmi sīlasampanno, ime panaññe bhikkhū dussīlā pāpadhammā"ti evaṃ attukkaṃsanaparavambhanādīhi upakkiliṭṭhaṃ vā hīnaṃ.
Or again, that defiled by self-praise and disparagement of others, etc., thus, “I am possessed of virtue, but these other bhikkhus are ill-conducted and evil-natured” (M I 193), is inferior;
Anupakkiliṭṭhaṃ lokiyaṃ sīlaṃ majjhimaṃ.
undefiled mundane virtue is medium;
Lokuttaraṃ paṇītaṃ.
supramundane is superior.
Taṇhāvasena vā bhavabhogatthāya pavattitaṃ hīnaṃ.
Or again, that motivated by craving, the purpose of which is to enjoy continued existence, is inferior;
Attano vimokkhatthāya pavattitaṃ majjhimaṃ.
that practiced for the purpose of one’s own deliverance is medium;
Sabbasattānaṃ vimokkhatthāya pavattitaṃ pāramitāsīlaṃ paṇītanti evaṃ hīnamajjhimapaṇītavasena tividhaṃ.
the virtue of the perfections practiced for the deliverance of all beings is superior. So it is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.
Dutiyattike attano ananurūpaṃ pajahitukāmena attagarunā attanigāravena pavattitaṃ attādhipateyyaṃ.
34.10. In the second triad that practiced out of self-regard by one who regards self and desires to abandon what is unbecoming to self is virtue giving precedence to self.
Lokāpavādaṃ pariharitukāmena lokagarunā loke gāravena pavattitaṃ lokādhipateyyaṃ.
That practiced out of regard for the world and out of desire to ward off the censure of the world is virtue giving precedence to the world.
Dhammamahattaṃ pūjetukāmena dhammagarunā dhammagāravena pavattitaṃ dhammādhipateyyanti evaṃ attādhipateyyādivasena tividhaṃ.
That practiced out of regard for the Dhamma and out of desire to honour the majesty of the Dhamma is virtue giving precedence to the Dhamma. So it is of three kinds as giving precedence to self, and so on.
Tatiyattike yaṃ dukesu nissitanti vuttaṃ, taṃ taṇhādiṭṭhīhi parāmaṭṭhattā parāmaṭṭhaṃ.
35.11. In the third triad the virtue that in the dyads was called dependent (no. 5) is adhered-to because it is adhered-to through craving and [false] view.
Puthujjanakalyāṇakassa maggasambhārabhūtaṃ sekkhānañca maggasampayuttaṃ aparāmaṭṭhaṃ.
That practiced by the magnanimous ordinary man as the prerequisite of the path, and that associated with the path in trainers, are not-adhered-to.
Sekkhāsekkhānaṃ phalasampayuttaṃ paṭippassaddhanti evaṃ parāmaṭṭhādivasena tividhaṃ.
That associated with trainers’ and non-trainers’ fruition is tranquillized. So it is of three kinds as adhered-to, and so on.
Catutthattike yaṃ āpattiṃ anāpajjantena pūritaṃ, āpajjitvā vā puna katapaṭikammaṃ, taṃ visuddhaṃ.
36.12. In the fourth triad that fulfilled by one who has committed no offence or has made amends after committing one is pure.
Āpattiṃ āpannassa akatapaṭikammaṃ avisuddhaṃ.
So long as he has not made amends after committing an offence it is impure.
Vatthumhi vā āpattiyā vā ajjhācāre vā vematikassa sīlaṃ vematikasīlaṃ nāma.
Virtue in one who is dubious about whether a thing constitutes an offence or about what grade of offence has been committed or about whether he has committed an offence is dubious.
Tattha yoginā avisuddhasīlaṃ visodhetabbaṃ, vematike vatthujjhācāraṃ akatvā vimati paṭivinetabbā "iccassa phāsu bhavissatī"ti evaṃ visuddhādivasena tividhaṃ.
Herein, the meditator should purify impure virtue. If dubious, he should avoid cases about which he is doubtful and should get his doubts cleared up. In this way his mind will be kept at rest. So it is of three kinds as pure, and so on.
Pañcamattike catūhi ariyamaggehi tīhi ca sāmaññaphalehi sampayuttaṃ sīlaṃ sekkhaṃ.
37.13. In the fifth triad the virtue associated with the four paths and with the [first] three fruitions is that of the trainer.
Arahattaphalasampayuttaṃ asekkhaṃ.
That associated with the fruition of Arahantship is that of the non-trainer.
Sesaṃ nevasekkhanāsekkhanti evaṃ sekkhādivasena tividhaṃ.
The remaining kinds are that of the neither- trainer-nor-non-trainer. So it is of three kinds as that of the trainer, and so on.
Paṭisambhidāyaṃ pana yasmā loke tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ pakatipi sīlanti vuccati, yaṃ sandhāya "ayaṃ sukhasīlo, ayaṃ dukkhasīlo, ayaṃ kalahasīlo, ayaṃ maṇḍanasīlo"ti bhaṇanti, tasmā tena pariyāyena "tīṇi sīlāni, kusalasīlaṃ akusalasīlaṃ abyākatasīlanti (paṭi. ma. 1.39).
38.But in the world the nature of such and such beings is called their “habit” (sīla) of which they say: “This one is of happy habit (sukha-sīla), this one is of unhappy habit, this one is of quarrelsome habit, this one is of dandified habit.” Because of that it is said in the Paṭisambhidā figuratively: “Three kinds of virtue (habit): profitable virtue, unprofitable virtue, indeterminate virtue” (Paṭis I 44).
Evaṃ kusalādivasenapi tividhanti vuttaṃ.
So it is also called of three kinds as profitable, and so on.
Tattha akusalaṃ imasmiṃ atthe adhippetassa sīlassa lakkhaṇādīsu ekenapi na sametīti idha na upanītaṃ, tasmā vuttanayenevassa tividhatā veditabbā.
Of these, the unprofitable is not included here since it has nothing whatever to do with the headings beginning with the characteristic, which define virtue in the sense intended in this [chapter]. So the threefoldness should be understood only in the way already stated.
13.Catukkesu paṭhamacatukke –
39.14. In the first of the tetrads:
Yodha sevati dussīle, sīlavante na sevati;
The unvirtuous he cultivates, He visits not the virtuous,
Vatthuvītikkame dosaṃ, na passati aviddasu.
And in his ignorance he sees No fault in a transgression here,
Micchāsaṅkappabahulo, indriyāni na rakkhati;
With wrong thoughts often in his mind His faculties he will not guard—
Evarūpassa ve sīlaṃ, jāyate hānabhāgiyaṃ.
Virtue in such a constitution Comes to partake of diminution.
Yo panattamano hoti, sīlasampattiyā idha;
But he whose mind is satisfied. With virtue that has been achieved,
Kammaṭṭhānānuyogamhi, na uppādeti mānasaṃ.
Who never thinks to stir himself And take a meditation subject up,
Tuṭṭhassa sīlamattena, aghaṭantassa uttari;
Contented with mere virtuousness, Nor striving for a higher state—
Tassa taṃ ṭhitibhāgiyaṃ, sīlaṃ bhavati bhikkhuno.
His virtue bears the appellation Of that partaking of stagnation.
Sampannasīlo ghaṭati, samādhatthāya yo pana;
But who, possessed of virtue, strives With concentration for his aim—
Visesabhāgiyaṃ sīlaṃ, hoti etassa bhikkhuno.
That bhikkhu’s virtue in its function Is called partaking of distinction.
Atuṭṭho sīlamattena, nibbidaṃ yonuyuñjati;
Who finds mere virtue not enough But has dispassion for his goal—
Hoti nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ, sīlametassa bhikkhunoti.
His virtue through such aspiration Comes to partake of penetration.
Evaṃ hānabhāgiyādivasena catubbidhaṃ.
So it is of four kinds as partaking of diminution, and so on.
Dutiyacatukke bhikkhū ārabbha paññattasikkhāpadāni, yāni ca nesaṃ bhikkhunīnaṃ paññattito rakkhitabbāni, idaṃ bhikkhusīlaṃ.
40.15. In the second tetrad there are training precepts announced for bhikkhus to keep irrespective of what is announced for bhikkhunīs. This is the virtue of bhikkhus.
Bhikkhuniyo ārabbha paññattasikkhāpadāni, yāni ca tāsaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paññattito rakkhitabbāni, idaṃ bhikkhunisīlaṃ.
There are training precepts announced for bhikkhunīs to keep irrespective of what is announced for bhikkhus. This is the virtue of bhikkhunīs.
Sāmaṇerasāmaṇerīnaṃ dasasīlāni anupasampannasīlaṃ.
The ten precepts of virtue for male and female novices are the virtue of the not fully admitted.
Upāsakaupāsikānaṃ niccasīlavasena pañcasikkhāpadāni, sati vā ussāhe dasa, uposathaṅgavasena aṭṭhāti idaṃ gahaṭṭhasīlanti evaṃ bhikkhusīlādivasena catubbidhaṃ.
The five training precepts—ten when possible—as a permanent undertaking and eight as the factors of the Uposatha Day,10 for male and female lay followers are the virtue of the laity. So it is of four kinds as the virtue of bhikkhus, and so on.
Tatiyacatukke uttarakurukānaṃ manussānaṃ avītikkamo pakatisīlaṃ.
41.16. In the third tetrad the non-transgression on the part of Uttarakuru human beings is natural virtue.
Kuladesapāsaṇḍānaṃ attano attano mariyādācārittaṃ ācārasīlaṃ.
Each clan’s or locality’s or sect’s own rules of conduct are customary virtue.
"Dhammatā esā, ānanda, yadā bodhisatto mātukucchiṃ okkanto hoti na bodhisattamātu purisesu mānasaṃ uppajji kāmaguṇūpasaṃhita"nti evaṃ vuttaṃ bodhisattamātusīlaṃ dhammatāsīlaṃ.
The virtue of the Bodhisatta’s mother described thus: “It is the necessary rule, Ānanda, that when the Bodhisatta has descended into his mother’s womb, no thought of men that is connected with the cords of sense desire comes to her” (D II 13), is necessary virtue.
Mahākassapādīnaṃ pana suddhasattānaṃ, bodhisattassa ca tāsu tāsu jātīsu sīlaṃ pubbahetukasīlanti evaṃ pakatisīlādivasena catubbidhaṃ.
But the virtue of such pure beings as Mahā Kassapa, etc., and of the Bodhisatta in his various births is virtue due to previous causes. So it is of four kinds as natural virtue, and so on.
Catutthacatukke yaṃ bhagavatā "idha bhikkhu pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesū"ti (vibha. 508; dī. ni. 1.193) vaṃ vuttaṃ sīlaṃ, idaṃ pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlaṃ nāma.
42.17. In the fourth tetrad: (a) The virtue described by the Blessed One thus: “Here a bhikkhu dwells restrained with the Pātimokkha restraint, possessed of the [proper] conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, he trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training, (Vibh 244)” is virtue of Pātimokkha restraint.
Yaṃ pana "so cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī, yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati.
(b) That described thus: “On seeing a visible object with the eye, he apprehends neither the signs nor the particulars through which, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil and unprofitable states of covetousness and grief might invade him; he enters upon the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.
Sotena saddaṃ sutvā - pe - ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā - pe - jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā - pe - kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā - pe - manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na nimittaggāhī - pe - manindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjatī"ti (ma. ni. 1.22, 411; dī. ni. 1.213; a. ni. 4.198) vuttaṃ, idaṃ indriyasaṃvarasīlaṃ.
On hearing a sound with the ear … On smelling an odour with the nose … On tasting a flavour with the tongue … On touching a tangible object with the body … On cognizing a mental object with the mind, he apprehends neither the signs nor the particulars through which, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil and unprofitable states of covetousness and grief might invade him; he enters upon the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty (M I 180), is virtue of restraint of the sense faculties.
Yā pana ājīvahetupaññattānaṃ channaṃ sikkhāpadānaṃ vītikkamassa, "kuhanā lapanā nemittikatā nippesikatā lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatā"ti evamādīnañca pāpadhammānaṃ vasena pavattā micchājīvā virati, idaṃ ājīvapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
(c) Abstinence from such wrong livelihood as entails transgression of the six training precepts announced with respect to livelihood and entails the evil states beginning with “Scheming, talking, hinting, belittling, pursuing gain with gain” (M II 75) is virtue of livelihood purification.
"Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso cīvaraṃ paṭisevati, yāvadeva sītassa paṭighātāyā"ti (ma. ni. 1.23; a. ni. 6.58) ādinā nayena vutto paṭisaṅkhānaparisuddho catupaccayaparibhogo paccayasannissitasīlaṃ nāma.
(d) Use of the four requisites that is purified by the reflection stated in the way beginning, “Reflecting wisely, he uses the robe only for protection from cold” (M I 10) is called virtue concerning requisites.
Pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlaṃ Table view Original pali

1.4 Pātimokkha-saṃvara-sīlaṃ: virtue of restraint with training rules

14.Tatrāyaṃ ādito paṭṭhāya anupubbapadavaṇṇanāya saddhiṃ vinicchayakathā.
43.Here is an explanatory exposition together with a word commentary starting from the beginning.
Idhāti imasmiṃ sāsane.
(a) Here: in this dispensation.
Bhikkhūti saṃsāre bhayaṃ ikkhaṇatāya vā bhinnapaṭadharāditāya vā evaṃ laddhavohāro saddhāpabbajito kulaputto.
A bhikkhu: a clansman who has gone forth out of faith and is so styled because he sees fear in the round of rebirths (saṃsāre bhayaṃ ikkhanatā) or because he wears cloth garments that are torn and pieced together, and so on.
Pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvutoti ettha pātimokkhanti sikkhāpadasīlaṃ.
Restrained with the Pātimokkha restraint: here “Pātimokkha” (Rule of the Community)11 is the virtue of the training precepts;
Tañhi yo naṃ pāti rakkhati, taṃ mokkheti mocayati āpāyikādīhi dukkhehi, tasmā pātimokkhanti vuccati.
for it frees (mokkheti) him who protects (pāti) it, guards it, it sets him free (mocayati) from the pains of the states of loss, etc., that is why it is called Pātimokkha.
Saṃvaraṇaṃ saṃvaro, kāyikavācasikassa avītikkamassetaṃ nāmaṃ.
“Restraint” is restraining; this is a term for bodily and verbal non-transgression.
Pātimokkhameva saṃvaro pātimokkhasaṃvaro.
The Pātimokkha itself as restraint is “Pātimokkha restraint.”
Tena pātimokkhasaṃvarena saṃvuto pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto, upagato samannāgatoti attho.
“Restrained with the Pātimokkha restraint” is restrained by means of the restraint consisting in that Pātimokkha; he has it, possesses it, is the meaning.
Viharatīti iriyati.
Dwells: bears himself in one of the postures.
Ācāragocarasampannotiādīnamattho pāḷiyaṃ āgatanayeneva veditabbo.
44. The meaning of possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort, etc., should be understood in the way in which it is given in the text.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
For this is said:
"Ācāragocarasampanno"ti atthi ācāro, atthi anācāro;
“Possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort: there is [proper] conduct and improper conduct.
Tattha katamo anācāro?
Herein, what is improper conduct?
Kāyiko vītikkamo vācasiko vītikkamo kāyikavācasiko vītikkamo, ayaṃ vuccati anācāro.
Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, bodily and verbal transgression—this is called improper conduct.
Sabbampi dussīlyaṃ anācāro.
Also all unvirtuousness is improper conduct.
Idhekacco veḷudānena vā pattadānena vā pupphaphalasinānadantakaṭṭhadānena vā cāṭukamyatāya vā muggasūpyatāya vā pāribhaṭyatāya vā jaṅghapesanikena vā aññataraññatarena vā buddhapaṭikuṭṭhena micchāājīvena jīvikaṃ kappeti, ayaṃ vuccati anācāro.
Here someone makes a livelihood by gifts of bamboos, or by gifts of leaves, or by gifts of flowers, fruits, bathing powder, and tooth sticks, or by flattery, or by bean-soupery, or by fondling, or by going on errands on foot, or by one or other of the sorts of wrong livelihood condemned by the Buddhas—this is called improper conduct.
Tattha katamo ācāro?
Herein, what is [proper] conduct?
Kāyiko avītikkamo vācasiko avītikkamo kāyikavācasiko avītikkamo, ayaṃ vuccati ācāro.
Bodily non-transgression, verbal non-transgression, bodily and verbal non-transgression— this is called [proper] conduct.
Sabbopi sīlasaṃvaro ācāro.
Also all restraint through virtue is [proper] conduct.
Idhekacco na veḷudānena vā na pattana pupphana phalana sinānana dantakaṭṭhadānena vā na cāṭukamyatāya vā na muggasūpyatāya vā na pāribhaṭyatāya vā na jaṅghapesanikena vā na aññataraññatarena vā buddhapaṭikuṭṭhena micchāājīvena jīvikaṃ kappeti, ayaṃ vuccati ācāro.
Here someone “does not make a livelihood by gifts of bamboos, or by gifts of leaves, or by gifts of flowers, fruits, bathing powder, and tooth sticks, or by flattery, or by bean-soupery, or by fondling, or by going on errands on foot, or by one or other of the sorts of wrong livelihood condemned by the Buddhas—this is called [proper] conduct.”
Gocaroti atthi gocaro atthi agocaro.
45.“[Proper] resort: there is [proper] resort and improper resort.
Tattha katamo agocaro?
Herein, what is improper resort?
Idhekacco vesiyāgocaro vā hoti vidhavā, thullakumārikā, paṇḍaka, bhikkhunī, pānāgāragocaro vā hoti, saṃsaṭṭho viharati rājūhi rājamahāmattehi titthiyehi titthiyasāvakehi ananulomikena saṃsaggena, yāni vā pana tāni kulāni assaddhāni appasannāni anopānabhūtāni akkosakaparibhāsakāni anatthakāmāni ahitakāmāni aphāsukakāmāni ayogakkhemakāmāni bhikkhūnaṃ bhikkhunīnaṃ upāsakānaṃ upāsikānaṃ, tathārūpāni kulāni sevati bhajati payirupāsati, ayaṃ vuccati agocaro.
Here someone has prostitutes as resort, or he has widows, old maids, eunuchs, bhikkhunīs, or taverns as resort; or he dwells associated with kings, kings’ ministers, sectarians, sectarians’ disciples, in unbecoming association with laymen; or he cultivates, frequents, honours, such families as are faithless, untrusting, abusive and rude, who wish harm, wish ill, wish woe, wish no surcease of bondage, for bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, for male and female devotees —this is called improper resort.
Tattha katamo gocaro?
Herein, what is [proper] resort?
Idhekacco na vesiyāgocaro vā hoti - pe - na pānāgāragocaro vā hoti, asaṃsaṭṭho viharati rājūhi - pe - titthiyasāvakehi ananulomikena saṃsaggena, yāni vā pana tāni kulāni saddhāni pasannāni opānabhūtāni kāsāvapajjotāni isivātapaṭivātāni atthakāmāni - pe - yogakkhemakāmāni bhikkhūnaṃ - pe - upāsikānaṃ, tathārūpāni kulāni sevati bhajati payirupāsati, ayaṃ vuccati gocaro.
Here someone does not have prostitutes as resort … or taverns as resort; he does not dwell associated with kings … sectarians’ disciples, in unbecoming association with laymen; he cultivates, frequents, honours, such families as are faithful and trusting, who are a solace, where the yellow cloth glows, where the breeze of sages blows, who wish good, wish well, wish joy, wish surcease of bondage, for bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, for male and female devotees—this is called [proper] resort.
Iti iminā ca ācārena iminā ca gocarena upeto hoti samupeto upagato samupagato upapanno sampanno samannāgato, tena vuccati "ācāragocarasampanno"ti (vibha. 511).
Thus he is furnished with, fully furnished with, provided with, fully provided with, supplied with, possessed of, endowed with, this [proper] conduct and this [proper] resort. Hence it is said, ’Possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort’” (Vibh 246–47).
Api cettha imināpi nayena ācāragocarā veditabbā.
46.Furthermore, [proper] conduct and resort should also be understood here in the following way;
Duvidho hi anācāro kāyiko vācasiko ca.
for improper conduct is twofold as bodily and verbal.
Tattha katamo kāyiko anācāro?
Herein, what is bodily improper conduct?
Idhekacco saṅghagatopi acittīkārakato there bhikkhū ghaṭṭayantopi tiṭṭhati, ghaṭṭayantopi nisīdati, puratopi tiṭṭhati, puratopi nisīdati, uccepi āsane nisīdati, sasīsampi pārupitvā nisīdati, ṭhitakopi bhaṇati, bāhāvikkhepakopi bhaṇati, therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ anupāhanānaṃ caṅkamantānaṃ saupāhano caṅkamati, nīce caṅkame caṅkamantānaṃ ucce caṅkame caṅkamati, chamāya caṅkamantānaṃ caṅkame caṅkamati, there bhikkhū anupakhajjāpi tiṭṭhati, anupakhajjāpi nisīdati, navepi bhikkhū āsanena paṭibāhati, jantāgharepi there bhikkhū anāpucchā kaṭṭhaṃ pakkhipati, dvāraṃ pidahati, udakatitthepi there bhikkhū ghaṭṭayantopi otarati, puratopi otarati, ghaṭṭayantopi nhāyati, puratopi nhāyati, ghaṭṭayantopi uttarati, puratopi uttarati, antaragharaṃ pavisantopi there bhikkhū ghaṭṭayantopi gacchati, puratopi gacchati, vokkamma ca therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ purato purato gacchati, yānipi tāni honti kulānaṃ ovarakāni gūḷhāni ca paṭicchannāni ca yattha kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo nisīdanti, tatthapi sahasā pavisati, kumārakassapi sīsaṃ parāmasati, ayaṃ vuccati kāyiko anācāro.
“Here someone acts disrespectfully before the Community, and he stands jostling elder bhikkhus, sits jostling them, stands in front of them, sits in front of them, sits on a high seat, sits with his head covered, talks standing up, talks waving his arms … walks with sandals while elder bhikkhus walk without sandals, walks on a high walk while they walk on a low walk, walks on a walk while they walk on the ground … stands pushing elder bhikkhus, sits pushing them, prevents new bhikkhus from getting a seat … and in the bath house … without asking elder bhikkhus he puts wood on [the stove] … bolts the door … and at the bathing place he enters the water jostling elder bhikkhus, enters it in front of them, bathes jostling them, bathes in front of them, comes out jostling them, comes out in front of them … and entering inside a house he goes jostling elder bhikkhus, goes in front of them, pushing forward he goes in front of them … and where families have inner private screened rooms in which the women of the family … the girls of the family, sit, there he enters abruptly, and he strokes a child’s head” (Nidd I 228–29). This is called bodily improper conduct.
Tattha katamo vācasiko anācāro?
47.Herein, what is verbal improper conduct?
Idhekacco saṅghagatopi acittīkārakato there bhikkhū anāpucchā dhammaṃ bhaṇati.
“Here someone acts disrespectfully before the Community. Without asking elder bhikkhus he talks on the Dhamma,
Pañhaṃ vissajjeti, pātimokkhaṃ uddisati, ṭhitakopi bhaṇati, bāhāvikkhepakopi bhaṇati, antaragharaṃ paviṭṭhopi itthiṃ vā kumāriṃ vā evamāha – "itthannāme itthaṃgotte kiṃ atthi, yāgu atthi, bhattaṃ atthi, khādanīyaṃ atthi, kiṃ pivissāma, kiṃ khādissāma, kiṃ bhuñjissāma.
answers questions, recites the Pātimokkha, talks standing up, talks waving his arms … having entered inside a house, he speaks to a woman or a girl thus: ‘You, so- and-so of such-and-such a clan, what is there? Is there rice gruel? Is there cooked rice? Is there any hard food to eat? What shall we drink? What hard food shall we eat? What soft food shall we eat?
Kiṃ vā me dassathā"ti vippalapati, ayaṃ vuccati vācasiko anācāro (mahāni. 87).
Or what will you give me?’ —he chatters like this” (Nidd I 230). This is called verbal improper conduct.
Paṭipakkhavasena panassa ācāro veditabbo.
48. Proper conduct should be understood in the opposite sense to that.
Apica bhikkhu sagāravo sappatisso hirottappasampanno sunivattho supāruto pāsādikena abhikkantena paṭikkantena ālokitena vilokitena samiñjitena pasāritena okkhittacakkhu iriyāpathasampanno indriyesu guttadvāro bhojane mattaññū jāgariyamanuyutto satisampajaññena samannāgato appiccho santuṭṭho āraddhavīriyo ābhisamācārikesu sakkaccakārī garucittīkārabahulo viharati, ayaṃ vuccati ācāro.
Furthermore, a bhikkhu is respectful, deferential, possessed of conscience and shame, wears his inner robe properly, wears his upper robe properly, his manner inspires confidence whether in moving forwards or backwards, looking ahead or aside, bending or stretching, his eyes are downcast, he has (a good) deportment, he guards the doors of his sense faculties, knows the right measure in eating, is devoted to wakefulness, possesses mindfulness and full awareness, wants little, is contented, is strenuous, is a careful observer of good behaviour, and treats the teachers with great respect. This is called (proper) conduct.
Evaṃ tāva ācāro veditabbo.
This firstly is how (proper) conduct should be understood.
Gocaro pana tividho upanissayagocaro ārakkhagocaro upanibandhagocaroti.
49.(Proper) resort is of three kinds: (proper) resort as support, (proper) resort as guarding, and (proper) resort as anchoring.
Tattha katamo upanissayagocaro?
Herein, what is (proper) resort as support?
Dasakathāvatthuguṇasamannāgato kalyāṇamitto, yaṃ nissāya assutaṃ suṇāti, sutaṃ pariyodapeti, kaṅkhaṃ vitarati, diṭṭhiṃ ujuṃ karoti, cittaṃ pasādeti.
A good friend who exhibits the instances of talk,12 in whose presence one hears what has not been heard, corrects what has been heard, gets rid of doubt, rectifies one’s view, and gains confidence;
Yassa vā pana anusikkhamāno saddhāya vaḍḍhati, sīlena, sutena, cāgena, paññāya vaḍḍhati, ayaṃ vuccati upanissayagocaro.
or by training under whom one grows in faith, virtue, learning, generosity and understanding—this is called (proper) resort as support.
Katamo ārakkhagocaro?
50.What is (proper) resort as guarding?
Idha bhikkhu antaragharaṃ paviṭṭho vīthiṃ paṭipanno okkhittacakkhu yugamattadassāvī susaṃvuto gacchati, na hatthiṃ olokento, na assaṃ, na rathaṃ, na pattiṃ, na itthiṃ, na purisaṃ olokento, na uddhaṃ ullokento, na adho olokento, na disāvidisaṃ pekkhamāno gacchati, ayaṃ vuccati ārakkhagocaro.
Here “A bhikkhu, having entered inside a house, having gone into a street, goes with downcast eyes, seeing the length of a plough yoke, restrained, not looking at an elephant, not looking at a horse, a carriage, a pedestrian, a woman, a man, not looking up, not looking down, not staring this way and that” (Nidd I 474). This is called (proper) resort as guarding.
Katamo upanibandhagocaro?
51.What is (proper) resort as anchoring?
Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā yattha cittaṃ upanibandhati.
It is the four foundations of mindfulness on which the mind is anchored;
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – "ko ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayo?
for this is said by the Blessed One: “Bhikkhus, what is a bhikkhu’s resort, his own native place?
Yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.372), ayaṃ vuccati upanibandhagocaro.
It is these four foundations of mindfulness” (S V 148). This is called (proper) resort as anchoring.
Iti iminā ca ācārena iminā ca gocarena upeto - pe - samannāgato.
Being thus furnished with … endowed with, this (proper) conduct and this (proper) resort,
Tenapi vuccati ācāragocarasampannoti.
he is also on that account called “one possessed of (proper) conduct and resort.”
Aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvīti aṇuppamāṇesu asañcicca āpannasekhiyaakusalacittuppādādibhedesu vajjesu bhayadassanasīlo.
52.Seeing fear in the slightest fault (§42): one who has the habit (sīla) of seeing fear in faults of the minutest measure, of such kinds as unintentional contravening of a minor training rule of the Pātimokkha, or the arising of unprofitable thoughts.
Samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesūti yaṃkiñci sikkhāpadesu sikkhitabbaṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ sammā ādāya sikkhati.
He trains himself by undertaking (samādāya) the precepts of training: whatever there is among the precepts of training to be trained in, in all that he trains by taking it up rightly (sammā ādāya).
Ettha ca "pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto"ti ettāvatā ca puggalādhiṭṭhānāya desanāya pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlaṃ dassitaṃ.
And here, as far as the words, “one restrained by the Pātimokkha restraint,” virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is shown by discourse in terms of persons.13
"Ācāragocarasampanno"tiādi pana sabbaṃ yathāpaṭipannassa taṃ sīlaṃ sampajjati, taṃ paṭipattiṃ dassetuṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
But all that beginning with the words, “possessed of [proper] conduct and resort” should be understood as said in order to show the way of practice that perfects that virtue in him who so practices it.
Indriyasaṃvarasīlaṃ Table view Original pali

1.5 Indriya-saṃvara-sīlaṃ: faculty restraint virtue

15.Yaṃ panetaṃ tadanantaraṃ "so cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā"tiādinā nayena dassitaṃ indriyasaṃvarasīlaṃ, tattha soti pātimokkhasaṃvarasīle ṭhito bhikkhu.
53.(b) Now, as regards the virtue of restraint of faculties shown next to that in the way beginning, “on seeing a visible object with the eye,” herein he is a bhikkhu established in the virtue of Pātimokkha restraint.
Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvāti kāraṇavasena cakkhūti laddhavohārena rūpadassanasamatthena cakkhuviññāṇena rūpaṃ disvā.
On seeing a visible object with the eye: on seeing a visible object with the eye-consciousness that is capable of seeing visible objects and has borrowed the name “eye” from its instrument.
Porāṇā panāhu "cakkhu rūpaṃ na passati, acittakattā, cittaṃ na passati, acakkhukattā, dvārārammaṇasaṅghaṭṭe pana cakkhupasādavatthukena cittena passati.
But the Ancients (porāṇā) said: “The eye does not see a visible object because it has no mind. The mind does not see because it has no eyes. But when there is the impingement of door and object he sees by means of the consciousness that has eye-sensitivity as its physical basis.
Īdisī panesā 'dhanunā vijjhatī'tiādīsu viya sasambhārakathā nāma hoti, tasmā cakkhuviññāṇena rūpaṃ disvāti ayamevettha attho"ti.
Now, (an idiom) such as this is called an ‘accessory locution’ (sasambhārakathā), like ‘He shot him with his bow,’ and so on.So the meaning here is this: ‘On seeing a visible object with eye-consciousness.’”14
Na nimittaggāhīti itthipurisanimittaṃ vā subhanimittādikaṃ vā kilesavatthubhūtaṃ nimittaṃ na gaṇhāti, diṭṭhamatteyeva saṇṭhāti.
54.Apprehends neither the signs: he does not apprehend the sign of woman or man, or any sign that is a basis for defilement such as the sign of beauty, etc.; he stops at what is merely seen.
Nānubyañjanaggāhīti kilesānaṃ anuanubyañjanato pākaṭabhāvakaraṇato anubyañjananti laddhavohāraṃ hatthapādasitahasitakathitavilokitādibhedaṃ ākāraṃ na gaṇhāti, yaṃ tattha bhūtaṃ, tadeva gaṇhāti, cetiyapabbatavāsī mahātissatthero viya.
Nor the particulars: he does not apprehend any aspect classed as hand, foot, smile, laughter, talk, looking ahead, looking aside, etc., which has acquired the name “particular” (anubyañjana) because of its particularizing (anu anu byañjanato) defilements, because of its making them manifest themselves. He only apprehends what is really there. Like the Elder Mahā Tissa who dwelt at Cetiyapabbata.
Theraṃ kira cetiyapabbatā anurādhapuraṃ piṇḍacāratthāya āgacchantaṃ aññatarā kulasuṇhā sāmikena saddhiṃ bhaṇḍitvā sumaṇḍitapasādhitā devakaññā viya kālasseva anurādhapurato nikkhamitvā ñātigharaṃ gacchantī antarāmagge disvā vipallatthacittā mahāhasitaṃ hasi.
55.It seems that as the elder was on his way from Cetiyapabbata to Anurādhapura for alms, a certain daughterinlaw of a clan, who had quarrelled with her husband and had set out early from Anurādhapura all dressed up and tricked out like a celestial nymph to go to her relatives’ home, saw him on the road, and being low- minded, [21] she laughed a loud laugh.
Thero kimetanti olokento tassā dantaṭṭhike asubhasaññaṃ paṭilabhitvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
[Wondering] “What is that?” the elder looked up and finding in the bones of her teeth the perception of foulness (ugliness), he reached Arahantship.15
Tena vuttaṃ –
Hence it was said:
"Tassā dantaṭṭhikaṃ disvā, pubbasaññaṃ anussari;
“He saw the bones that were her teeth, And kept in mind his first perception;
Tattheva so ṭhito thero, arahattaṃ apāpuṇī"ti.
And standing on that very spot The elder became an Arahant.”
Sāmikopi kho panassā anumaggaṃ gacchanto theraṃ disvā "kiñci, bhante, itthiṃ passathā"ti pucchi.
But her husband, who was going after her, saw the elder and asked, “Venerable sir, did you by any chance see a woman?
Taṃ thero āha –
” The elder told him:
"Nābhijānāmi itthī vā, puriso vā ito gato;
“Whether it was a man or woman That went by I noticed not,
Apica aṭṭhisaṅghāṭo, gacchatesa mahāpathe"ti.
But only that on this high road There goes a group of bones.”
Yatvādhikaraṇamenantiādimhi yaṃkāraṇā yassa cakkhundriyāsaṃvarassa hetu etaṃ puggalaṃ satikavāṭena cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ apihitacakkhudvāraṃ hutvā viharantaṃ ete abhijjhādayo dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ anubandheyyuṃ.
56.As to the words through which, etc., the meaning is: by reason of which, because of which non-restraint of the eye faculty, if he, if that person, left the eye faculty unguarded, remained with the eye door unclosed by the door-panel of mindfulness, these states of covetousness, etc., might invade, might pursue, might threaten, him.
Tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjatīti tassa cakkhundriyassa satikavāṭena pidahanatthāya paṭipajjati.
He enters upon the way of its restraint: he enters upon the way of closing that eye faculty by the door-panel of mindfulness.
Evaṃ paṭipajjantoyeva ca rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjatītipi vuccati.
It is the same one of whom it is said he guards the eye faculty, undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.
Tattha kiñcāpi cakkhundriye saṃvaro vā asaṃvaro vā natthi.
57.Herein, there is neither restraint nor non-restraint in the actual eye faculty,
Na hi cakkhupasādaṃ nissāya sati vā muṭṭhasaccaṃ vā uppajjati.
since neither mindfulness nor forgetfulness arises in dependence on eye-sensitivity.
Apica yadā rūpārammaṇaṃ cakkhussa āpāthaṃ āgacchati, tadā bhavaṅge dvikkhattuṃ uppajjitvā niruddhe kiriyamanodhātu āvajjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā uppajjitvā nirujjhati.
On the contrary when a visible datum as object comes into the eye’s focus, then, after the life-continuum has arisen twice and ceased, the functional mind-element accomplishing the function of adverting arises and ceases.
Tato cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ.
After that, eye- consciousness with the function of seeing;
Tato vipākamanodhātu sampaṭicchanakiccaṃ.
after that, resultant mind-element with the function of receiving;
Tato vipākāhetukamanoviññāṇadhātu santīraṇakiccaṃ.
after that, resultant root-causeless mind-consciousness- element with the function of investigating;
Tato kiriyāhetukamanoviññāṇadhātu voṭṭhabbanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā uppajjitvā nirujjhati, tadanantaraṃ javanaṃ javati.
after that, functional root-causeless mind-consciousness-element accomplishing the function of determining arises and ceases. Next to that, impulsion impels.16
Tatrāpi neva bhavaṅgasamaye, na āvajjanādīnaṃ aññatarasamaye saṃvaro vā asaṃvaro vā atthi.
Herein, there is neither restraint nor non- restraint on the occasion of the life-continuum, or on any of the occasions beginning with adverting.
Javanakkhaṇe pana sace dussīlyaṃ vā muṭṭhasaccaṃ vā aññāṇaṃ vā akkhanti vā kosajjaṃ vā uppajjati, asaṃvaro hoti.
But there is non-restraint if unvirtuousness or forgetfulness or unknowing or impatience or idleness arises at the moment of impulsion.
Evaṃ honto pana so cakkhundriye asaṃvaroti vuccati.
When this happens, it is called “non-restraint in the eye faculty.” [22]
Kasmā?
58.Why is that?
Yasmā tasmiṃ sati dvārampi aguttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni.
Because when this happens, the door is not guarded, nor are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series.
Yathā kiṃ?
Like what?
Yathā nagare catūsu dvāresu asaṃvutesu kiñcāpi antogharadvārakoṭṭhakagabbhādayo susaṃvutā honti, tathāpi antonagare sabbaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ arakkhitaṃ agopitameva hoti.
Just as, when a city’s four gates are not secured, although inside the city house doors, storehouses, rooms, etc., are secured, yet all property inside the city is unguarded and unprotected
Nagaradvārena hi pavisitvā corā yadicchanti, taṃ kareyyuṃ, evameva javane dussīlyādīsu uppannesu tasmiṃ asaṃvare sati dvārampi aguttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni.
since robbers coming in by the city gates can do as they please, so too, when unvirtuousness, etc., arise in impulsion in which there is no restraint, then the door too is unguarded, and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Tasmiṃ pana sīlādīsu uppannesu dvārampi guttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni.
But when virtue, etc., has arisen in it, then the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Yathā kiṃ?
Like what?
Yathā nagaradvāresu saṃvutesu kiñcāpi antogharādayo asaṃvutā honti, tathāpi antonagare sabbaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ surakkhitaṃ sugopitameva hoti.
Just as, when the city gates are secured, although inside the city the houses, etc., are not secured, yet all property inside the city is well guarded, well protected,
Nagaradvāresu hi pihitesu corānaṃ paveso natthi, evameva javane sīlādīsu uppannesu dvārampi guttaṃ hoti, bhavaṅgampi āvajjanādīnipi vīthicittāni.
since when the city gates are shut there is no ingress for robbers, so too, when virtue, etc., have arisen in impulsion, the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting.
Tasmā javanakkhaṇe uppajjamānopi cakkhundriye saṃvaroti vutto.
Thus although it actually arises at the moment of impulsion, it is nevertheless called “restraint in the eye faculty.”
Sotena saddaṃ sutvātiādīsupi eseva nayo.
59.So also as regards the phrases on hearing a sound with the ear and so on.
Evamidaṃ saṅkhepato rūpādīsu kilesānubandhanimittādiggāhaparivajjanalakkhaṇaṃ indriyasaṃvarasīlanti veditabbaṃ.
So it is this virtue, which in brief has the characteristic of avoiding apprehension of signs entailing defilement with respect to visible objects, etc.., that should be understood as virtue of restraint of faculties.
Ājīvapārisuddhisīlaṃ Table view Original pali

1.6 Ājīva-pārisuddhi-sīlaṃ: virtue of livelihood purification

16.Idāni indriyasaṃvarasīlānantaraṃ vutte ājīvapārisuddhisīle ājīvahetu paññattānaṃ channaṃ sikkhāpadānanti yāni tāni "ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā pāpiccho icchāpakato asantaṃ abhūtaṃ uttarimanussadhammaṃ ullapati, āpatti pārājikassa.
60.(c) Now, as regards the virtue of livelihood purification mentioned above next to the virtue of restraint of the faculties (§42), the words of the six precepts announced on account of livelihood mean, of the following six training precepts announced thus: “With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, lays claim to a higher than human state that is non-existent, not a fact,” the contravention of which is defeat (expulsion from the Order);
Ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā sañcarittaṃ samāpajjati, āpatti saṅghādisesassa.
“with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, he acts as go-between,” the contravention of which is an offence entailing a meeting of the Order;
Ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā 'yo te vihāre vasati so bhikkhu arahā'ti bhaṇati, paṭivijānantassa āpatti thullaccayassa.
“with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, he says, ‘A bhikkhu who lives in your monastery is an Arahant,’” the contravention of which is a serious offence in one who is aware of it;
Ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā bhikkhu paṇītabhojanāni agilāno attano atthāya viññāpetvā bhuñjati, āpatti pācittiyassa.
“with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a bhikkhu who is not sick eats superior food that he has ordered for his own use,” the contravention of which is an offence requiring expiation:
Ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā bhikkhunī paṇītabhojanāni agilānā attano atthāya viññāpetvā bhuñjati, āpatti pāṭidesanīyassa.
“With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a bhikkhunī who is not sick eats superior food that she has ordered for her own use,” the contravention of which is an offence requiring confession;
Ājīvahetu ājīvakāraṇā sūpaṃ vā odanaṃ vā agilāno attano atthāya viññāpetvā bhuñjati, āpatti dukkaṭassā"ti (pari. 287) evaṃ paññattāni cha sikkhāpadāni, imesaṃ channaṃ sikkhāpadānaṃ.
“with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, one who is not sick eats curry or boiled rice that he has ordered for his own use,” the contravention of which is an offence of wrongdoing (Vin V 146). Of these six precepts.17
Kuhanātiādīsu ayaṃ pāḷi, "tattha katamā kuhanā?
61.As regards scheming, etc. (§42), this is the text: “Herein, what is scheming?
Lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassa pāpicchassa icchāpakatassa yā paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātena vā sāmantajappitena vā iriyāpathassa vā aṭṭhapanā ṭhapanā saṇṭhapanā bhākuṭikā bhākuṭiyaṃ kuhanā kuhāyanā kuhitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati kuhanā.
It is the grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness,18 by what is called rejection of requisites or by indirect talk, or it is the disposing, posing, composing, of the deportment on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called scheming.
"Tattha katamā lapanā?
62.”Herein, what is talking?
Lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassa pāpicchassa icchāpakatassa yā paresaṃ ālapanā lapanā sallapanā ullapanā samullapanā unnahanā samunnahanā ukkācanā samukkācanā anuppiyabhāṇitā cāṭukamyatā muggasūpyatā pāribhaṭyatā, ayaṃ vuccati lapanā.
Talking at others, talking, talking round, talking up, continual talking up, persuading, continual persuading, suggesting, continual suggesting, ingratiating chatter, flattery, bean-soupery, fondling, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called talking.
"Tattha katamā nemittikatā?
63.”Herein, what is hinting?
Lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassa pāpicchassa icchāpakatassa yaṃ paresaṃ nimittaṃ nimittakammaṃ obhāso obhāsakammaṃ sāmantajappā parikathā, ayaṃ vuccati nemittikatā.
A sign to others, giving a sign, indication, giving indication, indirect talk, roundabout talk, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called hinting.
"Tattha katamā nippesikatā?
64. ”Herein, what is belittling?
Lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassa pāpicchassa icchāpakatassa yā paresaṃ akkosanā vambhanā garahanā ukkhepanā samukkhepanā khipanā saṃkhipanā pāpanā sampāpanā avaṇṇahārikā parapiṭṭhimaṃsikatā, ayaṃ vuccati nippesikatā.
Abusing of others, disparaging, reproaching, snubbing, continual snubbing, ridicule, continual ridicule, denigration, continual denigration, tale-bearing, backbiting, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called belittling.
"Tattha katamā lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatā?
65.”Herein, what is pursuing gain with gain?
Lābhasakkārasilokasannissito pāpiccho icchāpakato ito laddhaṃ āmisaṃ amutra harati, amutra vā laddhaṃ āmisaṃ idha āharati.
Seeking, seeking for, seeking out, going in search of, searching for, searching out material goods by means of material goods, such as carrying there goods that have been got from here,
Yā evarūpā āmisena āmisassa eṭṭhi gaveṭṭhi pariyeṭṭhi esanā gavesanā pariyesanā, ayaṃ vuccati lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatā"ti (vibha. 862-865).
or carrying here goods that have been got from there, by one bent on gain, honour and renown, by one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called pursuing gain with gain.”19 (Vibh 352–53)
17.Imissā pana pāḷiyā evamattho veditabbo.
66.The meaning of this text should be understood as follows:
Kuhananiddese tāva lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassāti lābhañca sakkārañca kittisaddañca sannissitassa, patthayantassāti attho.
Firstly, as regards description of scheming: on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown is on the part of one who is bent on gain, on honour, and on reputation; on the part of one who longs for them, is the meaning.
Pāpicchassāti asantaguṇadīpanakāmassa.
Of one of evil wishes: of one who wants to show qualities that he has not got.
Icchāpakatassāti icchāya apakatassa, upaddutassāti attho.
A prey to wishes:20 the meaning is, of one who is attacked by them.
Ito paraṃ yasmā paccayapaṭisevanasāmantajappanairiyāpathasannissitavasena mahāniddese tividhaṃ kuhanavatthu āgataṃ.
And after this the passage beginning or by what is called rejection of requisites is given in order to show the three instances of scheming given in the Mahāniddesa as rejection of requisites, indirect talk, and that based on deportment.
Tasmā tividhampetaṃ dassetuṃ paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātena vāti evamādi āraddhaṃ.
Tattha cīvarādīhi nimantitassa tadatthikasseva sato pāpicchataṃ nissāya paṭikkhipanena, te ca gahapatike attani suppatiṭṭhitasaddhe ñatvā puna tesaṃ "aho ayyo appiccho na kiñci paṭiggaṇhituṃ icchati, suladdhaṃ vata no assa sace appamattakampi kiñci paṭiggaṇheyyā"ti nānāvidhehi upāyehi paṇītāni cīvarādīni upanentānaṃ tadanuggahakāmataṃyeva āvikatvā paṭiggahaṇena ca tato pabhuti api sakaṭabhārehi upanāmanahetubhūtaṃ vimhāpanaṃ paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthūti veditabbaṃ.
67.Herein, [a bhikkhu] is invited to accept robes, etc., and, precisely because he wants them, he refuses them out of evil wishes. And then, since he knows that those householders believe in him implicitly when they think, “Oh, how few are our lord’s wishes! He will not accept a thing! ” and they put fine robes, etc., before him by various means, he then accepts, making a show that he wants to be compassionate towards them—it is this hypocrisy of his, which becomes the cause of their subsequently bringing them even by cartloads, that should be understood as the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites.
Vuttañhetaṃ mahāniddese –
68.For this is said in the Mahāniddesa:
"Katamaṃ paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthu?
“What is the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites?
Idha gahapatikā bhikkhuṃ nimantenti cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi.
Here householders invite bhikkhus [to accept] robes, alms food, resting place, and the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick.
So pāpiccho icchāpakato atthiko cīvara - pe - parikkhārānaṃ bhiyyokamyataṃ upādāya cīvaraṃ paccakkhāti.
One who is of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, wanting robes … alms food … resting place … the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick, refuses robes …
Piṇḍapātaṃ - pe - senāsanaṃ.
alms food … resting place …
Gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paccakkhāti.
the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick, because he wants more.
So evamāha – 'kiṃ samaṇassa mahagghena cīvarena, etaṃ sāruppaṃ yaṃ samaṇo susānā vā saṅkārakūṭā vā pāpaṇikā vā nantakāni uccinitvā saṅghāṭiṃ katvā dhāreyya.
He says: ‘What has an ascetic to do with expensive robes? It is proper for an ascetic to gather rags from a charnel ground or from a rubbish heap or from a shop and make them into a patchwork cloak to wear.
Kiṃ samaṇassa mahagghena piṇḍapātena etaṃ sāruppaṃ yaṃ samaṇo uñchācariyāya piṇḍiyālopena jīvikaṃ kappeyya.
What has an ascetic to do with expensive alms food? It is proper for an ascetic to get his living by the dropping of lumps [of food into his bowl] while he wanders for gleanings.
Kiṃ samaṇassa mahagghena senāsanena, etaṃ sāruppaṃ yaṃ samaṇo rukkhamūliko vā assa abbhokāsiko vā.
What has an ascetic to do with an expensive resting place? It is proper for an ascetic to be a tree-root-dweller or an open-air-dweller.
Kiṃ samaṇassa mahagghena gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārena, etaṃ sāruppaṃ yaṃ samaṇo pūtimuttena vā hariṭakīkhaṇḍena vā osadhaṃ kareyyā'ti.
What has an ascetic to do with an expensive requisite of medicine as cure for the sick? It is proper for an ascetic to cure himself with putrid urine21 and broken gallnuts.’
Tadupādāya lūkhaṃ cīvaraṃ dhāreti, lūkhaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjati, lūkhaṃ senāsanaṃ paṭisevati, lūkhaṃ gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paṭisevati, tamenaṃ gahapatikā evaṃ jānanti 'ayaṃ samaṇo appiccho santuṭṭho pavivitto asaṃsaṭṭho āraddhavīriyo dhutavādo'ti.
Accordingly he wears a coarse robe, eats coarse alms food, uses a coarse resting place, uses a coarse requisite of medicine as cure for the sick. Then householders think, ‘This ascetic has few wishes, is content, is secluded, keeps aloof from company, is strenuous, is a preacher of asceticism,’
Bhiyyo bhiyyo nimantenti cīvara - pe - parikkhārehi.
and they invite him more and more [to accept] robes, alms food, resting places, and the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick.
So evamāha – 'tiṇṇaṃ sammukhībhāvā saddho kulaputto bahuṃ puññaṃ pasavati.
He says: ‘With three things present a faithful clansman produces much merit:
Saddhāya sammukhībhāvā saddho kulaputto bahuṃ puññaṃ pasavati.
with faith present a faithful clansman produces much merit,
Deyyadhammassa - pe - dakkhiṇeyyānaṃ sammukhībhāvāsaddhokulaputto bahuṃ puññaṃ pasavati.
with goods to be given present a faithful clansman produces much merit, with those worthy to receive present a faithful clansman produces much merit.
Tumhākañcevāyaṃ saddhā atthi, deyyadhammo ca saṃvijjati, ahañca paṭiggāhako, sacehaṃ na paṭiggahessāmi, evaṃ tumhe puññena paribāhirā bhavissanti, na mayhaṃ iminā attho.
You have faith; the goods to be given are here; and I am here to accept. If I do not accept, then you will be deprived of the merit. That is no good to me.
Apica tumhākaṃyeva anukampāya paṭiggaṇhāmī'ti.
Rather will I accept out of compassion for you.”
Tadupādāya bahumpi cīvaraṃ paṭiggaṇhāti.
Accordingly he accepts many robes,
Bahumpi piṇḍapātaṃ - pe - bhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paṭiggaṇhāti.
he accepts much alms food, he accepts many resting places, he accepts many requisites of medicine as cure for the sick.
Yā evarūpā bhākuṭikā bhākuṭiyaṃ kuhanā kuhāyanā kuhitattaṃ, idaṃ paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthū"ti (mahāni. 87).
Such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites’ (Nidd I 224–25).
Pāpicchasseva pana sato uttarimanussadhammādhigamaparidīpanavācāya tathā tathā vimhāpanaṃ sāmantajappanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthūti veditabbaṃ.
69.It is hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes, who gives it to be understood verbally in some way or other that he has attained a higher than human state, that should be understood as the instance of scheming called indirect talk,
Yathāha –
according as it is said:
"Katamaṃ sāmantajappanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthu?
“What is the instance of scheming called indirect talk?
Idhekacco pāpiccho icchāpakato sambhāvanādhippāyo 'evaṃ maṃ jano sambhāvessatī'ti ariyadhammasannissitaṃ vācaṃ bhāsati 'yo evarūpaṃ cīvaraṃ dhāreti, so samaṇo mahesakkho'ti bhaṇati.
Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, eager to be admired, [thinking] ‘Thus people will admire me’ speaks words about the noble state. He says, ‘He who wears such a robe is a very important ascetic.’
'Yo evarūpaṃ pattaṃ lohathālakaṃ.
He says, ‘He who carries such a bowl,
Dhammakaraṇaṃ parissāvanaṃ kuñcikaṃ, kāyabandhanaṃ upāhanaṃ dhāreti, so samaṇo mahesakkho'ti bhaṇati.
metal cup, water filler, water strainer, key, wears such a waist band, sandals, is a very important ascetic.’
Yassa evarūpo upajjhāyo ācariyo samānupajjhāyako, samānācariyako mitto sandiṭṭho sambhatto sahāyo.
He says, ‘He who has such a preceptor … teacher … who has the same preceptor, who has the same teacher, who has such a friend, associate, intimate, companion;
Yo evarūpe vihāre vasati aḍḍhayoge pāsāde hammiye guhāyaṃ leṇe kuṭiyā kūṭāgāre aṭṭe māḷe uddaṇḍe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṃ maṇḍape rukkhamūle vasati, so samaṇo mahesakkho'ti bhaṇati.
he who lives in such a monastery, lean-to, mansion, villa,22 cave, grotto, hut, pavilion, watch tower, hall, barn, meeting hall, room, at such a tree root, is a very important ascetic.’
Atha vā 'korajikakorajiko bhākuṭikabhākuṭiko kuhakakuhako lapakalapako mukhasambhāviko, ayaṃ samaṇo imāsaṃ evarūpānaṃ santānaṃ vihārasamāpattīnaṃ lābhī'ti tādisaṃ gambhīraṃ gūḷhaṃ nipuṇaṃ paṭicchannaṃ lokuttaraṃ suññatāpaṭisaṃyuttaṃ kathaṃ kathesi.
Or alternatively, all-gushing, all-grimacing, all-scheming, all-talkative, with an expression of admiration, he utters such deep, mysterious, cunning, obscure, supramundane talk suggestive of voidness as ‘This ascetic is an obtainer of peaceful abidings and attainments such as these.’
Yā evarūpā bhākuṭikā bhākuṭiyaṃ kuhanā kuhāyanā kuhitattaṃ, idaṃ sāmantajappanasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthū"ti (mahāni. 87).
Such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called indirect talk” (Nidd I 226–27).
Pāpicchasseva pana sato sambhāvanādhippāyakatena iriyāpathena vimhāpanaṃ iriyāpathasannissitaṃ kuhanavatthūti veditabbaṃ.
70.It is hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes, which takes the form of deportment influenced by eagerness to be admired, that should be understood as the instance of scheming dependent on deportment,
Yathāha – "katamaṃ iriyāpathasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthu.
according as it is said: “What is the instance of scheming called deportment?
Idhekacco pāpiccho icchāpakato sambhāvanādhippāyo 'evaṃ maṃ jano sambhāvessatī'ti gamanaṃ saṇṭhapeti, ṭhānaṃ saṇṭhapeti, nisajjaṃ saṇṭhapeti, sayanaṃ saṇṭhapeti, paṇidhāya gacchati, paṇidhāya tiṭṭhati, paṇidhāya nisīdati, paṇidhāya seyyaṃ kappeti, samāhito viya gacchati, samāhito viya tiṭṭhati, nisīdati, seyyaṃ kappeti, āpāthakajjhāyī ca hoti, yā evarūpā iriyāpathassa aṭṭhapanā ṭhapanā saṇṭhapanā bhākuṭikā bhākuṭiyaṃ kuhanā kuhāyanā kuhitattaṃ, idaṃ vuccati iriyāpathasaṅkhātaṃ kuhanavatthū"ti (mahāni. 87).
Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, eager to be admired, [thinking] ‘Thus people will admire me,’ composes his way of walking, composes his way of lying down; he walks studiedly, stands studiedly, sits studiedly, lies down studiedly; he walks as though concentrated, stands, sits, lies down as though concentrated; and he is one who meditates in public. Such disposing, posing, composing, of deportment, grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called deportment” (Nidd I 225–26).
Tattha paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātenāti paccayapaṭisevananti evaṃ saṅkhātena paccayapaṭisevanena vā saṅkhātena.
71.Herein, the words by what is called rejection of requisites (§61) mean: by what is called thus “rejection of requisites”; or they mean: by means of the rejection of requisites that is so called.
Sāmantajappitenāti samīpabhaṇitena.
By indirect talk means: by talking near to the subject.
Iriyāpathassa vāti catuiriyāpathassa.
Of deportment means: of the four modes of deportment (postures).
Aṭṭhapanātiādi ṭhapanā, ādarena vā ṭhapanā.
Disposing is initial posing, or careful posing.
Ṭhapanāti ṭhapanākāro.
Posing is the manner of posing.
Saṇṭhapanāti abhisaṅkharaṇā, pāsādikabhāvakaraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti.
Composing is prearranging; assuming a trust-inspiring attitude, is what is meant.
Bhākuṭikāti padhānapurimaṭṭhitabhāvadassanena bhākuṭikaraṇaṃ, mukhasaṅkocoti vuttaṃ hoti.
Grimacing is making grimaces by showing great intenseness; facial contraction is what is meant.
Bhākuṭikaraṇaṃ sīlamassāti bhākuṭiko.
One who has the habit of making grimaces is a grimacer.
Bhākuṭikassa bhāvo bhākuṭiyaṃ.
The grimacer’s state is grimacery.
Kuhanāti vimhāpanā.
Scheming is hypocrisy.
Kuhassa āyanā kuhāyanā.
The way (āyanā) of a schemer (kuha) is schemery (kuhāyanā).
Kuhitassa bhāvo kuhitattanti.
The state of what is schemed is schemedness.
Lapanāniddese ālapanāti vihāraṃ āgate manusse disvā "kimatthāya bhonto āgatā, kiṃ bhikkhū nimantituṃ, yadi evaṃ gacchatha re, ahaṃ pacchato pattaṃ gahetvā āgacchāmī"ti evaṃ āditova lapanā.
72.In the description of talking: talking at is talking thus on seeing people coming to the monastery, “What have you come for, good people? What, to invite bhikkhus? If it is that, then go along and I shall come later with [my bowl],” etc.;
Atha vā attānaṃ upanetvā "ahaṃ tisso, mayi rājā pasanno, mayi asuko ca asuko ca rājamahāmatto pasanno"ti evaṃ attupanāyikā lapanā ālapanā.
or alternatively, talking at is talking by advertising oneself thus, “I am Tissa, the king trusts me, such and such king’s ministers trust me.”
Lapanāti puṭṭhassa sato vuttappakārameva lapanaṃ.
Talking is the same kind of talking on being asked a question.
Sallapanāti gahapatikānaṃ ukkaṇṭhane bhītassa okāsaṃ datvā datvā suṭṭhu lapanā.
Talking round is roundly talking by one who is afraid of householders’ displeasure because he has given occasion for it.
Ullapanāti mahākuṭumbiko mahānāviko mahādānapatīti evaṃ uddhaṃ katvā lapanā.
Talking up is talking by extolling people thus, “He is a great land-owner, a great ship-owner, a great lord of giving.”
Samullapanāti sabbatobhāgena uddhaṃ katvā lapanā.
Continual talking up is talking by extolling [people] in all ways.
Unnahanāti "upāsakā pubbe īdise kāle navadānaṃ detha, idāni kiṃ na dethā"ti evaṃ yāva "dassāma, bhante, okāsaṃ na labhāmā"tiādīni vadanti, tāva uddhaṃ uddhaṃ nahanā, veṭhanāti vuttaṃ hoti.
73.Persuading is progressively involving23 [people] thus, “Lay followers, formerly you used to give first-fruit alms at such a time; why do you not do so now? ” until they say, “We shall give, venerable sir, we have had no opportunity,” etc.; entangling, is what is meant.
Atha vā ucchuhatthaṃ disvā "kuto ābhataṃ upāsakā"ti pucchati.
Or alternatively, seeing someone with sugarcane in his hand, he asks, “Where are you coming from, lay follower?”
Ucchukhettato, bhanteti.
—”From the sugarcane field, venerable sir”
Kiṃ tattha ucchu madhuranti.
—”Is the sugarcane sweet there?”
Khāditvā, bhante, jānitabbanti.
—”One can find out by eating, venerable sir”
"Na, upāsaka, bhikkhussa ucchuṃ dethā"ti vattuṃ vaṭṭatīti.
—”It is not allowed, lay follower, for bhikkhus to say ‘Give [me some] sugarcane.’
Yā evarūpā nibbeṭhentassāpi veṭhanakathā, sā unnahanā.
” Such entangling talk from such an entangler is persuading.
Sabbatobhāgena punappunaṃ unnahanā samunnahanā.
Persuading again and again in all ways is continual persuading.
Ukkācanāti "etaṃ kulaṃ maṃyeva jānāti.
74.Suggesting is insinuating by specifying thus, “That family alone understands me;
Sace ettha deyyadhammo uppajjati, mayhameva detī"ti evaṃ ukkhipitvā kācanā ukkācanā, uddīpanāti vuttaṃ hoti.
if there is anything to be given there, they give it to me only”; pointing to, is what is meant.
Telakandarikavatthu cettha vattabbaṃ.
And here the story of the oil-seller should be told.24
Sabbatobhāgena pana punappunaṃ ukkācanā samukkācanā.
Suggesting in all ways again and again is continual suggesting.
Anuppiyabhāṇitāti saccānurūpaṃ dhammānurūpaṃ vā anapaloketvā punappunaṃ piyabhaṇanameva.
75.Ingratiating chatter is endearing chatter repeated again and again without regard to whether it is in conformity with truth and Dhamma.
Cāṭukamyatāti nīcavuttitā attānaṃ heṭṭhato heṭṭhato ṭhapetvā vattanaṃ.
Flattery is speaking humbly, always maintaining an attitude of inferiority.
Muggasūpyatāti muggasūpasadisatā.
Bean-soupery is resemblance to bean soup;
Yathā hi muggesu paccamānesu kocideva na paccati, avasesā paccanti, evaṃ yassa puggalassa vacane kiñcideva saccaṃ hoti, sesaṃ alīkaṃ, ayaṃ puggalo muggasūpyoti vuccati.
for just as when beans are being cooked only a few do not get cooked, the rest get cooked, so too the person in whose speech only a little is true, the rest being false, is called a “bean soup”;
Tassa bhāvo muggasūpyatā.
his state is bean-soupery.
Pāribhaṭyatāti pāribhaṭyabhāvo.
76. Fondling is the state of the act of fondling.
Yo hi kuladārake dhāti viya aṅkena vā khandhena vā paribhaṭati, dhāretīti attho.
For when a man fondles children on his lap or on his shoulder like a nurse—he nurses, is the meaning—
Tassa paribhaṭassa kammaṃ pāribhaṭyuṃ.
that fondler’s act is the act of fondling.
Pāribhaṭyassa bhāvo pāribhaṭyatāti.
The state of the act of fondling is fondling.
Nemittikatāniddese nimittanti yaṃkiñci paresaṃ paccayadānasaññājanakaṃ kāyavacīkammaṃ.
77.In the description of hinting (nemittikatā): a sign (nimitta) is any bodily or verbal act that gets others to give requisites.
Nimittakammanti khādanīyaṃ gahetvā gacchante disvā "kiṃ khādanīyaṃ labhitthā"tiādinā nayena nimittakaraṇaṃ.
Giving a sign is making a sign such as “What have you got to eat? ”, etc., on seeing [people] going along with food.
Obhāsoti paccayapaṭisaṃyuttakathā.
Indication is talk that alludes to requisites.
Obhāsakammanti vacchapālake disvā "kiṃ ime vacchā khīragovacchā udāhu takkagovacchā"ti pucchitvā "khīragovacchā, bhante"ti vutte "na khīragovacchā, yadi khīragovacchā siyuṃ, bhikkhūpi khīraṃ labheyyu"nti evamādinā nayena tesaṃ dārakānaṃ mātāpitūnaṃ nivedetvā khīradāpanādikaṃ obhāsakaraṇaṃ.
Giving indication: on seeing cowboys, he asks, “Are these milk cows’ calves or buttermilk cows’ calves? ” and when it is said, “They are milk cows’ calves, venerable sir,” [he remarks] “They are not milk cows’ calves. If they were milk cows’ calves the bhikkhus would be getting milk,” etc.; and his getting it to the knowledge of the boys’ parents in this way, and so making them give milk, is giving indication.
Sāmantajappāti samīpaṃ katvā jappanaṃ.
78.Indirect talk is talk that keeps near [to the subject].
Kulūpakabhikkhu vatthu cettha vattabbaṃ.
And here there should be told the story of the bhikkhu supported by a family.
Kulūpako kira bhikkhu bhuñjitukāmo gehaṃ pavisitvā nisīdi.
A bhikkhu, it seems, who was supported by a family went into the house wanting to eat and sat down.
Taṃ disvā adātukāmā gharaṇī "taṇḍulā natthī"ti bhaṇantī taṇḍule āharitukāmā viya paṭivissakagharaṃ gatā.
The mistress of the house was unwilling to give. On seeing him she said, “There is no rice,” and she went to a neighbour’s house as though to get rice.
Bhikkhupi antogabbhaṃ pavisitvā olokento kavāṭakoṇe ucchuṃ, bhājane guḷaṃ, piṭake loṇamacchaphāle, kumbhiyaṃ taṇḍule, ghaṭe ghataṃ disvā nikkhamitvā nisīdi.
The bhikkhu went into the storeroom. Looking round, he saw sugarcane in the corner behind the door, sugar in a bowl, a string of salt fish in a basket, rice in a jar, and ghee in a pot. He came out and sat down.
Gharaṇī "taṇḍule nālattha"nti āgatā.
When the housewife came back, she said, “I did not get any rice.”
Bhikkhu "upāsike 'ajja bhikkhā na sampajjissatī'ti paṭikacceva nimittaṃ addasa"nti āha.
The bhikkhu said, “Lay follower, I saw a sign just now that alms will not be easy to get today.”
Kiṃ, bhanteti.
—“What, venerable sir?”
Kavāṭakoṇe nikkhittaṃ ucchuṃ viya sappaṃ addasaṃ, 'taṃ paharissāmī'ti olokento bhājane ṭhapitaṃ guḷapiṇḍaṃ viya pāsāṇaṃ, leḍḍukena pahaṭena sappena kataṃ piṭake nikkhittaloṇamacchaphālasadisaṃ phaṇaṃ, tassa taṃ leḍḍuṃ ḍaṃsitukāmassa kumbhiyā taṇḍulasadise dante, athassa kupitassa ghaṭe pakkhittaghatasadisaṃ mukhato nikkhamantaṃ visamissakaṃ kheḷanti.
— ”I saw a snake that was like sugarcane put in the corner behind the door; looking for something to hit it with, I saw a stone like a lump of sugar in a bowl. When the snake had been hit with the clod, it spread out a hood like a string of salt fish in a basket, and its teeth as it tried to bite the clod were like rice grains in a jar. Then the saliva mixed with poison that came out to its mouth in its fury was like ghee put in a pot.”
Sā "na sakkā muṇḍakaṃ vañcetu"nti ucchuṃ datvā odanaṃ pacitvā ghataguḷamacchehi saddhiṃ sabbaṃ adāsīti.
She thought, “There is no hoodwinking the shaveling,” so she gave him the sugarcane and she cooked the rice and gave it all to him with the ghee, the sugar and the fish.
Evaṃ samīpaṃ katvā jappanaṃ sāmantajappāti veditabbaṃ.
79.Such talk that keeps near [to the subject] should be understood as indirect talk.
Parikathāti yathā taṃ labhati tassa parivattetvā kathananti.
Roundabout talk is talking round and round [the subject] as much as is allowed.
Nippesikatāniddese akkosanāti dasahi akkosavatthūhi akkosanaṃ.
80.In the description of belittling: abusing is abusing by means of the ten instances of abuse.25
Vambhanāti paribhavitvā kathanaṃ.
Disparaging is contemptuous talk.
Garahaṇāti assaddho appasannotiādinā nayena dosāropanā.
Reproaching is enumeration of faults such as “He is faithless, he is an unbeliever.”
Ukkhepanāti mā etaṃ ettha kathethāti vācāya ukkhipanaṃ.
Snubbing is taking up verbally thus, “Don’t say that here.”
Sabbatobhāgena savatthukaṃ sahetukaṃ katvā ukkhepanā samukkhepanā.
Snubbing in all ways, giving grounds and reasons, is continual snubbing.
Atha vā adentaṃ disvā "aho dānapatī"ti evaṃ ukkhipanaṃ ukkhepanā.
Or alternatively, when someone does not give, taking him up thus, “Oh, the prince of givers!” is snubbing;
Mahādānapatīti evaṃ suṭṭhu ukkhepanā samukkhepanā.
and the thorough snubbing thus, “A mighty prince of givers! ” is continual snubbing.
Khipanāti kiṃ imassa jīvitaṃ bījabhojinoti evaṃ uppaṇḍanā.
Ridicule is making fun of someone thus, “What sort of a life has this man who eats up his seed [grain]?”
Saṃkhipanāti kiṃ imaṃ adāyakoti bhaṇatha, yo niccakālaṃ sabbesampi natthīti vacanaṃ detīti suṭṭhutaraṃ uppaṇḍanā.
Continual ridicule is making fun of him more thoroughly thus, “What, you say this man is not a giver who always gives the words ‘There is nothing’ to everyone? ”
Pāpanāti adāyakattassa avaṇṇassa vā pāpanaṃ.
81.Denigration26 is denigrating someone by saying that he is not a giver, or by censuring him.
Sabbatobhāgena pāpanā sampāpanā.
All-round denigration is continual denigration.
Avaṇṇahārikāti evaṃ me avaṇṇabhayāpi dassatīti gehato gehaṃ gāmato gāmaṃ janapadato janapadaṃ avaṇṇaharaṇaṃ.
Tale-bearing is bearing tales from house to house, from village to village, from district to district, [thinking] “So they will give to me out of fear of my bearing tales.”
Parapiṭṭhimaṃsikatāti purato madhuraṃ bhaṇitvā parammukhe avaṇṇabhāsitā.
Backbiting is speaking censoriously behind another’s back after speaking kindly to his face;
Esā hi abhimukhaṃ oloketuṃ asakkontassa parammukhānaṃ piṭṭhimaṃsaṃ khādanamiva hoti, tasmā parapiṭṭhimaṃsikatāti vuttā.
for this is like biting the flesh of another’s back, when he is not looking, on the part of one who is unable to look him in the face; therefore it is called backbiting.
Ayaṃ vuccati nippesikatāti ayaṃ yasmā veḷupesikāya viya abbhaṅgaṃ parassa guṇaṃ nippeseti nipuñchati, yasmā vā gandhajātaṃ nipisitvā gandhamagganā viya paraguṇe nipisitvā vicuṇṇetvā esā lābhamagganā hoti, tasmā nippesikatāti vuccatīti.
This is called belittling (nippesikatā) because it scrapes off (nippeseti), wipes off, the virtuous qualities of others as a bamboo scraper (veḷupesikā) does unguent, or because it is a pursuit of gain by grinding (nippiṃsitvā) and pulverizing others’ virtuous qualities, like the pursuit of perfume by grinding perfumed substances; that is why it is called belittling.
Lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatāniddese nijigīsanatāti magganā.
82.`In the description of pursuing gain with gain: pursuing is hunting after.
Ito laddhanti imamhā gehā laddhaṃ.
Got from here is got from this house.
Amutrāti amukamhi gehe.
There is into that house.
Eṭṭhīti icchanā.
Seeking is wanting.
Gaveṭṭhīti magganā.
Seeking for is hunting after.
Pariyeṭṭhīti punappunaṃ magganā.
Seeking out is hunting after again and again.
Ādito paṭṭhāya laddhaṃ laddhaṃ bhikkhaṃ tatra tatra kuladārakānaṃ datvā ante khīrayāguṃ labhitvā gatabhikkhuvatthu cettha kathetabbaṃ.
The story of the bhikkhu who went round giving away the alms he had got at first to children of families here and there and in the end got milk and gruel should be told here.
Esanātiādīni eṭṭhiādīnameva vevacanāni, tasmā eṭṭhīti esanā.
Searching, etc., are synonyms for “seeking,” etc., going in search of is seeking;
Gaveṭṭhīti gavesanā, pariyeṭṭhīti pariyesanā.
searching for is seeking for; searching out is seeking out.
Iccevamettha yojanā veditabbā.
and so the construction here should be understood thus (above).
Ayaṃ kuhanādīnaṃ attho.
This is the meaning of scheming, and so on.
Idāni evamādīnañca pāpadhammānanti ettha ādisaddena "yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvikaṃ kappenti.
83.Now, [as regards the words] The evil states beginning with (§42): here the words beginning with should be understood to include the many evil states given in the Brahmajāla Sutta in the way beginning, “Or just as some worthy ascetics, while eating the food given by the faithful, make a living by wrong livelihood, by such low arts as these,
Seyyathidaṃ, aṅgaṃ, nimittaṃ, uppātaṃ, supinaṃ, lakkhaṇaṃ, mūsikacchinnaṃ, aggihomaṃ, dabbihoma"nti (dī. ni. 1.21) ādinā nayena brahmajāle vuttānaṃ anekesaṃ pāpadhammānaṃ gahaṇaṃ veditabbaṃ.
that is to say, by palmistry, by fortune-telling, by divining omens, by interpreting dreams, marks on the body, holes gnawed by mice; by fire sacrifice, by spoon oblation …” (D I 9).
Iti yvāyaṃ imesaṃ ājīvahetu paññattānaṃ channaṃ sikkhāpadānaṃ vītikkamavasena, imesañca "kuhanā lapanā nemittikatā nippesikatā lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatā"ti evamādīnaṃ pāpadhammānaṃ vasena pavatto micchājīvo, yā tasmā sabbappakārāpi micchājīvā virati, idaṃ ājīvapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
84.So this wrong livelihood entails the transgression of these six training precepts announced on account of livelihood, and it entails the evil states beginning with “Scheming, talking, hinting, belittling, pursuing gain with gain.” And so it is the abstinence from all sorts of wrong livelihood that is virtue of livelihood purification,
Tatrāyaṃ vacanattho.
the word-meaning of which is this:
Etaṃ āgamma jīvantīti ājīvo.
on account of it they live, thus it is livelihood.
Ko so, paccayapariyesanavāyāmo.
What is that? It is the effort consisting in the search for requisites.
Pārisuddhīti parisuddhatā.
“Purification” is purifiedness.
Ājīvassa pārisuddhi ājīvapārisuddhi.
“Livelihood purification” is purification of livelihood.
Paccayasannissitasīlaṃ Table view Original pali

1.7 Paccaya-san-nissita-sīlaṃ: virtue concerning requisites

18.Yaṃ panetaṃ tadanantaraṃ paccayasannissitasīlaṃ vuttaṃ, tattha paṭisaṅkhā yonisoti upāyena pathena paṭisaṅkhāya ñatvā, paccavekkhitvāti attho.
85.(d) As regards the next kind called virtue concerning requisites, Herein, reflecting wisely is reflecting as the means and as the way;27 by knowing, by reviewing, is the meaning.
Ettha ca sītassa paṭighātāyātiādinā nayena vuttapaccavekkhaṇameva "yoniso paṭisaṅkhā"ti veditabbaṃ.
And here it is the reviewing stated in the way beginning, “For protection from cold” that should be understood as “reflecting wisely.”
Tattha cīvaranti antaravāsakādīsu yaṃkiñci.
86. Herein, the robe is any one of those beginning with the inner cloth.
Paṭisevatīti paribhuñjati, nivāseti vā pārupati vā.
He uses: he employs; dresses in [as inner cloth], or puts on [as upper garment].
Yāvadevāti payojanāvadhiparicchedaniyamavacanaṃ, ettakameva hi yogino cīvarapaṭisevane payojanaṃ yadidaṃ sītassa paṭighātāyātiādi, na ito bhiyyo.
Only [31] is a phrase signifying invariability in the definition of a limit28 of a purpose; the purpose in the meditator’s making use of the robes is that much only, namely, protection from cold, etc., not more than that.
Sītassāti ajjhattadhātukkhobhavasena vā bahiddhāutupariṇāmanavasena vā uppannassa yassa kassaci sītassa.
From cold: from any kind of cold arisen either through disturbance of elements internally or through change in temperature externally.
Paṭighātāyāti paṭihananatthaṃ.
For protection: for the purpose of warding off;
Yathā sarīre ābādhaṃ na uppādeti, evaṃ tassa vinodanatthaṃ.
for the purpose of eliminating it so that it may not arouse affliction in the body.
Sītabbhāhate hi sarīre vikkhittacitto yoniso padahituṃ na sakkoti, tasmā sītassa paṭighātāya cīvaraṃ paṭisevitabbanti bhagavā anuññāsi.
For when the body is afflicted by cold, the distracted mind cannot be wisely exerted. That is why the Blessed One permitted the robe to be used for protection from cold.
Esa nayo sabbattha.
So in each instance,
Kevalañhettha uṇhassāti aggisantāpassa.
except that from heat means from the heat of fire,
Tassa vanadāhādīsu sambhavo veditabbo.
the origin of which should be understood as forest fires, and so on.
Ḍaṃsamakasavātātapasarīsapasamphassānanti ettha pana ḍaṃsāti ḍaṃsanamakkhikā, andhamakkhikātipi vuccanti.
87.From contact with gadflies and flies, wind and burning and creeping things: here gadflies are flies that bite; they are also called “blind flies.”
Makasā makasā eva.
Flies are just flies.
Vātāti sarajaarajādibhedā.
Wind is distinguished as that with dust and that without dust.
Ātapoti sūriyātapo.
Burning is burning of the sun.
Sarīsapāti ye keci sarantā gacchanti dīghajātikā sappādayo, tesaṃ daṭṭhasamphasso ca phuṭṭhasamphasso cāti duvidho samphasso, sopi cīvaraṃ pārupitvā nisinnaṃ na bādhati, tasmā tādisesu ṭhānesu tesaṃ paṭighātatthāya paṭisevati.
Creeping things are any long creatures such as snakes and so on that move by crawling. Contact with them is of two kinds: contact by being bitten and contact by being touched. And that does not worry him who sits with a robe on. So he uses it for the purpose of protection from such things.
Yāvadevāti puna etassa vacanaṃ niyatapayojanāvadhiparicchedadassanatthaṃ, hirikopīnapaṭicchādanañhi niyatapayojanaṃ, itarāni kadāci kadāci honti.
88.Only: the word is repeated in order to define a subdivision of the invariable purpose; for the concealment of the private parts is an invariable purpose; the others are purposes periodically.
Tattha hirikopīnanti taṃ taṃ sambādhaṭṭhānaṃ.
Herein, private parts are any parts of the pudendum.
Yasmiṃ yasmiñhi aṅge vivariyamāne hirī kuppati vinassati, taṃ taṃ hiriṃ kopanato hirikopīnanti vuccati.
For when a member is disclosed, conscience (hiri) is disturbed (kuppati), offended. It is called “private parts” (hirikopīna) because of the disturbance of conscience (hiri-kopana).
Tassa ca hirikopīnassa paṭicchādanatthanti hirikopīnapaṭicchādanatthaṃ.
For the purpose of concealing the private parts: for the purpose of the concealment of those private parts.
Hirikopīnaṃ paṭicchādanatthantipi pāṭho.
[As well as the reading “hiriko-pīna-paṭicchādanatthaṃ] there is a reading “hirikopīnaṃ paṭicchādanatthaṃ. ”
Piṇḍapātanti yaṃkiñci āhāraṃ.
89.Alms food is any sort of food.
Yo hi koci āhāro bhikkhuno piṇḍolyena patte patitattā piṇḍapātoti vuccati.
For any sort of nutriment is called “alms food” (piṇḍapāta—lit. “lump-dropping”) because of its having been dropped (patitattā) into a bhikkhu’s bowl during his alms round (piṇḍolya).
Piṇḍānaṃ vā pāto piṇḍapāto, tattha tattha laddhānaṃ bhikkhānaṃ sannipāto samūhoti vuttaṃ hoti.
Or alms food (piṇḍapāta) is the dropping (pāta) of the lumps (piṇḍa); it is the concurrence (sannipāta), the collection, of alms (bhikkhā) obtained here and there, is what is meant.
Neva davāyāti na gāmadārakādayo viya davatthaṃ, kīḷānimittanti vuttaṃ hoti.
Neither for amusement: neither for the purpose of amusement, as with village boys, etc.; for the sake of sport, is what is meant.
Na madāyāti na muṭṭhikamallādayo viya madatthaṃ, balamadanimittaṃ porisamadanimittañcāti vuttaṃ hoti.
Nor for intoxication: not for the purpose of intoxication, as with boxers, etc.; for the sake of intoxication with strength and for the sake of intoxication with manhood, is what is meant.
Na maṇḍanāyāti na antepurikavesiyādayo viya maṇḍanatthaṃ, aṅgapaccaṅgānaṃ pīṇabhāvanimittanti vuttaṃ hoti.
Nor for smartening: not for the purpose of smartening, as with royal concubines, courtesans, etc.; for the sake of plumpness in all the limbs, is what is meant.
Na vibhūsanāyāti na naṭanaccakādayo viya vibhūsanatthaṃ, pasannacchavivaṇṇatānimittanti vuttaṃ hoti.
Nor for embellishment: not for the purpose of embellishment, as with actors, dancers, etc.; for the sake of a clear skin and complexion, is what is meant.
Ettha ca neva davāyāti etaṃ mohūpanissayappahānatthaṃ vuttaṃ.
90. And here the clause neither for amusement is stated for the purpose of abandoning support for delusion;
Na madāyāti etaṃ dosūpanissayappahānatthaṃ.
nor for intoxication is said for the purpose of abandoning support for hate;
Na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāyāti etaṃ rāgūpanissayappahānatthaṃ.
nor for smartening nor for embellishment is said for the purpose of abandoning support for greed.
Neva davāya na madāyāti cetaṃ attano saṃyojanuppattipaṭisedhanatthaṃ.
And neither for amusement nor for intoxication is said for the purpose of preventing the arising of fetters for oneself.
Na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāyāti etaṃ parassapi saṃyojanuppattipaṭisedhanatthaṃ.
Nor for smartening nor for embellishment is said for the purpose of preventing the arising of fetters for another.
Catūhipi cetehi ayoniso paṭipattiyā kāmasukhallikānuyogassa ca pahānaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
And the abandoning of both unwise practice and devotion to indulgence of sense pleasures should be understood as stated by these four.
Yāvadevāti vuttatthameva.
Only has the meaning already stated.
Imassa kāyassāti etassa catumahābhūtikassa rūpakāyassa.
91.Of this body: of this material body consisting of the four great primaries.
Ṭhitiyāti pabandhaṭṭhitatthaṃ.
For the endurance: for the purpose of continued endurance.
Yāpanāyāti pavattiyā avicchedatthaṃ, cirakālaṭṭhitatthaṃ vā.
And continuance: for the purpose of not interrupting [life’s continued] occurrence, or for the purpose of endurance for a long time.
Gharūpatthambhamiva hi jiṇṇagharasāmiko, akkhabbhañjanamiva ca sākaṭiko kāyassa ṭhitatthaṃ yāpanatthañcesa piṇḍapātaṃ paṭisevati, na davamadamaṇḍanavibhūsanatthaṃ.
He makes use of the alms food for the purpose of the endurance, for the purpose of the continuance, of the body, as the owner of an old house uses props for his house, and as a carter uses axle grease, not for the purpose of amusement, intoxication, smartening, and embellishment.
Apica ṭhitīti jīvitindriyassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ, tasmā imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāyāti ettāvatā etassa kāyassa jīvitindriyapavattāpanatthantipi vuttaṃ hotīti veditabbaṃ.
Furthermore, endurance is a term for the life faculty. So what has been said as far as the words for the endurance and continuance of this body can be understood to mean: for the purpose of maintaining the occurrence of the life faculty in this body.
Vihiṃsūparatiyāti vihiṃsā nāma jighacchā ābādhaṭṭhena.
92. For the ending of discomfort: hunger is called “discomfort” in the sense of afflicting.
Tassā uparamatthampesa piṇḍapātaṃ paṭisevati, vaṇālepanamiva uṇhasītādīsu tappaṭikāraṃ viya ca.
He makes use of alms food for the purpose of ending that, like anointing a wound, like counteracting heat with cold, and so on.
Brahmacariyānuggahāyāti sakalasāsanabrahmacariyassa ca maggabrahmacariyassa ca anuggahatthaṃ.
For assisting the life of purity: for the purpose of assisting the life of purity consisting in the whole dispensation and the life of purity consisting in the path.
Ayañhi piṇḍapātapaṭisevanapaccayā kāyabalaṃ nissāya sikkhattayānuyogavasena bhavakantāranittharaṇatthaṃ paṭipajjanto brahmacariyānuggahāya paṭisevati, kantāranittharaṇatthikā puttamaṃsaṃ (saṃ. ni. 2.63) viya, nadīnittharaṇatthikā kullaṃ (ma. ni. 1.240) viya, samuddanittharaṇatthikā nāvamiva ca.
For while this [bhikkhu] is engaged in crossing the desert of existence by means of devotion to the three trainings depending on bodily strength whose necessary condition is the use of alms food, he makes use of it to assist the life of purity just as those seeking to cross the desert used their child’s flesh,29 just as those seeking to cross a river use a raft, and just as those seeking to cross the ocean use a ship.
Itipurāṇañca vedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāmi navañca vedanaṃ na uppādessāmīti etaṃ iminā piṇḍapātapaṭisevanena purāṇañca jighacchāvedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāmi, navañca vedanaṃ aparimitabhojanapaccayaṃ āharahatthakaalaṃsāṭakatatravaṭṭakakākamāsakabhuttavamitakabrāhmaṇānaṃ aññataro viya na uppādessāmītipi paṭisevati, bhesajjamiva gilāno.
93.Thus I shall put a stop to old feelings and shall not arouse new feelings: [33] thus as a sick man uses medicine, he uses [alms food, thinking]: “By use of this alms food I shall put a stop to the old feeling of hunger, and I shall not arouse a new feeling by immoderate eating, like one of the [proverbial] brahmans, that is, one who eats till he has to be helped up by hand, or till his clothes will not meet, or till he rolls there [on the ground], or till crows can peck from his mouth, or until he vomits what he has eaten.
Atha vā yā adhunā asappāyāparimitabhojanaṃ nissāya purāṇakammapaccayavasena uppajjanato purāṇavedanāti vuccati.
Or alternatively, there is that which is called ‘old feelings’ because, being conditioned by former kamma, it arises now in dependence on unsuitable immoderate eating—
Sappāyaparimitabhojanena tassā paccayaṃ vināsento taṃ purāṇañca vedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāmi.
I shall put a stop to that old feeling, forestalling its condition by suitable moderate eating.
Yā cāyaṃ adhunā kataṃ ayuttaparibhogakammūpacayaṃ nissāya āyatiṃ uppajjanato navavedanāti vuccati.
And there is that which is called ‘new feeling’ because it will arise in the future in dependence on the accumulation of kamma consisting in making improper use [of the requisite of alms food] now—
Yuttaparibhogavasena tassā mūlaṃ anibbattento taṃ navañca vedanaṃ na uppādessāmīti evampettha attho daṭṭhabbo.
I shall also not arouse that new feeling, avoiding by means of proper use the production of its root.” This is how the meaning should be understood here.
Ettāvatā yuttaparibhogasaṅgaho attakilamathānuyogappahānaṃ dhammikasukhāpariccāgo ca dīpito hotīti veditabbo.
What has been shown so far can be understood to include proper use [of requisites], abandoning of devotion to self-mortification, and not giving up lawful bliss-(sukha) (pleasure).
Yātrā ca me bhavissatīti parimitaparibhogena jīvitindriyupacchedakassa iriyāpathabhañjakassa vā parissayassa abhāvato cirakālagamanasaṅkhātā yātrā ca me bhavissati imassa paccayāyattavuttino kāyassātipi paṭisevati, yāpyarogī viya tappaccayaṃ.
94.And I shall be healthy: “In this body, which exists in dependence on requisites, I shall, by moderate eating, have health called ‘long endurance’ since there will be no danger of severing the life faculty or interrupting the [continuity of the] postures. ” [Reflecting] in this way, he makes use [of the alms food] as a sufferer from a chronic disease does of his medicine.
Anavajjatā ca phāsuvihāro cāti ayuttapariyesanapaṭiggahaṇaparibhogaparivajjanena anavajjatā, parimitaparibhogena phāsuvihāro.
And blameless and live in comfort (lit. “and have blamelessness and a comfortable abiding”): he makes use of them thinking: “I shall have blamelessness by avoiding improper search, acceptance and eating, and I shall have a comfortable abiding by moderate eating.”
Asappāyāparimitaparibhogapaccayā aratitandīvijambhitā. Viññūgarahādidosābhāvena vā anavajjatā, sappāyaparimitabhojanapaccayā kāyabalasambhavena phāsuvihāro.
Or he does so thinking: “I shall have blamelessness due to absence of such faults as boredom, sloth, sleepiness, blame by the wise, etc., that have unseemly immoderate eating as their condition; and I shall have a comfortable abiding by producing bodily strength that has seemly moderate eating as its condition.”
Yāvadatthaudarāvadehakabhojanaparivajjanena vā seyyasukhapassasukhamiddhasukhānaṃ pahānato anavajjatā, catupañcālopamattaūnabhojanena catuiriyāpathayogyabhāvapaṭipādanato phāsuvihāro ca me bhavissatītipi paṭisevati.
Or he does so thinking: “I shall have blamelessness by abandoning the pleasure of lying down, lolling and torpor, through refraining from eating as much as possible to stuff the belly; and I shall have a comfortable abiding by controlling the four postures through eating four or five mouthfuls less than the maximum.”
Vuttampi hetaṃ –
For this is said:
"Cattāro pañca ālope, abhutvā udakaṃ pive;
With four or five lumps still to eat Let him then end by drinking water;
Alaṃ phāsuvihārāya, pahitattassa bhikkhuno"ti. (theragā. 983);
For energetic bhikkhus’ needs This should suffice to live in comfort (Th 983).
Ettāvatā ca payojanapariggaho majjhimā ca paṭipadā dīpitā hotīti veditabbā.
Now, what has been shown at this point can be understood as discernment of purpose and practice of the middle way.
Senāsananti senañca āsanañca.
95.Resting place (senāsana): this is the bed (sena) and seat (āsana).
Yattha yattha hi seti vihāre vā aḍḍhayogādimhi vā, taṃ senaṃ.
For wherever one sleeps (seti), whether in a monastery or in a lean-to, etc., that is the bed (sena);
Yattha yattha āsati nisīdati, taṃ āsanaṃ.
wherever one seats oneself (āsati), sits (nisīdati), that is the seat (āsana).
Taṃ ekato katvā senāsananti vuccati.
Both together are called “resting-place” (or “abode”—senāsana).
Utuparissayavinodanapaṭisallānārāmatthanti parisahanaṭṭhena utuyeva utuparissayo.
For the purpose of warding off the perils of climate and enjoying retreat: the climate itself in the sense of imperilling (parisahana) is “perils of climate” (utu-parissaya).
Utuparissayassa vinodanatthañca paṭisallānārāmatthañca. Yo sarīrābādhacittavikkhepakaro asappāyo utu senāsanapaṭisevanena vinodetabbo hoti, tassa vinodanatthaṃ ekībhāvasukhatthañcāti vuttaṃ hoti.
Unsuitable climatic conditions that cause mental distraction due to bodily affliction can be warded off by making use of the resting place; it is for the purpose of warding off these and for the purpose of the pleasure of solitude, is what is meant.
Kāmañca sītapaṭighātādināva utuparissayavinodanaṃ vuttameva.
Of course, the warding off of the perils of climate is stated by [the phrase] “protection from cold,” etc., too;
Yathā pana cīvarapaṭisevane hirikopīnapaṭicchādanaṃ niyatapayojanaṃ, itarāni kadāci kadāci bhavantīti vuttaṃ, evamidhāpi niyataṃ utuparissayavinodanaṃ sandhāya idaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
but, just as in the case of making use of the robes the concealment of the private parts is stated as an invariable purpose while the others are periodical [purposes], so here also this [last] should be understood as mentioned with reference to the invariable warding off of the perils of climate.
Atha vā ayaṃ vuttappakāro utu utuyeva.
Or alternatively, this “climate” of the kind stated is just climate;
Parissayo pana duvidho pākaṭaparissayo ca, paṭicchannaparissayo ca (mahāni. 5).
but “perils” are of two kinds: evident perils and concealed perils (see Nidd I 12).
Tattha pākaṭaparissayo sīhabyagghādayo.
Herein, evident perils are lions, tigers, etc.,
Paṭicchannaparissayo rāgadosādayo.
while concealed perils are greed, hate, and so on.
Ye yattha apariguttiyā ca asappāyarūpadassanādinā ca ābādhaṃ na karonti, taṃ senāsanaṃ evaṃ jānitvā paccavekkhitvā paṭisevanto bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso senāsanaṃ utuparissayavinodanatthaṃ paṭisevatīti veditabbo.
When a bhikkhu knows and reflects thus in making use of the kind of resting place where these [perils] do not, owing to unguarded doors and sight of unsuitable visible objects, etc., cause affliction, he can be understood as one who “reflecting wisely makes use of the resting place for the purpose of warding off the perils of climate.”
Gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāranti ettha rogassa paṭiayanaṭṭhena paccayo, paccanīkagamanaṭṭhenāti attho.
96.The requisite of medicine as cure for the sick: here “cure” (paccaya = going against) is in the sense of going against (pati-ayana) illness; in the sense of countering, is the meaning.
Yassa kassaci sappāyassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for any suitable remedy.
Bhisakkassa kammaṃ tena anuññātattāti bhesajjaṃ.
It is the medical man’s work (bhisakkassa kammaṃ) because it is permitted by him, thus it is medicine (bhesajja).
Gilānapaccayova bhesajjaṃ gilānapaccayabhesajjaṃ, yaṃkiñci gilānassa sappāyaṃ bhisakkakammaṃ telamadhuphāṇitādīti vuttaṃ hoti.
Or the cure for the sick itself as medicine is “medicine as cure for the sick. ” Any work of a medical man such as oil, honey, ghee, etc., that is suitable for one who is sick, is what is meant.
Parikkhāroti pana "sattahi nagaraparikkhārehi suparikkhataṃ hotī"ti (a. ni. 7.67) ādīsu parivāro vuccati.
A “requisite” (parikkhāra), however, in such passages as “It is well supplied with the requisites of a city” (A IV 106) is equipment;
"Ratho sīlaparikkhāro, jhānakkho cakkavīriyo"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.4) ādīsu alaṅkāro.
in such passages as “The chariot has the requisite of virtue, the axle of jhāna, the wheel of energy” (S V 6) [35] it is an ornament;
"Ye ca kho ime pabbajitena jīvitaparikkhārā samudānetabbā"ti (ma. ni. 1.191-192) ādīsu sambhāro.
in such passages as “The requisites for the life of one who has gone into homelessness that should be available” (M I 104), it is an accessory.
Idha pana sambhāropi parivāropi vaṭṭati.
But here both equipment and accessory are applicable.
Tañhi gilānapaccayabhesajjaṃ jīvitassa parivāropi hoti, jīvitanāsakābādhuppattiyā antaraṃ adatvā rakkhaṇato sambhāropi.
For that medicine as a cure for the sick is equipment for maintaining life because it protects by preventing the arising of affliction destructive to life;
Yathā ciraṃ pavattati, evamassa kāraṇabhāvato, tasmā parikkhāroti vuccati.
and it is an accessory too because it is an instrument for prolonging life. That is why it is called “requisite.”
Evaṃ gilānapaccayabhesajjañca taṃ parikkhāro cāti gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāro.
So it is medicine as cure for the sick and that is a requisite, thus it is a “requisite of medicine as cure for the sick.”
Taṃ gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ.
[He makes use of] that requisite of medicine as cure for the sick;
Gilānassa yaṃkiñci sappāyaṃ bhisakkānuññātaṃ telamadhuphāṇitādi jīvitaparikkhāranti vuttaṃ hoti.
any requisite for life consisting of oil, honey, molasses, ghee, etc., that is allowed by a medical man as suitable for the sick, is what is meant.
Uppannānanti jātānaṃ bhūtānaṃ nibbattānaṃ.
97.From arisen: from born, become, produced.
Veyyābādhikānanti ettha byābādhoti dhātukkhobho, taṃsamuṭṭhānā ca kuṭṭhagaṇḍapīḷakādayo.
Hurtful: here “hurt (affliction)” is a disturbance of elements, and it is the leprosy, tumours, boils, etc., originated by that disturbance.
Byābādhato uppannattā veyyābādhikā.
Hurtful (veyyābādhika) because arisen in the form of hurt (byābādha).
Vedanānanti dukkhavedanā akusalavipākavedanā.
Feelings: painful feelings, feelings resulting from unprofitable kamma—
Tāsaṃ veyyābādhikānaṃ vedanānaṃ.
from those hurtful feelings.
Abyābajjhaparamatāyāti niddukkhaparamatāya.
For complete immunity from affliction: for complete freedom from pain;
Yāva taṃ dukkhaṃ sabbaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti tāvāti attho.
so that all that is painful is abandoned, is the meaning.
Evamidaṃ saṅkhepato paṭisaṅkhā yoniso paccayaparibhogalakkhaṇaṃ paccayasannissitasīlaṃ veditabbaṃ.
This is how this virtue concerning requisites should be understood. In brief its characteristic is the use of requisites after wise reflection.
Vacanattho panettha – cīvarādayo hi yasmā te paṭicca nissāya paribhuñjamānā pāṇino ayanti pavattanti, tasmā paccayāti vuccanti.
The word-meaning here is this: because breathing things go (ayanti), move, proceed, using [what they use] in dependence on these robes, etc., these robes, etc., are therefore called requisites (paccaya = ger. of paá¹­i + ayati);
Te paccaye sannissitanti paccayasannissitaṃ.
“concerning requisites” is concerning those requisites.
Catupārisuddhisampādanavidhi Table view Original pali

1.8 Catu-pārisuddhi-sampādana-vidhi: 4 ways purification undertakings

19.Evametasmiṃ catubbidhe sīle saddhāya pātimokkhasaṃvaro sampādetabbo.
98.(a) So, in this fourfold virtue, Pātimokkha restraint has to be undertaken by means of faith.
Saddhāsādhano hi so, sāvakavisayātītattā sikkhāpadapaññattiyā.
For that is accomplished by faith, since the announcing of training precepts is outside the disciples’ province;
Sikkhāpadapaññattiyācanapaṭikkhepo cettha nidassanaṃ.
and the evidence here is the refusal of the request to [allow disciples to] announce training precepts (see Vin III 9–10).
Tasmā yathā paññattaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ anavasesaṃ saddhāya samādiyitvā jīvitepi apekkhaṃ akarontena sādhukaṃ sampādetabbaṃ.
Having therefore undertaken through faith the training precepts without exception as announced, one should completely perfect them without regard for life.
Vuttampi hetaṃ –
For this is said:
"Kikīva aṇḍaṃ camarīva vāladhiṃ,
“As a hen guards her eggs, Or as a yak her tail,
Piyaṃva puttaṃ nayanaṃva ekakaṃ;
Or like a darling child, Or like an only eye—
Tatheva sīlaṃ anurakkhamānakā,
So you who are engaged Your virtue to protect,
Supesalā hotha sadā sagāravā"ti.
Be prudent at all times And ever scrupulous.” (Source untraced)
Aparampi vuttaṃ – "evameva kho pahārāda yaṃ mayā sāvakānaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ, taṃ mama sāvakā jīvitahetupi nātikkamantī"ti (a. ni. 8.19).
Also it is said further: “So too, sire, when a training precept for disciples is announced by me, my disciples do not transgress it even for the sake of life” (A IV 201).
Imasmiṃ ca panatthe aṭaviyaṃ corehi baddhatherānaṃ vatthūni veditabbāni.
99.And the story of the elders bound by robbers in the forest should be understood in this sense.
Mahāvattaniaṭaviyaṃ kira theraṃ corā kāḷavallīhi bandhitvā nipajjāpesuṃ.
It seems that robbers in the Mahāvaṭṭanī Forest bound an elder with black creepers and made him lie down.
Thero yathānipannova sattadivasāni vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā anāgāmiphalaṃ pāpuṇitvā tattheva kālaṃ katvā brahmaloke nibbatti.
While he lay there for seven days he augmented his insight, and after reaching the fruition of non-return, he died there and was reborn in the Brahmā-world.
Aparampi theraṃ tambapaṇṇidīpe pūtilatāya bandhitvā nipajjāpesuṃ.
Also they bound another elder in Tambapaṇṇi Island (Sri Lanka) with string creepers and made him lie down.
So vanadāhe āgacchante valliṃ acchinditvāva vipassanaṃ paṭṭhapetvā samasīsī hutvā parinibbāyi.
When a forest fire came and the creepers were not cut, he established insight and attained Nibbāna simultaneously with his death.
Dīghabhāṇakaabhayatthero pañcahi bhikkhusatehi saddhiṃ āgacchanto disvā therassa sarīraṃ jhāpetvā cetiyaṃ kārāpesi.
When the Elder Abhaya, a preacher of the Dīgha Nikāya, passed by with five hundred bhikkhus, he saw [what had happened] and he had the elder’s body cremated and a shrine built.
Tasmā aññopi saddho kulaputto –
Therefore let other clansmen also:
Pātimokkhaṃ visodhento, appeva jīvitaṃ jahe;
Maintain the rules of conduct pure, Renouncing life if there be need,
Paññattaṃ lokanāthena, na bhinde sīlasaṃvaraṃ.
Rather than break virtue’s restraint By the World’s Saviour decreed.
Yathā ca pātimokkhasaṃvaro saddhāya, evaṃ satiyā indriyasaṃvaro sampādetabbo.
100.(b) And as Pātimokkha restraint is undertaken out of faith, so restraint of the sense faculties should be undertaken with mindfulness.
Satisādhano hi so, satiyā adhiṭṭhitānaṃ indriyānaṃ abhijjhādīhi ananvāssavanīyato.
For that is accomplished by mindfulness, because when the sense faculties’ functions are founded on mindfulness, there is no liability to invasion by covetousness and the rest.
Tasmā "varaṃ, bhikkhave, tattāya ayosalākāya ādittāya sampajjalitāya sajotibhūtāya cakkhundriyaṃ sampalimaṭṭhaṃ, na tveva cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu anubyañjanaso nimittaggāho"ti (saṃ. ni. 4.235) ādinā nayena ādittapariyāyaṃ samanussaritvā rūpādīsu visayesu cakkhudvārādipavattassa viññāṇassa abhijjhādīhi anvāssavanīyaṃ nimittādiggāhaṃ asammuṭṭhāya satiyā nisedhentena esa sādhukaṃ sampādetabbo.
So, recollecting the Fire Discourse, which begins thus, “Better, bhikkhus, the extirpation of the eye faculty by a red-hot burning blazing glowing iron spike than the apprehension of signs in the particulars of visible objects cognizable by the eye” (S IV 168), this [restraint] should be properly undertaken by preventing with unremitting mindfulness any apprehension, in the objective fields consisting of visible data, etc., of any signs, etc., likely to encourage covetousness, etc., to invade consciousness occurring in connection with the eye door, and so on.
Evaṃ asampādite hi etasmiṃ pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlampi anaddhaniyaṃ hoti aciraṭṭhitikaṃ, asaṃvihitasākhāparivāramiva sassaṃ.
101. When not undertaken thus, virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is unenduring: it does not last, like a crop not fenced in with branches.
Haññate cāyaṃ kilesacorehi, vivaṭadvāro viya gāmo parassa hārīhi.
And it is raided by the robber defilements as a village with open gates is by thieves.
Cittañcassa rāgo samativijjhati, ducchannamagāraṃ vuṭṭhi viya.
And lust leaks into his mind as rain does into a badly-roofed house.
Vuttampi hetaṃ –
For this is said:
"RÅ«pesu saddesu atho rasesu,
“Among the visible objects, sounds, and smells,
Gandhesu phassesu ca rakkha indriyaṃ;
And tastes, and tangibles, guard the faculties;
Ete hi dvārā vivaṭā arakkhitā,
For when these doors are open and unguarded,
Hananti gāmaṃva parassa hārino".
Then thieves will come and raid as ’twere a village (? ).
"Yathā agāraṃ ducchannaṃ, vuṭṭhī samativijjhati;
And just as with an ill-roofed house The rain comes leaking in, so too
Evaṃ abhāvitaṃ cittaṃ, rāgo samativijjhatī"ti. (dha. pa. 13);
Will lust come leaking in for sure Upon an undeveloped mind” (Dhp 13).
Sampādite pana tasmiṃ pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlampi addhaniyaṃ hoti ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, susaṃvihitasākhāparivāramiva sassaṃ.
102. When it is undertaken thus, virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is enduring: it lasts, like a crop well fenced in with branches.
Na haññate cāyaṃ kilesacorehi, susaṃvutadvāro viya gāmo parassa hārīhi.
And it is not raided by the robber defilements, as a village with well-guarded gates is not by thieves.
Na cassa cittaṃ rāgo samativijjhati, succhannamagāraṃ vuṭṭhi viya.
And lust does not leak into his mind, as rain does not into a well-roofed house.
Vuttampi cetaṃ –
For this is said:
"RÅ«pesu saddesu atho rasesu,
“Among the visible objects, sounds and smells,
Gandhesu phassesu ca rakkha indriyaṃ;
And tastes and tangibles, guard the faculties;
Ete hi dvārā pihitā susaṃvutā,
For when these doors are closed and truly guarded,
Na hanti gāmaṃva parassa hārino".
Thieves will not come and raid as ’twere a village (? ).
"Yathā agāraṃ succhannaṃ, vuṭṭhī na samativijjhati;
“And just as with a well-roofed house No rain comes leaking in, so too
Evaṃ subhāvitaṃ cittaṃ, rāgo na samativijjhatī"ti. (dha. pa. 14);
No lust comes leaking in for sure Upon a well-developed mind” (Dhp 14).
Ayaṃ pana atiukkaṭṭhadesanā.
103. This, however, is the teaching at its very highest.
Cittaṃ nāmetaṃ lahuparivattaṃ, tasmā uppannaṃ rāgaṃ asubhamanasikārena vinodetvā indriyasaṃvaro sampādetabbo, adhunāpabbajitena vaṅgīsattherena viya.
This mind is called “quickly transformed” (A I 10), so restraint of the faculties should be undertaken by removing arisen lust with the contemplation of foulness, as was done by the Elder Vaṅgīsa soon after he had gone forth.
Therassa kira adhunāpabbajitassa piṇḍāya carato ekaṃ itthiṃ disvā rāgo uppajjati.
As the elder was wandering for alms, it seems, soon after going forth, lust arose in him on seeing a woman.
Tato ānandattheraṃ āha –
Thereupon he said to the venerable Ānanda:
"Kāmarāgena ḍayhāmi, cittaṃ me pariḍayhati;
“I am afire with sensual lust. And burning flames consume my mind;
Sādhu nibbāpanaṃ brūhi, anukampāya gotamā"ti. (saṃ. ni. 1.212; theragā. 1232);
In pity tell me, Gotama, How to extinguish it for good” (S I 188).
Thero āha –
The elder said:
"Saññāya vipariyesā, cittaṃ te pariḍayhati;
“You do perceive mistakenly, That burning flames consume your mind.
Nimittaṃ parivajjehi, subhaṃ rāgūpasañhitaṃ;
Look for no sign of beauty there, For that it is which leads to lust.
Asubhāya cittaṃ bhāvehi, ekaggaṃ susamāhitaṃ. (saṃ. ni. 1.212; theragā. 1233-1234);
See foulness there and keep your mind Harmoniously concentrated;
"Saṅkhāre parato passa, dukkhato no ca attato;
Formations see as alien, As ill, not self, so this great lust
Nibbāpehi mahārāgaṃ, mā ḍayhittho punappuna"nti. (saṃ. ni. 1.212);
May be extinguished, and no more Take fire thus ever and again” (S I 188).
Thero rāgaṃ vinodetvā piṇḍāya cari.
The elder expelled his lust and then went on with his alms round.
Apica indriyasaṃvarapūrakena bhikkhunā kuraṇḍakamahāleṇavāsinā cittaguttattherena viya corakamahāvihāravāsinā mahāmittattherena viya ca bhavitabbaṃ.
104.Moreover, a bhikkhu who is fulfilling restraint of the faculties should be like the Elder Cittagutta resident in the Great Cave at Kuraṇḍaka, and like the Elder Mahā Mitta resident at the Great Monastery of Coraka.
Kuraṇḍakamahāleṇe kira sattannaṃ buddhānaṃ abhinikkhamanacittakammaṃ manoramaṃ ahosi, sambahulā bhikkhū senāsanacārikaṃ āhiṇḍantā cittakammaṃ disvā "manoramaṃ, bhante, cittakamma"nti āhaṃsu.
105.In the Great Cave of Kuraṇḍaka, it seems, there was a lovely painting of the Renunciation of the Seven Buddhas. A number of bhikkhus wandering about among the dwellings saw the painting and said, “What a lovely painting, venerable sir!
Thero āha "atirekasaṭṭhi me, āvuso, vassāni leṇe vasantassa cittakammaṃ atthītipi na jānāmi, ajja dāni cakkhumante nissāya ñāta"nti.
” The elder said: “For more than sixty years, friends, I have lived in the cave, and I did not know whether there was any painting there or not.
Therena kira ettakaṃ addhānaṃ vasantena cakkhuṃ ummīletvā leṇaṃ na ullokitapubbaṃ.
Now, today, I know it through those who have eyes.” The elder, it seems, though he had lived there for so long, had never raised his eyes and looked up at the cave.
Leṇadvāre cassa mahānāgarukkhopi ahosi.
And at the door of his cave there was a great ironwood tree.
Sopi therena uddhaṃ na ullokitapubbo.
And the elder had never looked up at that either.
Anusaṃvaccharaṃ bhūmiyaṃ kesaranipātaṃ disvāvassa pupphitabhāvaṃ jānāti.
He knew it was in flower when he saw its petals on the ground each year.
Rājā therassa guṇasampattiṃ sutvā vanditukāmo tikkhattuṃ pesetvā anāgacchante there tasmiṃ gāme taruṇaputtānaṃ itthīnaṃ thane bandhāpetvā lañjāpesi "tāva dārakā thaññaṃ mā labhiṃsu, yāva thero na āgacchatī"ti.
106. The king heard of the elder’s great virtues, and he sent for him three times, desiring to pay homage to him. When the elder did not go, he had the breasts of all the women with infants in the town bound and sealed off, [saying] “As long as the elder does not come let the children go without milk,”
Thero dārakānaṃ anukampāya mahāgāmaṃ agamāsi.
Out of compassion for the children the elder went to Mahāgāma.
Rājā sutvā "gacchatha bhaṇe, theraṃ pavesetha sīlāni gaṇhissāmī"ti antepuraṃ abhiharāpetvā vanditvā bhojetvā "ajja, bhante, okāso natthi, sve sīlāni gaṇhissāmīti therassa pattaṃ gahetvā thokaṃ anugantvā deviyā saddhiṃ vanditvā nivatti.
When the king heard [that he had come, he said] “Go and bring the elder in. I shall take the precepts.” Having had him brought up into the inner palace, he paid homage to him and provided him with a meal. Then, saying, “Today, venerable sir, there is no opportunity. I shall take the precepts tomorrow,” he took the elder’s bowl. After following him for a little, he paid homage with the queen and turned back.
Thero rājā vā vandatu devī vā, "sukhī hotu, mahārājā"ti vadati.
whether it was the king who paid homage or whether it was the queen, the elder said, “May the king be happy.”
Evaṃ sattadivasā gatā.
As seven days went by thus (above).
Bhikkhū āhaṃsu "kiṃ, bhante, tumhe raññepi vandamāne deviyāpi vandamānāya "sukhī hotu, mahārāja"icceva vadathāti.
107. Bhikkhus asked: “Why is it, venerable sir, that whether it is the king who pays the homage or the queen you say ‘May the king be happy’?
Thero "nāhaṃ, āvuso, rājāti vā devīti vā vavatthānaṃ karomī"ti vatvā sattāhātikkamena "therassa idha vāso dukkho"ti raññā vissajjito kuraṇḍakamahāleṇaṃ gantvā rattibhāge caṅkamaṃ ārūhi.
” The elder replied: “Friends, I do not notice whether it is the king or the queen.” At the end of seven days [when it was found that] the elder was not happy living there, he was dismissed by the king. He went back to the Great Cave at Kuraṇḍaka. When it was night he went out onto his walk.
Nāgarukkhe adhivatthā devatā daṇḍadīpikaṃ gahetvā aṭṭhāsi.
A deity who dwelt in the ironwood tree stood by with a torch of sticks.
Athassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ atiparisuddhaṃ pākaṭaṃ ahosi.
Then his meditation subject became quite clear and plain.
Thero "kiṃ nu me ajja kammaṭṭhānaṃ ativiya pakāsatī"ti attamano majjhimayāmasamanantaraṃ sakalaṃ pabbataṃ unnādayanto arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
The elder, [thinking] “How clear my meditation subject is today! ” was glad, and immediately after the middle watch he reached Arahantship, making the whole rock resound.30
Tasmā aññopi attatthakāmo kulaputto –
108. So when another clansman seeks his own good:
Makkaṭova araññamhi, vane bhantamigo viya;
Let him not be hungry-eyed, Like a monkey in the groves,
Bālo viya ca utrasto, na bhave lolalocano.
Like a wild deer in the woods, Like a nervous little child.
Adho khipeyya cakkhūni, yugamattadaso siyā;
Let him go with eyes downcast Seeing a plough yoke’s length before,
Vanamakkaṭalolassa, na cittassa vasaṃ vaje.
That he fall not in the power Of the forest-monkey mind.
Mahāmittattherassāpi mātu visagaṇḍakarogo uppajji, dhītāpissā bhikkhunīsu pabbajitā hoti.
109. The Elder Mahā Mitta’s mother was sick with a poisoned tumour. She told her daughter, who as a bhikkhunī had also gone forth
Sā taṃ āha – "gaccha ayye, bhātu santikaṃ gantvā mama aphāsukabhāvaṃ ārocetvā bhesajjamāharā"ti.
, “Lady, go to your brother. Tell him my trouble and bring back some medicine.”
Sā gantvā ārocesi.
She went and told him.
Thero āha – "nāhaṃ mūlabhesajjādīni saṃharitvā bhesajjaṃ pacituṃ jānāmi, apica te bhesajjaṃ ācikkhissaṃ – "ahaṃ yato pabbajito, tato paṭṭhāya na mayā lobhasahagatena cittena indriyāni bhinditvā visabhāgarūpaṃ olokitapubbaṃ, iminā saccavacanena mātuyā me phāsu hotu, gaccha idaṃ vatvā upāsikāya sarīraṃ parimajjā"ti.
The elder said: “I do not know how to gather root medicines and such things and concoct a medicine from them. But rather I will tell you a medicine: since I went forth I have not broken [my virtue of restraint of] the sense faculties by looking at the bodily form of the opposite sex with a lustful mind. By this declaration of truth may my mother get well. Go and tell the lay devotee and rub her body.”
Sā gantvā imamatthaṃ ārocetvā tathā akāsi.
She went and told her what had happened and then did as she had been instructed.
Upāsikāya taṃkhaṇaṃyeva gaṇḍo pheṇapiṇḍo viya vilīyitvā antaradhāyi, sā uṭṭhahitvā "sace sammāsambuddho dhareyya, kasmā mama puttasadisassa bhikkhuno jālavicitrena hatthena sīsaṃ na parāmaseyyā"ti attamanavācaṃ nicchāresi.
At that very moment the lay devotee’s tumour vanished, shrinking away like a lump of froth. She got up and uttered a cry of joy: “If the Fully Enlightened One were still alive, why should he not stroke with his netadorned hand the head of a bhikkhu like my son?”
Tasmā –
So:
Kulaputtamāni aññopi, pabbajitvāna sāsane;
110. Let another noble clansman Gone forth in the Dispensation
Mittattherova tiṭṭheyya, vare indriyasaṃvare.
Keep, as did the Elder Mitta, Perfect faculty restraint.
Yathā pana indriyasaṃvaro satiyā, tathā vīriyena ājīvapārisuddhi sampādetabbā.
111.(c) As restraint of the faculties is to be undertaken by means of mindfulness, so livelihood purification is to be undertaken by means of energy.
Vīriyasādhanā hi sā, sammāraddhavīriyassa micchājīvappahānasambhavato.
For that is accomplished by energy, because the abandoning of wrong livelihood is effected in one who has rightly applied energy.
Tasmā anesanaṃ appatirūpaṃ pahāya vīriyena piṇḍapātacariyādīhi sammā esanāhi esā sampādetabbā parisuddhuppādeyeva paccaye paṭisevamānena aparisuddhuppāde āsīvise viya parivajjayatā.
Abandoning, therefore, unbefitting wrong search, this should be undertaken with energy by means of the right kind of search consisting in going on alms round, etc., avoiding what is of impure origin as though it were a poisonous snake, and using only requisites of pure origin.
Tattha apariggahitadhutaṅgassa saṅghato, gaṇato, dhammadesanādīhi cassa guṇehi pasannānaṃ gihīnaṃ santikā uppannā paccayā parisuddhuppādā nāma.
112.Herein, for one who has not taken up the ascetic practices, any requisites obtained from the Community, from a group of bhikkhus, or from laymen who have confidence in his special qualities of teaching the Dhamma, etc., are called “of pure origin.”
Piṇḍapātacariyādīhi pana atiparisuddhuppādāyeva.
But those obtained on alms round, etc., are of extremely pure origin.
Pariggahitadhutaṅgassa piṇḍapātacariyādīhi dhutaguṇe cassa pasannānaṃ santikā dhutaṅganiyamānulomena uppannā parisuddhuppādā nāma.
For one who has taken up the ascetic practices, those obtained on alms round, etc., and—as long as this is in accordance with the rules of the ascetic practices—from people who have confidence in his special qualities of asceticism, are called “of pure origin.”
Ekabyādhivūpasamatthañcassa pūtihariṭakīcatumadhuresu uppannesu "catumadhuraṃ aññepi sabrahmacārino paribhuñjissantī"ti cintetvā hariṭakīkhaṇḍameva paribhuñjamānassa dhutaṅgasamādānaṃ patirūpaṃ hoti.
And if he has got putrid urine with mixed gall nuts and “four-sweets”31 for the purpose of curing a certain affliction, and he eats only the broken gall nuts, thinking, “Other companions in the life of purity will eat the ‘four-sweets’,” his undertaking of the ascetic practices is befitting,
Esa hi "uttamaariyavaṃsiko bhikkhū"ti vuccati.
for he is then called a bhikkhu who is supreme in the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 28).
Ye panete cīvarādayo paccayā, tesu yassa kassaci bhikkhuno ājīvaṃ parisodhentassa cīvare ca piṇḍapāte ca nimittobhāsaparikathāviññattiyo na vaṭṭanti.
113. As to the robe and the other requisites, no hint, indication, roundabout talk, or intimation about robes and alms food is allowable for a bhikkhu who is purifying his livelihood.
Senāsane pana apariggahitadhutaṅgassa nimittobhāsaparikathā vaṭṭanti.
But a hint, indication, or roundabout talk about a resting place is allowable for one who has not taken up the ascetic practices.
Tattha nimittaṃ nāma senāsanatthaṃ bhūmiparikammādīni karontassa "kiṃ, bhante, kariyati, ko kārāpetī"ti gihīhi vutte "na koci"ti paṭivacanaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi evarūpaṃ nimittakammaṃ.
114. Herein, a “hint” is when one who is getting the preparing of the ground, etc., done for the purpose of [making] a resting place is asked, “What is being done, venerable sir? Who is having it done? ” and he replies, “No one”; or any other such giving of hints.
Obhāso nāma "upāsakā tumhe kuhiṃ vasathā"ti.
An “indication” is saying, “Lay follower, where do you live?”
Pāsāde, bhanteti.
—”In a mansion, venerable sir”
"Bhikkhūnaṃ pana upāsakā pāsādo na vaṭṭatī"ti vacanaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi evarūpaṃ obhāsakammaṃ.
—”But, lay follower, a mansion is not allowed for bhikkhus.” Or any other such giving of indication.
Parikathā nāma "bhikkhusaṅghassa senāsanaṃ sambādha"nti vacanaṃ, yā vā panaññāpi evarūpā pariyāyakathā.
“Roundabout talk” is saying, “The resting place for the Community of Bhikkhus is crowded”; or any other such oblique talk.
Bhesajje sabbampi vaá¹­á¹­ati.
115. All, however, is allowed in the case of medicine.
Tathā uppannaṃ pana bhesajjaṃ roge vūpasante paribhuñjituṃ vaṭṭati, na vaṭṭatīti.
But when the disease is cured, is it or is it not allowed to use the medicine obtained in this way?
Tattha vinayadharā "bhagavatā dvāraṃ dinnaṃ, tasmā vaṭṭatī"ti vadanti.
Herein, the Vinaya specialists say that the opening has been given by the Blessed One, therefore it is allowable.
Suttantikā pana "kiñcāpi āpatti na hoti, ājīvaṃ pana kopeti, tasmā na vaṭṭati"cceva vadanti.
But the Suttanta specialists say that though there is no offence, nevertheless the livelihood is sullied, therefore it is not allowable.
Yo pana bhagavatā anuññātāpi nimittobhāsaparikathāviññattiyo akaronto appicchatādiguṇeyeva nissāya jīvitakkhayepi paccupaṭṭhite aññatreva obhāsādīhi uppannapaccaye paṭisevati, esa "paramasallekhavuttī"ti vuccati, seyyathāpi thero sāriputto.
116. But one who does not use hints, indications, roundabout talk, or intimation, though these are permitted by the Blessed One, and who depends only on the special qualities of fewness of wishes, etc., and makes use only of requisites obtained otherwise than by indication, etc., even when he thus risks his life, is called supreme in living in effacement, like the venerable Sāriputta.
So kirāyasmā ekasmiṃ samaye pavivekaṃ brūhayamāno mahāmoggallānattherena saddhiṃ aññatarasmiṃ araññe viharati, athassa ekasmiṃ divase udaravātābādho uppajjitvā atidukkhaṃ janesi.
117. It seems that the venerable one was cultivating seclusion at one time, living in a certain forest with the Elder Mahā Moggallāna. One day an affliction of colic arose in him, causing him great pain.
Mahāmoggallānatthero sāyanhasamaye tassāyasmato upaṭṭhānaṃ gato theraṃ nipannaṃ disvā taṃ pavattiṃ pucchitvā "pubbe te, āvuso, kena phāsu hotī"ti pucchi.
In the evening the Elder Mahā Moggallāna went to attend upon him. Seeing him lying down, he asked what the reason was. And then he asked, “What used to make you better formerly, friend?”
Thero āha, "gihikāle me, āvuso, mātā sappimadhusakkarādīhi yojetvā asambhinnakhīrapāyāsaṃ adāsi, tena me phāsu ahosī"ti.
The elder said, “When I was a layman, friend, my mother used to mix ghee, honey, sugar and so on, and give me rice gruel with pure milk. That used to make me better.”
Sopi āyasmā "hotu, āvuso, sace mayhaṃ vā tuyhaṃ vā puññaṃ atthi, appeva nāma sve labhissāmā"ti āha.
Then the other said, “So be it, friend. If either you or I have merit, perhaps tomorrow we shall get some.”
Imaṃ pana nesaṃ kathāsallāpaṃ caṅkamanakoṭiyaṃ rukkhe adhivatthā devatā sutvā "sve ayyassa pāyāsaṃ uppādessāmī"ti tāvadeva therassa upaṭṭhākakulaṃ gantvā jeṭṭhaputtassa sarīraṃ āvisitvā pīḷaṃ janesi.
118. Now, a deity who dwelt in a tree at the end of the walk overheard their conversation. [Thinking] “I will find rice gruel for the lord tomorrow,” he went meanwhile to the family who was supporting the elder and entered into the body of the eldest son, causing him discomfort.
Athassa tikicchānimittaṃ sannipatite ñātake āha – "sace sve therassa evarūpaṃ nāma pāyāsaṃ paṭiyādetha, taṃ muñcissāmī"ti.
Then he told the assembled relatives the price of the cure: “If you prepare rice gruel of such a kind tomorrow for the elder, I will set this one free.”
Te "tayā avuttepi mayaṃ therānaṃ nibaddhaṃ bhikkhaṃ demā"ti vatvā dutiyadivase tathārūpaṃ pāyāsaṃ paṭiyādiyiṃsu.
They said: “Even without being told by you we regularly supply the elder’s needs,” and on the following day they prepared rice gruel of the kind needed.
Mahāmoggallānatthero pātova āgantvā "āvuso, yāva ahaṃ piṇḍāya caritvā āgacchāmi, tāva idheva hohī"ti vatvā gāmaṃ pāvisi.
119.The Elder Mahā Moggallāna came in the morning and said, “Stay here, friend, till I come back from the alms round.” Then he went into the village.
Te manussā paccuggantvā therassa pattaṃ gahetvā vuttappakārassa pāyāsassa pūretvā adaṃsu.
Those people met him. They took his bowl, filled it with the stipulated kind of rice gruel, and gave it back to him.
Thero gamanākāraṃ dassesi.
The elder made as though to go,
Te "bhuñjatha – bhante, tumhe, aparampi dassāmā"ti theraṃ bhojetvā puna pattapūraṃ adaṃsu.
but they said, “Eat, venerable sir, we shall give you more.” When the elder had eaten, they gave him another bowlful.
Thero gantvā "handāvuso sāriputta, paribhuñjā"ti upanāmesi.
The elder left. Bringing the alms food to the venerable Sāriputta, he said, “Here, friend Sāriputta, eat.”
Theropi taṃ disvā "atimanāpo pāyāso, kathaṃ nu kho uppanno"ti cintento tassa uppattimūlaṃ disvā āha – "āvuso moggallāna, aparibhogāraho piṇḍapāto"ti.
When the elder saw it, he thought, “The gruel is very nice. How was it got? ” and seeing how it had been obtained, he said, “Friend, the alms food cannot be used.”
Sopāyasmā "mādisena nāma ābhataṃ piṇḍapātaṃ na paribhuñjatī"ti cittampi anuppādetvā ekavacaneneva pattaṃ mukhavaṭṭiyaṃ gahetvā ekamante nikujjesi.
120. Instead of thinking, “He does not eat alms food brought by the likes of me,” the other at once took the bowl by the rim and turned it over on one side.
Pāyāsassa saha bhūmiyaṃ patiṭṭhānā therassa ābādho antaradhāyi, tato paṭṭhāya pañcacattālīsa vassāni na puna uppajji.
As the rice gruel fell on the ground the elder’s affliction vanished. From then on it did not appear again during forty-five years.
Tato mahāmoggallānaṃ āha – "āvuso, vacīviññattiṃ nissāya uppanno pāyāso antesu nikkhamitvā bhūmiyaṃ carantesupi paribhuñjituṃ ayuttarūpo"ti.
121.Then he said to the venerable Mahā Moggallāna, “Friend, even if one’s bowels come out and trail on the ground, it is not fitting to eat gruel got by verbal intimation,”
Imañca udānaṃ udānesi –
and he uttered this exclamation:
"Vacīviññattivipphārā, uppannaṃ madhupāyasaṃ;
The honey and the gruel obtained By influence of verbal hints
Sace bhutto bhaveyyāhaṃ, sājīvo garahito mama.
If I were to consent to eat My livelihood might well be blamed.
"Yadipi me antaguṇaṃ, nikkhamitvā bahi care;
And even if my bowels obtrude And trail outside, and even though
Neva bhindeyyaṃ ājīvaṃ, cajamānopi jīvitaṃ.
My life is to be jeopardized, I will not blot my livelihood (Mil 370).
"Ārādhemi sakaṃ cittaṃ, vivajjemi anesanaṃ;
For I will satisfy my heart By shunning all wrong kinds of search;
Nāhaṃ buddhappaṭikuṭṭhaṃ, kāhāmi ca anesana"nti.
And never will I undertake The search the Buddhas have condemned.
Ciragumbavāsikaambakhādakamahātissattheravatthupi cettha kathetabbaṃ.
122. And here too should be told the story of the Elder Mahā Tissa the Mango- eater who lived at Cīragumba32 (see §132 below).
Evaṃ sabbathāpi.
So in all respects:
"Anesanāya cittampi, ajanetvā vicakkhaṇo;
And, seeing clearly, give no thought To any search that is not good
Ājīvaṃ parisodheyya, saddhāpabbajito yatī"ti.
A man who has gone forth in faith Should purify his livelihood.
Yathā ca vīriyena ājīvapārisuddhi, tathā paccayasannissitasīlaṃ paññāya sampādetabbaṃ.
123. (d) And as livelihood purification is to be undertaken by means of energy, so virtue dependent on requisites is to be undertaken by means of understanding.
Paññāsādhanaṃ hi taṃ, paññavato paccayesu ādīnavānisaṃsadassanasamatthabhāvato.
For that is accomplished by understanding, because one who possesses understanding is able to see the advantages and the dangers in requisites.
Tasmā pahāya paccayagedhaṃ dhammena samena uppanne paccaye yathāvuttena vidhinā paññāya paccavekkhitvā paribhuñjantena sampādetabbaṃ.
So one should abandon greed for requisites and undertake that virtue by using requisites obtained lawfully and properly, after reviewing them with understanding in the way aforesaid.
Tattha duvidhaṃ paccavekkhaṇaṃ paccayānaṃ paṭilābhakāle, paribhogakāle ca.
124. Herein, reviewing is of two kinds: at the time of receiving requisites and at the time of using them.
Paṭilābhakālepi hi dhātuvasena vā paṭikūlavasena vā paccavekkhitvā ṭhapitāni cīvarādīni tato uttari paribhuñjantassa anavajjova paribhogo, paribhogakālepi.
For use (paribhoga) is blameless in one who at the time of receiving robes, etc., reviews them either as [mere] elements or as repulsive,33 and puts them aside for later use, and in one who reviews them thus at the time of using them.
Tatrāyaṃ sanniṭṭhānakaro vinicchayo –
125. Here is an explanation to settle the matter.
Cattāro hi paribhogā theyyaparibhogo, iṇaparibhogo, dāyajjaparibhogo, sāmiparibhogoti.
There are four kinds of use: use as theft,34 use as a debt? , use as an inheritance, use as a master.
Tatra saṅghamajjhepi nisīditvā paribhuñjantassa dussīlassa paribhogo theyyaparibhogo nāma.
Herein, use by one who is unvirtuous and makes use [of requisites], even sitting in the midst of the Community, is called “use as theft.”
Sīlavato apaccavekkhitvā paribhogo iṇaparibhogo nāma.
Use without reviewing by one who is virtuous is “use as a debt”;
Tasmā cīvaraṃ paribhoge paribhoge paccavekkhitabbaṃ, piṇḍapāto ālope ālope, tathā asakkontena purebhattapacchābhattapurimayāmamajjhimayāmapacchimayāmesu.
therefore the robe should be reviewed every time it is used, and the alms food lump by lump. One who cannot do this [should review it] before the meal, after the meal, in the first watch, in the middle watch, and in the last watch.
Sacassa apaccavekkhatova aruṇaṃ uggacchati, iṇaparibhogaṭṭhāne tiṭṭhati.
If dawn breaks on him without his having reviewed it, he finds himself in the position of one who has used it as a debt.
Senāsanampi paribhoge paribhoge paccavekkhitabbaṃ.
Also the resting place should be reviewed each time it is used.
Bhesajjassa paṭiggahaṇepi paribhogepi satipaccayatāva vaṭṭati.
Recourse to mindfulness both in the accepting and the use of medicine is proper;
Evaṃ santepi paṭiggahaṇe satiṃ katvā paribhoge akarontasseva āpatti, paṭiggahaṇe pana satiṃ akatvā paribhoge karontassa anāpatti.
but while this is so, though there is an offence for one who uses it without mindfulness after mindful acceptance, there is no offence for one who is mindful in using after accepting without mindfulness.
Catubbidhā hi suddhi desanāsuddhi, saṃvarasuddhi, pariyeṭṭhisuddhi, paccavekkhaṇasuddhīti.
126. Purification is of four kinds: purification by the Teaching, purification by restraint, purification by search, and purification by reviewing.
Tattha desanāsuddhi nāma pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlaṃ.
Herein, virtue of the Pātimokkha restraint is called “purification by the Teaching”;
Tañhi desanāya sujjhanato desanāsuddhīti vuccati.
for that is so called because it purifies by means of teaching.
Saṃvarasuddhi nāma indriyasaṃvarasīlaṃ.
Virtue of restraint of faculties is called “purification by restraint”;
Tañhi "na puna evaṃ karissāmī"ti cittādhiṭṭhānasaṃvareneva sujjhanato saṃvarasuddhīti vuccati.
for that is so called because it purifies by means of the restraint in the mental resolution, “I shall not do so again.”
Pariyeṭṭhisuddhi nāma ājīvapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
Virtue of livelihood purification is called “purification by search”;
Tañhi anesanaṃ pahāya dhammena samena paccaye uppādentassa pariyesanāya suddhattā pariyeṭṭhisuddhīti vuccati.
for that is so called because search is purified in one who abandons wrong search and gets requisites lawfully and properly.
Paccavekkhaṇasuddhi nāma paccayasannissitasīlaṃ.
Virtue dependent on requisites is called “purification by reviewing”;
Tañhi vuttappakārena paccavekkhaṇena sujjhanato paccavekkhaṇasuddhīti vuccati.
for that is so called because it purifies by the reviewing of the kind already described.
Tena vuttaṃ "paṭiggahaṇe pana satiṃ akatvā paribhoge karontassa anāpattī"ti.
Hence it was said above (§125): “There is no offence for one who is mindful in using after accepting without mindfulness.”
Sattannaṃ sekkhānaṃ paccayaparibhogo dāyajjaparibhogo nāma.
127. Use of the requisites by the seven kinds of trainers is called “use as an inheritance”;
Te hi bhagavato puttā, tasmā pitusantakānaṃ paccayānaṃ dāyādā hutvā te paccaye paribhuñjanti.
for they are the Buddha’s sons, therefore they make use of the requisites as the heirs of requisites belonging to their father.
Kiṃpanete bhagavato paccaye paribhuñjanti, udāhu gihīnaṃ paccaye paribhuñjantīti.
But how then, is it the Blessed One’s requisites or the laity’s requisites that are used?
Gihīhi dinnāpi bhagavatā anuññātattā bhagavato santakā honti, tasmā bhagavato paccaye paribhuñjantīti veditabbā.
Although given by the laity, they actually belong to the Blessed One, because it is by the Blessed One that they are permitted. That is why it should be understood that the Blessed One’s requisites are used.
Dhammadāyādasuttañcettha sādhakaṃ.
The confirmation here is in the Dhammadāyāda Sutta (MN 3).
Khīṇāsavānaṃ paribhogo sāmiparibhogo nāma.
Use by those whose cankers are destroyed is called “use as a master”;
Te hi taṇhāya dāsabyaṃ atītattā sāmino hutvā paribhuñjanti.
for they make use of them as masters because they have escaped the slavery of craving.
Imesu paribhogesu sāmiparibhogo ca dāyajjaparibhogo ca sabbesaṃ vaṭṭati.
128. As regards these kinds of use, use as a master and use as an inheritance are allowable for all.
Iṇaparibhogo na vaṭṭati.
Use as a debt is not allowable,
Theyyaparibhoge kathāyeva natthi.
to say nothing of use as theft.
Yo panāyaṃ sīlavato paccavekkhitaparibhogo, so iṇaparibhogassa paccanīkattā āṇaṇyaparibhogo vā hoti, dāyajjaparibhogeyeva vā saṅgahaṃ gacchati.
But this use of what is reviewed by one who is virtuous is use freed from debt because it is the opposite of use as a debt or is included in use as an inheritance too.
Sīlavāpi hi imāya sikkhāya samannāgatattā sekkhotveva saṅkhyaṃ gacchati.
For one possessed of virtue is called a trainer too because of possessing this training.
Imesu pana paribhogesu yasmā sāmiparibhogo aggo, tasmā taṃ patthayamānena bhikkhunā vuttappakārāya paccavekkhaṇāya paccavekkhitvā paribhuñjantena paccayasannissitasīlaṃ sampādetabbaṃ.
129. As regards these three kinds of use, since use as a master is best, when a bhikkhu undertakes virtue dependent on requisites, he should aspire to that and use them after reviewing them in the way described.
Evaṃ karonto hi kiccakārī hoti.
Vuttampi cetaṃ –
And this is said:
"Piṇḍaṃ vihāraṃ sayanāsanañca,
Of alms food, and of dwelling, And of a resting place,
Āpañca saṅghāṭirajūpavāhanaṃ;
And also of the water For washing dirt from robes”
Sutvāna dhammaṃ sugatena desitaṃ,
Who listens to the Dhamma As taught by the Sublime One
Saṅkhāya seve varapaññasāvako.
The truly wise disciple Makes use, after reviewing (Sn 391).
"Tasmā hi piṇḍe sayanāsane ca,
By alms food, [and by dwelling,] And by a resting place,
Āpe ca saṅghāṭirajūpavāhane;
And also by the water For washing dirt from robes”
Etesu dhammesu anūpalitto,
unsullied By any of these matters,
Bhikkhu yathā pokkhare vāribindu. (su. ni. 393-394);
A bhikkhu is like a drop of water Lying on leaves of lotus,(Sn 392).
"Kālena laddhā parato anuggahā,
“Since aid it is and timely Procured from another
Khajjesu bhojjesu ca sāyanesu ca;
In chewing and in eating, In tasting food besides:
Mattaṃ sa jaññā satataṃ upaṭṭhito,
The right amount he reckons, Mindful without remitting
Vaṇassa ālepanarūhane yathā.
He treats it as an ointment Applied upon a wound.” (Source untraced)
"Kantāre puttamaṃsaṃva, akkhassabbhañjanaṃ yathā;
“So like the child’s flesh in the desert Like the greasing for the axle,
Evaṃ āhāre āhāraṃ, yāpanatthamamucchito"ti.
He should eat without delusion Nutriment to keep alive.” (Source untraced)
Imassa ca paccayasannissitasīlassa paripūrakāritāya bhāgineyyasaṅgharakkhitasāmaṇerassa vatthu kathetabbaṃ.
130. And in connection with the fulfilling of this virtue dependent on requisites there should be told the story of the novice Saṅgharakkhita the Nephew.
So hi sammā paccavekkhitvā paribhuñji.
For he made use of requisites after reviewing,
Yathāha –
according as it is said:
"Upajjhāyo maṃ bhuñjamānaṃ, sālikūraṃ sunibbutaṃ;
“Seeing me eat a dish of rice Quite cold, my preceptor observed:
Mā heva tvaṃ sāmaṇera, jivhaṃ jhāpesi asaññato.
‘Novice, if you are not restrained, Be careful not to burn your tongue.’
"Upajjhāyassa vaco sutvā, saṃvegamalabhiṃ tadā;
On hearing my Preceptor’s words, I then and there felt urged to act
Ekāsane nisīditvā, arahattaṃ apāpuṇiṃ.
And, sitting in a single session, I reached the goal of Arahantship.
"Sohaṃ paripuṇṇasaṅkappo, cando pannaraso yathā;
Since I am now waxed full in thought Like the full moon of the fifteenth (M III 277),
Sabbāsavaparikkhīṇo, natthi dāni punabbhavo"ti.
And all my cankers are destroyed, There is no more becoming now.”
"Tasmā aññopi dukkhassa, patthayanto parikkhayaṃ;
And so should any other man Aspiring to end suffering
Yoniso paccavekkhitvā, paṭisevetha paccaye"ti.
Make use of all the requisites Wisely after reviewing them.
Evaṃ pātimokkhasaṃvarasīlādivasena catubbidhaṃ.
So virtue is of four kinds as “virtue of Pātimokkha restraint,” and so on.
Paṭhamasīlapañcakaṃ Table view Original pali

1.9 Paṭhama-sīla-pañcakaṃ: first virtue pentad in the fivefold

20.Pañcavidhakoṭṭhāsassa paṭhamapañcake anupasampannasīlādivasena attho veditabbo.
131. 18. In the first pentad in the fivefold section the meaning should be understood in accordance with the virtue of those not fully admitted to the Order, and so on.
Vuttañhetaṃ paṭisambhidāyaṃ –
For this is said in the Paṭisambhidā:
"Katamaṃ pariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ?
“(a) What is virtue consisting in limited purification?
Anupasampannānaṃ pariyantasikkhāpadānaṃ, idaṃ pariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
That of the training precepts for those not fully admitted to the Order: such is virtue consisting in limited purification.
Katamaṃ apariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ?
(b) What is virtue consisting in unlimited purification?
Upasampannānaṃ apariyantasikkhāpadānaṃ, idaṃ apariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
That of the training precepts for those fully admitted to the Order: such is virtue consisting in unlimited purification.
Katamaṃ paripuṇṇapārisuddhisīlaṃ?
(c) What is virtue consisting in fulfilled purification?
Puthujjanakalyāṇakānaṃ kusaladhamme yuttānaṃ sekkhapariyante paripūrakārīnaṃ kāye ca jīvite ca anapekkhānaṃ pariccattajīvitānaṃ, idaṃ paripuṇṇapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
That of magnanimous ordinary men devoted to profitable things, who are perfecting [the course] that ends in trainership, regardless of the physical body and life, having given up [attachment to] life: such is virtue of fulfilled purification,
Katamaṃ aparāmaṭṭhapārisuddhisīlaṃ?
(d) What is virtue consisting in purification not adhered to?
Sattannaṃ sekkhānaṃ, idaṃ aparāmaṭṭhapārisuddhisīlaṃ.
That of the seven kinds of trainer: such is virtue consisting in purification not adhered to.
Katamaṃ paṭippassaddhipārisuddhisīlaṃ?
(e) What is virtue consisting in tranquillized purification?
Tathāgatasāvakānaṃ khīṇāsavānaṃ paccekabuddhānaṃ tathāgatānaṃ arahantānaṃ sammāsambuddhānaṃ, idaṃ paṭippassaddhipārisuddhisīla"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.37).
That of the Perfect One’s disciples with cankers destroyed, of the Paccekabuddhas, of the Perfect Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened: such is virtue consisting in tranquillized purification” (Paṭis I 42–43).
Tattha anupasampannānaṃ sīlaṃ gaṇanavasena sapariyantattā pariyantapārisuddhisīlanti veditabbaṃ.
132. (a) Herein, the virtue of those not fully admitted to the Order should be understood as virtue consisting in limited purification, because it is limited by the number [of training precepts, that is, five or eight or ten].
Upasampannānaṃ –
(b) That of those fully admitted to the Order is [describable] thus:
"Nava koṭisahassāni, asītisatakoṭiyo;
Nine thousand millions, and a hundred And eighty millions then as well,
Paññāsasatasahassāni, chattiṃsā ca punāpare.
And fifty plus a hundred thousand, And thirty-six again to swell.
"Ete saṃvaravinayā, sambuddhena pakāsitā;
The total restraint disciplines: These rules the Enlightened One explains
Peyyālamukhena niddiṭṭhā, sikkhā vinayasaṃvare"ti. –
Told under heads for filling out, Which the Discipline restraint contains.35
Evaṃ gaṇanavasena sapariyantampi anavasesavasena samādānabhāvañca lābhayasañātiaṅgajīvitavasena adiṭṭhapariyantabhāvañca sandhāya apariyantapārisuddhisīlanti vuttaṃ, ciragumbavāsikaambakhādakamahātissattherassa sīlamiva.
So although limited in number, it should yet be understood as virtue consisting in unlimited purification, since it is undertaken without reserve and has no obvious limit such as gain, fame, relatives, limbs or life. Like the virtue of the Elder Mahā Tissa the Mango-eater who lived at Cīragumba (see §122 above).
Tathā hi so āyasmā –
133. For that venerable one never abandoned the following good man’s recollection:
"Dhanaṃ caje aṅgavarassa hetu, aṅgaṃ caje jīvitaṃ rakkhamāno;
“Wealth for a sound limb’s sake should be renounced, And one who guards his life gives up his limbs;
Aṅgaṃ dhanaṃ jīvitañcāpi sabbaṃ, caje naro dhammamanussaranto"ti. –
And wealth and limbs and life, each one of these, A man gives up who practices the Dhamma.”
Imaṃ sappurisānussatiṃ avijahanto jīvitasaṃsayepi sikkhāpadaṃ avītikkamma tadeva apariyantapārisuddhisīlaṃ nissāya upāsakassa piṭṭhigatova arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
And he never transgressed a training precept even when his life was in the balance, and in this way he reached Arahantship with that same virtue of unlimited purification as his support while he was being carried on a lay devotee’s back.
Yathāha –
According to as it is said:
"Na pitā napi te mātā, na ñāti napi bandhavo;
“Nor your mother nor your father Nor your relatives and kin
Karotetādisaṃ kiccaṃ, sīlavantassa kāraṇā.
Have done as much as this for you Because you are possessed of virtue.”
Saṃvegaṃ janayitvāna, sammasitvāna yoniso;
So, stirred with urgency, and wisely Comprehending36 with insight,
Tassa piṭṭhigato santo, arahattaṃ apāpuṇī"ti.
While carried on his helper’s back He reached the goal of Arahantship.
Puthujjanakalyāṇakānaṃ sīlaṃ upasampadato paṭṭhāya sudhotajātimaṇi viya suparikammakatasuvaṇṇaṃ viya ca atiparisuddhattā cittuppādamattakenapi malena virahitaṃ arahattasseva padaṭṭhānaṃ hoti, tasmā paripuṇṇapārisuddhīti vuccati, mahāsaṅgharakkhitabhāgineyyasaṅgharakkhitattherānaṃ viya.
134. (c) The magnanimous ordinary man’s virtue, which from the time of admission to the Order is devoid even of the stain of a [wrong] thought because of its extreme purity, like a gem of purest water, like well-refined gold, becomes the proximate cause for Arahantship itself, which is why it is called consisting of fulfilled purification; like that of the lders Saṅgharakkhita the Great and Saṅgharakkhita the Nephew.
Mahāsaṅgharakkhitattheraṃ kira atikkantasaṭṭhivassaṃ maraṇamañce nipannaṃ bhikkhusaṅgho lokuttarādhigamaṃ pucchi.
135. The Elder Saṅgharakkhita the Great (Mahā Saṅgharakkhita), aged over sixty, was lying, it seems, on his deathbed. The Order of Bhikkhus questioned him about attainment of the supramundane state.
Thero "natthi me lokuttaradhammo"ti āha.
The elder said: “I have no supramundane state.”
Athassa upaṭṭhāko daharabhikkhu āha – "bhante, tumhe parinibbutāti samantā dvādasayojanā manussā sannipatitā, tumhākaṃ puthujjanakālakiriyāya mahājanassa vippaṭisāro bhavissatī"ti.
Then the young bhikkhu who was attending on him said: “Venerable sir, people have come as much as twelve leagues, thinking that you have reached Nibbāna. It will be a disappointment for many if you die as an ordinary man.”
Āvuso, ahaṃ "metteyyaṃ bhagavantaṃ passissāmī"ti na vipassanaṃ paṭṭhapesiṃ.
— “Friend, thinking to see the Blessed One Metteyya, I did not try for insight.
Tena hi maṃ nisīdāpetvā okāsaṃ karohīti.
So help me to sit up and give me the chance.”
So theraṃ nisīdāpetvā bahi nikkhanto.
He helped the elder to sit up and went out.
Thero tassa saha nikkhamanāva arahattaṃ patvā accharikāya saññaṃ adāsi.
As he went out the elder reached Arahantship and he gave a sign by snapping his fingers.
Saṅgho sannipatitvā āha – "bhante, evarūpe maraṇakāle lokuttaradhammaṃ nibbattentā dukkaraṃ karitthā"ti.
The Order assembled and said to him: “Venerable sir, you have done a difficult thing in achieving the supramundane state in the hour of death.”
Nāvuso etaṃ dukkaraṃ, apica vo dukkaraṃ ācikkhissāmi – "ahaṃ, āvuso, pabbajitakālato paṭṭhāya asatiyā aññāṇapakataṃ kammaṃ nāma na passāmī"ti.
—“That was not difficult, friends. But rather I will tell you what is difficult. Friends, I see no action done [by me] without mindfulness and unknowingly since the time I went forth.”
Bhāgineyyopissa paññāsavassakāle evameva arahattaṃ pāpuṇīti.
His nephew also reached Arahantship in the same way at the age of fifty years.
"Appassutopi ce hoti, sīlesu asamāhito;
136. “Now, if a man has little learning And he is careless of his virtue,
Ubhayena naṃ garahanti, sīlato ca sutena ca.
They censure him on both accounts For lack of virtue and of learning.
"Appassutopi ce hoti, sīlesu susamāhito;
“But if he is of little learning Yet he is careful of his virtue,
Sīlato naṃ pasaṃsanti, tassa sampajjate sutaṃ.
They praise him for his virtue, so It is as though he too had learning.
"Bahussutopi ce hoti, sīlesu asamāhito;
“And if he is of ample learning Yet he is careless of his virtue,
Sīlato naṃ garahanti, nāssa sampajjate sutaṃ.
They blame him for his virtue, so It is as though he had no learning.
"Bahussutopi ce hoti, sīlesu susamāhito;
“But if he is of ample learning And he is careful of his virtue,
Ubhayena naṃ pasaṃsanti, sīlato ca sutena ca.
They give him praise on both accounts For virtue and as well for learning.
"Bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ, sappaññaṃ buddhasāvakaṃ;
“The Buddha’s pupil of much learning Who keeps the Law with understanding—
Nekkhaṃ jambonadasseva, ko taṃ ninditumarahati;
A jewel of Jambu River gold37 Who is here fit to censure him?
Devāpi naṃ pasaṃsanti, brahmunāpi pasaṃsito"ti. (a. ni. 4.6);
Deities praise him [constantly], By Brahmā also is he praised (A II 7).
Sekkhānaṃ pana sīlaṃ diṭṭhivasena aparāmaṭṭhattā, puthujjanānaṃ vā pana rāgavasena aparāmaṭṭhasīlaṃ aparāmaṭṭhapārisuddhīti veditabbaṃ, kuṭumbiyaputtatissattherassa sīlaṃ viya.
137. (d) What should be understood as virtue consisting in purification not adhered to is trainers’ virtue, because it is not adhered to by [false] view, and ordinary men’s virtue when not adhered to by greed. Like the virtue of the Elder Tissa the Landowner’s Son (Kuṭumbiyaputta-Tissa-thera).
So hi āyasmā tathārūpaṃ sīlaṃ nissāya arahatte patiṭṭhātukāmo verike āha –
Wanting to become established in Arahantship in dependence on such virtue, this venerable one told his enemies:
"Ubho pādāni bhinditvā, saññapessāmi vo ahaṃ;
I broke the bones of both my legs To give the pledge you asked from me.
Aṭṭiyāmi harāyāmi, sarāgamaraṇaṃ aha"nti.
I am revolted and ashamed At death accompanied by greed.
"Evāhaṃ cintayitvāna, sammasitvāna yoniso;
“And after I had thought on this, And wisely then applied insight,
Sampatte aruṇuggamhi, arahattaṃ apāpuṇi"nti. (dī. ni. aṭṭha. 2.373);
When the sun rose and shone on me, I had become an Arahant” (M-a I 233).
Aññataropi mahāthero bāḷhagilāno sahatthā āhārampi paribhuñjituṃ asakkonto sake muttakarīse palipanno samparivattati, taṃ disvā aññataro daharo "aho dukkhā jīvitasaṅkhārā"ti āha.
138. Also there was a certain senior elder who was very ill and unable to eat with his own hand. He was writhing smeared with his own urine and excrement. Seeing him, a certain young bhikkhu said, “Oh, what a painful process life is!”
Tamenaṃ mahāthero āha – "ahaṃ, āvuso, idāni miyyamāno saggasampattiṃ labhissāmi, natthi me ettha saṃsayo, imaṃ pana sīlaṃ bhinditvā laddhasampatti nāma sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya paṭiladdhagihibhāvasadisī"ti vatvā "sīleneva saddhiṃ marissāmī"ti tattheva nipanno tameva rogaṃ sammasanto arahattaṃ patvā bhikkhusaṅghassa imāhi gāthāhi byākāsi –
The senior elder told him: “If I were to die now, friend, I should obtain the bliss-(sukha) of heaven; I have no doubt of that. But the bliss-(sukha) obtained by breaking this virtue would be like the lay state obtained by disavowing the training,” and he added: “I shall die together with my virtue.” As he lay there, he comprehended that same illness [with insight], and he reached Arahantship. Having done so, he pronounced these verses to the Order of Bhikkhus:
"Phuṭṭhassa me aññatarena byādhinā,
“I am victim of a sickening disease
Rogena bāḷhaṃ dukhitassa ruppato;
That racks me with its burden of cruel pain;
Parisussati khippamidaṃ kaḷevaraṃ,
So this my corpse will soon have withered up
Pupphaṃ yathā paṃsuni ātape kataṃ.
As flowers in the dust burnt by the sun.
"Ajaññaṃ jaññasaṅkhātaṃ, asuciṃ sucisammataṃ;
“Unbeautiful called beautiful, Unclean while reckoned as if clean,
Nānākuṇapaparipūraṃ, jaññarūpaṃ apassato.
Though full of ordure seeming fair To him that cannot see it clear.
"Dhiratthu maṃ āturaṃ pūtikāyaṃ, duggandhiyaṃ asuci byādhidhammaṃ;
“So out upon this ailing rotting body, Fetid and filthy, punished with affliction,
Yatthappamattā adhimucchitā pajā, hāpenti maggaṃ sugatūpapattiyā"ti.
Doting on which this silly generation Has lost the way to be reborn in heaven! ” (J-a II 437)
Arahantādīnaṃ pana sīlaṃ sabbadarathappaṭippassaddhiyā parisuddhattā paṭippassaddhipārisuddhīti veditabbaṃ.
139. (e) It is the virtue of the Arahants, etc., that should be understood as tranquillized purification, because of tranquillization of all disturbance and because of purifiedness.
Evaṃ pariyantapārisuddhiādivasena pañcavidhaṃ.
So it is of five kinds as “consisting in limited purification,” and so on.
Dutiyasīlapañcakaṃ Table view Original pali

1.10 Dutiya-sīla-pañcakaṃ: second virtue of fivefold

Dutiyapañcake pāṇātipātādīnaṃ pahānādivasena attho veditabbo.
40. 19. In the second pentad the meaning should be understood as the abandoning, etc., of killing living things, etc.;
Vuttañhetaṃ paṭisambhidāyaṃ –
for this is said in the Paṭisambhidā:
"Pañca sīlāni pāṇātipātassa pahānaṃ sīlaṃ, veramaṇī sīlaṃ, cetanā sīlaṃ, saṃvaro sīlaṃ, avītikkamo sīlaṃ.
“Five kinds of virtue: (1) In the case of killing living things, (a) abandoning is virtue, (b) abstention is virtue, (c) volition is virtue, (d) restraint is virtue, (e) non- transgression is virtue.
Adinnādānassa, kāmesumicchācārassa, musāvādassa, pisuṇāya vācāya, pharusāya vācāya, samphappalāpassa, abhijjhāya, byāpādassa, micchādiṭṭhiyā, nekkhammena kāmacchandassa, abyāpādena byāpādassa, ālokasaññāya thinamiddhassa, avikkhepena uddhaccassa, dhammavavatthānena vicikicchāya, ñāṇena avijjāya, pāmojjena aratiyā, paṭhamena jhānena nīvaraṇānaṃ, dutiyena jhānena vitakkavicārānaṃ, tatiyena jhānena pītiyā, catutthena jhānena sukhadukkhānaṃ, ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiyā rūpasaññāya paṭighasaññāya nānattasaññāya, viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiyā ākāsānañcāyatanasaññāya, ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyā viññāṇañcāyatanasaññāya, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiyā ākiñcaññāyatanasaññāya, aniccānupassanāya niccasaññāya, dukkhānupassanāya sukhasaññāya, anattānupassanāya attasaññāya, nibbidānupassanāya nandiyā, virāgānupassanāya rāgassa, nirodhānupassanāya samudayassa, paṭinissaggānupassanāya ādānassa, khayānupassanāya ghanasaññāya, vayānupassanāya āyūhanassa, vipariṇāmānupassanāya dhuvasaññāya, animittānupassanāya nimittassa, appaṇihitānupassanāya paṇidhiyā, suññatānupassanāya abhinivesassa, adhipaññādhammavipassanāya sārādānābhinivesassa, yathābhūtañāṇadassanena sammohābhinivesassa, ādīnavānupassanāya ālayābhinivesassa, paṭisaṅkhānupassanāya appaṭisaṅkhāya, vivaṭṭanānupassanāya saññogābhinivesassa, sotāpattimaggena diṭṭhekaṭṭhānaṃ kilesānaṃ, sakadāgāmimaggena oḷārikānaṃ kilesānaṃ, anāgāmimaggena aṇusahagatānaṃ kilesānaṃ, arahattamaggena sabbakilesānaṃ pahānaṃ sīlaṃ, veramaṇī, cetanā, saṃvaro, avītikkamo sīlaṃ.
(2) In the case of taking what is not given … (3) In the case of sexual misconduct … (4) In the case of false speech … (5) In the case of malicious speech … (6) In the case of harsh speech … (7) In the case of gossip … [50] (8) In the case of covetousness … (9) In the case of ill will … (10) In the case of wrong view … (11) “Through renunciation in the case of lust, (a) abandoning is virtue … (12) Through non-ill-will in the case of ill-will … (13) Through perception of light in the case of stiffness-and-torpor … (14) Through non-distraction … agitation … (15) Through definition of states (dhamma) … uncertainty … (16) Through knowledge … ignorance … (17) Through gladdening in the case of boredom … (18) “Through the first jhāna in the case of the hindrances, (a) abandoning is virtue … (19) Through the second jhāna … applied and sustained thought … (20) Through the third jhāna … happiness … (21) Through the fourth jhāna in the case of pleasure and pain, (a) abandoning is virtue … (22) Through the attainment of the base consisting of boundless space in the case of perceptions of matter, perceptions of resistance, and perceptions of variety, (a) abandoning is virtue … (23) Through the attainment of the base consisting of boundless consciousness in the case of the perception of the base consisting of boundless space … (24) Through the attainment of the base consisting of nothingness in the case of the perception of the base consisting of boundless consciousness … (25) Through the attainment of the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception in the case of the perception of the base consisting of nothingness … (26) “Through the contemplation of impermanence in the case of the perception of permanence, (a) abandoning is virtue … (27) Through the contemplation of pain in the case of the perception of pleasure … (28) Through the contemplation of not-self in the case of the perception of self … (29) Through the contemplation of dispassion in the case of the perception of delighting … (30) Through the contemplation of fading away in the case of greed … (31) Through the contemplation of cessation in the case of originating … (32) Through the contemplation of relinquishment in the case of grasping … (33) “Through the contemplation of destruction in the case of the perception of compactness, (a) abandoning is virtue … (34) Through the contemplation of fall [of formations] in the case of accumulating [kamma] … (35) Through the contemplation of change in the case of the perception of lastingness … (36) Through the contemplation of the signless in the case of a sign … (37) Through the contemplation of the desireless in the case of desire … (38) Through the contemplation of voidness in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) … (39) Through insight into states that is higher understanding in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to grasping … (40) Through correct knowledge and vision in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to confusion … (41) Through the contemplation of danger in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to reliance [on formations] … (42) Through reflection in the case of non-reflection … (43) Through the contemplation of turning away in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to bondage …
Evarūpāni sīlāni cittassa avippaṭisārāya saṃvattanti, pāmojjāya saṃvattanti, pītiyā saṃvattanti, passaddhiyā saṃvattanti, somanassāya saṃvattanti, āsevanāya saṃvattanti, bhāvanāya saṃvattanti, bahulīkammāya saṃvattanti, alaṅkārāya saṃvattanti, parikkhārāya saṃvattanti, parivārāya saṃvattanti, pāripūriyā saṃvattanti, ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattantī"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.41).
(44) “Through the path of stream-entry in the case of defilements coefficient with [false] view, (a) abandoning is virtue … (45) Through the path of once-return in the case of gross defilements … (46) Through the path of non-return in the case of residual defilements … (47) Through the path of Arahantship in the case of all defilements, (a) abandoning is virtue, (b) abstention is virtue, (c) volition is virtue, (d) restraint is virtue, (e) non-transgression is virtue. “Such virtues lead to non-remorse in the mind, to gladdening, to happiness, to tranquillity, to joy, to repetition, to development, to cultivation, to embellishment, to the requisite [for concentration], to the equipment [of concentration], to fulfilment, to complete dispassion, to fading away, to cessation, to peace, to direct-knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.”38 (Paṭis I 46–47)
Ettha ca pahānanti koci dhammo nāma natthi aññatra vuttappakārānaṃ pāṇātipātādīnaṃ anuppādamattato.
141.And here there is no state called abandoning other than the mere non-arising of the killing of living things, etc., as stated.
Yasmā pana taṃ taṃ pahānaṃ tassa tassa kusaladhammassa patiṭṭhānaṭṭhena upadhāraṇaṃ hoti, vikampābhāvakaraṇena ca samādānaṃ.
But the abandoning of a given [unprofitable state] upholds a given profitable state in the sense of providing a foundation for it, and concentrates it by preventing wavering,
Tasmā pubbe vutteneva upadhāraṇasamādhānasaṅkhātena sīlanaṭṭhena sīlanti vuttaṃ.
so it is called “virtue” (sīla) in the sense of composing (sīlana), reckoned as upholding and concentrating as stated earlier (§19).
Itare cattāro dhammā tato tato veramaṇivasena, tassa tassa saṃvaravasena, tadubhayasampayuttacetanāvasena, taṃ taṃ avītikkamantassa avītikkamanavasena ca cetaso pavattisabbhāvaṃ sandhāya vuttā.
The other four things mentioned refer to the presence39 of occurrence of will as abstention from such and such, as restraint of such and such, as the volition associated with both of these, and as non-transgression in one who does not transgress such and such.
Sīlaṭṭho pana tesaṃ pubbe pakāsitoyevāti.
But their meaning of virtue has been explained already.
Evaṃ pahānasīlādivasena pañcavidhaṃ.
So it is of five kinds as “virtue consisting in abandoning” and so on.
Ettāvatā ca kiṃ sīlaṃ?
142. At this point “What is virtue?
Kenaṭṭhena sīlaṃ?
In what sense is it virtue?
Kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānāni?
What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause?
Kimānisaṃsaṃ sīlaṃ?
What are the benefits of virtue?
Katividhaṃ cetaṃ sīlanti?
How many kinds of virtue are there?”
Imesaṃ pañhānaṃ vissajjanaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.
the answers to the questions are complete.
Sīlasaṃkilesavodānaṃ Table view Original pali

1.11 Sīla-saṃ-kilesa-vodānaṃ: virtue with defiling and cleansing

21.Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "ko cassa saṃkileso, kiṃ vodāna"nti.
143. However, it was also asked (vi) WHAT IS THE DEFILING OF IT? and WHAT IS THE CLEANSING OF IT?
Tatra vadāma – khaṇḍādibhāvo sīlassa saṃkileso, akhaṇḍādibhāvo vodānaṃ.
We answer that virtue’s tornness, etc., is its defiling, and that its untornness, etc., is its cleansing.
So pana khaṇḍādibhāvo lābhayasādihetukena bhedena ca sattavidhamethunasaṃyogena ca saṅgahito.
Now, that tornness, etc., are comprised under the breach that has gain, fame, etc., as its cause, and under the seven bonds of sexuality.
Tathā hi yassa sattasu āpattikkhandhesu ādimhi vā ante vā sikkhāpadaṃ bhinnaṃ hoti, tassa sīlaṃ pariyante chinnasāṭako viya khaṇḍaṃ nāma hoti.
When a man has broken the training course at the beginning or at the end in any instance of the seven classes of offences,40 his virtue is called torn, like a cloth that is cut at the edge.
Yassa pana vemajjhe bhinnaṃ, tassa majjhe chiddasāṭako viya chiddaṃ nāma hoti.
But when he has broken it in the middle, it is called rent, like a cloth that is rent in the middle.
Yassa paṭipāṭiyā dve tīṇi bhinnāni, tassa piṭṭhiyā vā kucchiyā vā uṭṭhitena visabhāgavaṇṇena kāḷarattādīnaṃ aññatarasarīravaṇṇā gāvī viya sabalaṃ nāma hoti.
When he has broken it twice or thrice in succession, it is called blotched, like a cow whose body is some such colour as black or red with a discrepant colour appearing on the back or the belly.
Yassa antarantarā bhinnāni, tassa antarantarā visabhāgavaṇṇabinduvicitrā gāvī viya kammāsaṃ nāma hoti.
When he has broken it [all over] at intervals, it is called mottled, like a cow speckled [all over] with discrepant- coloured spots at intervals.
Evaṃ tāva lābhādihetukena bhedena khaṇḍādibhāvo hoti.
This in the first place, is how there comes to be tornness with the breach that has gain, etc., as its cause.
Evaṃ sattavidhamethunasaṃyogavasena.
144.And likewise with the seven bonds of sexuality;
Vuttañhi bhagavatā –
for this is said by the Blessed One:
"Idha, brāhmaṇa, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā sammā brahmacārī paṭijānamāno na heva kho mātugāmena saddhiṃ dvayaṃdvayasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati, apica kho mātugāmassa ucchādanaṃ parimaddanaṃ nhāpanaṃ sambāhanaṃ sādiyati, so tadassādeti, taṃ nikāmeti, tena ca vittiṃ āpajjati, idampi kho, brāhmaṇa, brahmacariyassa khaṇḍampi chiddampi sabalampi kammāsampi.
“Here, brahman, some ascetic or brahman claims to lead the life of purity rightly; for he does not enter into actual sexual intercourse with women. Yet he agrees to massage, manipulation, bathing and rubbing down by women. He enjoys it, desires it and takes satisfaction in it. This is what is torn, rent, blotched and mottled in one who leads the life of purity.
Ayaṃ vuccati, brāhmaṇa, aparisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ carati saṃyutto methunena saṃyogena, na parimuccati jātiyā.
This man is said to lead a life of purity that is unclean. As one who is bound by the bond of sexuality, he will not be released from birth,
Jarāya maraṇena - pe - na parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
ageing and death … he will not be released from suffering, I say.
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - paṭijānamāno na heva kho mātugāmena saddhiṃ dvayaṃ dvayasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati.
145. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things],
Napi mātugāmassa ucchādanaṃ - pe - sādiyati.
Apica kho mātugāmena saddhiṃ sañjagghati saṃkīḷati saṃkelāyati, so tadassādeti - pe - na parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
yet he jokes, plays and amuses himself with women …
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - na heva kho mātugāmena saddhiṃ dvayaṃ dvayasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati.
146. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things],
Napi mātugāmassa ucchādanaṃ - pe - sādiyati.
Napi mātugāmena saddhiṃ sañjagghati saṃkīḷati saṃkelāyati.
Apica kho mātugāmassa cakkhunā cakkhuṃ upanijjhāyati pekkhati, so tadassādeti - pe - na parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
yet he gazes and stares at women eye to eye …
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - na heva kho mātugāmena… napi mātugāmassa… napi mātugāmena… napi mātugāmassa - pe - pekkhati.
147. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things],
Apica kho mātugāmassa saddaṃ suṇāti tirokuṭṭā vā tiropākārā vā hasantiyā vā bhaṇantiyā vā gāyantiyā vā rodantiyā vā, so tadassādeti - pe - dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
yet he listens to the sound of women through a wall or through a fence as they laugh or talk or sing or weep …
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - na heva kho mātugāmena… napi mātugāmassa… napi mātugāmena… napi mātugāmassa - pe - rodantiyā vā.
148. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], yet he
Apica kho yānissa tāni pubbe mātugāmena saddhiṃ hasitalapitakīḷitāni, tāni anussarati, so tadassādeti - pe - dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
recalls laughs and talks and games that he formerly had with women …
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - na heva kho mātugāmena - pe - napi mātugāmassa - pe - napi yānissa tāni pubbe mātugāmena saddhiṃ hasitalapitakīḷitāni, tāni anussarati.
149. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things],
Apica kho passati gahapatiṃ vā gahapatiputtaṃ vā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitaṃ samaṅgībhūtaṃ paricārayamānaṃ, so tadassādeti - pe - dukkhasmāti vadāmi.
yet he sees a householder or a householder’s son possessed of, endowed with, and indulging in, the five cords of sense desire …
"Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, idhekacco samaṇo vā - pe - na heva kho mātugāmena - pe - napi passati gahapatiṃ vā gahapatiputtaṃ vā - pe - paricārayamānaṃ.
150. “Furthermore, brahman, while he does not agree to [these things],
Apica kho aññataraṃ devanikāyaṃ paṇidhāya brahmacariyaṃ carati 'imināhaṃ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā'ti.
yet he leads the life of purity aspiring to some order of deities, [thinking] ‘Through this rite (virtue) or this ritual (vow) or this asceticism I shall become a [great] deity or some [lesser] deity.’
So tadassādeti, taṃ nikāmeti, tena ca vittiṃ āpajjati.
He enjoys it, desires it, and takes satisfaction in it.
Idampi kho, brāhmaṇa, brahmacariyassa khaṇḍampi chiddampi sabalampi kammāsampī"ti (a. ni. 7.50).
This, brahman, is what is torn, rent, blotched and mottled in one who leads the life of purity. This man … will not be released from suffering, I say” (A IV 54–56).
Evaṃ lābhādihetukena bhedena ca sattavidhamethunasaṃyogena ca khaṇḍādibhāvo saṅgahitoti veditabbo.
This is how tornness, etc., should be understood as included under the breach that has gain, etc., as its cause and under the seven bonds of sexuality.
Akhaṇḍādibhāvo pana sabbaso sikkhāpadānaṃ abhedena, bhinnānañca sappaṭikammānaṃ paṭikammakaraṇena, sattavidhamethunasaṃyogābhāvena ca, aparāya ca "kodho upanāho makkho paḷāso issā macchariyaṃ māyā sātheyyaṃ thambho sārambho māno atimāno mado pamādo"tiādīnaṃ pāpadhammānaṃ anuppattiyā, appicchatāsantuṭṭhitāsallekhatādīnañca guṇānaṃ uppattiyā saṅgahito.
151.Untornness, however, is accomplished by the complete non-breaking of the training precepts, by making amends for those broken for which amends should be made, by the absence of the seven bonds of sexuality, and, as well, by the non- arising of such evil things as anger, enmity, contempt, domineering, envy, avarice, deceit, fraud, obduracy, presumption, pride (conceit), haughtiness, conceit (vanity), and negligence (MN 7), and by the arising of such qualities as fewness of wishes, contentment, and effacement (MN 24).
Yāni hi sīlāni lābhādīnampi atthāya abhinnāni, pamādadosena vā bhinnānipi paṭikammakatāni, methunasaṃyogehi vā kodhupanāhādīhi vā pāpadhammehi anupahatāni, tāni sabbaso akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsānīti vuccanti.
152. Virtues not broken for the purpose of gain, etc., and rectified by making amends after being broken by the faults of negligence, etc., and not damaged by the bonds of sexuality and by such evil things as anger and enmity, are called entirely untorn, unrent, unblotched, and unmottled.
Tāniyeva bhujissabhāvakaraṇato ca bhujissāni, viññūhi pasatthattā viññupasatthāni, taṇhādiṭṭhīhi aparāmaṭṭhattā aparāmaṭṭhāni, upacārasamādhiṃ vā appanāsamādhiṃ vā saṃvattayantīti samādhisaṃvattanikāni ca honti.
And those same virtues are liberating since they bring about the state of a freeman, and praised by the wise since it is by the wise that they are praised, and unadhered-to since they are not adhered to by means of craving and views, and conducive to concentration since they conduce to access concentration or to absorption concentration.
Tasmā nesaṃ esa 'akhaṇḍādibhāvo vodāna'nti veditabbo.
That is why their untornness, etc., should be understood as “cleansing” (see also VII.101f.).
Taṃ panetaṃ vodānaṃ dvīhākārehi sampajjati sīlavipattiyā ca ādīnavadassanena, sīlasampattiyā ca ānisaṃsadassanena.
153.This cleansing comes about in two ways: through seeing the danger of failure in virtue, and through seeing the benefit of perfected virtue.
Tattha "pañcime, bhikkhave, ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā"ti (dī. ni. 2.149; a. ni. 5.213) evamādisuttanayena sīlavipattiyā ādīnavo daṭṭhabbo.
Herein, the danger of failure in virtue can be seen in accordance with such suttas as that beginning, “Bhikkhus, there are these five dangers for the unvirtuous in the failure of virtue” (A III 252).
Apica dussīlo puggalo dussīlyahetu amanāpo hoti devamanussānaṃ, ananusāsanīyo sabrahmacārīnaṃ, dukkhito dussīlyagarahāsu, vippaṭisārī sīlavataṃ pasaṃsāsu, tāya ca pana dussīlyatāya sāṇasāṭako viya dubbaṇṇo hoti.
154. Furthermore, on account of his unvirtuousness an unvirtuous person is displeasing to deities and human beings, is uninstructable by his fellows in the life of purity, suffers when unvirtuousness is censured, and is remorseful when the virtuous are praised. Owing to that unvirtuousness he is as ugly as hemp cloth.
Ye kho panassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjanti, tesaṃ dīgharattaṃ apāyadukkhāvahanato dukkhasamphasso.
Contact with him is painful because those who fall in with his views are brought to long-lasting suffering in the states of loss.
Yesaṃ deyyadhammaṃ paṭiggaṇhāti, tesaṃ namahapphalakaraṇato appaggho.
He is worthless because he causes no great fruit [to accrue] to those who give him gifts.
Anekavassagaṇikagūthakūpo viya dubbisodhano.
He is as hard to purify as a cesspit many years old.
Chavālātamiva ubhato paribāhiro.
He is like a log from a pyre (see It 99); for he is outside both [recluseship and the lay state].
Bhikkhubhāvaṃ paṭijānantopi abhikkhuyeva gogaṇaṃ anubandhagadrabho viya.
Though claiming the bhikkhu state he is no bhikkhu, so he is like a donkey following a herd of cattle.
Satatubbiggo sabbaverikapuriso viya.
He is always nervous, like a man who is everyone’s enemy.
Asaṃvāsāraho matakaḷevaraṃ viya.
He is as unfit to live with as a dead carcase.
Sutādiguṇayuttopi sabrahmacārīnaṃ apūjāraho susānaggi viya brāhmaṇānaṃ.
Though he may have the qualities of learning, etc., he is as unfit for the homage of his fellows in the life of purity as a charnel-ground fire is for that of brahmans.
Abhabbo visesādhigame andho viya rūpadassane.
He is as incapable of reaching the distinction of attainment as a blind man is of seeing a visible object.
Nirāso saddhamme caṇḍālakumārako viya rajje.
He is as careless of the Good Law as a guttersnipe is of a kingdom.
Sukhitosmīti maññamānopi dukkhitova aggikkhandhapariyāye vuttadukkhabhāgitāya.
Though he fancies he is happy, yet he suffers because he reaps suffering as told in the Discourse on the Mass of Fire (A IV 128–34).
Dussīlānañhi pañcakāmaguṇaparibhogavandanamānanādisukhassādagadhitacittānaṃ tappaccayaṃ anussaraṇamattenāpi hadayasantāpaṃ janayitvā uṇhalohituggārappavattanasamatthaṃ atikaṭukaṃ dukkhaṃ dassento sabbākārena paccakkhakammavipāko bhagavā āha –
155.Now, the Blessed One has shown that when the unvirtuous have their minds captured by pleasure and satisfaction in the indulgence of the five cords of sense desires, in [receiving] salutation, in being honoured, etc., the result of that kamma, directly visible in all ways, is very violent pain, with that [kamma] as its condition, capable of producing a gush of hot blood by causing agony of heart with the mere recollection of it.
"Passatha no tumhe, bhikkhave, amuṃ mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ ādittaṃ sampajjalitaṃ sajotibhūta'nti?
Here is the text: “Bhikkhus, do you see that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing?
Evaṃ, bhanteti.
— Yes, venerable sir.
Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ amuṃ mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ ādittaṃ sampajjalitaṃ sajotibhūtaṃ āliṅgetvā upanisīdeyya vā upanipajjeyya vā, yaṃ khattiyakaññaṃ vā brāhmaṇakaññaṃ vā gahapatikaññaṃ vā mudutalunahatthapādaṃ āliṅgetvā upanisīdeyya vā upanipajjeyya vāti.
—What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one [gone forth] should sit down or lie down embracing that mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing, or that he should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden or a brahman maiden or a maiden of householder family, with soft, delicate hands and feet?
Etadeva, bhante, varaṃ yaṃ khattiyakaññaṃ vā - pe - upanipajjeyya vā.
—It would be better, venerable sir, that he should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden …
Dukkhaṃ hetaṃ, bhante, yaṃ amuṃ mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ - pe - upanipajjeyya vāti.
It would be painful, venerable sir, if he sat down or lay down embracing that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing.
Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave, yathā etadeva tassa varaṃ dussīlassa pāpadhammassa asucisaṅkassarasamācārassa paṭicchannakammantassa assamaṇassa samaṇapaṭiññassa abrahmacārissa brahmacāripaṭiññassa antopūtikassa avassutassa kasambujātassa yaṃ amuṃ mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ - pe - upanipajjeyya vā.
156. “I say to you, bhikkhus, I declare to you, bhikkhus, that it would be better for one [gone forth] who is unvirtuous, who is evil-natured, of unclean and suspect habits, secretive of his acts, who is not an ascetic and claims to be one, who does not lead the life of purity and claims to do so, who is rotten within, lecherous, and full of corruption, to sit down or lie down embracing that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Tatonidānaṃ hi so, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ vā nigaccheyya maraṇamattaṃ vā dukkhaṃ, na tveva tappaccayā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjeyyā"ti (a. ni. 7.72).
By his doing so, bhikkhus, he might come to death or deadly suffering, yet he would not on that account, on the breakup of the body, after death, reappear in states of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell. But if one who is unvirtuous, evil-natured … and full of corruption, should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden … that would be long for his harm and suffering: on the break-up of the body, after death, he would reappear in states of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell” (A IV 128–29).
Evaṃ aggikkhandhupamāya itthipaṭibaddhapañcakāmaguṇaparibhogapaccayaṃ dukkhaṃ dassetvā eteneva upāyena –
157.Having thus shown by means of the analogy of the mass of fire the suffering that is bound up with women and has as its condition the indulgence of the five cords of sense desires [by the unvirtuous],
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso daḷhāya vāḷarajjuyā ubho jaṅghā veṭhetvā ghaṃseyya, sā chaviṃ chindeyya, chaviṃ chetvā cammaṃ chindeyya, cammaṃ chetvā maṃsaṃ chindeyya, maṃsaṃ chetvā nhāruṃ chindeyya, nhāruṃ chetvā aṭṭhiṃ chindeyya, aṭṭhiṃ chetvā aṭṭhimiñjaṃ āhacca tiṭṭheyya, yaṃ vā khattiyamahāsālānaṃ vā brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṃ vā gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā abhivādanaṃ sādiyeyyā"ti ca.
“What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong horse- hair rope twisted round both legs by a strong man and tightened so that it cut through the outer skin, and having cut through the outer skin it cut through the inner skin, and having cut through the inner skin it cut through the flesh, and having cut through the flesh it cut through the sinews, and having cut through the sinews it cut through the bones, and having cut through the bones it remained crushing the bone marrow—or that he should consent to the homage of great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders? ” (A IV 129).
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso tiṇhāya sattiyā teladhotāya paccorasmiṃ pahareyya, yaṃ vā khattiyamahāsālānaṃ vā brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṃ vā gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā añjalikammaṃ sādiyeyyā"ti ca.
And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man wound one’s breast with a sharp spear tempered in oil—or that he should consent to the reverential salutation of great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders? ” (A IV 130).
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso tattena ayopaṭṭena ādittena sampajjalitena sajotibhūtena kāyaṃ sampaliveṭheyya, yaṃ vā khattiyamahāsālānaṃ vā brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṃ vā gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā saddhādeyyaṃ cīvaraṃ paribhuñjeyyā"ti ca.
And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one’s body should be wrapped by a strong man in a red-hot iron sheet burning, blazing and glowing— or that he should use robes given out of faith by great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders? ” (A IV 130–31).
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso tattena ayosaṅkunā ādittena sampajjalitena sajotibhūtena mukhaṃ vivaritvā tattaṃ lohaguḷaṃ ādittaṃ sampajjalitaṃ sajotibhūtaṃ mukhe pakkhipeyya, taṃ tassa oṭṭhampi ḍaheyya, mukhampi, jivhampi, kaṇṭhampi, udarampi ḍaheyya, antampi antaguṇampi ādāya adhobhāgaṃ nikkhameyya, yaṃ vā khattiya… brāhmaṇa… gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā saddhādeyyaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjeyyā"ti ca.
And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one’s mouth should be prised open by a strong man with red-hot iron tongs burning, blazing and glowing, and that into his mouth should be put a red-hot iron ball burning, blazing and glowing, which burns his lips and burns his mouth and tongue and throat and belly and passes out below carrying with it his bowels and entrails—or that he should use alms food given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …? ” (A IV 131–32).
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso sīse vā gahetvā khandhe vā gahetvā tattaṃ ayomañcaṃ vā ayopīṭhaṃ vā ādittaṃ sampajjalitaṃ sajotibhūtaṃ abhinisīdāpeyya vā abhinipajjāpeyya vā, yaṃ vā khattiya… brāhmaṇa… gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā saddhādeyyaṃ mañcapīṭhaṃ paribhuñjeyyā"ti ca.
And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man seize him by the head or seize him by the shoulders and seat him or lay him on a red-hot iron bed or iron chair, burning, blazing and glowing—or that he should use a bed or chair given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …? ” (A IV 132–33).
"Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho varaṃ yaṃ balavā puriso uddhaṃpādaṃ adhosiraṃ gahetvā tattāya ayokumbhiyā pakkhipeyya ādittāya sampajjalitāya sajotibhūtāya, so tattha pheṇuddehakaṃ paccamāno sakimpi uddhaṃ gaccheyya, sakimpi adho gaccheyya, sakimpi tiriyaṃ gaccheyya, yaṃ vā khattiya… brāhmaṇa… gahapatimahāsālānaṃ vā saddhādeyyaṃ vihāraṃ paribhuñjeyyā"ti cāti (a. ni. 7.72).
And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man take him feet up and head down and plunge him into a red-hot metal cauldron burning, blazing and glowing, to be boiled there in a swirl of froth, and as he boils in the swirl of froth to be swept now up, now down, and now across—or that he should use a dwelling given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …? ” (A IV 133–34).
Imāhi vāḷarajjutiṇhasattiayopaṭṭaayoguḷaayomañcaayopīṭhaayokumbhīupamāhi abhivādanaañjalikammacīvarapiṇḍapātamañcapīṭhavihāraparibhogapaccayaṃ dukkhaṃ dassesi.
to the same intent he showed, by the following similes of the horse-hair rope, the sharp spear, the iron sheet, the iron ball, the iron bed, the iron chair, and the iron cauldron, the pain that has as its condition [acceptance of] homage and reverential salutation, and the use of robes, alms food, bed and chair, and dwelling [by unvirtuous bhikkhus] (above).
Tasmā –
Aggikkhandhāliṅganadukkhādhikadukkhakaṭukaphalaṃ;
158. Of pain more violent even than the pain In the embracing of a mass of fire?
Avijahato kāmasukhaṃ, sukhaṃ kuto bhinnasīlassa.
What pleasure has a man of broken virtue Forsaking not sense pleasures, which bear fruit
Abhivādanasādiyane, kiṃ nāma sukhaṃ vipannasīlassa;
What pleasure has he in accepting homage Who, having failed in virtue, must partake
Daḷhavāḷarajjughaṃsanadukkhādhikadukkhabhāgissa.
Of pain that will excel in agony The crushing of his legs with horse-hair ropes?
Saddhānamañjalikammasādiyane kiṃ sukhaṃ asīlassa;
What pleasure has a man devoid of virtue Accepting salutations of the faithful,
Sattippahāradukkhādhimattadukkhassa yaṃhetu.
Which is the cause of pain acuter still Than pain produced by stabbing with a spear?
Cīvaraparibhogasukhaṃ, kiṃ nāma asaṃyatassa;
What is the pleasure in the use of garments For one without restraint, whereby in hell
Yena ciraṃ anubhavitabbo, niraye jalitaayopaṭṭasamphasso.
He will for long be forced to undergo The contact of the blazing iron sheet?
Madhuropi piṇḍapāto, halāhalavisūpamo asīlassa;
Although to him his alms food may seem tasty, Who has no virtue, it is direst poison,
Ādittā gilitabbā, ayoguḷā yena cirarattaṃ.
Because of which he surely will be made For long to swallow burning iron balls.
Sukhasammatopi dukkho, asīlino mañcapīṭhaparibhogo;
And when the virtueless make use of couches And chairs, though reckoned pleasing, it is pain
Yaṃ bādhissanti ciraṃ, jalitaayomañcapīṭhāni.
Because they will be tortured long indeed On red-hot blazing iron beds and chairs.
Dussīlassa vihāre, saddhādeyyamhi kā nivāsa rati;
Then what delight is there for one unvirtuous Inhabiting a dwelling given in faith,
Jalitesu nivasitabbaṃ, yena ayokumbhimajjhesu.
Since for that reason he will have to dwell Shut up inside a blazing iron pan?
Saṅkasarasamācāro, kasambujāto avassuto pāpo;
Described him in these terms: “Of suspect habits, Full of corruption, lecherous as well, By nature evil,
Antopūtīti ca yaṃ, nindanto āha lokagaru.
rotten too within.” The Teacher of the world, in him condemning (as before).
Dhī jīvitaṃ asaññatassa, tassa samaṇajanavesadhārissa;
So out upon the life of him abiding Without restraint, of him that wears the guise
Assamaṇassa upahataṃ, khatamattānaṃ vahantassa.
Of the ascetic that he will not be, And damages and undermines himself!
Gūthaṃ viya kuṇapaṃ viya, maṇḍanakāmā vivajjayantīdha;
Avoids it here, as those that would look well Keep far away from dung or from a corpse?
Yaṃ nāma sīlavanto, santo kiṃ jīvitaṃ tassa.
What is the life he leads, since any person, No matter who, with virtue to his credit
Sabbabhayehi amutto, mutto sabbehi adhigamasukhehi;
He is not free from any sort of terror, Though free enough from pleasure of attainment;
Supihitasaggadvāro, apāyamaggaṃ samārūḷho.
While heaven’s door is bolted fast against him, He is well set upon the road to hell.
Karuṇāya vatthubhūto, kāruṇikajanassa nāma ko añño;
Who else if not one destitute of virtue More fit to be the object of compassion?
Dussīlasamo dussī, latāya iti bahuvidhā dosāti.
Many indeed and grave are the defects That brand a man neglectful of his virtue.
Evamādinā paccavekkhaṇena sīlavipattiyaṃ ādīnavadassanaṃ vuttappakāraviparītato sīlasampattiyā ānisaṃsadassanañca veditabbaṃ.
Seeing danger in the failure of virtue should be understood as reviewing in such ways as these. And seeing benefits in perfected virtue should be understood in the opposite sense.
Apica –
159. Furthermore:
Tassa pāsādikaṃ hoti, pattacīvaradhāraṇaṃ;
His virtue is immaculate, His wearing of the bowl and robes
Pabbajjā saphalā tassa, yassa sīlaṃ sunimmalaṃ.
Gives pleasure and inspires trust, His going forth will bear its fruit.
Attānuvādādibhayaṃ, suddhasīlassa bhikkhuno;
A bhikkhu in his virtue pure Has never fear that self-reproach
Andhakāraṃ viya raviṃ, hadayaṃ nāvagāhati.
Will enter in his heart: indeed There is no darkness in the sun.
Sīlasampattiyā bhikkhu, sobhamāno tapovane;
A bhikkhu in his virtue bright Shines forth in the Ascetics’ Wood41
Pabhāsampattiyā cando, gagane viya sobhati.
As by the brightness of his beams The moon lights up the firmament.
Kāyagandhopi pāmojjaṃ, sīlavantassa bhikkhuno;
Now, if the bodily perfume Of virtuous bhikkhus can succeed
Karoti api devānaṃ, sīlagandhe kathāva kā.
In pleasing even deities, What of the perfume of his virtue?
Sabbesaṃ gandhajātānaṃ, sampattiṃ abhibhuyyati;
It is more perfect far than all The other perfumes in the world,
Avighātī disā sabbā, sīlagandho pavāyati.
Because the perfume virtue gives Is borne unchecked in all directions.
Appakāpi katā kārā, sīlavante mahapphalā;
The deeds done for a virtuous man, Though they be few, will bear much fruit,
Hontīti sīlavā hoti, pūjāsakkārabhājanaṃ.
And so the virtuous man becomes A vessel of honour and renown.
Sīlavantaṃ na bādhanti, āsavā diṭṭhadhammikā;
There are no cankers here and now To plague the virtuous man at all;
Samparāyikadukkhānaṃ, mūlaṃ khanati sīlavā.
The virtuous man digs out the root Of suffering in lives to come.
Yā manussesu sampatti, yā ca devesu sampadā;
Perfection among human kind And even among deities.
Na sā sampannasīlassa, icchato hoti dullabhā.
If wished for, is not hard to gain For him whose virtue is perfected;
Accantasantā pana yā, ayaṃ nibbānasampadā;
Than the perfection of Nibbāna, The state where utter peace prevails
Mano sampannasīlassa, tameva anudhāvati.
But once his virtue is perfected, His mind then seeks no other kind.
Sabbasampattimūlamhi, sīlamhi iti paṇḍito;
So let a wise man know it well This root of all perfection’s branches.
Anekākāravokāraṃ, ānisaṃsaṃ vibhāvayeti.
Such is the blessed fruit of virtue, Showing full many a varied form,
Evañhi vibhāvayato sīlavipattito ubbijjitvā sīlasampattininnaṃ mānasaṃ hoti.
160. The mind of one who understands thus, shudders at failure in virtue and reaches out towards the perfecting of virtue.
Tasmā yathāvuttaṃ imaṃ sīlavipattiyā ādīnavaṃ imañca sīlasampattiyā ānisaṃsaṃ disvā sabbādarena sīlaṃ vodāpetabbanti.
So virtue should be cleansed with all care, seeing this danger of failure in virtue and this benefit of the perfection of virtue in the way stated.
Ettāvatā ca "sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño"ti imissā gāthāya sīlasamādhipaññāmukhena desite visuddhimagge sīlaṃ tāva paridīpitaṃ hoti.
161.And at this point in the Path of Purification, which is shown under the headings of virtue, concentration and understanding by the stanza, “When a wise man, established well in virtue” (§1), virtue, firstly, has been fully illustrated.
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge
in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Sīlaniddeso nāma paṭhamo paricchedo.
The first chapter called “The Description of Virtue”

2 - Chapter 2: The ascetic practices



2. The ascetic practices Original pali
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
22.Idāni yehi appicchatāsantuṭṭhitādīhi guṇehi vuttappakārassa sīlassa vodānaṃ hoti, te guṇe sampādetuṃ yasmā samādinnasīlena yoginā dhutaṅgasamādānaṃ kātabbaṃ.
1.Now, while a meditator is engaged in the pursuit of virtue, he should set about undertaking the ascetic practices in order to perfect those special qualities of fewness of wishes, contentment, etc., by which the virtue of the kind already described, is cleansed.
Evañhissa appicchatāsantuṭṭhitāsallekhapavivekāpacayavīriyārambhasubharatādiguṇasalilavikkhālitamalaṃ sīlañceva suparisuddhaṃ bhavissati, vatāni ca sampajjissanti.
For when his virtue is thus washed clean of stains by the waters of such special qualities as fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, seclusion, dispersal, energy, and modest needs, it will become quite purified; and his vows will succeed as well.
Iti anavajjasīlabbataguṇaparisuddhasabbasamācāro porāṇe ariyavaṃsattaye patiṭṭhāya catutthassa bhāvanārāmatāsaṅkhātassa ariyavaṃsassa adhigamāraho bhavissati.
And– so, when his whole behaviour has been purified by the special quality of blameless virtue and vows and he has become established in the [first] three of the ancient Noble Ones’ heritages, he may become worthy to attain to the fourth called “delight in development” (A II 27).
Tasmā dhutaṅgakathaṃ ārabhissāma.
We shall therefore begin the explanation of the ascetic practices.
Bhagavatā hi pariccattalokāmisānaṃ kāye ca jīvite ca anapekkhānaṃ anulomapaṭipadaṃyeva ārādhetukāmānaṃ kulaputtānaṃ terasadhutaṅgāni anuññātāni.
2.Thirteen kinds of ascetic practices have been allowed by the Blessed One to clansmen who have given up the things of the flesh and, regardless of body and life, are desirous of undertaking a practice in conformity [with their aim].
Seyyathidaṃ – paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ, tecīvarikaṅgaṃ, piṇḍapātikaṅgaṃ, sapadānacārikaṅgaṃ, ekāsanikaṅgaṃ, pattapiṇḍikaṅgaṃ, khalupacchābhattikaṅgaṃ, āraññikaṅgaṃ, rukkhamūlikaṅgaṃ, abbhokāsikaṅgaṃ, sosānikaṅgaṃ, yathāsanthatikaṅgaṃ, nesajjikaṅganti.
They are: i. the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice, ii. the triple-robe-wearer’s practice, iii. the alms-food-eater’s practice, iv. the house-to-house-seeker’s practice, v. the one-sessioner’s practice, vi. the bowl-food-eater’s practice, vii. the later-food-refuser’s practice, viii. the forest-dweller’s practice, ix. the tree-root-dweller’s practice, x. the open-air-dweller’s practice, xi. the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice, xii. the any-bed-user’s practice, xiii. the sitter’s practice.
Tattha –
3.Herein:
Atthato lakkhaṇādīhi, samādānavidhānato;
(1) As to meaning, (2) characteristic, et cetera, (3) The undertaking and directions,
Pabhedato bhedato ca, tassa tassānisaṃsato.
And then the grade, and breach as well, And benefits of each besides,
Kusalattikato ceva, dhutādīnaṃ vibhāgato;
(4) As to the profitable triad, (5) “Ascetic” and so on distinguished,
Samāsabyāsato cāpi, viññātabbo vinicchayo.
(6) And as to groups, and also (7) singly, The exposition should be known.
23.Tattha atthatoti tāva rathikasusānasaṅkārakūṭādīnaṃ yattha katthaci paṃsūnaṃ upari ṭhitattā abbhuggataṭṭhena tesu tesu paṃsukūlamivāti paṃsukūlaṃ, atha vā paṃsu viya kucchitabhāvaṃ ulatīti paṃsukūlaṃ, kucchitabhāvaṃ gacchatīti vuttaṃ hoti.
4.1. Herein, as to meaning, in the first place. i. It is “refuse” (paṃsukūla) since, owing to its being found on refuse in any such place as a street, a charnel ground, or a midden, it belongs, as it were, to the refuse in the sense of being dumped in anyone of these places. Or alternatively: like refuse it gets to a vile state (PAÍSU viya KUcchitabhāvaṃ ULAti), thus it is “refuse” (paṃsukūla); it goes to a vile state, is what is meant.
Evaṃ laddhanibbacanassa paṃsukūlassa dhāraṇaṃ paṃsukūlaṃ, taṃ sīlamassāti paṃsukūliko.
The wearing of a refuse-[rag], which has acquired its derivative name1 in this way, is “refuse-[rag- wearing]” (paṃsukūla). That is his habit, thus he is a “refuse-[rag-wear-]er” (paṃsukūlika).
Paṃsukūlikassa aṅgaṃ paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ.
The practice (aṅga) of the refuse-[rag-wear-]er is the “refuse-[rag- wear-]er’s practice” (paṃsukūlikaṅga).
Aṅganti kāraṇaṃ vuccati.
It is the action that is called the “practice.”
Tasmā yena samādānena so paṃsukūliko hoti, tassetaṃ adhivacananti veditabbaṃ.
Therefore it should be understood as a term for that by undertaking which one becomes a refuse-[rag-wear-]er.
Eteneva nayena saṅghāṭiuttarāsaṅgaantaravāsakasaṅkhātaṃ ticīvaraṃ sīlamassāti tecīvariko.
ii. In the same way, he has the habit of [wearing] the triple robe (ti-cīvara)—in other words, the cloak of patches, the upper garment, and the inner clothing— thus he is a “triple-robe-[wear-]er” (tecīvarika).
Tecīvarikassa aṅgaṃ tecīvarikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is called the “triple- robe-wearer’s practice.”
Bhikkhāsaṅkhātānaṃ pana āmisapiṇḍānaṃ pātoti piṇḍapāto, parehi dinnānaṃ piṇḍānaṃ patte nipatananti vuttaṃ hoti.
5.iii. The dropping (pāta) of the lumps (piṇḍa) of material sustenance (āmisa) called alms (bhikkhā) is “alms food” (piṇḍapāta); the falling (nipatana) into the bowl of lumps (piṇḍa) given by others, is what is meant.
Taṃ piṇḍapātaṃ uñchati taṃ taṃ kulaṃ upasaṅkamanto gavesatīti piṇḍapātiko.
He gleans that alms food (that falling of lumps), he seeks it by approaching such and such a family, thus he is called an “alms-food [eat-]er” (piṇḍapātika).
Piṇḍāya vā patituṃ vatametassāti piṇḍapātī, patitunti carituṃ, piṇḍapātī eva piṇḍapātiko.
Or his vow is to gather (patituṃ)2 the lump (piṇḍa), thus he is a “lump-gatherer” (piṇḍapātin). To “gather” is to wander for. A “lump-gatherer” (piṇḍapātin) is the same as an “alms-food-eater” (piṇḍapātika).
Piṇḍapātikassa aṅgaṃ piṇḍapātikaṅgaṃ.
The practice of the alms-food-eater is the “alms-food-eater’s practice.”
Dānaṃ vuccati avakhaṇḍanaṃ, apetaṃ dānatoti apadānaṃ, anavakhaṇḍananti attho.
6.iv. It is a hiatus (avakhaṇḍana) that is called a “gap” (dāna).3 It is removed (apeta) from a gap, thus it is called “gapless” (apadāna); the meaning is, it is without hiatus.
Saha apadānena sapadānaṃ, avakhaṇḍanarahitaṃ anugharanti vuttaṃ hoti.
It is together with (saha) what is gapless (apadāna), thus it is “with the gapless” (sapadāna); devoid of hiatus—from house to house—is what is meant.
Sapadānaṃ carituṃ idamassa sīlanti sapadānacārī, sapadānacārī eva sapadānacāriko.
His habit is to wander on what-is-with-the-gapless, thus he is a “gapless wanderer” (sapadāna- cārin). A gapless wanderer is the same as a “house-to-house-seeker” (sapadāna- cārika).
Tassa aṅgaṃ sapadānacārikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “house-to-house-seeker’s practice.”
Ekāsane bhojanaṃ ekāsanaṃ, taṃ sīlamassāti ekāsaniko.
7.v. Eating in one session is “one-session.” He has that habit, thus he is a “one- sessioner.”
Tassa aṅgaṃ ekāsanikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “one-sessioner’s practice.”
Dutiyabhājanassa paṭikkhittattā kevalaṃ ekasmiṃyeva patte piṇḍo pattapiṇḍo.
vi. Alms (piṇḍa) in one bowl (patta) only because of refusing a second vessel, is “bowl-alms” (patta-piṇḍa).
Idāni pattapiṇḍagahaṇe pattapiṇḍasaññaṃ katvā pattapiṇḍo sīlamassāti pattapiṇḍiko.
Now, making “bowl alms” (patta-piṇḍa) the name for the taking of alms food in the bowl: bowl-alms-food is his habit, thus he is a “bowl- food-eater” (pattapiṇḍika).
Tassa aṅgaṃ pattapiṇḍikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “bowl-food-eater’s practice.”
Khalūti paṭisedhanatthe nipāto.
8.vii. “No” (khalu) is a particle in the sense of refusing.
Pavāritena satā pacchā laddhaṃ bhattaṃ pacchābhattaṃ nāma, tassa pacchābhattassa bhojanaṃ pacchābhattabhojanaṃ, tasmiṃ pacchābhattabhojane pacchābhattasaññaṃ katvā pacchābhattaṃ sīlamassāti pacchābhattiko.
Food (bhatta) obtained later by one who has shown that he is satisfied is called “later-food” (pacchā-bhatta). The eating of that later food is “later-food-eating.” Making “later-food” (pacchā- bhatta) the name for that later-food-eating: later-food is his habit, thus he is a “later- food-[eat-]er” (pacchābhattika).
Na pacchābhattiko khalupacchābhattiko.
Not a later-food-eater is a “no-later-food-[eat-]er” (khalu-pacchābhattika), [that is, a “later-food-refuser”].
Samādānavasena paṭikkhittātirittabhojanassetaṃ nāmaṃ.
This is the name for one who as an undertaking refuses extra food.
Aṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana vuttaṃ khalūti eko sakuṇo.
But it is said in the commentary4 “Khalu is a certain kind of bird.
So mukhena phalaṃ gahetvā tasmiṃ patite puna aññaṃ na khādati.
When it has taken a fruit into its beak and that drops, it does not eat any more.
Tādiso ayanti khalupacchābhattiko.
This [bhikkhu] is like that.” Thus he is “a later-food-refuser” (khalu-pacchā-bhattika).
Tassa aṅgaṃ khalupacchābhattikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “later-food-refuser’s practice.”
Araññe nivāso sīlamassāti āraññiko.
9.viii. His habit is dwelling in the forest, thus he is a “forest-dweller.”
Tassa aṅgaṃ āraññikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “forest-dweller’s practice.”
Rukkhamūle nivāso rukkhamūlaṃ, taṃ sīlamassāti rukkhamūliko.
ix. Dwelling at the root of a tree is “tree-root-dwelling.” He has that habit, thus he is a “tree-root-dweller.”
Rukkhamūlikassa aṅgaṃ rukkhamūlikaṅgaṃ.
The practice of the tree-root-dweller is the “tree-root- dweller’s practice.”
Abbhokāsikasosānikaṅgesupi eseva nayo.
x., xi. Likewise with the open-air-dweller and the charnel-ground-dweller.
Yadeva santhataṃ yathāsanthataṃ, idaṃ tuyhaṃ pāpuṇātīti evaṃ paṭhamaṃ uddiṭṭhasenāsanassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
10. xii. Only what has been distributed (yad eva santhata) is “as distributed” (yathāsanthata). This is a term for the resting place first allotted thus “This one falls to you.”
Tasmiṃ yathāsanthate viharituṃ sīlamassāti yathāsanthatiko.
He has the habit of dwelling in that as distributed, thus he is an “as- distributed-user” (yathāsanthatika), [that is, an “any-bed-user”].
Tassa aṅgaṃ yathāsanthatikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “any-bed-user’s practice.”
Sayanaṃ paṭikkhipitvā nisajjāya viharituṃ sīlamassāti nesajjiko.
xiii. He has the habit of keeping to the sitting [posture when resting], refusing to lie down, thus he is a “sitter.”
Tassa aṅgaṃ nesajjikaṅgaṃ.
His practice is the “sitter’s practice.”
Sabbāneva panetāni tena tena samādānena dhutakilesattā dhutassa bhikkhuno aṅgāni, kilesadhunanato vā dhutanti laddhavohāraṃ ñāṇaṃ aṅgaṃ etesanti dhutaṅgāni.
11.All these, however, are the practices (aṅga) of a bhikkhu who is ascetic (dhuta) because he has shaken off (dhuta) defilement by undertaking one or other of them. Or the knowledge that has got the name “ascetic” (dhuta) because it shakes off (dhunana) defilement is a practice (aṅga) belonging to these, thus they are “ascetic practices” (dhutaṅga).
Atha vā dhutāni ca tāni paṭipakkhaniddhunanato aṅgāni ca paṭipattiyātipi dhutaṅgāni.
Or alternatively, they are ascetic (dhuta) because they shake off (niddhunana) opposition, and they are practices (aṅga) because they are a way (paṭipatti).
Evaṃ tāvettha atthato viññātabbo vinicchayo.
This, firstly, is how the exposition should be known here as to meaning.
Sabbāneva panetāni samādānacetanālakkhaṇāni.
12.2.All of them have as their characteristic the volition of undertaking.
Vuttampi cetaṃ "yo samādiyati, so puggalo.
For this is said [in the commentary]: “He who does the undertaking is a person.
Yena samādiyati, cittacetasikā ete dhammā.
That whereby he does the undertaking is states of consciousness and consciousness- concomitants.
Yā samādānacetanā, taṃ dhutaṅgaṃ.
The volition of the act of undertaking is the ascetic practice.
Yaṃ paṭikkhipati, taṃ vatthū"ti.
What it rejects is the instance.”
Sabbāneva ca loluppaviddhaṃsanarasāni, nilloluppabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānāni appicchatādiariyadhammapadaṭṭhānāni.
All have the function of eliminating cupidity, and they manifest themselves with the production of non-cupidity. For their proximate cause they have the noble states consisting of fewness of wishes, and so on.
Evamettha lakkhaṇādīhi veditabbo vinicchayo.
This is how the exposition should be known as to characteristic, etc., here.
Samādānavidhānatotiādīsu pana pañcasu sabbāneva dhutaṅgāni dharamāne bhagavati bhagavatova santike samādātabbāni.
13. 3. As regards the five beginning with the undertaking and directions: during the Blessed One’s lifetime all ascetic practices should be undertaken in the Blessed One’s presence.
Parinibbute mahāsāvakassa santike.
After his attainment of Nibbāna this should be done in the presence of a principal disciple.
Tasmiṃ asati khīṇāsavassa, anāgāmissa, sakadāgāmissa, sotāpannassa, tipiṭakassa, dvipiṭakassa, ekapiṭakassa, ekasaṅgītikassa, aṭṭhakathācariyassa.
When he is not available it should be done in the presence of one whose cankers are destroyed, of a non-returner, of a once-returner, of a stream-enterer, of one who knows the three Piá¹­akas, of one who knows two of the Piá¹­akas, of one who knows one of the Piá¹­akas, of one who knows one Collection,5 of a teacher of the Commentaries.
Tasmiṃ asati dhutaṅgadharassa, tasmimpi asati cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ sammajjitvā ukkuṭikaṃ nisīditvā sammāsambuddhassa santike vadantena viya samādātabbāni, apica sayampi samādātuṃ vaṭṭati eva.
When he is not available it should be done in the presence of an observer of an ascetic practice. When he is not available, then after one has swept out the shrine terrace they can be undertaken seated in a reverential posture as though pronouncing them in the Fully Enlightened One’s presence. Also it is permitted to undertake them by oneself.
Ettha ca cetiyapabbate dve bhātikattherānaṃ jeṭṭhakabhātu dhutaṅgappicchatāya vatthu kathetabbaṃ.
And here should be told the story of the senior of the two brothers who were elders at Cetiyapabbata and their fewness of wishes with respect to the ascetic practices6 (M-a II 140).
Ayaṃ tāva sādhāraṇakathā.
This, firstly, is what applies to all [the practices].
1. Paṃsukūlikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.1 - 1. Paṃsukūlikaṅga-kathā: the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice

24.Idāni ekekassa samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃse vaṇṇayissāma.
14.Now, we shall proceed to comment on the undertaking, directions, grade, breach and benefits, of each one [separately].
Paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ tāva "gahapatidānacīvaraṃ paṭikkhipāmi, paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesu dvīsu vacanesu aññatarena samādinnaṃ hoti.
i. First, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice is undertaken with one of these two statements: “I refuse robes given by householders” or “I undertake the refuse-rag- wearer’s practice.”
Idaṃ tāvettha samādānaṃ.
This, firstly, is the undertaking.
Evaṃ samādinnadhutaṅgena pana tena sosānikaṃ, pāpaṇikaṃ, rathiyacoḷaṃ, saṅkāracoḷaṃ, sotthiyaṃ, nhānacoḷaṃ, titthacoḷaṃ, gatapaccāgataṃ, aggiḍaḍḍhaṃ, gokhāyitaṃ, upacikākhāyitaṃ, undūrakhāyitaṃ, antacchinnaṃ, dasācchinnaṃ, dhajāhaṭaṃ, thūpacīvaraṃ, samaṇacīvaraṃ, ābhisekikaṃ, iddhimayaṃ, panthikaṃ, vātāhaṭaṃ, devadattiyaṃ, sāmuddiyantietesu aññataraṃ cīvaraṃ gahetvā phāletvā dubbalaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya thiraṭṭhānāni dhovitvā cīvaraṃ katvā porāṇaṃ gahapaticīvaraṃ apanetvā paribhuñjitabbaṃ.
15.One who has done this should get a robe of one of the following kinds: one from a charnel ground, one from a shop, a cloth from a street, a cloth from a midden, one from a childbed, an ablution cloth, a cloth from a washing place, one worn going to and returning from [the charnel ground], one scorched by fire, one gnawed by cattle, one gnawed by ants, one gnawed by rats, one cut at the end, one cut at the edge, one carried as a flag, a robe from a shrine, an ascetic’s robe, one from a consecration, one produced by supernormal power, one from a highway, one borne by the wind, one presented by deities, one from the sea. Taking one of these robe cloths, he should tear off and throw away the weak parts, and then wash the sound parts and make up a robe. He can use it after getting rid of his old robe given by householders.
Tattha sosānikanti susāne patitakaṃ.
16.Herein, “one from a charnel ground” is one dropped on a charnel ground.
Pāpaṇikanti āpaṇadvāre patitakaṃ.
“One from a shop” is one dropped at the door of a shop.
Rathiyacoḷanti puññatthikehi vātapānantarena rathikāya chaḍḍitacoḷakaṃ.
“A cloth from a street” is a cloth thrown into a street from inside a window by those who seek merit.
Saṅkāracoḷanti saṅkāraṭṭhāne chaḍḍitacoḷakaṃ.
“A cloth from a midden” is a cloth thrown onto a place for rubbish.
Sotthiyanti gabbhamalaṃ puñchitvā chaḍḍitavatthaṃ.
“One from a childbed” is a cloth thrown away after wiping up the stains of childbirth with it.
Tissāmaccamātā kira satagghanakena vatthena gabbhamalaṃ puñchāpetvā paṃsukūlikā gaṇhissantīti tālaveḷimagge chaḍḍāpesi.
The mother of Tissa the Minister, it seems, had the stains of childbirth wiped up with a cloth worth a hundred [pieces], and thinking, “The refuse-rag wearers will take it,” she had it thrown onto the Tālaveli Road.7
Bhikkhū jiṇṇakaṭṭhānatthameva gaṇhanti.
Bhikkhus took it for the purpose of mending worn places.
Nhānacoḷanti yaṃ bhūtavejjehi sasīsaṃ nhāpitā kāḷakaṇṇicoḷanti chaḍḍetvā gacchanti.
17. “An ablution cloth” is one that people who are made by devil doctors to bathe themselves, including their heads, are accustomed to throw away as a “cloth of ill luck.”
Titthacoḷanti nhānatitthe chaḍḍitapilotikā.
“A cloth from washing place” is rags thrown away at a washing place where bathing is done.
Gatapaccāgatanti yaṃ manussā susānaṃ gantvā paccāgatā nhatvā chaḍḍenti.
“One worn going to and coming from” is one that people throw away after they have gone to a charnel ground and returned and bathed.
Aggiḍaḍḍhanti agginā ḍaḍḍhappadesaṃ.
“One scorched by fire” is one partly scorched by fire;
Tañhi manussā chaḍḍenti.
for people throw that away.
Gokhāyitādīni pākaṭāneva.
“One gnawed by cattle,” etc., are obvious;
Tādisānipi hi manussā chaḍḍenti.
for people throw away such as these too.
Dhajāhaṭanti nāvaṃ ārohantā dhajaṃ bandhitvā ārūhanti.
“One carried as a flag”: Those who board a ship do so after hoisting a flag.
Taṃ tesaṃ dassanātikkame gahetuṃ vaṭṭati.
It is allowable to take this when they have gone out of sight.
Yampi yuddhabhūmiyaṃ dhajaṃ bandhitvā ṭhapitaṃ, taṃ dvinnampi senānaṃ gatakāle gahetuṃ vaṭṭati.
Also it is allowable, when the two armies have gone away, to take a flag that has been hoisted on a battlefield.
Thūpacīvaranti vammikaṃ parikkhipitvā balikammaṃ kataṃ.
18. “A robe from a shrine” is an offering made by draping a termite-mound [in cloth].
Samaṇacīvaranti bhikkhusantakaṃ.
“An ascetic’s robe” is one belonging to a bhikkhu.
Ābhisekikanti rañño abhisekaṭṭhāne chaḍḍitacīvaraṃ.
“One from a consecration” is one thrown away at the king’s consecration place.
Iddhimayanti ehibhikkhucīvaraṃ.
“One produced by supernormal power” is a “come-bhikkhu” robe.8
Panthikanti antarāmagge patitakaṃ.
“One from a highway” is one dropped in the middle of a road.
Yaṃ pana sāmikānaṃ satisammosena patitaṃ, taṃ thokaṃ rakkhitvā gahetabbaṃ.
But one dropped by the owner’s negligence should be taken only after waiting a while.
Vātāhaṭanti vātena paharitvā dūre pātitaṃ, taṃ pana sāmike apassantena gahetuṃ vaṭṭati.
“One borne by the wind” is one that falls a long way off, having been carried by the wind. It is allowable to take it if the owners are not in sight.
Devadattiyanti anuruddhattherassa viya devatāhi dinnakaṃ.
“One presented by deities” is one given by deities like that given to the Elder Anuruddha (Dhp-a II 173–74).
Sāmuddiyanti samuddavīcīhi thale ussāritaṃ.
“One from the sea” is one washed up on dry land by the sea waves.
Yaṃ pana saṅghassa demāti dinnaṃ, coḷakabhikkhāya vā caramānehi laddhaṃ, na taṃ paṃsukūlaṃ.
19.One given thus “We give it to the Order” or got by those who go out for alms- cloth is not a refuse-rag.
Bhikkhudattiyepi yaṃ vassaggena gāhetvā vā dīyati, senāsanacīvaraṃ vā hoti, na taṃ paṃsukūlaṃ.
And in the case of one presented by a bhikkhu, one given after it has been got [at a presentation of robes by householders] at the end of the Rains, or a “resting-place robe” [that is, one automatically supplied by a householder to the occupant of a certain resting place] is not a refuse-rag.
No gāhāpetvā dinnameva paṃsukūlaṃ.
It is a refuse-rag only when given after not having been so obtained.
Tatrapi yaṃ dāyakehi bhikkhussa pādamūle nikkhittaṃ, tena pana bhikkhunā paṃsukūlikassa hatthe ṭhapetvā dinnaṃ, taṃ ekatosuddhikaṃ nāma.
And herein, that placed by the donors at a bhikkhu’s feet but given by that bhikkhu to the refuse-rag wearer by placing it in his hand is called pure in one way.
Yaṃ bhikkhuno hatthe ṭhapetvā dinnaṃ, tena pana pādamūle ṭhapitaṃ, tampi ekatosuddhikaṃ.
That given to a bhikkhu by placing it in his hand but placed by him at the [refuse-rag wearer’s] feet is also pure in one way.
Yaṃ bhikkhunopi pādamūle ṭhapitaṃ, tenāpi tatheva dinnaṃ, taṃ ubhatosuddhikaṃ.
That which is both placed at a bhikkhu’s feet and then given by him in the same way is pure in both ways.
Yaṃ hatthe ṭhapetvā laddhaṃ, hattheyeva ṭhapitaṃ, taṃ anukkaṭṭhacīvaraṃ nāma.
One obtained by being placed in the hand and [given by being] placed in the hand too is not a strict man’s robe.
Iti imaṃ paṃsukūlabhedaṃ ñatvā paṃsukūlikena cīvaraṃ paribhuñjitabbanti idamettha vidhānaṃ.
So a refuse-rag wearer should use the robe after getting to know about the kinds of refuse-rags. These are the directions for it in this instance.
Ayaṃ pana pabhedo, tayo paṃsukūlikā ukkaṭṭho majjhimo mudūti.
20.The grades are these. There are three kinds of refuse-rag wearers: the strict, the medium, and the mild.
Tattha sosānikaṃyeva gaṇhanto ukkaṭṭho hoti.
Herein, one who takes it only from a charnel ground is strict.
Pabbajitā gaṇhissantīti ṭhapitakaṃ gaṇhanto majjhimo.
One who takes one left [by someone, thinking] “One gone forth will take it” is medium.
Pādamūle ṭhapetvā dinnakaṃ gaṇhanto mudūti.
One who takes one given by being placed at his feet [by a bhikkhu] is mild.
Tesu yassa kassaci attano ruciyā gihidinnakaṃ sāditakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment anyone of these of his own choice or inclination agrees to [accept] a robe given by a householder, his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, "paṃsukūlacīvaraṃ nissāya pabbajjā"ti (mahāva. 128) vacanato nissayānurūpapaṭipattisabbhāvo, paṭhame ariyavaṃse patiṭṭhānaṃ, ārakkhadukkhābhāvo, aparāyattavuttitā, corabhayena abhayatā, paribhogataṇhāya abhāvo, samaṇasāruppaparikkhāratā, "appāni ceva sulabhāni ca tāni ca anavajjānī"ti (a. ni. 4.27; itivu. 101) bhagavatā saṃvaṇṇitapaccayatā, pāsādikatā, appicchatādīnaṃ phalanipphatti, sammāpaṭipattiyā anubrūhanaṃ, pacchimāya janatāya diṭṭhānugatiāpādananti.
21.The benefits are these. He actually practices in conformity with the dependence, because of the words “The going forth by depending on the refuse-rag robe” (Vin I 58, 96); he is established in the first of the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 27); there is no suffering due to protecting; he exists independent of others; there is no fear of robbers; there is no craving connected with use [of robes]; it is a requisite suitable for an ascetic; it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “valueless, easy to get, and blameless” (A II 26); it inspires confidence; it produces the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc.; the right way is cultivated; a good example is set9 to later generations.
Mārasenavighātāya, paṃsukūladharo yati;
22. While striving for Death’s army’s rout The ascetic clad in rag-robe clout
Sannaddhakavaco yuddhe, khattiyo viya sobhati.
Got from a rubbish heap, shines bright As mail-clad warrior in the fight.
Pahāya kāsikādīni, varavatthāni dhāritaṃ;
Leaving rare Kāsi cloth and more; This robe wore,
Yaṃ lokagarunā ko taṃ, paṃsukūlaṃ na dhāraye.
the world’s great teacher. Of rags from off a rubbish heap Who would not have a robe to keep?
Tasmā hi attano bhikkhu, paṭiññaṃ samanussaraṃ;
Minding the words he did profess When he went into homelessness,
Yogācārānukūlamhi, paṃsukūle rato siyāti.
Let him to wear such rags delight As one in seemly garb bedight.
Ayaṃ tāva paṃsukūlikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This, firstly, is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice.
2. Tecīvarikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.2 - 2. Te-cīvarikaṅga-kathā: the triple-robe-wearer’s practice

25.Tadanantaraṃ pana tecīvarikaṅgaṃ "catutthakacīvaraṃ paṭikkhipāmi, tecīvarikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
23.ii. Next there is the triple-robe-wearer’s practice. This is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a fourth robe” or “I undertake the triple- robe-wearer’s practice.”
Tena pana tecīvarikena cīvaradussaṃ labhitvā yāva aphāsukabhāvena kātuṃ vā na sakkoti, vicārakaṃ vā na labhati, sūciādīsu vāssa kiñci na sampajjati, tāva nikkhipitabbaṃ.
When a triple-robe wearer has got cloth for a robe, he can put it by for as long as, owing to ill-health, he is unable to make it up, or for as long as he does not find a helper, or lacks a needle, etc.,
Nikkhittapaccayā doso natthi.
and there is no fault in his putting it by.
Rajitakālato pana paṭṭhāya nikkhipituṃ na vaṭṭati, dhutaṅgacoro nāma hoti.
But it is not allowed to put it by once it has been dyed. That is called cheating the ascetic practice.
Idamassa vidhānaṃ.
These are the directions for it.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
24.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhena rajanakāle paṭhamaṃ antaravāsakaṃ vā uttarāsaṅgaṃ vā rajitvā taṃ nivāsetvā itaraṃ rajitabbaṃ.
Herein, one who is strict should, at the time of dyeing, first dye either the inner cloth or the upper garment, and having dyed it, he should wear that round the waist and dye the other.
Taṃ pārupitvā saṅghāṭi rajitabbā.
Then he can put that on over the shoulder and dye the cloak of patches.
Saṅghāṭiṃ pana nivāsetuṃ na vaṭṭati.
But he is not allowed to wear the cloak of patches round the waist.
Idamassa gāmantasenāsane vattaṃ.
This is the duty when in an abode inside a village.
Āraññake pana dve ekato dhovitvā rajituṃ vaṭṭati.
But it is allowable for him in the forest to wash and dye two together.
Yathā pana kañci disvā sakkoti kāsāvaṃ ākaḍḍhitvā uparikātuṃ, evaṃ āsanne ṭhāne nisīditabbaṃ.
However, he should sit in a place near [to the robes] so that, if he sees anyone, he can pull a yellow cloth over himself.
Majjhimassa rajanasālāyaṃ rajanakāsāvaṃ nāma hoti, taṃ nivāsetvā vā pārupitvā vā rajanakammaṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭati.
But for the medium one there is a yellow cloth in the dyeing room for use while dyeing, and it is allowable for him to wear that [as an inner cloth] or to put it on [as an upper garment] in order to do the work of dyeing.
Mudukassa sabhāgabhikkhūnaṃ cīvarāni nivāsetvā vā pārupitvā vā rajanakammaṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭati.
For the mild one it is allowable to wear, or put on, the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion (i.e. not suspended, etc.) in order to do the work of dyeing.
Tatraṭṭhakapaccattharaṇampi tassa vaṭṭati.
A bedspread that remains where it is10 is also allowable for him,
Pariharituṃ pana na vaṭṭati.
but he must not take it about him.
Sabhāgabhikkhūnaṃ cīvarampi antarantarā paribhuñjituṃ vaṭṭati.
And it is allowed for him to use from time to time the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion.
Dhutaṅgatecīvarikassa pana catutthaṃ vattamānaṃ aṃsakāsāvameva vaṭṭati.
It is allowed to one who wears the triple robe as an ascetic practice to have a yellow shoulder-cloth too as a fourth;
Tañca kho vitthārato vidatthi, dīghato tihatthameva vaṭṭati.
but it must be only a span wide and three hands long.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi catutthakacīvaraṃ sāditakkhaṇeyeva dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to [accept] a fourth robe, his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃpanānisaṃso, tecīvariko bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena.
25.The benefits are these. The bhikkhu who is a triple-robe wearer is content with the robe as a protection for the body.
Tenassa pakkhino viya samādāyeva gamanaṃ, appasamārambhatā, vatthasannidhiparivajjanaṃ, sallahukavuttitā, atirekacīvaraloluppappahānaṃ, kappiye mattakāritāya sallekhavuttitā, appicchatādīnaṃ phalanipphattīti evamādayo guṇā sampajjantīti.
Hence he goes taking it with him as a bird does its wings (M I 180); and such special qualities as having few undertakings, avoidance of storage of cloth, a frugal existence, the abandoning of greed for many robes, living in effacement by observing moderation even in what is permitted, production of the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc., are perfected.
Atirekavatthataṇhaṃ, pahāya sannidhivivajjito dhīro;
26. No risk of hoarding haunts the man of wit Who wants no extra cloth for requisite;
Santosasukharasaññū, ticīvaradharo bhavati yogī.
Using the triple robe where’er he goes The pleasant relish of content he knows.
Tasmā sapattacaraṇo, pakkhīva sacīvarova yogivaro;
So, would the adept wander undeterred With naught else but his robes, as flies the bird
Sukhamanuvicaritukāmo, cīvaraniyame ratiṃ kayirāti.
With its own wings, then let him too rejoice That frugalness in garments be his choice.
Ayaṃ tecīvarikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the triple-robe-wearer’s practice.
3. Piṇḍapātikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.3 - 3. Piṇḍapātikaṅga-kathā: alms-food-eater’s practice

26.Piṇḍapātikaṅgampi "atirekalābhaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, piṇḍapātikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
27. iii. The alms-food-eater’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a supplementary [food] supply” or “I undertake the alms- food-eater’s practice.”
Tena pana piṇḍapātikena "saṅghabhattaṃ, uddesabhattaṃ, nimantanabhattaṃ, salākabhattaṃ, pakkhikaṃ, uposathikaṃ, pāṭipadikaṃ, āgantukabhattaṃ, gamikabhattaṃ, gilānabhattaṃ, gilānupaṭṭhākabhattaṃ, vihārabhattaṃ, dhurabhattaṃ, vārakabhatta"nti etāni cuddasa bhattāni na sāditabbāni.
Now, this alms-food eater should not accept the following fourteen kinds of meal: a meal offered to the Order, a meal offered to specified bhikkhus, an invitation, a meal given by a ticket, one each half-moon day, one each Uposatha day, one each first of the half-moon, a meal given for visitors, a meal for travellers, a meal for the sick, a meal for sick-nurses, a meal supplied to a [particular] residence, a meal given in a principal house,11 a meal given in turn.
Sace pana "saṅghabhattaṃ gaṇhathā"tiādinā nayena avatvā "amhākaṃ gehe saṅgho bhikkhaṃ gaṇhātu, tumhepi bhikkhaṃ gaṇhathā"ti vatvā dinnāni honti, tāni sādituṃ vaṭṭanti.
If, instead of saying “Take a meal given to the Order”, [meals] are given saying “The Order is taking alms in our house; you may take alms too”, it is allowable to consent.
Saṅghato nirāmisasalākāpi vihāre pakkabhattampi vaṭṭatiyevāti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
Tickets from the Order that are not for actual food,12 and also a meal cooked in a monastery, are allowable as well. These are the directions for it.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
28.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho puratopi pacchatopi āhaṭabhikkhaṃ gaṇhati, pattadvāre ṭhatvā pattaṃ gaṇhantānampi deti, paṭikkamanaṃ āharitvā dinnabhikkhampi gaṇhati, taṃ divasaṃ pana nisīditvā bhikkhaṃ na gaṇhati.
Herein, one who is strict takes alms brought both from before and from behind, and he gives the bowl to those who take it while he stands outside a door. He also takes alms brought to the refectory and given there. But he does not take alms by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day.
Majjhimo taṃ divasaṃ nisīditvāpi gaṇhati, svātanāya pana nādhivāseti.
The medium one takes it as well by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day; but he does not consent to [its being brought] the next day.
Mudukosvātanāyapi punadivasāyapi bhikkhaṃ adhivāseti.
The mild one consents to alms [being brought] on the next day and on the day after.
Te ubhopi serivihārasukhaṃ na labhanti, ukkaṭṭhova labhati.
Both these last miss the joy of an independent life.
Ekasmiṃ kira gāme ariyavaṃso hoti, ukkaṭṭho itare āha – "āyāmāvuso, dhammasavanāyā"ti.
There is, perhaps, a preaching on the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 28) in some village. The strict one says to the others “Let us go, friends, and listen to the Dhamma.”
Tesu eko ekenamhi, bhante, manussena nisīdāpitoti āha.
One of them says, “I have been made to sit [and wait] by a man, venerable sir,”
Aparo mayā, bhante, svātanāya ekassa bhikkhā adhivāsitāti.
and the other, “I have consented to [receive] alms tomorrow, venerable sir.”
Evaṃ te ubho parihīnā.
So they are both losers.
Itaro pātova piṇḍāya caritvā gantvā dhammarasaṃ paṭisaṃvedesi.
The other wanders for alms in the morning and then he goes and savours the taste of the Dhamma.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi saṅghabhattādiatirekalābhaṃ sāditakkhaṇeva dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to the extra gain consisting of a meal given to the Order, etc., his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, "piṇḍiyālopabhojanaṃ nissāya pabbajjā"ti (a. ni. 4.27; itivu. 101) vacanato nissayānurūpapaṭipattisabbhāvo, dutiye ariyavaṃse patiṭṭhānaṃ, aparāyattavuttitā, "appāni ceva sulabhāni ca tāni ca anavajjānī"ti bhagavatā saṃvaṇṇitapaccayatā, kosajjanimmaddanatā, parisuddhājīvatā, sekhiyapaṭipattipūraṇaṃ, aparapositā, parānuggahakiriyā, mānappahānaṃ, rasataṇhānivāraṇaṃ, gaṇabhojanaparamparabhojanacārittasikkhāpadehi anāpattitā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitā, sammāpaṭipattibrūhanaṃ, pacchimajanatānukampananti.
29.The benefits are these. He actually practices in conformity with the dependence because of the words “The going forth by depending on the eating of lumps of alms food” (Vin II 58, 96); he is established in the second of the Noble Ones’ heritages; his existence is independent of others; it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “Valueless, easy to get, blameless” (A II 26); idleness is eliminated; livelihood is purified; the practice of the minor training rule [of the Pātimokkha] is fulfilled; he is not maintained by another; he helps others; pride is abandoned; craving for tastes is checked; the training precepts about eating as a group, substituting one meal [invitation for another] (see Vinaya, Pācittiya 33 and Comy.), and good behaviour, are not contravened; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes; he cultivates the right way; he has compassion for later generations.
Piṇḍiyālopasantuṭṭho, aparāyattajīviko;
30. The monk content with alms for food Has independent livelihood,
Pahīnāhāraloluppo, hoti cātuddiso yati.
And greed in him no footing finds; He is as free as the four winds.
Vinodayati kosajjaṃ, ājīvassa visujjhati;
He never need be indolent, His livelihood is innocent,
Tasmā hi nātimaññeyya, bhikkhācariyāya sumedhaso.
So let a wise man not disdain Alms-gathering for his domain.
Evarūpassa hi –
Since it is said:
"Piṇḍapātikassa bhikkhuno,
“If a bhikkhu can support himself on alms
Attabharassa anaññaposino;
And live without another’s maintenance,
Devāpi pihayanti tādino,
The very gods indeed might envy him
No ce lābhasilokanissito"ti.
And pay no heed as well to gain and fame,” (Ud 31).
Ayaṃ piṇḍapātikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach and benefits, in the case of the alms-food-eater’s practice.
4. Sapadānacārikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.4 - 4. Sapadānacārikaṅga-kathā: house-to-house-seeker’s practice

27.Sapadānacārikaṅgampi"loluppacāraṃ paṭikkhipāmi, sapadānacārikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
31.iv. The house-to-house seeker’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements “I refuse a greedy alms round” or “I undertake the house-to-house seeker’s practice.”
Tena pana sapadānacārikena gāmadvāre ṭhatvā parissayābhāvo sallakkhetabbo.
Now, the house-to-house seeker should stop at the village gate and make sure that there is no danger.
Yassā racchāya vā gāme vā parissayo hoti, taṃ pahāya aññattha carituṃ vaṭṭati.
If there is danger in any street or village, it is allowable to leave it out and wander for alms elsewhere.
Yasmiṃ gharadvāre vā racchāya vā gāme vā kiñci na labhati, agāmasaññaṃ katvā gantabbaṃ.
When there is a house door or a street or a village where he [regularly] gets nothing at all, he can go [past it] not counting it as a village.
Yattha kiñci labhati, taṃ pahāya gantuṃ na vaṭṭati.
But wherever he gets anything at all it is not allowed [subsequently] to go [past] there and leave it out.
Iminā ca bhikkhunā kālataraṃ pavisitabbaṃ, evañhi aphāsukaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya aññattha gantuṃ sakkhissati.
This bhikkhu should enter the village early so that he will be able to leave out any inconvenient place and go elsewhere.
Sace panassa vihāre dānaṃ dentā antarāmagge vā āgacchantā manussā pattaṃ gahetvā piṇḍapātaṃ denti vaṭṭati.
But if people who are giving a gift [of a meal] in a monastery or who are coming along the road take his bowl and give alms food, it is allowable.
Iminā ca maggaṃ gacchantenāpi bhikkhācāravelāyaṃ sampattagāmaṃ anatikkamitvā caritabbameva.
And as this [bhikkhu] is going along the road, he should, when it is the time, wander for alms in any village he comes to and not pass it by.
Tattha alabhitvā vā thokaṃ labhitvā vā gāmapaṭipāṭiyā caritabbanti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
If he gets nothing there or only a little, he should wander for alms in the next village in order.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
These are the directions for it. 32.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho purato āhaṭabhikkhampi pacchato āhaṭabhikkhampi paṭikkamanaṃ āharitvā diyyamānampi na gaṇhati, pattadvāre pana pattaṃ vissajjeti.
Herein, one who is strict does not take alms brought from before or brought from behind or brought to the refectory and given there. He hands over his bowl at a door, however;
Imasmiñhi dhutaṅge mahākassapattherena sadiso nāma natthi.
for in this ascetic practice there is none equal to the Elder Mahā Kassapa,
Tassapi pattavissaṭṭhaṭṭhānameva paññāyati.
yet an instance in which even he handed over his bowl is mentioned (see Ud 29).
Majjhimo purato vā pacchato vā āhaṭampi paṭikkamanaṃ āhaṭampi gaṇhati, pattadvārepi pattaṃ vissajjeti, na pana bhikkhaṃ āgamayamāno nisīdati.
The medium one takes what is brought from before and from behind and what is brought to the refectory, and he hands over his bowl at a door. But he does not sit waiting for alms.
Evaṃ so ukkaṭṭhapiṇḍapātikassa anulometi.
Thus he conforms to the rule of the strict alms-food eater.
Muduko taṃ divasaṃ nisīditvā āgameti.
The mild one sits waiting [for alms to be brought] that day.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi loluppacāre uppannamatte dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The ascetic practice of these three is broken as soon as the greedy alms round starts [by going only to the houses where good alms food is given].
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, kulesu niccanavakatā, candūpamatā, kulamaccherappahānaṃ, samānukampitā, kulūpakādīnavābhāvo, avhānānabhinandanā, abhihārena anatthikatā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
33.The benefits are these. He is always a stranger among families and is like the moon (S II 197); he abandons avarice about families; he is compassionate impartially; he avoids the dangers in being supported by a family; he does not delight in invitations; he does not hope for [meals] to be brought; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Candūpamo niccanavo kulesu,
34. Is moonlike, ever new to families,
Amaccharī sabbasamānukampo;
Nor does he grudge to help all equally,
Kulūpakādīnavavippamutto,
Free from the risks of house-dependency.
Hotīdha bhikkhu sapadānacārī.
The monk who at each house his begging plies.
Loluppacārañca pahāya tasmā,
Who would the self-indulgent round forsake
Okkhittacakkhu yugamattadassī;
His downcast eyes range a yoke-length before,
Ākaṅkhamāno bhuvi sericāraṃ,
And roam the world at will, the while to make
Careyya dhīro sapadānacāranti.
Then let him wisely seek from door to door.
Ayaṃ sapadānacārikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the house-to-house-seeker’s practice.
5. Ekāsanikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.5 - 5. Ekāsanikaṅga-kathā: one-sessioner’s practice

28.Ekāsanikaṅgampi "nānāsanabhojanaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, ekāsanikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
35.v. The one-sessioner’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse eating in several sessions” or “I undertake the one-sessioner’s practice.”
Tena pana ekāsanikena āsanasālāyaṃ nisīdantena therāsane anisīditvā "idaṃ mayhaṃ pāpuṇissatī"ti patirūpaṃ āsanaṃ sallakkhetvā nisīditabbaṃ.
When the one-sessioner sits down in the sitting hall, instead of sitting on an elder’s seat, he should notice which seat is likely to fall to him and sit down on that.
Sacassa vippakate bhojane ācariyo vā upajjhāyo vā āgacchati, uṭṭhāya vattaṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭati.
If his teacher or preceptor arrives while the meal is still unfinished, it is allowable for him to get up and do the duties.
Tipiṭakacūḷābhayatthero panāha "āsanaṃ vā rakkheyya bhojanaṃ vā, ayañca vippakatabhojano, tasmā vattaṃ karotu, bhojanaṃ pana mā bhuñjatū"ti.
But the Elder Tipiṭaka Cūla-Abhaya said: “He should either keep his seat [and finish his meal] or [if he gets up he should leave the rest of] his meal [in order not to break the ascetic practice]. And this is one whose meal is still unfinished; therefore let him do the duties, but in that case let him not eat the [rest of the] meal.”
Idamassa vidhānaṃ.
These are the directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
36.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho appaṃ vā hotu bahu vā, yamhi bhojane hatthaṃ otāreti, tato aññaṃ gaṇhituṃ na labhati.
Herein, one who is strict may not take anything more than the food that he has laid his hand on whether it is little or much.
Sacepi manussā "therena na kiñci bhutta"nti sappiādīni āharanti, bhesajjatthameva vaṭṭanti, na āhāratthaṃ.
And if people bring him ghee, etc., thinking “The elder has eaten nothing,” while these are allowable for the purpose of medicine, they are not so for the purpose of food.
Majjhimo yāva patte bhattaṃ na khīyati, tāva aññaṃ gaṇhituṃ labhati.
The medium one may take more as long as the meal in the bowl is not exhausted;
Ayañhi bhojanapariyantiko nāma hoti.
for he is called “one who stops when the food is finished.”
Muduko yāva āsanā na vuṭṭhāti tāva bhuñjituṃ labhati.
The mild one may eat as long as he does not get up from his seat.
So hi udakapariyantiko vā hoti yāva pattadhovanaṃ na gaṇhāti tāva bhuñjanato, āsanapariyantiko vā yāva na vuṭṭhāti tāva bhuñjanato.
He is either “one who stops with the water” because he eats until he takes [water for] washing the bowl, or “one who stops with the session” because he eats until he gets up.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi nānāsanabhojanaṃ bhuttakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The ascetic practice of these three is broken at the moment when food has been eaten at more than one session.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, appābādhatā, appātaṅkatā, lahuṭṭhānaṃ, balaṃ, phāsuvihāro, anatirittapaccayā anāpatti, rasataṇhāvinodanaṃ appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
37.The benefits are these. He has little affliction and little sickness; he has lightness, strength, and a happy life; there is no contravening [rules] about food that is not what is left over from a meal; craving for tastes is eliminated; his life conforms to the [principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Ekāsanabhojane rataṃ,
38. Who gladly in one session takes his meal;
Na yatiṃ bhojanapaccayā rujā;
No illness due to eating shall he feel
Visahanti rase alolupo,
No longing to indulge his sense of taste
Parihāpeti na kammamattano.
Tempts him to leave his work to go to waste.
Iti phāsuvihārakāraṇe,
His own true happiness a monk may find
Sucisallekharatūpasevite;
In eating in one session, pure in mind.
Janayetha visuddhamānaso,
Purity and effacement wait on this;
Ratimekāsanabhojane yatīti.
For it gives reason to abide in bliss-(sukha).
Ayaṃ ekāsanikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the one-sessioner’s practice.
6. Pattapiṇḍikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.6 - 6. Patta-piṇḍikaṅga-kathā: bowl-food-eater’s practice

29.Pattapiṇḍikaṅgampi"dutiyakabhājanaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, pattapiṇḍikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
39.vi. The bowl-food-eater’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a second vessel” or “I undertake the bowl-food-eater’s practice.”
Tena pana pattapiṇḍikena yāgupānakāle bhājane ṭhapetvā byañjane laddhe byañjanaṃ vā paṭhamaṃ khāditabbaṃ, yāgu vā pātabbā.
When at the time of drinking rice gruel, the bowl-food eater gets curry that is put in a dish; he can first either eat the curry or drink the rice gruel.
Sace pana yāguyaṃ pakkhipati, pūtimacchakādimhi byañjane pakkhitte yāgu paṭikūlā hoti, appaṭikūlameva ca katvā bhuñjituṃ vaṭṭati.
If he puts it in the rice gruel, the rice gruel becomes repulsive when a curry made with cured fish, etc., is put into it. So it is allowable [to do this] only in order to use it without making it repulsive.
Tasmā tathārūpaṃ byañjanaṃ sandhāya idaṃ vuttaṃ.
Consequently this is said with reference to such curry as that.
Yaṃ pana madhusakkarādikaṃ appaṭikūlaṃ hoti, taṃ pakkhipitabbaṃ.
But what is unrepulsive, such as honey, sugar,13 etc., should be put into it.
Gaṇhantena ca pamāṇayuttameva gaṇhitabbaṃ.
And in taking it he should take the right amount.
Āmakasākaṃ hatthena gahetvā khādituṃ vaṭṭati.
It is allowable to take green vegetables with the hand and eat them.
Tathā pana akatvā patteyeva pakkhipitabbaṃ.
But unless he does that they should be put into the bowl.
Dutiyakabhājanassa pana paṭikkhittattā aññaṃ rukkhapaṇṇampi na vaṭṭatīti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
Because a second vessel has been refused it is not allowable [to use] anything else, not even the leaf of a tree. These are its directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
40.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhassa aññatra ucchukhādanakālā kacavarampi chaḍḍetuṃ na vaṭṭati.
Herein, for one who is strict, except at the time of eating sugarcane, it is not allowed [while eating] to throw rubbish away,
Odanapiṇḍamacchamaṃsapūvepi bhinditvā khādituṃ na vaṭṭati.
and it is not allowed while eating to break up rice-lumps, fish, meat and cakes. [The rubbish should be thrown away and the rice-lumps, etc., broken up before starting to eat.]
Majjhimassa ekena hatthena bhinditvā khādituṃ vaṭṭati, hatthayogī nāmesa.
The medium one is allowed to break them up with one hand while eating; and he is called a “hand ascetic.”
Muduko pana pattayogī nāma hoti, tassa yaṃ sakkā hoti patte pakkhipituṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ hatthena vā dantehi vā bhinditvā khādituṃ vaṭṭati.
The mild one is called a “bowl ascetic”; anything that can be put into his bowl he is allowed, while eating, to break up, [that is, rice lumps, etc.,] with his hand or [such things as palm sugar, ginger, etc.,] with his teeth.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi dutiyakabhājanaṃ sāditakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to a second vessel his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, nānārasataṇhāvinodanaṃ.
41.The benefits are these. Craving for variety of tastes is eliminated;
Atricchatāya pahānaṃ, āhāre payojanamattadassitā, thālakādipariharaṇakhedābhāvo, avikkhittabhojitā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
excessiveness of wishes is abandoned; he sees the purpose and the [right] amount in nutriment; he is not bothered with carrying saucers, etc., about; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes and so on.
Nānābhājanavikkhepaṃ, hitvā okkhittalocano;
42. He baffles doubts that might arise With extra dishes; downcast eyes
Khaṇanto viya mūlāni, rasataṇhāya subbato.
The true devotedness imply14 Of one uprooting gluttony.
Sarūpaṃ viya santuṭṭhiṃ, dhārayanto sumānaso;
Wearing content as if ‘twere part Of his own nature, glad at heart;
Paribhuñjeyya āhāraṃ, ko añño pattapiṇḍikoti.
None but a bowl-food eater may Consume his food in such a way.
Ayaṃ pattapiṇḍikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the bowl-food-eater’s practice.
7. Khalupacchābhattikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.7 - 7. Khalu-pacchā-bhattikaṅga-kathā: later-food-refuser’s practice

30.Khalupacchābhattikaṅgampi "atirittabhojanaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, khalupacchābhattikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
43.vii. The later-food-refuser’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse additional food” or “I undertake the later-food-refuser’s practice.”
Tena pana khalupacchābhattikena pavāretvā puna bhojanaṃ kappiyaṃ kāretvā na bhuñjitabbaṃ.
Now, when that later-food refuser has shown that he is satisfied, he should not again have the food made allowable [by having it put into his hands according to the rule for bhikkhus] and eat it.
Idamassa vidhānaṃ.
These are the directions for it.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
44.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho yasmā paṭhamapiṇḍe pavāraṇā nāma natthi, tasmiṃ pana ajjhohariyamāne aññaṃ paṭikkhipato hoti, tasmā evaṃ pavārito paṭhamapiṇḍaṃ ajjhoharitvā dutiyapiṇḍaṃ na bhuñjati.
Herein, there is no showing that he has had enough with respect to the first lump, but there is when he refuses more while that is being swallowed. So when one who is strict has thus shown that he has had enough [with respect to the second lump], he does not eat the second lump after swallowing the first.
Majjhimo yasmiṃ bhojane pavārito, tadeva bhuñjati.
The medium one eats also that food with respect to which he has shown that he has had enough.
Muduko pana yāva āsanā na vuṭṭhāti tāva bhuñjati.
But the mild one goes on eating until he gets up from his seat.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi pavāritānaṃ kappiyaṃ kārāpetvā bhuttakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment any one of these three has eaten what has been made allowable [again] after he has shown that he has had enough, his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃpanānisaṃso, anatirittabhojanāpattiyā dūrabhāvo, odarikattābhāvo, nirāmisasannidhitā, puna pariyesanāya abhāvo, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
45.The benefits are these. One is far from committing an offence concerned with extra food; there is no overloading of the stomach; there is no keeping food back; there is no renewed search [for food]; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Pariyesanāya khedaṃ, na yāti na karoti sannidhiṃ dhīro;
46. He needs no extra search in weary mood, Nor stores up food till later in the day,
Odarikattaṃ pajahati, khalupacchābhattiko yogī.
Nor overloads his stomach in this way. When a wise man refuses later food.
Tasmā sugatapasatthaṃ, santosaguṇādivuḍḍhisañjananaṃ;
Praised by the Blessed One, which will augment The special qualities such as content.
Dose vidhunitukāmo, bhajeyya yogī dhutaṅgamidanti.
So, would the adept from such faults abstain, Let him assume this practice for his gain,
Ayaṃ khalupacchābhattikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the later-food-refuser’s practice.
8. Āraññikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.8 - 8. Āraññikaṅga-kathā: forest-dweller’s practice

31.Āraññikaṅgampi "gāmantasenāsanaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, āraññikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
47. viii. The forest-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse an abode in a village” or “I undertake the forest-dweller’s practice.”
Tena pana āraññikena gāmantasenāsanaṃ pahāya araññe aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetabbaṃ.
48.Now, that forest dweller must leave an abode in a village in order to meet the dawn in the forest.
Tattha saddhiṃ upacārena gāmoyeva gāmantasenāsanaṃ.
Herein, a village abode is the village itself with its precincts.
Gāmo nāma yo koci ekakuṭiko vā anekakuṭiko vā parikkhitto vā aparikkhitto vā samanusso vā amanusso vā antamaso atirekacātumāsaniviṭṭho yo koci satthopi.
A “village” may consist of one cottage or several cottages, it may be enclosed by a wall or not, have human inhabitants or not, and it can also be a caravan that is inhabited for more than four months.
Gāmūpacāro nāma parikkhittassa gāmassa sace anurādhapurasseva dve indakhīlā honti, abbhantarime indakhīle ṭhitassa thāmamajjhimassa purisassa leḍḍupāto.
The “village precincts” cover the range of a stone thrown by a man of medium stature standing between the gate-posts of a walled village, if there are two gate-posts, as at Anurādhapura (cf. Vin III 46).
Tassa lakkhaṇaṃ yathā taruṇamanussā attano balaṃ dassentā bāhaṃ pasāretvā leḍḍuṃ khipanti, evaṃ khittassa leḍḍussa patanaṭṭhānabbhantaranti vinayadharā.
The Vinaya experts say that this [stone’s throw] is characterized as up to the place where a thrown stone falls, as, for instance, when young men exercise their arms and throw stones in order to show off their strength.
Suttantikā pana kākanivāraṇaniyamena khittassāti vadanti.
But the Suttanta experts say that it is up to where one thrown to scare crows normally falls.
Aparikkhittagāme yaṃ sabbapaccantimassa gharassa dvāre ṭhito mātugāmo bhājanena udakaṃ chaḍḍeti, tassa patanaṭṭhānaṃ gharūpacāro.
In the case of an unwalled village, the house precinct is where the water falls when a woman standing in the door of the outermost house of all throws water from a basin.
Tato vuttanayena eko leḍḍupāto gāmo, dutiyo gāmūpacāro.
Within a stone’s throw of the kind already described from that point is the village. Within a second stone’s throw is the village precinct.
Araññaṃ pana vinayapariyāye tāva "ṭhapetvā gāmañca gāmūpacārañca sabbametaṃ arañña"nti (pārā. 92) vuttaṃ.
49.“Forest,” according to the Vinaya method firstly, is described thus: “Except the village and its precincts, all is forest” (Vin III 46).
Abhidhammapariyāye "nikkhamitvā bahi indakhīlā, sabbametaṃ arañña"nti (vibha. 529) vuttaṃ.
According to the Abhidhamma method it is described thus: “Having gone out beyond the boundary post, all that is forest” (Vibh 251; Paṭis I 176).
Imasmiṃ pana suttantikapariyāye "āraññakaṃ nāma senāsanaṃ pañcadhanusatikaṃ pacchima"nti idaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ.
But according to the Suttanta method its characteristic is this: “A forest abode is five hundred bow-lengths distant” (Vin IV 183).
Taṃ āropitena ācariyadhanunā parikkhittassa gāmassa indakhīlato aparikkhittassa paṭhamaleḍḍupātato paṭṭhāya yāva vihāraparikkhepā minitvā vavatthapetabbaṃ.
That should be defined by measuring it with a strung instructor’s bow from the gate-post of a walled village, or from the range of the first stone’s throw from an unwalled one, up to the monastery wall.
Sace pana vihāro aparikkhitto hoti, yaṃ sabbapaṭhamaṃ senāsanaṃ vā bhattasālā vā dhuvasannipātaṭṭhānaṃ vā bodhi vā cetiyaṃ vā dūre cepi senāsanato hoti, taṃ paricchedaṃ katvā minitabbanti vinayaṭṭhakathāsu vuttaṃ.
50.But if the monastery is not walled, it is said in the Vinaya commentaries, it should be measured by making the first dwelling of all the limit, or else the refectory or regular meeting place or Bodhi Tree or shrine, even if that is far from a dwelling [belonging to the monastery].
Majjhimaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana vihārassapi gāmasseva upacāraṃ nīharitvā ubhinnaṃ leḍḍupātānaṃ antarā minitabbanti vuttaṃ.
But in the Majjhima commentary it is said that, omitting the precincts of the monastery and the village, the distance to be measured is that between where the two stones fall.
Idamettha pamāṇaṃ.
This is the measure here.
Sacepi āsanne gāmo hoti, vihāre ṭhitehi mānusakānaṃ saddo suyyati, pabbatanadīādīhi pana antaritattā na sakkā ujuṃ gantuṃ.
51.Even if the village is close by and the sounds of men are audible to people in the monastery, still if it is not possible to go straight to it because of rocks, rivers, etc.,
Yo tassa pakatimaggo hoti, sacepi nāvāya sañcaritabbo, tena maggena pañcadhanusatikaṃ gahetabbaṃ.
in between, the five hundred bow-lengths can be reckoned by that road even if one has to go by boat.
Yo pana āsannagāmassa aṅgasampādanatthaṃ tato tato maggaṃ pidahati, ayaṃ dhutaṅgacoro hoti.
But anyone who blocks the path to the village here and there for the purpose of [lengthening it so as to be able to say that he is] taking up the practice is cheating the ascetic practice.
Sace pana āraññikassa bhikkhuno upajjhāyo vā ācariyo vā gilāno hoti, tena araññe sappāyaṃ alabhantena gāmantasenāsanaṃ netvā upaṭṭhātabbo.
52.If a forest-dwelling bhikkhu’s preceptor or teacher is ill and does not get what he needs in the forest, he should take him to a village abode and attend him there.
Kālasseva pana nikkhamitvā aṅgayuttaṭṭhāne aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetabbaṃ.
But he should leave in time to meet the dawn in a place proper for the practice.
Sace aruṇuṭṭhānavelāyaṃ tesaṃ ābādho vaḍḍhati, tesaṃyeva kiccaṃ kātabbaṃ.
If the affliction increases towards the time of dawn, he must attend him
Na dhutaṅgasuddhikena bhavitabbanti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
and not bother about the purity of his ascetic practice. These are the directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
53.This too has three grades.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhena sabbakālaṃ araññe aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetabbaṃ.
Herein, one who is strict must always meet the dawn in the forest.
Majjhimo cattāro vassike māse gāmante vasituṃ labhati.
The medium one is allowed to live in a village for the four months of the Rains.
Muduko hemantikepi.
And the mild one, for the winter months too.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi yathā paricchinne kāle araññato āgantvā gāmantasenāsane dhammassavanaṃ suṇantānaṃ aruṇe uṭṭhitepi dhutaṅgaṃ na bhijjati.
If in the period defined any one of these three goes from the forest and hears the Dhamma in a village abode, his ascetic practice is not broken if he meets the dawn there,
Sutvā gacchantānaṃ antarāmagge uṭṭhitepi na bhijjati.
nor is it broken if he meets it as he is on his way back after hearing [the Dhamma].
Sace pana uṭṭhitepi dhammakathike muhuttaṃ nipajjitvā gamissāmāti niddāyantānaṃ aruṇaṃ uṭṭhahati, attano vā ruciyā gāmantasenāsane aruṇaṃ uṭṭhapenti, dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjatīti ayamettha bhedo.
But if, when the preacher has got up, he thinks “We shall go after lying down awhile” and he meets the dawn while asleep or if of his own choice he meets the dawn while in a village abode, then his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃpanānisaṃso, āraññiko bhikkhu araññasaññaṃ manasikaronto bhabbo aladdhaṃ vā samādhiṃ paṭiladdhuṃ laddhaṃ vā rakkhituṃ, satthāpissa attamano hoti.
54.The benefits are these. A forest-dwelling bhikkhu who has given attention to the perception of forest (see MN 121) can obtain hitherto unobtained concentration, or preserve that already obtained. And the Master is pleased with him,
Yathāha – "tenāhaṃ, nāgita, tassa bhikkhuno attamano homi araññavihārenā"ti (a. ni. 6.42; 8.86).
according as it is said: “So, Nāgita, I am pleased with that bhikkhu’s dwelling in the forest” (A III 343).
Pantasenāsanavāsino cassa asappāyarūpādayo cittaṃ na vikkhipanti, vigatasantāso hoti, jīvitanikantiṃ jahati, pavivekasukharasaṃ assādeti, paṃsukūlikādibhāvopi cassa patirūpo hotīti.
And when he lives in a remote abode his mind is not distracted by unsuitable visible objects, and so on. He is free from anxiety; he abandons attachment to life; he enjoys the taste of the bliss-(sukha) of seclusion, and the state of the refuse-rag wearer, etc., becomes him.
Pavivitto asaṃsaṭṭho, pantasenāsane rato;
55. He lives secluded and apart, Remote abodes delight his heart;
Ārādhayanto nāthassa, vanavāsena mānasaṃ.
The Saviour of the world, besides, He gladdens that in groves abides.
Eko araññe nivasaṃ, yaṃ sukhaṃ labhate yati;
The hermit that in woods can dwell Alone, may gain the bliss-(sukha) as well
Rasaṃ tassa na vindanti, api devā saindakā.
Whose savour is beyond the price Of royal bliss-(sukha) in paradise.
Paṃsukūlañca esova, kavacaṃ viya dhārayaṃ;
Wearing the robe of rags he may Go forth into the forest fray;
Araññasaṅgāmagato, avasesadhutāyudho.
Such is his mail, for weapons too The other practices will do.
Samattho nacirasseva, jetuṃ māraṃ savāhiniṃ;
One so equipped can be assured Of routing Māra and his horde.
Tasmā araññavāsamhi, ratiṃ kayirātha paṇḍitoti.
So let the forest glades delight A wise man for his dwelling’s site.
Ayaṃ āraññikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the forest-dweller’s practice.
9. Rukkhamūlikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.9 - 9. Rukkha-mūlikaṅga-kathā: tree-root-dweller’s practice

32.Rukkhamūlikaṅgampi "channaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, rukkhamūlikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
56. ix. The tree-root-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a roof” or “I undertake the tree-root-dweller’s practice.”
Tena pana rukkhamūlikena sīmantarikarukkhaṃ, cetiyarukkhaṃ, niyyāsarukkhaṃ, phalarukkhaṃ, vaggulirukkhaṃ, susirarukkhaṃ, vihāramajjhe ṭhitarukkhanti ime rukkhe vivajjetvā vihārapaccante ṭhitarukkho gahetabboti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
The tree-root dweller should avoid such trees as a tree near a frontier, a shrine tree, a gum tree, a fruit tree, a bats’ tree, a hollow tree, or a tree standing in the middle of a monastery. He can choose a tree standing on the outskirts of a monastery. These are the directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
57.This has three grades too.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho yathārucitaṃ rukkhaṃ gahetvā paṭijaggāpetuṃ na labhati.
Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to have a tree that he has chosen tidied up.
Pādena paṇṇasaṭaṃ apanetvā vasitabbaṃ.
He can move the fallen leaves with his foot while dwelling there.
Majjhimo taṃ ṭhānaṃ sampattehiyeva paṭijaggāpetuṃ labhati.
The medium one is allowed to get it tidied up by those who happen to come along.
Mudukena ārāmikasamaṇuddese pakkositvā sodhāpetvā samaṃ kārāpetvā vālukaṃ okirāpetvā pākāraparikkhepaṃ kārāpetvā dvāraṃ yojāpetvā vasitabbaṃ.
The mild one can take up residence there after summoning monastery attendants and novices and getting them to clear it up, level it, strew sand and make a fence round with a gate fixed in it.
Mahadivase pana rukkhamūlikena tattha anisīditvā aññattha paṭicchanne ṭhāne nisīditabbaṃ.
On a special day, a tree-root dweller should sit in some concealed place elsewhere rather than there.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi channe vāsaṃ kappitakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment any one of these three makes his abode under a roof, his ascetic practice is broken.
Jānitvā channe aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpitamatteti aṅguttarabhāṇakā.
The reciters of the Aṅguttara say that it is broken as soon as he knowingly meets the dawn under a roof.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, rukkhamūlasenāsanaṃ nissāya pabbajjāti (mahāva. 128) vacanato nissayānurūpapaṭipattisabbhāvo, appāni ceva sulabhāni ca tāni ca anavajjānīti (a. ni. 4.27; itivu. 101) bhagavatā saṃvaṇṇitapaccayatā, abhiṇhaṃ tarupaṇṇavikāradassanena aniccasaññāsamuṭṭhāpanatā, senāsanamaccherakammārāmatānaṃ abhāvo, devatāhi sahavāsitā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
58.The benefits are these. He practices in conformity with the dependence, because of the words “The going forth by depending on the root of a tree as an abode” (Vin I 58, 96); it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “Valueless, easy to get, and blameless” (A II 26); perception of impermanence is aroused through seeing the continual alteration of young leaves; avarice about abodes and love of [building] work are absent; he dwells in the company of deities; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Vaṇṇito buddhaseṭṭhena, nissayoti ca bhāsito;
59. The Blessed One praised roots of trees As one of the dependencies (Vin I 58);
Nivāso pavivittassa, rukkhamūlasamo kuto.
Can he that loves secludedness Find such another dwelling place?
Āvāsamaccherahare, devatā paripālite;
Secluded at the roots of trees And guarded well by deities
Pavivitte vasanto hi, rukkhamūlamhi subbato.
He lives in true devotedness Nor covets any dwelling place.
Abhirattāni nīlāni, paṇḍūni patitāni ca;
And when the tender leaves are seen Bright red at first, then turning green,
Passanto tarupaṇṇāni, niccasaññaṃ panūdati.
And then to yellow as they fall, He sheds belief once and for all In permanence.
Tasmā hi buddhadāyajjaṃ, bhāvanābhiratālayaṃ;
No wise man will disdain at all For contemplating [rise and fall].
Vivittaṃ nātimaññeyya, rukkhamūlaṃ vicakkhaṇoti.
Tree roots have been Bequeathed by him; secluded scene
Ayaṃ rukkhamūlikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the tree-root-dweller’s practice.
10. Abbhokāsikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.10 - 10. Abbhokāsikaṅga-kathā: open-air-dweller’s practice

33.Abbhokāsikaṅgampi"channañca rukkhamūlañca paṭikkhipāmi, abbhokāsikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
60. x. The open-air-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a roof and a tree root” or “I undertake the open-air-dweller’s practice.”
Tassa pana abbhokāsikassa dhammassavanāya vā uposathatthāya vā uposathāgāraṃ pavisituṃ vaṭṭati.
An open-air dweller is allowed to enter the Uposatha-house for the purpose of hearing the Dhamma or for the purpose of the Uposatha.
Sace paviṭṭhassa devo vassati, deve vassamāne anikkhamitvā vassūparame nikkhamitabbaṃ.
If it rains while he is inside, he can go out when the rain is over instead of going out while it is still raining.
Bhojanasālaṃ vā aggisālaṃ vā pavisitvā vattaṃ kātuṃ, bhojanasālāya there bhikkhū bhattena āpucchituṃ, uddisantena vā uddisāpentena vā channaṃ pavisituṃ, bahi dunnikkhittāni mañcapīṭhādīni anto pavesetuñca vaṭṭati.
He is allowed to enter the eating hall or the fire room in order to do the duties, or to go under a roof in order to ask elder bhikkhus in the eating hall about a meal, or when teaching and taking lessons, or to take beds, chairs, etc., inside that have been wrongly left outside.
Sace maggaṃ gacchantena vuḍḍhatarānaṃ parikkhāro gahito hoti, deve vassante maggamajjhe ṭhitaṃ sālaṃ pavisituṃ vaṭṭati.
If he is going along a road with a requisite belonging to a senior and it rains, he is allowed to go into a wayside rest house.
Sace na kiñci gahitaṃ hoti, sālāya ṭhassāmīti vegena gantuṃ na vaṭṭati.
If he has nothing with him, he is not allowed to hurry in order to get to a rest house;
Pakatigatiyā gantvā paviṭṭhena pana yāva vassūparamā ṭhatvā gantabbanti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
but he can go at his normal pace and enter it and stay there as long as it rains. These are the directions for it.
Rukkhamūlikassāpi eseva nayo.
And the same rule applies to the tree-root dweller too.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
61.This has three grades too.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhassa rukkhaṃ vā pabbataṃ vā gehaṃ vā upanissāya vasituṃ na vaṭṭati.
Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to live near a tree or a rock or a house.
Abbhokāseyeva cīvarakuṭiṃ katvā vasitabbaṃ.
He should make a robe-tent right out in the open and live in that.
Majjhimassa rukkhapabbatagehāni upanissāya anto appavisitvā vasituṃ vaṭṭati.
The medium one is allowed to live near a tree or a rock or a house so long as he is not covered by them.
Mudukassa acchannamariyādaṃ pabbhārampi sākhāmaṇḍapopi pīṭhapaṭopi khettarakkhakādīhi chaḍḍitā tatraṭṭhakakuṭikāpi vaṭṭatīti.
The mild one is allowed these: a [rock] overhang without a drip-ledge cut in it,15 a hut of branches, cloth stiffened with paste, and a tent treated as a fixture, that has been left by field watchers, and so on.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi vāsatthāya channaṃ vā rukkhamūlaṃ vā paviṭṭhakkhaṇe dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
The moment any one of these three goes under a roof or to a tree root to dwell there, his ascetic practice is broken.
Jānitvā tattha aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpitamatteti aṅguttarabhāṇakā.
The reciters of the Aṅguttara say that it is broken as soon as he knowingly meets the dawn there.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this case.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, āvāsapalibodhupacchedo, thinamiddhapanūdanaṃ, "migā viya asaṅgacārino, aniketā viharanti bhikkhavo"ti (saṃ. ni. 1.224) pasaṃsāya anurūpatā, nissaṅgatā, cātuddisatā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
62.The benefits are these: the impediment of dwellings is severed; stiffness and torpor are expelled; his conduct deserves the praise “Like deer the bhikkhus live unattached and homeless” (S I 199); he is detached; he is [free to go in] any direction; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Anagāriyabhāvassa, anurūpe adullabhe;
63. That aids the homeless bhikkhu’s strife, Easy to get,
Tārāmaṇivitānamhi, candadīpappabhāsite.
The moon and sun furnish his light, Under the star-bejewelled vault
Abbhokāse vasaṃ bhikkhu, migabhūtena cetasā;
The open air provides a life and leaves his mind Alert as a deer, so he shall find
Thinamiddhaṃ vinodetvā, bhāvanārāmataṃ sito.
Stiffness and torpor brought to halt. And concentration his delight.
Pavivekarasassādaṃ, nacirasseva vindati;
The joy seclusion’s savour gives He shall discover soon who lives
Yasmā tasmā hi sappañño, abbhokāsarato siyāti.
In open air; and that is why The wise prefer the open sky.
Ayaṃ abbhokāsikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the open-air-dweller’s practice.
11. Sosānikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.11 - 11. Sosānikaṅga-kathā: charnel-ground-dweller’s practice

34.Sosānikaṅgampi"na susānaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, sosānikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
64.xi. The charnel-ground-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse what is not a charnel ground” or “I undertake the charnel- ground-dweller’s practice.”
Tena pana sosānikena yaṃ manussā gāmaṃ nivesantā "idaṃ susāna"nti vavatthapenti, na tattha vasitabbaṃ.
Now, the charnel-ground dweller should not live in some place just because the people who built the village have called it “the charnel ground”
Na hi matasarīre ajjhāpite taṃ susānaṃ nāma hoti, jhāpitakālato pana paṭṭhāya sacepi dvādasavassāni chaḍḍitaṃ, taṃ susānameva.
for it is not a charnel ground unless a dead body has been burnt on it. But as soon as one has been burnt on it, it becomes a charnel ground. And even if it has been neglected for a dozen years, it is so still.
Tasmiṃ pana vasantena caṅkamamaṇḍapādīni kāretvā mañcapīṭhaṃ paññapetvā pānīyaparibhojanīyaṃ upaṭṭhāpetvā dhammaṃ vācentena na vasitabbaṃ.
65. One who dwells there should not be the sort of person who gets walks, pavilions, etc., built, has beds and chairs set out and drinking and washing water kept ready, and preaches Dhamma;
Garukaṃ hi idaṃ dhutaṅgaṃ, tasmā uppannaparissayavighātatthāya saṅghattheraṃ vā rājayuttakaṃ vā jānāpetvā appamattena vasitabbaṃ.
for this ascetic practice is a momentous thing. Whoever goes to live there should be diligent. And he should first inform the senior elder of the Order or the king’s local representative in order to prevent trouble.
Caṅkamantena addhakkhikena āḷāhanaṃ olokentena caṅkamitabbaṃ.
When he walks up and down, he should do so looking at the pyre with half an eye.
Susānaṃ gacchantenāpi mahāpathā ukkamma uppathamaggena gantabbaṃ.
On his way to the charnel ground he should avoid the main roads and take a by-path.
Divāyeva ārammaṇaṃ vavatthapetabbaṃ.
He should define all the objects [there] while it is day,
Evañhissa taṃ rattiṃ bhayānakaṃ na bhavissati, amanussā rattiṃ viravitvā viravitvā āhiṇḍantāpi na kenaci paharitabbā.
so that they will not assume frightening shapes for him at night. Even if non-human beings wander about screeching, he must not hit them with anything.
Ekadivasampi susānaṃ agantuṃ na vaṭṭati.
It is not allowed to miss going to the charnel ground even for a single day.
Majjhimayāmaṃ susāne khepetvā pacchimayāme paṭikkamituṃ vaṭṭatīti aṅguttarabhāṇakā.
The reciters of the Aṅguttara say that after spending the middle watch in the charnel ground he is allowed to leave in the last watch.
Amanussānaṃ piyaṃ tilapiṭṭhamāsabhattamacchamaṃsakhīratelaguḷādikhajjabhojjaṃ na sevitabbaṃ.
He should not take such foods as sesame flour, pease pudding, fish, meat, milk, oil, sugar, etc., which are liked by non-human beings.
Kulagehaṃ na pavisitabbanti idamassa vidhānaṃ.
He should not enter the homes of families.16 These are the directions for it.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
66.This has three grades too.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhena yattha dhuvaḍāhadhuvakuṇapadhuvarodanāni atthi, tattheva vasitabbaṃ.
Herein, one who is strict should live where there are always burnings and corpses and mourning.
Majjhimassa tīsu ekasmimpi sati vaṭṭati.
The medium one is allowed to live where there is one of these three.
Mudukassa vuttanayena susānalakkhaṇaṃ pattamatte vaṭṭati.
The mild one is allowed to live in a place that possesses the bare characteristics of a charnel ground already stated.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi na susānamhi vāsaṃ kappanena dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
When any one of these three makes his abode in some place not a charnel ground, his ascetic practice is broken.
Susānaṃ agatadivaseti aṅguttarabhāṇakā.
It is on the day on which he does not go to the charnel ground, the Aṅguttara reciters say.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this case.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso maraṇassatipaṭilābho, appamādavihāritā, asubhanimittādhigamo, kāmarāgavinodanaṃ, abhiṇhaṃ kāyasabhāvadassanaṃ, saṃvegabahulatā ārogyamadādippahānaṃ, bhayabheravasahanatā, amanussānaṃ garubhāvanīyatā, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
67.The benefits are these. He acquires mindfulness of death; he lives diligently; the sign of foulness is available (see Ch. VI); greed for sense desires is removed; he constantly sees the body’s true nature; he has a great sense of urgency; he abandons vanity of health, etc.; he vanquishes fear and dread (MN 4); non-human beings respect and honour him; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
Sosānikañhi maraṇānusatippabhāvā,
68. the dweller in a charnel ground for death is ever present to his thought;
Niddāgatampi na phusanti pamādadosā;
Even in sleep shows naught Of negligence,
Sampassato ca kuṇapāni bahūni tassa,
with many corpses present to his gaze.
Kāmānubhāvavasagampi na hoti cittaṃ.
He may be sure there is no lust after sense pleasure preys Upon his mind,
Saṃvegameti vipulaṃ na madaṃ upeti,
Rightly he strives because he gains a sense of urgency,
Sammā atho ghaṭati nibbutimesamāno;
While in his search for final peace he curbs all vanity.
Sosānikaṅgamitinekaguṇāvahattā,
Embrace this practice for it has rare virtues to impart.
Nibbānaninnahadayena nisevitabbanti.
Let him that feels a leaning to Nibbāna in his heart
Ayaṃ sosānikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the charnel-ground dweller’s practice.
12. Yathāsanthatikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.12 - 12. Yathāsanthatikaṅga-kathā: any-bed-user’s practice

35.Yathāsanthatikaṅgampi"senāsanaloluppaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, yathāsanthatikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
69. xii. The any-bed-user’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse greed for resting places” or “I undertake the any-bed-user’s practice.”
Tena pana yathāsanthatikena yadassa senāsanaṃ "idaṃ tuyhaṃ pāpuṇātī"ti gāhitaṃ hoti, teneva tuṭṭhabbaṃ, na añño uṭṭhāpetabbo.
The any-bed user should be content with whatever resting place he gets thus: “This falls to your lot.” He must not make anyone else shift [from his bed].
Idamassa vidhānaṃ.
These are the directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
70.This has three grades too.
Tattha ukkaṭṭho attano pattasenāsanaṃ dūreti vā accāsanneti vā amanussadīghajātikādīhi upaddutanti vā uṇhanti vā sītalanti vā pucchituṃ na labhati.
Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to ask about the resting place that has fallen to his lot: “Is it far? ” or “Is it too near? ” or “Is it infested by non-human beings, snakes, and so on? ” or “Is it hot? ” or “Is it cold? ”.
Majjhimo pucchituṃ labhati.
The medium one is allowed to ask,
Gantvā pana oloketuṃ na labhati.
but not to go and inspect it.
Muduko gantvā oloketvā sacassa taṃ na ruccati, aññaṃ gahetuṃ labhati.
The mild one is allowed to inspect it and, if he does not like it, to choose another.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi senāsanaloluppe uppannamatte dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjatīti ayamettha bhedo.
As soon as greed for resting places arises in any one of these three, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, "yaṃ laddhaṃ tena tuṭṭhabba"nti (jā. 1.1.136; pāci. 793) vuttovādakaraṇaṃ, sabrahmacārīnaṃ hitesitā, hīnapaṇītavikappapariccāgo, anurodhavirodhappahānaṃ, atricchatāya dvārapidahanaṃ, appicchatādīnaṃ anulomavuttitāti.
71.The benefits are these. The advice “He should be content with what he gets” (J-a I 476; Vin IV 259) is carried out; he regards the welfare of his fellows in the life of purity; he gives up caring about inferiority and superiority; approval and disapproval are abandoned; the door is closed against excessive wishes; he lives in conformity with [the principles] of fewness of wishes, and so on.
Yaṃ laddhaṃ tena santuṭṭho, yathāsanthatiko yati;
72. One vowed to any bed will be Content with what he gets, and he
Nibbikappo sukhaṃ seti, tiṇasantharakesupi.
Can sleep in bliss-(sukha) without dismay On nothing but a spread of hay.
Na so rajjati seṭṭhamhi, hīnaṃ laddhā na kuppati;
He is not eager for the best, No lowly couch does he detest,
Sabrahmacārinavake, hitena anukampati.
He aids his young companions too That to the monk’s good life are new.
Tasmā ariyasatāciṇṇaṃ, munipuṅgavavaṇṇitaṃ;
So for a wise man to delight In any kind of bed is right;
Anuyuñjetha medhāvī, yathāsanthatarāmatanti.
A Noble One this custom loves As one the sages’ Lord approves.
Ayaṃ yathāsanthatikaṅge samādānavidhānappabhedabhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the any-bed-user’s practice.
13. Nesajjikaṅgakathā Table view Original pali

2.13 - 13. Nesajjikaṅga-kathā: sitter’s practice

36.Nesajjikaṅgampi"seyyaṃ paṭikkhipāmi, nesajjikaṅgaṃ samādiyāmī"ti imesaṃ aññataravacanena samādinnaṃ hoti.
73.xiii. The sitter’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse lying down” or “I undertake the sitter’s practice.”
Tena pana nesajjikena rattiyā tīsu yāmesu ekaṃ yāmaṃ uṭṭhāya caṅkamitabbaṃ.
The sitter can get up in any one of three watches of the night and walk up and down:
Iriyāpathesu hi nipajjitumeva na vaṭṭati.
for lying down is the only posture not allowed.
Idamassa vidhānaṃ.
These are the directions.
Pabhedato pana ayampi tividho hoti.
74.This has three grades too.
Tattha ukkaṭṭhassa neva apassenaṃ, na dussapallatthikā, na āyogapaṭṭo vaṭṭati.
Herein, one who is strict is not allowed a back-rest or cloth band or binding-strap [to prevent falling while asleep].17
Majjhimassa imesu tīsu yaṃkiñci vaṭṭati.
The medium one is allowed any one of these three.
Mudukassa apassenampi dussapallatthikāpi āyogapaṭṭopi bibbohanampi pañcaṅgopi sattaṅgopi vaṭṭati.
The mild one is allowed a back-rest, a cloth band, a binding-strap, a cushion, a “five-limb” and a “seven-limb.”
Pañcaṅgo pana piṭṭhiapassayena saddhiṃ kato.
A “five-limb” is [a chair] made with [four legs and] a support for the back.
Sattaṅgo nāma piṭṭhiapassayena ca ubhatopassesu apassayehi ca saddhiṃ kato.
A “seven-limb” is one made with [four legs,] a support for the back and an [arm] support on each side.
Taṃ kira miḷābhayattherassa akaṃsu.
They made that, it seems, for the Elder Pīṭhābhaya (Abhaya of the Chair).
Thero anāgāmī hutvā parinibbāyi.
The elder became a non-returner, and then attained Nibbāna.
Imesaṃ pana tiṇṇampi seyyaṃ kappitamatte dhutaṅgaṃ bhijjati.
As soon as any one of these three lies down, his ascetic practice is broken.
Ayamettha bhedo.
This is the breach in this instance.
Ayaṃ panānisaṃso, "seyyasukhaṃ passasukhaṃ middhasukhaṃ anuyutto viharatī"ti (dī. ni. 3.320; ma. ni. 1.186) vuttassa cetaso vinibandhassa upacchedanaṃ, sabbakammaṭṭhānānuyogasappāyatā, pāsādikairiyāpathatā, vīriyārambhānukūlatā, sammāpaṭipattiyā anubrūhananti.
75.The benefits are these. The mental shackle described thus, “He dwells indulging in the pleasure of lying prone, the pleasure of lolling, the pleasure of torpor” (M I 102), is severed; his state is suitable for devotion to any meditation subject; his deportment inspires confidence; his state favours the application of energy; he develops the right practice.
Ābhujitvāna pallaṅkaṃ, paṇidhāya ujuṃ tanuṃ;
76. The adept that can place crosswise His feet to rest upon his thighs
Nisīdanto vikampeti, mārassa hadayaṃ yati.
And sit with back erect shall make Foul Māra’s evil heart to quake.
Seyyasukhaṃ middhasukhaṃ, hitvā āraddhavīriyo;
No more in supine joys to plump And wallow in lethargic dump;
Nisajjābhirato bhikkhu, sobhayanto tapovanaṃ.
Who sits for rest and finds it good Shines forth in the Ascetics’ Wood.
Nirāmisaṃ pītisukhaṃ, yasmā samadhigacchati;
The happiness and bliss-(sukha) it brings Has naught to do with worldly things;
Tasmā samanuyuñjeyya, dhīro nesajjikaṃ vatanti.
So must the sitter’s vow befit The manners of a man of wit.
Ayaṃ nesajjikaṅge samādāna vidhānappabheda bhedānisaṃsavaṇṇanā.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the sitter’s practice.
Dhutaṅgapakiṇṇakakathā Table view Original pali

2.14 - Dhutaṅga-pakiṇṇaka-kathā: ascetic-practice miscellaneous discussion

37.Idāni –
77
Kusalattikato ceva, dhutādīnaṃ vibhāgato;
(4) As to the profitable triad, (5) “Ascetic” and so on distinguished,
Samāsabyāsato cāpi, viññātabbo vinicchayoti. –
(6) As to groups, and also (7) singly, The exposition should be known (see §3).
Imissā gāthāya vasena vaṇṇanā hoti.
Now, there is the commentary according to the stanza (above).
Tattha kusalattikatoti sabbāneva hi dhutaṅgāni sekkhaputhujjanakhīṇāsavānaṃ vasena siyā kusalāni, siyā abyākatāni, natthi dhutaṅgaṃ akusalanti.
78. 4. Herein, as to the profitable triad: (Dhs, p.1) all the ascetic practices, that is to say, those of trainers, ordinary men, and men whose cankers have been destroyed, may be either profitable or [in the Arahant’s case] indeterminate. No ascetic practice is unprofitable.
Yo pana vadeyya "pāpiccho icchāpakato āraññiko hotīti ādivacanato (a. ni. 5.181; pari. 325) akusalampi dhutaṅga"nti.
But if someone should say: There is also an unprofitable ascetic practice because of the words “One of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, becomes a forest dweller” (A III 219), etc.,
So vattabbo – na mayaṃ "akusalacittena araññe na vasatī"ti vadāma.
he should be told: We have not said that he does not live in the forest with unprofitable consciousness.
Yassa hi araññe nivāso, so āraññiko.
Whoever has his dwelling in the forest is a forest dweller;
So ca pāpiccho vā bhaveyya appiccho vā.
and he may be one of evil wishes or of few wishes.
Imāni pana tena tena samādānena dhutakilesattā dhutassa bhikkhuno aṅgāni, kilesadhunanato vā dhutanti laddhavohāraṃ ñāṇaṃ aṅgametesanti dhutaṅgāni.
But, as it was said above (§11), they “are the practices (aṅga) of a bhikkhu who is ascetic (dhuta) because he has shaken off (dhuta) defilement by undertaking one or other of them. Or the knowledge that has got the name “ascetic” (dhuta) because it shakes off (dhunana) defilement is a practice (aṅga) belonging to these, thus they are “ascetic practices” (dhutaṅga).
Atha vā dhutāni ca tāni paṭipakkhaniddhunanato aṅgāni ca paṭipattiyātipi dhutaṅgānīti vuttaṃ.
Or alternatively, they are ascetic (dhuta) because they shake off (niddhunana) opposition, and they are practices (aṅga) because they are a way (paṭipatti).”
Na ca akusalena koci dhuto nāma hoti, yassetāni aṅgāni bhaveyyuṃ, na ca akusalaṃ kiñci dhunāti, yesaṃ taṃ aṅgantikatvā dhutaṅgānīti vucceyyuṃ.
Now, no one called “ascetic” on account of what is unprofitable could have these as his practices; nor does what is unprofitable shake off anything so that those things to which it belonged as a practice could be called “ascetic practices.”
Nāpi akusalaṃ cīvaraloluppādīni ceva niddhunāti paṭipattiyā ca aṅgaṃ hoti.
And what is unprofitable does not both shake off cupidity for robes, etc., and become the practice of the way.
Tasmā suvuttamidaṃ "natthi akusalaṃ dhutaṅga"nti.
Consequently it was rightly said that no ascetic practice is unprofitable.
"Yesampi kusalattikavinimuttaṃ dhutaṅgaṃ, tesaṃ atthato dhutaṅgameva natthi.
79.And those who hold that an ascetic practice is outside the profitable triad18 have no ascetic practice as regards meaning.
Asantaṃ kassa dhunanato dhutaṅgaṃ nāma bhavissati.
Owing to the shaking off of what is non-existent could it be called an ascetic practice?
Dhutaguṇe samādāya vattatīti vacanavirodhopi ca nesaṃ āpajjati, tasmā taṃ na gahetabba"nti ayaṃ tāva kusalattikato vaṇṇanā.
Also there are the words “Proceeded to undertake the ascetic qualities” (Vin III 15), and it follows19 that those words are contradicted. So that should not be accepted. This, in the first place, is the commentary on the profitable triad.
Dhutādīnaṃvibhāgatoti dhuto veditabbo.
80. 5. As to “ascetic and so on distinguished,” the following things should be understood, that is to say, ascetic,
Dhutavādo veditabbo.
a preacher of asceticism,
Dhutadhammā veditabbā.
ascetic states,
Dhutaṅgāni veditabbāni.
ascetic practices,
Kassa dhutaṅgasevanā sappāyāti veditabbaṃ.
and for whom the cultivation of ascetic practices is suitable.
Tattha dhutoti dhutakileso vā puggalo kilesadhunano vā dhammo.
81. Herein, ascetic means either a person whose defilements are shaken off, or a state that entails shaking off defilements.
Dhutavādoti ettha pana atthi dhuto na dhutavādo, atthi na dhuto dhutavādo, atthi neva dhuto na dhutavādo, atthi dhuto ceva dhutavādo ca.
A preacher of asceticism: one is ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism, another is not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism, another is neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism, and another is both ascetic and a preacher of asceticism.
Tattha yo dhutaṅgena attano kilese dhuni, paraṃ pana dhutaṅgena na ovadati, nānusāsati bākulatthero viya, ayaṃ dhuto na dhutavādo.
82.Herein, one who has shaken off his defilements with an ascetic practice but does not advise and instruct another in an ascetic practice, like the Elder Bakkula, is “ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism,”
Yathāha, "tayidaṃ āyasmā bākulo dhuto na dhutavādo"ti.
according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Bakkula was ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism.”
Yo pana na dhutaṅgena attano kilese dhuni, kevalaṃ aññe dhutaṅgena ovadati anusāsati upanandatthero viya, ayaṃ na dhuto dhutavādo.
One who has not shaken off his own defilements but only advises and instructs another in an ascetic practice, like the Elder Upananda, is “not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism,”
Yathāha, "tayidaṃ āyasmā upanando sakyaputto na dhuto dhutavādo"ti.
according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Upananda son of the Sakyans was not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism.”
Yo ubhayavipanno lāḷudāyī viya, ayaṃ neva dhuto na dhutavādo.
One who has failed in both, like Lāḷudāyin, is “neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism,”
Yathāha, "tayidaṃ āyasmā lāḷudāyī neva dhuto na dhutavādo"ti.
according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Lāḷudāyin was neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism.”
Yo pana ubhayasampanno dhammasenāpati viya, ayaṃ dhuto ceva dhutavādo ca.
One who has succeeded in both, like the General of the Dhamma, is “both ascetic and a preacher of asceticism,”
Yathāha, "tayidaṃ āyasmā sāriputto dhuto ceva dhutavādo cāti.
according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Sāriputta was ascetic and a preacher of asceticism.”
Dhutadhammā veditabbāti appicchatā, santuṭṭhitā, sallekhatā, pavivekatā, idamatthitāti ime dhutaṅgacetanāya parivārakā pañca dhammā "appicchataṃyeva nissāyā"tiādivacanato (a. ni. 5.181; pari. 325) dhutadhammā nāma, tattha appicchatā ca santuṭṭhitā ca alobho.
83.Ascetic states: the five states that go with the volition of an ascetic practice, that is to say, fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, seclusion, and that specific quality20 are called “ascetic states’ because of the words “Depending on fewness of wishes” (A III 219), and so on. 84. Herein, fewness of wishes and contentment are non-greed.
Sallekhatā ca pavivekatā ca dvīsu dhammesu anupatanti alobhe ca amohe ca.
Effacement and seclusion belong to the two states, non-greed and non-delusion.
Idamatthitā ñāṇameva.
That specific quality is knowledge.
Tattha ca alobhena paṭikkhepavatthūsu lobhaṃ, amohena tesveva ādīnavapaṭicchādakaṃ mohaṃ dhunāti.
Herein, by means of non-greed a man shakes off greed for things that are forbidden. By means of non-delusion he shakes off the delusion that hides the dangers in those same things.
Alobhena ca anuññātānaṃ paṭisevanamukhena pavattaṃ kāmasukhānuyogaṃ, amohena dhutaṅgesu atisallekhamukhena pavattaṃ attakilamathānuyogaṃ dhunāti.
And by means of non-greed he shakes off indulgence in pleasure due to sense desires that occurs under the heading of using what is allowed. And by means of non-delusion he shakes off indulgence in self- mortification that occurs under the heading of excessive effacement in the ascetic practices.
Tasmā ime dhammā dhutadhammāti veditabbā.
That is why these states should be understood as “ascetic states.”
Dhutaṅgāni veditabbānīti terasa dhutaṅgāni veditabbāni paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ - pe - nesajjikaṅganti.
85.Ascetic practices: these should be understood as the thirteen, that is to say, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice … the sitter’s practice,
Tāni atthato lakkhaṇādīhi ca vuttāneva.
which have already been described as to meaning and as to characteristic, and so forth.
Kassa dhutaṅgasevanā sappāyāti rāgacaritassa ceva mohacaritassa ca.
86.For whom the cultivation of ascetic practices is suitable: [they are suitable] for one of greedy temperament and for one of deluded temperament.
Kasmā?
Why?
Dhutaṅgasevanā hi dukkhāpaṭipadā ceva sallekhavihāro ca.
Because the cultivation of ascetic practices is both a difficult progress21 and an abiding in effacement;
Dukkhāpaṭipadañca nissāya rāgo vūpasammati.
and greed subsides with the difficult progress,
Sallekhaṃ nissāya appamattassa moho pahīyati.
while delusion is got rid of in those diligent by effacement.
Āraññikaṅgarukkhamūlikaṅgapaṭisevanā vā ettha dosacaritassāpi sappāyā.
Or the cultivation of the forest-dweller’s practice and the tree-root-dweller’s practice here are suitable for one of hating temperament;
Tattha hissa asaṅghaṭṭiyamānassa viharato dosopi vūpasammatīti ayaṃ dhutādīnaṃ vibhāgato vaṇṇanā.
for hate too subsides in one who dwells there without coming into conflict. This is the commentary “as to ‘ascetic’ and so on distinguished.”
Samāsabyāsatoti imāni pana dhutaṅgāni samāsato tīṇi sīsaṅgāni, pañca asambhinnaṅgānīti aṭṭheva honti.
87.6. and 7. As to groups and also singly. Now, 6. as to groups: these ascetic practices are in fact only eight, that is to say, three principal and five individual practices.
Tattha sapadānacārikaṅgaṃ, ekāsanikaṅgaṃ, abbhokāsikaṅganti imāni tīṇi sīsaṅgāni.
Herein, the three, namely, the house-to-house-seeker’s practice, the one-sessioner’s practice, and the open-air-dweller’s practice, are principal practices.
Sapadānacārikaṅgañhi rakkhanto piṇḍapātikaṅgampi rakkhissati.
For one who keeps the house-to-house-seeker’s practice will keep the alms-food-eater’s practice;
Ekāsanikaṅgañca rakkhato pattapiṇḍikaṅgakhalupacchābhattikaṅgānipi surakkhanīyāni bhavissanti.
and the bowl-food-eater’s practice and the later-food-refuser’s practice will be well kept by one who keeps the one-sessioner’s practice.
Abbhokāsikaṅgaṃ rakkhantassa kiṃ atthi rukkhamūlikaṅgayathāsanthatikaṅgesu rakkhitabbaṃ nāma.
And what need has one who keeps the open-air-dweller’s practice to keep the tree-root-dweller’s practice or the any-bed-user’s practice?
Iti imāni tīṇi sīsaṅgāni, āraññikaṅgaṃ, paṃsukūlikaṅgaṃ, tecīvarikaṅgaṃ, nesajjikaṅgaṃ, sosānikaṅganti imāni pañca asambhinnaṅgāni cāti aṭṭheva honti.
So there are these three principal practices that, together with the five individual practices, that is to say, the forest-dweller’s practice, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice, the triple-robe-wearer’s practice, the sitter’s practice, and the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice, come to eight only.
Puna dve cīvarapaṭisaṃyuttāni, pañca piṇḍapātapaṭisaṃyuttāni, pañca senāsanapaṭisaṃyuttāni, ekaṃ vīriyapaṭisaṃyuttanti evaṃ cattārova honti.
88.Again they come to four, that is to say, two connected with robes, five connected with alms food, five connected with the resting place, and one connected with energy.
Tattha nesajjikaṅgaṃ vīriyapaṭisaṃyuttaṃ.
Herein, it is the sitter’s practice that is connected with energy;
Itarāni pākaṭāneva.
the rest are obvious.
Puna sabbāneva nissayavasena dve honti paccayanissitāni dvādasa, vīriyanissitaṃ ekanti.
Again they all amount to two only, since twelve are dependent on requisites and one on energy.
Sevitabbāsevitabbavasenapi dveyeva honti.
Also they are two according to what is and what is not to be cultivated.
Yassa hi dhutaṅgaṃ sevantassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ vaḍḍhati, tena sevitabbāni.
For when one cultivating an ascetic practice finds that his meditation subject improves, he should cultivate it;
Yassa sevato hāyati, tena na sevitabbāni.
but when he is cultivating one and finds that his meditation subject deteriorates, he should not cultivate it.
Yassa pana sevatopi asevatopi vaḍḍhateva, na hāyati, tenāpi pacchimaṃ janataṃ anukampantena sevitabbāni.
But when he finds that, whether he cultivates one or not, his meditation subject only improves and does not deteriorate, he should cultivate them out of compassion for later generations.
Yassāpi sevatopi asevatopi na vaḍḍhati, tenāpi sevitabbāniyeva āyatiṃ vāsanatthāyāti.
And when he finds that, whether he cultivates them or not, his meditation subject does not improve, he should still cultivate them for the sake of acquiring the habit for the future.
Evaṃ sevitabbāsevitabbavasena duvidhānipi sabbāneva cetanāvasena ekavidhāni honti.
So they are of two kinds as what is and what is not to be cultivated. 89.And all are of one kind as volition.
Ekameva hi dhutaṅgaṃ samādānacetanāti.
For there is only one ascetic practice, namely, that consisting in the volition of undertaking.
Aṭṭhakathāyampi vuttaṃ "yā cetanā, taṃ dhutaṅganti vadantī"ti.
Also it is said in the Commentary: “It is the volition that is the ascetic practice, they say.”
Byāsatopana bhikkhūnaṃ terasa, bhikkhunīnaṃ aṭṭha, sāmaṇerānaṃ dvādasa, sikkhamānasāmaṇerīnaṃ satta, upāsakaupāsikānaṃ dveti dvācattālīsa honti.
90.7. Singly: with thirteen for bhikkhus, eight for bhikkhunīs, twelve for novices, seven for female probationers and female novices, and two for male and female lay followers, there are thus forty-two.
Sace pana abbhokāse āraññikaṅgasampannaṃ susānaṃ hoti, ekopi bhikkhu ekappahārena sabbadhutaṅgāni paribhuñjituṃ sakkoti.
91.If there is a charnel ground in the open that complies with the forest-dweller’s practice, one bhikkhu is able to put all the ascetic practices into effect simultaneously.
Bhikkhunīnaṃ pana āraññikaṅgaṃ khalupacchābhattikaṅgañca dvepi sikkhāpadeneva paṭikkhittāni, abbhokāsikaṅgaṃ, rukkhamūlikaṅgaṃ, sosānikaṅganti imāni tīṇi dupparihārāni.
But the two, namely, the forest-dweller’s practice and the later-food-refuser’s practice, are forbidden to bhikkhunīs by training precept. And it is hard for them to observe the three, namely, the open-air-dweller’s practice, the tree-root- dweller’s practice, and the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice,
Bhikkhuniyā hi dutiyikaṃ vinā vasituṃ na vaṭṭati.
because a bhikkhunī is not allowed to live without a companion,
Evarūpe ca ṭhāne samānacchandā dutiyikā dullabhā.
and it is hard to find a female companion with like desire for such a place,
Sacepi labheyya saṃsaṭṭhavihārato na mucceyya.
and even if available, she would not escape having to live in company.
Evaṃ sati yassatthāya dhutaṅgaṃ seveyya, svevassā attho na sampajjeyya.
This being so, the purpose of cultivating the ascetic practice would scarcely be served.
Evaṃ paribhuñjituṃ asakkuṇeyyatāya pañca hāpetvā bhikkhunīnaṃ aṭṭheva hontīti veditabbāni.
It is because they are reduced by five owing to this inability to make use of certain of them that they are to be understood as eight only for bhikkhunīs.
Yathāvuttesu pana ṭhapetvā tecīvarikaṅgaṃ sesāni dvādasa sāmaṇerānaṃ, satta sikkhamānasāmaṇerīnaṃ veditabbāni.
92.Except for the triple-robe-wearer’s practice all the other twelve as stated should be understood to be for novices, and all the other seven for female probationers and female novices.
Upāsakaupāsikānaṃ pana ekāsanikaṅgaṃ, pattapiṇḍikaṅganti imāni dve patirūpāni ceva sakkā ca paribhuñjitunti dve dhutaṅgānīti evaṃ byāsato dvecattālīsa hontīti ayaṃ samāsabyāsato vaṇṇanā.
The two, namely, the one-sessioner’s practice and the bowl-food-eater’s practice, are proper for male and female lay followers to employ. In this way there are two ascetic practices. This is the commentary “as to groups and also singly.”
Ettāvatā ca "sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño"ti imissā gāthāya sīlasamādhipaññāmukhena desite visuddhimagge yehi appicchatāsantuṭṭhitādīhi guṇehi vuttappakārassa sīlassa vodānaṃ hoti, tesaṃ sampādanatthaṃ samādātabbadhutaṅgakathā bhāsitā hoti.
93.And this is the end of the treatise on the ascetic practices to be undertaken for the purpose of perfecting those special qualities of fewness of wishes, contentment, etc., by means of which there comes about the cleansing of virtue as described in the Path of Purification, which is shown under the three headings of virtue, concentration, and understanding, contained in the stanza, “When a wise man, established well in virtue” (I.1).
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge
in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Dhutaṅganiddeso nāma dutiyo paricchedo.
The second chapter called “The Description of the Ascetic Practices”

3 - Chapter 3: Taking a meditation subject



3. Taking a meditation subject Original pali
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
38.Idāni yasmā evaṃ dhutaṅgapariharaṇasampāditehi appicchatādīhi guṇehi pariyodāte imasmiṃ sīle patiṭṭhitena "sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvaya"nti vacanato cittasīsena niddiṭṭho samādhi bhāvetabbo.
Now, concentration is described under the heading of “consciousness” in the phrase “develops consciousness and understanding” (I.1). It should be developed by one who has taken his stand on virtue that has been purified by means of the special qualities of fewness of wishes, etc., and perfected by observance of the ascetic practices.
So ca atisaṅkhepadesitattā viññātumpi tāva na sukaro, pageva bhāvetuṃ, tasmā tassa vitthārañca bhāvanānayañca dassetuṃ idaṃ pañhākammaṃ hoti.
But that concentration has been shown only very briefly and so it is not even easy to understand, much less to develop. There is therefore the following set of questions, the purpose of which is to show the method of its development in detail:
Ko samādhi?
(i) What is concentration?
Kenaṭṭhena samādhi?
(ii) In what sense is it concentration?
Kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānāni?
(iii) What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause?
Katividho samādhi?
(iv) How many kinds of concentration are there?
Ko cassa saṃkileso?
(v) What is its defilement?
Kiṃ vodānaṃ?
(vi) What is its cleansing?
Kathaṃ bhāvetabbo?
(vii) How should it be developed?
Samādhibhāvanāya ko ānisaṃsoti?
(viii) What are the benefits of the development of concentration?1
Tatridaṃ vissajjanaṃ.
2.Here are the answers:
Ko samādhīti samādhi bahuvidho nānappakārako.
(i) WHAT IS CONCENTRATION? Concentration is of many sorts and has various aspects.
Taṃ sabbaṃ vibhāvayituṃ ārabbhamānaṃ vissajjanaṃ adhippetañceva atthaṃ na sādheyya, uttari ca vikkhepāya saṃvatteyya, tasmā idhādhippetameva sandhāya vadāma, kusalacittekaggatā samādhi.
An answer that attempted to cover it all would accomplish neither its intention nor its purpose and would, besides, lead to distraction; so we shall confine ourselves to the kind intended here, calling concentration profitable unification of mind.2
Kenaṭṭhena samādhīti samādhānaṭṭhena samādhi.
3.(ii) IN WHAT SENSE IS IT CONCENTRATION? It is concentration (samādhi) in the sense of concentrating (samādhāna).
Kimidaṃ samādhānaṃ nāma?
What is this concentrating?
Ekārammaṇe cittacetasikānaṃ samaṃ sammā ca ādhānaṃ, ṭhapananti vuttaṃ hoti.
It is the centring (ādhāna) of consciousness and consciousness-concomitants evenly (samaṃ) and rightly (sammā) on a single object; placing, is what is meant.
Tasmā yassa dhammassānubhāvena ekārammaṇe cittacetasikā samaṃ sammā ca avikkhipamānā avippakiṇṇā ca hutvā tiṭṭhanti, idaṃ samādhānanti veditabbaṃ.
So it is the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered, that should be understood as concentrating.
Kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānānīti ettha pana avikkhepalakkhaṇo samādhi, vikkhepaviddhaṃsanaraso, avikampanapaccupaṭṭhāno.
4.(iii) WHAT ARE ITS CHARACTERISTIC, FUNCTION, MANIFESTATION, AND PROXIMATE CAUSE? Concentration has non-distraction as its characteristic.3 Its function is to eliminate distraction. It is manifested as non-wavering.
"Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyatī"ti vacanato pana sukhamassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Because of the words, “Being bliss-(sukha)ful, his mind becomes concentrated” (D I 73), its proximate cause is bliss-(sukha).
39.Katividhosamādhīti avikkhepalakkhaṇena tāva ekavidho.
5.(iv) HOW MANY KINDS OF CONCENTRATION ARE THERE? (1) First of all it is of one kind with the characteristic of non-distraction.
Upacāraappanāvasena duvidho, tathā lokiyalokuttaravasena sappītikanippītikavasena sukhasahagataupekkhāsahagatavasena ca.
(2) Then it is of two kinds as access and absorption;4 (3) likewise as mundane and supramundane,5 (4) as with happiness and without happiness, and (5) as accompanied by bliss-(sukha) and accompanied by equanimity.6
Tividho hīnamajjhimapaṇītavasena, tathā savitakkasavicārādivasena pītisahagatādivasena parittamahaggatappamāṇavasena ca.
It is of three kinds (6) as inferior, medium and superior; likewise (7) as with applied thought and sustained thought, etc., (8) as accompanied by happiness, etc., and (9) as limited, exalted, and measureless.
Catubbidho dukkhāpaṭipadādandhābhiññādivasena, tathā parittaparittārammaṇādivasena catujhānaṅgavasena hānabhāgiyādivasena kāmāvacarādivasena adhipativasena ca.
It is of four kinds (10) as of difficult progress and sluggish direct-knowledge, etc.; likewise (11) as limited with limited object, etc., (12) according to the factors of the four jhānas, (13) as partaking of diminution, etc., (14) as of the sense sphere, etc., and (15) as predominance, and so on.
Pañcavidho pañcakanaye pañcajhānaṅgavasenāti.
(16) It is of five kinds according to the factors of the five jhānas reckoned by the fivefold method.
Samādhiekakadukavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.1 Samādhiekakadukavaṇṇanā

Tattha ekavidhakoṭṭhāso uttānatthoyeva.
6.1.Herein, the section dealing with that of one kind is evident in meaning.
Duvidhakoṭṭhāse channaṃ anussatiṭṭhānānaṃ maraṇassatiyā upasamānussatiyā āhāre paṭikūlasaññāya catudhātuvavatthānassāti imesaṃ vasena laddhacittekaggatā, yā ca appanāsamādhīnaṃ pubbabhāge ekaggatā, ayaṃ upacārasamādhi.
2. In the section dealing with that of two kinds, access concentration is the unification of mind obtained by the following, that is to say, the six recollections, mindfulness of death, the recollection of peace, the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, and the defining of the four elements, and it is the unification that precedes absorption concentration.
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa parikammaṃ paṭhamassa jhānassa anantarapaccayena paccayo"ti ādivacanato pana yā parikammānantarā ekaggatā, ayaṃ appanāsamādhīti evaṃ upacārappanāvasena duvidho.
Absorption concentration is the unification that follows immediately upon the preliminary-work (IV.74) because of the words, “The first-jhāna preliminary-work is a condition, as proximity condition, for the first jhāna” (Paṭṭh II 350 (Se). So it is of two kinds as access and absorption.
Dutiyaduke tīsu bhūmīsu kusalacittekaggatā lokiyo samādhi.
7.3.In the second dyad mundane concentration is profitable unification of mind in the three planes.
Ariyamaggasampayuttā ekaggatā lokuttaro samādhīti evaṃ lokiyalokuttaravasena duvidho.
Supramundane concentration is the unification associated with the noble paths. So it is of two kinds as mundane and supramundane.
Tatiyaduke catukkanaye dvīsu pañcakanaye tīsu jhānesu ekaggatā sappītiko samādhi.
8.4.In the third dyad concentration with happiness is the unification of mind in two jhānas in the fourfold reckoning and in three jhānas in the fivefold reckoning.
Avasesesu dvīsu jhānesu ekaggatā nippītiko samādhi.
Concentration without happiness is the unification in the remaining two jhānas.
Upacārasamādhi pana siyā sappītiko, siyā nippītikoti evaṃ sappītikanippītikavasena duvidho.
But access concentration may be with happiness or without happiness. So it is of two kinds as with happiness and without happiness.
Catutthaduke catukkanaye tīsu pañcakanaye catūsu jhānesu ekaggatā sukhasahagato samādhi.
9.5.In the fourth dyad concentration accompanied by bliss-(sukha) is the unification in three jhānas in the fourfold and four in the fivefold reckoning.
Avasesasmiṃ upekkhāsahagato samādhi.
That accompanied by equanimity is that in the remaining jhāna.
Upacārasamādhi pana siyā sukhasahagato, siyā upekkhāsahagatoti evaṃ sukhasahagataupekkhāsahagatavasena duvidho.
Access concentration may be accompanied by bliss-(sukha) or accompanied by equanimity. So it is of two kinds as accompanied by bliss-(sukha) and accompanied by equanimity.
Samādhitikavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.2 Samādhitikavaṇṇanā

Tikesupaṭhamattike paṭiladdhamatto hīno, nātisubhāvito majjhimo, subhāvito vasippatto paṇītoti evaṃ hīnamajjhimapaṇītavasena tividho.
10. 6. In the first of the triads what has only just been acquired is inferior. What is not very well developed is medium. What is well developed and has reached mastery is superior. So it is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.
Dutiyattike paṭhamajjhānasamādhi saddhiṃ upacārasamādhinā savitakkasavicāro.
11.7.In the second triad that with applied thought and sustained thought is the concentration of the first jhāna together with access concentration.
Pañcakanaye dutiyajjhānasamādhi avitakkavicāramatto.
That without applied thought, with sustained thought only, is the concentration of the second jhāna in the fivefold reckoning.
Yo hi vitakkamatteyeva ādīnavaṃ disvā vicāre adisvā kevalaṃ vitakkappahānamattaṃ ākaṅkhamāno paṭhamajjhānaṃ atikkamati, so avitakkavicāramattaṃ samādhiṃ paṭilabhati.
For when a man sees danger only in applied thought and not in sustained thought, he aspires only to abandon applied thought when he passes beyond the first jhāna, and so he obtains concentration without applied thought and with sustained thought only.
Taṃ sandhāyetaṃ vuttaṃ.
This is said with reference to him.
Catukkanaye pana dutiyādīsu pañcakanaye tatiyādīsu tīsu jhānesu ekaggatā avitakkāvicāro samādhīti evaṃ savitakkasavicārādivasena tividho.
Concentration without applied thought and sustained thought is the unification in the three jhānas beginning with the second in the fourfold reckoning and with the third in the fivefold reckoning (see D III 219). So it is of three kinds as with applied thought and sustained thought, and so on.
Tatiyattike catukkanaye ādito dvīsu pañcakanaye ca tīsu jhānesu ekaggatā pītisahagato samādhi.
12. 8. In the third triad concentration accompanied by happiness is the unification in the two first jhānas in the fourfold reckoning and in the three first jhānas in the fivefold reckoning.
Tesveva tatiye ca catutthe ca jhāne ekaggatā sukhasahagato samādhi.
Concentration accompanied by bliss-(sukha) is the unification in those same jhānas and in the third and the fourth respectively in the two reckonings.
Avasāne upekkhāsahagato.
That accompanied by equanimity is that in the remaining jhāna.
Upacārasamādhi pana pītisukhasahagato vā hoti upekkhāsahagato vāti evaṃ pītisahagatādivasena tividho.
Access concentration may be accompanied by bliss-(sukha) and happiness or accompanied by equanimity. So it is of three kinds as accompanied by happiness, and so on.
Catutthattike upacārabhūmiyaṃ ekaggatā paritto samādhi.
13.9.In the fourth triad limited concentration is unification on the plane of access.
Rūpāvacarārūpāvacarakusale ekaggatā mahaggato samādhi.
Exalted concentration is unification in profitable [consciousness, etc.,] of the fine- material sphere and immaterial sphere.
Ariyamaggasampayuttā ekaggatā appamāṇo samādhīti evaṃ parittamahaggatappamāṇavasena tividho.
Measureless concentration is unification associated with the noble paths. So it is of three kinds as limited, exalted, and measureless.
Samādhicatukkavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.3 Samādhicatukkavaṇṇanā

Catukkesu paṭhamacatukke atthi samādhi dukkhāpaṭipado dandhābhiñño, atthi dukkhāpaṭipado khippābhiñño, atthi sukhāpaṭipado dandhābhiñño, atthi sukhāpaṭipado khippābhiññoti.
14.10. In the first of the tetrads there is concentration of difficult progress and sluggish direct-knowledge. There is that of difficult progress and swift direct- knowledge. There is that of easy progress and sluggish direct-knowledge. And there is that of easy progress and swift direct-knowledge.
Tattha paṭhamasamannāhārato paṭṭhāya yāva tassa tassa jhānassa upacāraṃ uppajjati, tāva pavattā samādhibhāvanā paṭipadāti vuccati.
15.Herein, the development of concentration that occurs from the time of the first conscious reaction up to the arising of the access of a given jhāna is called progress.
Upacārato pana paṭṭhāya yāva appanā, tāva pavattā paññā abhiññāti vuccati.
And the understanding that occurs from the time of access until absorption is called direct-knowledge.
Sā panesā paṭipadā ekaccassa dukkhā hoti, nīvaraṇādipaccanīkadhammasamudācāragahaṇatāya kicchā asukhāsevanāti attho.
That progress is difficult for some, being troublesome owing to the tenacious resistance of the inimical states beginning with the hindrances. The meaning is that it is cultivated without ease.
Ekaccassa tadabhāvena sukhā.
It is easy for others because of the absence of those difficulties.
Abhiññāpi ekaccassa dandhā hoti mandā asīghappavatti.
Also the direct-knowledge is sluggish in some and occurs slowly, not quickly.
Ekaccassa khippā amandā sīghappavatti.
In others it is swift and occurs rapidly, not slowly.
Tattha yāni parato sappāyāsappāyāni ca palibodhupacchedādīni pubbakiccāni ca appanākosallāni ca vaṇṇayissāma, tesu yo asappāyasevī hoti, tassa dukkhā paṭipadā dandhā ca abhiññā hoti.
16.Herein, we shall comment below upon the suitable and unsuitable (IV.35f.), the preparatory tasks consisting in the severing of impediments (IV.20), etc., and skill in absorption (IV.42). When a man cultivates what is unsuitable, his progress is difficult and his direct-knowledge sluggish.
Sappāyasevino sukhā paṭipadā khippā ca abhiññā.
When he cultivates what is suitable, his progress is easy and his direct-knowledge swift.
Yo pana pubbabhāge asappāyaṃ sevitvā aparabhāge sappāyasevī hoti, pubbabhāge vā sappāyaṃ sevitvā aparabhāge asappāyasevī, tassa vomissakatā veditabbā.
But if he cultivates the unsuitable in the earlier stage and the suitable in the later stage, or if he cultivates the suitable in the earlier stage and the unsuitable in the later stage, then it should be understood as mixed in his case.
Tathā palibodhupacchedādikaṃ pubbakiccaṃ asampādetvā bhāvanamanuyuttassa dukkhā paṭipadā hoti.
Likewise if he devotes himself to development without carrying out the preparatory tasks of severing impediments, etc., his progress is difficult.
Vipariyāyena sukhā.
It is easy in the opposite case.
Appanākosallāni pana asampādentassa dandhā abhiññā hoti.
And if he is not accomplished in skill in absorption, his direct- knowledge is sluggish.
Sampādentassa khippā.
It is swift if he is so accomplished.
Apica taṇhāavijjāvasena samathavipassanādhikāravasena cāpi etāsaṃ pabhedo veditabbo.
17. Besides, they should be understood as classed according to craving and ignorance, and according to whether one has had practice in serenity and insight.7
Taṇhābhibhūtassa hi dukkhā paṭipadā hoti.
For if a man is overwhelmed by craving, his progress is difficult.
Anabhibhūtassa sukhā.
If not, it is easy.
Avijjābhibhūtassa ca dandhā abhiññā hoti.
And if he is overwhelmed by ignorance, his direct-knowledge is sluggish.
Anabhibhūtassa khippā.
If not, it is swift.
Yo ca samathe akatādhikāro, tassa dukkhā paṭipadā hoti.
And if he has had no practice in serenity, his progress is difficult.
Katādhikārassa sukhā.
If he has, it is easy.
Yo pana vipassanāya akatādhikāro hoti, tassa dandhā abhiññā hoti, katādhikārassa khippā.
And if he has had no practice in insight, his direct-knowledge is sluggish. If he has, it is swift.
Kilesindriyavasena cāpi etāsaṃ pabhedo veditabbo.
18.Also they should be understood as classed according to defilements and faculties.
Tibbakilesassa hi mudindriyassa dukkhā paṭipadā hoti dandhā ca abhiññā, tikkhindriyassa pana khippā abhiññā.
For if a man’s defilements are sharp and his faculties dull, then his progress is difficult and his direct-knowledge sluggish; but if his faculties are keen, his direct-knowledge is swift.
Mandakilesassa ca mudindriyassa sukhā paṭipadā hoti dandhā ca abhiññā.
And if his defilements are blunt and his faculties dull, then his progress is easy and his direct-knowledge sluggish;
Tikkhindriyassa pana khippā abhiññāti.
but if his faculties are keen, his direct-knowledge is swift.
Iti imāsu paṭipadāabhiññāsu yo puggalo dukkhāya paṭipadāya dandhāya ca abhiññāya samādhiṃ pāpuṇāti, tassa so samādhi dukkhāpaṭipado dandhābhiññoti vuccati.
19.So as regards this progress and this direct-knowledge, when a person reaches concentration with difficult progress and sluggish direct-knowledge, his concentration is called concentration of difficult progress and sluggish direct-knowledge;
Esa nayo sesattayepīti evaṃ dukkhāpaṭipadādandhābhiññādivasena catubbidho.
similarly in the cases of the remaining three. So it is of four kinds as of difficult progress and sluggish direct-knowledge, and so on.
Dutiyacatukke atthi samādhi paritto parittārammaṇo, atthi paritto appamāṇārammaṇo, atthi appamāṇo parittārammaṇo, atthi appamāṇo appamāṇārammaṇoti.
20.11. In the second tetrad there is limited concentration with a limited object, there is limited concentration with a measureless object, there is measureless concentration with a limited object, and there is measureless concentration with a measureless object.
Tattha yo samādhi appaguṇo uparijhānassa paccayo bhavituṃ na sakkoti, ayaṃ paritto.
Herein, concentration that is unfamiliar and incapable of being a condition for a higher jhāna is limited.
Yo pana avaḍḍhite ārammaṇe pavatto, ayaṃ parittārammaṇo.
When it occurs with an unextended object (IV.126), it is with a limited object.
Yo paguṇo subhāvito, uparijhānassa paccayo bhavituṃ sakkoti, ayaṃ appamāṇo.
When it is familiar, well developed, and capable of being a condition for a higher jhāna, it is measureless.
Yo ca vaḍḍhite ārammaṇe pavatto, ayaṃ appamāṇārammaṇo.
And when it occurs with an extended object, it is with a measureless object.
Vuttalakkhaṇavomissatāya pana vomissakanayo veditabbo.
The mixed method can be understood as the mixture of the characteristics already stated.
Evaṃ parittaparittārammaṇādivasena catubbidho.
So it is of four kinds as limited with limited object, and so on.
Tatiyacatukke vikkhambhitanīvaraṇānaṃ vitakkavicārapītisukhasamādhīnaṃ vasena pañcaṅgikaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ, tato vūpasantavitakkavicāraṃ tivaṅgikaṃ dutiyaṃ, tato virattapītikaṃ duvaṅgikaṃ tatiyaṃ, tato pahīnasukhaṃ upekkhāvedanāsahitassa samādhino vasena duvaṅgikaṃ catutthaṃ.
21.12. In the third tetrad the first jhāna has five factors, that is to say, applied thought, sustained thought, happiness, bliss-(sukha), and concentration, following suppression of the hindrances. The second has the three factors remaining after the elimination of applied and sustained thought. The third has two factors with the fading away of happiness. The fourth, where bliss-(sukha) is abandoned, has two factors with concentration and the equanimous feeling that accompanies it.
Iti imesaṃ catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ aṅgabhūtā cattāro samādhī honti.
Thus there are four kinds of concentration according to the factors of these four jhānas.
Evaṃ catujhānaṅgavasena catubbidho.
So it is of four kinds according to the factors of the four jhānas.
Catutthacatukke atthi samādhi hānabhāgiyo, atthi ṭhitibhāgiyo, atthi visesabhāgiyo, atthi nibbedhabhāgiyo.
22.13. In the fourth tetrad there is concentration partaking of diminution, there is concentration partaking of stagnation, there is concentration partaking of distinction, and there is concentration partaking of penetration.
Tattha paccanīkasamudācāravasena hānabhāgiyatā, tadanudhammatāya satiyā saṇṭhānavasena ṭhitibhāgiyatā, uparivisesādhigamavasena visesabhāgiyatā, nibbidāsahagatasaññāmanasikārasamudācāravasena nibbedhabhāgiyatā ca veditabbā.
Herein, it should be understood that the state of partaking of diminution is accessibility to opposition, the state of partaking of stagnation (ṭhiti) is stationariness (saṇṭhāna) of the mindfulness that is in conformity with that [concentration], the state of partaking of distinction is the attaining of higher distinction, and the state of partaking of penetration is accessibility to perception and attention accompanied by dispassion,
Yathāha, "paṭhamassa jhānassa lābhiṃ kāmasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti hānabhāginī paññā.
according as it is said: “When a man has attained the first jhāna and he is accessible to perception and attention accompanied by sense desire, then his understanding partakes of diminution.
Tadanudhammatā sati santiṭṭhati ṭhitibhāginī paññā.
When his mindfulness that is in conformity with that stagnates, then his understanding partakes of stagnation.
Avitakkasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti visesabhāginī paññā.
When he is accessible to perception and attention unaccompanied by applied thought, then his understanding partakes of distinction.
Nibbidāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti virāgūpasañhitā nibbedhabhāginī paññā"ti (vibha. 799).
When he is accessible to perception and attention accompanied by dispassion and directed to fading away, then his understanding partakes of penetration” (Vibh 330).
Tāya pana paññāya sampayuttā samādhīpi cattāro hontīti.
The kinds of concentration associated with that [fourfold] understanding are also four in number.
Evaṃ hānabhāgiyādivasena catubbidho.
So it is of four kinds as partaking of diminution, and so on.
Pañcamacatukke kāmāvacaro samādhi, rūpāvacaro samādhi, arūpāvacaro samādhi, apariyāpanno samādhīti evaṃ cattāro samādhī.
23.14. In the fifth tetrad there are the following four kinds of concentration, that is to say, sense-sphere concentration, fine-material-sphere concentration, immaterial- sphere concentration, and unincluded [that is, path] concentration.
Tattha sabbāpi upacārekaggatā kāmāvacaro samādhi.
Herein, sense- sphere concentration is all kinds of access unification.
Tathā rūpāvacarādikusalacittekaggatā itare tayoti evaṃ kāmāvacarādivasena catubbidho.
Likewise the other three are respectively profitable unification of mind associated with fine-material, [immaterial, and path, jhāna]. So it is of four kinds as of the sense-sphere, and so on.
Chaṭṭhacatukke "chandaṃ ce bhikkhu adhipatiṃ karitvā labhati samādhiṃ, labhati cittassekaggataṃ, ayaṃ vuccati chandasamādhi - pe - vīriyaṃ ce bhikkhu - pe - cittaṃ ce bhikkhu - pe - vīmaṃsaṃ ce bhikkhu adhipatiṃ karitvā labhati samādhiṃ, labhati cittassekaggataṃ, ayaṃ vuccati vīmaṃsāsamādhī"ti (vibha. 432; saṃ. ni. 3.825) evaṃ adhipativasena catubbidho.
24.15. In the sixth tetrad: “If a bhikkhu obtains concentration, obtains unification of mind, by making zeal (desire) predominant, this is called concentration due to zeal. If … by making energy predominant … If … by making [natural purity of] consciousness predominant… If … by making inquiry predominant, this is called concentration due to inquiry” (Vibh 216–19). So it is of four kinds as predominance.
Pañcakeyaṃ catukkabhede vuttaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ, taṃ vitakkamattātikkamena dutiyaṃ, vitakkavicārātikkamena tatiyanti evaṃ dvidhā bhinditvā pañca jhānāni veditabbāni.
25.16. In the pentad there are five jhānas by dividing in two what is called the second jhāna in the fourfold reckoning (see §21), taking the second jhāna to be due to the surmounting of only applied thought and the third jhāna to be due to the surmounting of both applied and sustained thought. There are five kinds of concentration according to the factors of these five jhānas.
Tesaṃ aṅgabhūtā ca pañca samādhīti evaṃ pañcajhānaṅgavasena pañcavidhatā veditabbā.
So its fivefoldness should be understood according to the five sets of jhāna factors.
40.Ko cassa saṃkileso kiṃ vodānanti ettha pana vissajjanaṃ vibhaṅge vuttameva.
26.(v) What is its defilement? (vi) What is its cleansing?
Vuttañhi tattha "saṃkilesanti hānabhāgiyo dhammo.
Here the answer is given in the Vibhaṅga: “Defilement is the state partaking of diminution,
Vodānanti visesabhāgiyo dhammo"ti (vibha. 828).
cleansing is the state partaking of distinction” (Vibh 343).
Tattha "paṭhamassa jhānassa lābhiṃ kāmasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti hānabhāginī paññā"ti (vibha. 799) iminā nayena hānabhāgiyadhammo veditabbo.
Herein, the state partaking of diminution should be understood in this way: “When a man has attained the first jhāna and he is accessible to perception and attention accompanied by sense desire, then his understanding partakes of diminution” (Vibh 330).
"Avitakkasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti visesabhāginī paññā"ti (vibha. 799) iminā nayena visesabhāgiyadhammo veditabbo.
And the state partaking of distinction should be understood in this way: “When he is accessible to perception and attention unaccompanied by applied thought, then his understanding partakes of distinction” (Vibh 330).
Dasapalibodhavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.4 Dasapalibodhavaṇṇanā

41.Kathaṃ bhāvetabboti ettha pana yo tāva ayaṃ lokiyalokuttaravasena duvidhotiādīsu ariyamaggasampayutto samādhi vutto, tassa bhāvanānayo paññābhāvanānayeneva saṅgahito.
27.(vii) How should it be developed? The method of developing the kind of concentration associated with the noble paths mentioned (§7) under that “of two kinds as mundane and supramundane,” etc., is included in the method of developing understanding; (Ch. XXII)
Paññāya hi bhāvitāya so bhāvito hoti.
for in developing [path] understanding that is developed too.
Tasmā taṃ sandhāya evaṃ bhāvetabboti na kiñci visuṃ vadāma.
So we shall say nothing separately [here] about how that is to be developed.
Yo panāyaṃ lokiyo, so vuttanayena sīlāni visodhetvā suparisuddhe sīle patiṭṭhitena yvāssa dasasu palibodhesu palibodho atthi, taṃ upacchinditvā kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā attano cariyānukūlaṃ cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu aññataraṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā samādhibhāvanāya ananurūpaṃ vihāraṃ pahāya anurūpe vihāre viharantena khuddakapalibodhupacchedaṃ katvā sabbaṃ bhāvanāvidhānaṃ aparihāpentena bhāvetabboti ayamettha saṅkhepo.
28.But mundane concentration should be developed by one who has taken his stand on virtue that is quite purified in the way already stated. He should sever any of the ten impediments that he may have. He should then approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject, and he should apprehend from among the forty meditation subjects one that suits his own temperament. After that he should avoid a monastery unfavourable to the development of concentration and
Ayaṃ pana vitthāro, yaṃ tāva vuttaṃ "yvāssa dasasu palibodhesu palibodho atthi, taṃ upacchinditvā"ti, ettha –
29.The detail is this: Firstly it was said above, he should sever any of the ten impediments that he may have.
Āvāso ca kulaṃ lābho, gaṇo kammañca pañcamaṃ;
A dwelling, family, and gain, A class, and building too as fifth,
Addhānaṃ ñāti ābādho, gantho iddhīti te dasāti. –
And travel, kin, affliction, books, And supernormal powers: ten.
Ime dasa palibodhā nāma.
Now, the “ten impediments” are (above).
Tattha āvāsoyeva āvāsapalibodho.
Herein, the dwelling itself is the “impediment due to the dwelling.”
Esa nayo kulādīsu.
So too with the family and so on.
Tattha āvāsoti ekopi ovarako vuccati ekampi pariveṇaṃ sakalopi saṅghārāmo.
30. 1. Herein, a single inner room or a single hut or a whole monastery for the Community is called a dwelling.
Svāyaṃ na sabbasseva palibodho hoti.
This is not an impediment for everyone.
Yo panettha navakammādīsu ussukkaṃ vā āpajjati, bahubhaṇḍasannicayo vā hoti, yena kenaci vā kāraṇena apekkhavā paṭibaddhacitto, tasseva palibodho hoti, na itarassa.
It is an impediment only for anyone whose mind is exercised about the building, etc., that goes on there, or who has many belongings stored there, or whose mind is caught up by some business connected with it. For any other it is not an impediment.
Tatridaṃ vatthu – dve kira kulaputtā anurādhapurā nikkhamitvā anupubbena thūpārāme pabbajiṃsu.
31. Here is a relevant story. Two clansmen left Anurādhapura, it seems, and eventually went forth at the Thūpārāma.8
Tesu eko dve mātikā paguṇā katvā pañcavassiko hutvā pavāretvā pācinakhaṇḍarājiṃ nāma gato.
One of them made himself familiar with the Two Codes,9 and when he had acquired five years’ seniority, he took part in the Pavāraṇā10 and then left for the place called Pācīnakhaṇḍarājī.11
Eko tattheva vasati.
The other stayed on where he was.
Pācinakhaṇḍarājigato tattha ciraṃ vasitvā thero hutvā cintesi "paṭisallānasāruppamidaṃ ṭhānaṃ, handa naṃ sahāyakassāpi ārocemī"ti.
Now, when the one who had gone to Pācīnakhaṇḍarājī had lived there a long time and had become an elder,12 he thought, “This place is good for retreat; suppose I told my friend about it?”
Tato nikkhamitvā anupubbena thūpārāmaṃ pāvisi.
So he set out, and in due course he entered the Thūpārāma.
Pavisantaṃyeva ca naṃ disvā samānavassikatthero paccuggantvā pattacīvaraṃ paṭiggahetvā vattaṃ akāsi.
As he entered, the elder of the same seniority saw him, went to meet him, took his bowl and robe and did the duties.
Āgantukatthero senāsanaṃ pavisitvā cintesi "idāni me sahāyo sappiṃ vā phāṇitaṃ vā pānakaṃ vā pesessati.
32.The visiting elder went into his lodging. He thought, “Now my friend will be sending me ghee or molasses or a drink;
Ayañhi imasmiṃ nagare ciranivāsī"ti.
for he has lived long in this city.”
So rattiṃ aladdhā pāto cintesi "idāni upaṭṭhākehi gahitaṃ yāgukhajjakaṃ pesessatī"ti.
He got nothing that night, and in the morning he thought, “Now he will be sending me rice gruel and solid food sent by his supporters.”
Tampi adisvā "pahiṇantā natthi, paviṭṭhassa maññe dassatī"ti pātova tena saddhiṃ gāmaṃ pāvisi.
When he saw none, he thought, “There is no one to bring it. No doubt they will give it when we go into the town.” Early in the morning they went into the town together.
Te dve ekaṃ vīthiṃ caritvā uḷuṅkamattaṃ yāguṃ labhitvā āsanasālāyaṃ nisīditvā piviṃsu.
When they had wandered through one street and had got only a ladleful of gruel, they sat down in a sitting hall to drink it.13
Tato āgantuko cintesi "nibaddhayāgu maññe natthi, bhattakāle idāni manussā paṇītaṃ bhattaṃ dassantī"ti, tato bhattakālepi piṇḍāya caritvā laddhameva bhuñjitvā itaro āha – "kiṃ, bhante, sabbakālaṃ evaṃ yāpethā"ti?
33.Then the visitor thought, “Perhaps there is no individual giving of gruel. But as soon as it is the time for the meal people will give special food.” But when it was time for the meal, they ate what they had got by wandering for alms. Then the visitor said, “Venerable sir, how is this? Do you live in this way all the time?
Āmāvusoti.
”— “Yes, friend.”
Bhante, pācinakhaṇḍarāji phāsukā, tattha gacchāmāti.
—”Venerable sir, Pācīnakhaṇḍarājī is comfortable; let us go there.”
Thero nagarato dakkhiṇadvārena nikkhamanto kumbhakāragāmamaggaṃ paṭipajji.
Now, as the elder came out from the city by the southern gate he took the Kumbhakāragāma road [which leads to Pācīnakhaṇḍarājī].
Itaro āha – "kiṃ pana, bhante, imaṃ maggaṃ paṭipannatthā"ti?
The visitor asked, “But, venerable sir, why do you take this road?
Nanu tvamāvuso, pācinakhaṇḍarājiyā vaṇṇaṃ abhāsīti?
”—”Did you not recommend Pācīnakhaṇḍarājī, friend?
Kiṃ pana, bhante, tumhākaṃ ettakaṃ kālaṃ vasitaṭṭhāne na koci atirekaparikkhāro atthīti?
”—”But how is this, venerable sir, have you no extra belongings in the place you have lived in for so long?
Āmāvuso mañcapīṭhaṃ saṅghikaṃ, taṃ paṭisāmitameva, aññaṃ kiñci natthīti.
”—”That is so, friend. The bed and chair belong to the Community, and they are put away [as usual]. There is nothing else.”
Mayhaṃ pana, bhante, kattaradaṇḍo telanāḷi upāhanatthavikā ca tatthevāti.
—”But, venerable sir, I have left my staff and my oil tube and my sandal bag there.”
Tayāvuso, ekadivasaṃ vasitvā ettakaṃ ṭhapitanti?
—”Have you already collected so much, friend, living there for just one day?
Āma, bhante.
”—“Yes, venerable sir.”
So pasannacitto theraṃ vanditvā "tumhādisānaṃ, bhante, sabbattha araññavāsoyeva.
34.He was glad in his heart, and he paid homage to the elder: “For those like you, venerable sir, everywhere is a forest dwelling.
Thūpārāmo catunnaṃ buddhānaṃ dhātunidhānaṭṭhānaṃ, lohapāsāde sappāyaṃ dhammassavanaṃ mahācetiyadassanaṃ theradassanañca labbhati, buddhakālo viya pavattati.
The Thūpārāma is a place where the relics of four Buddhas are deposited; there is suitable hearing of the Dhamma in the Brazen Palace; there is the Great Shrine to be seen; and one can visit elders. It is like the time of the Buddha.
Idheva tumhe vasathā"ti dutiyadivase pattacīvaraṃ gahetvā sayameva agamāsīti.
It is here that you should live.” On the following day he took his bowl and [outer] robe and went away by himself.
Īdisassa āvāso na palibodho hoti.
It is no impediment for one like that.
Kulanti ñātikulaṃ vā upaṭṭhākakulaṃ vā.
35.2 Family means a family consisting of relatives or of supporters.
Ekaccassa hi upaṭṭhākakulampi "sukhitesu sukhito"tiādinā (vibha. 888; saṃ. ni. 4.241) nayena saṃsaṭṭhassa viharato palibodho hoti, so kulamānusakehi vinā dhammassavanāya sāmantavihārampi na gacchati.
For even a family consisting of supporters is an impediment for someone who lives in close association with it in the way beginning, “He is pleased when they are pleased” (S III 11), and who does not even go to a neighbouring monastery to hear the Dhamma without members of the family.
Ekaccassa mātāpitaropi palibodhā na honti, koraṇḍakavihāravāsittherassa bhāgineyyadaharabhikkhuno viya.
36.But even mother and father are not an impediment for another, as in the case of the young bhikkhu, the nephew of the elder who lived at the Koraṇḍaka Monastery.
So kira uddesatthaṃ rohaṇaṃ agamāsi.
He went to Rohaṇa for instruction, it seems.
Therabhaginīpi upāsikā sadā theraṃ tassa pavattiṃ pucchati.
The elder’s sister, who was a lay devotee, was always asking the elder how her son was getting on.
Thero ekadivasaṃ daharaṃ ānessāmīti rohaṇābhimukho pāyāsi.
One day the elder set out for Rohaṇa to fetch him back.
Daharopi "ciraṃ me idha vutthaṃ, upajjhāyaṃ dāni passitvā upāsikāya ca pavattiṃ ñatvā āgamissāmī"ti rohaṇato nikkhami.
37.The young bhikkhu too thought, “I have lived here for a long time. Now I might go and visit my preceptor and find out how the lay devotee is,” and he left Rohaṇa.
Te ubhopi gaṅgātīre samāgacchiṃsu.
The two met on the banks of the [Mahaveli] River.
So aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle therassa vattaṃ katvā "kuhiṃ yāsī"ti pucchito tamatthaṃ ārocesi.
He did the duties to the elder at the foot of a tree. When asked, “Where are you going? ” he told him his purpose.
Thero suṭṭhu te kataṃ, upāsikāpi sadā pucchati, ahampi etadatthameva āgato, gaccha tvaṃ, ahaṃ pana idheva imaṃ vassaṃ vasissāmīti taṃ uyyojesi.
The elder said: “You have done well. The lay devotee is always asking after you. That was why I came. You may go, but I shall stay here for the Rains,” and he dismissed him.
So vassūpanāyikadivaseyeva taṃ vihāraṃ patto.
He arrived at the monastery on the actual day for taking up residence for the Rains.
Senāsanampissa pitarā kāritameva pattaṃ.
The lodging allotted to him happened to be the one for which his father had undertaken responsibility.
Athassa pitā dutiyadivase āgantvā "kassa, bhante, amhākaṃ senāsanaṃ patta"nti pucchanto "āgantukassa daharassā"ti sutvā taṃ upasaṅkamitvā vanditvā āha – "bhante, amhākaṃ senāsane vassaṃ upagatassa vattaṃ atthī"ti.
38.His father came on the following day and asked, “To whom was our lodging allotted, venerable sirs? ” When he heard that it had fallen to a young visitor, he went to him. After paying homage to him, he said, “Venerable sir, there is an obligation for him who has taken up residence for the Rains in our lodging.”
Kiṃ upāsakāti?
— ”What is it, lay follower?
Temāsaṃ amhākaṃyeva ghare bhikkhaṃ gahetvā pavāretvā gamanakāle āpucchitabbanti.
”—”It is to take alms food only in our house for the three months, and to let us know the time of departure after the Pavāraṇā ceremony.”
So tuṇhibhāvena adhivāsesi.
He consented in silence.
Upāsakopi gharaṃ gantvā "amhākaṃ āvāse eko āgantuko ayyo upagato sakkaccaṃ upaṭṭhātabbo"ti āha.
The lay devotee went home and told his wife. “There is a visiting lord who has taken up residence for the Rains in our lodging. He must be carefully looked after,”
Upāsikā "sādhū"ti sampaṭicchitvā paṇītaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyādesi.
and she agreed. She prepared good food of various kinds for him.14
Daharopi bhattakāle ñātigharaṃ agamāsi.
Though the youth went to his relatives’ home at the time of the meal,
Na naṃ koci sañjāni.
no one recognized him.
So temāsampi tattha piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjitvā vassaṃvuttho "ahaṃ gacchāmī"ti āpucchi.
39. When he had eaten alms food there during the three months and had completed the residence for the Rains, he announced his departure.
Athassa ñātakā "sve, bhante, gacchathā"ti dutiyadivase ghareyeva bhojetvā telanāḷiṃ pūretvā ekaṃ guḷapiṇḍaṃ navahatthañca sāṭakaṃ datvā "gacchatha, bhante"ti āhaṃsu.
Then his relatives said, “Let it be tomorrow, venerable sir,” and on the following day, when they had fed him in their house and filled his oil tube and given him a lump of sugar and a nine-cubit length of cloth, they said, “Now you are leaving, venerable sir.”
So anumodanaṃ katvā rohaṇābhimukho pāyāsi.
He gave his blessing and set out for Rohaṇa.
Upajjhāyopissa pavāretvā paṭipathaṃ āgacchanto pubbe diṭṭhaṭṭhāneyeva taṃ addasa.
40.His preceptor had completed the Pavāraṇā ceremony and was on his way back. They met at the same place as before.
So aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle therassa vattaṃ akāsi.
He did the duties to the elder at the foot of a tree.
Atha naṃ thero pucchi "kiṃ, bhaddamukha, diṭṭhā te upāsikā"ti?
The elder asked him, “How was it, my dear, did you see the good woman lay devotee?
So "āma, bhante"ti sabbaṃ pavattiṃ ārocetvā tena telena therassa pāde makkhetvā guḷena pānakaṃ katvā tampi sāṭakaṃ therasseva datvā theraṃ vanditvā "mayhaṃ, bhante, rohaṇaṃyeva sappāya"nti agamāsi.
” He replied, “Yes, venerable sir,” and he told him all that had happened. He then anointed the elder’s feet with the oil, made him a drink with the sugar, and presented him with the length of cloth. He then, after paying homage to the elder, told him, “Venerable sir, only Rohaṇa suits me,” and he departed.
Theropi vihāraṃ āgantvā dutiyadivase koraṇḍakagāmaṃ pāvisi.
The elder too arrived back at his monastery, and next day he went into the village of Koraṇḍaka.
Upāsikāpi "mayhaṃ bhātā mama puttaṃ gahetvā idāni āgacchatī"ti sadā maggaṃ olokayamānāva tiṭṭhati.
41.The lay devotee, his sister, had always kept looking down the road, thinking, “My brother is now coming with my son.”
Sā taṃ ekakameva āgacchantaṃ disvā "mato me maññe putto, ayaṃ thero ekakova āgacchatī"ti therassa pādamūle nipatitvā paridevamānā rodi.
When she saw him coming alone, she thought, “My son must be dead; that is why the elder is coming alone,” and she fell at the elder’s feet, lamenting and weeping.
Thero "nūna daharo appicchatāya attānaṃ ajānāpetvāva gato"ti taṃ samassāsetvā sabbaṃ pavattiṃ ārocetvā pattatthavikato taṃ sāṭakaṃ nīharitvā dasseti.
Suspecting that it must have been out of fewness of wishes that the youth had gone away without announcing himself, the elder comforted her and told her all that had happened, and he took the length of cloth out of his bag and showed it to her.
Upāsikā pasīditvā puttena gatadisābhimukhā urena nipajjitvā namassamānā āha – "mayhaṃ puttasadisaṃ vata maññe bhikkhuṃ kāyasakkhiṃ katvā bhagavā rathavinītapaṭipadaṃ (ma. ni. 1.252 ādayo), nālakapaṭipadaṃ (su. ni. 684 ādayo), tuvaṭṭakapaṭipadaṃ (su. ni. 921 ādayo), catupaccayasantosabhāvanārāmatādīpakaṃ mahāariyavaṃsapaṭipadañca (a. ni. 4.28; dī. ni. 3.309) desesi.
42.She was appeased. She prostrated herself in the direction taken by her son, and she said: “Surely the Blessed One taught the way of the Rathavinīta, the way of the Nālaka, the way of the Tuvaṭaka, and the way of the great Noble Ones’ heritages15 showing contentment with the four requisites and delight in development, making a bhikkhu such as my son a body-witness.
Vijātamātuyā nāma gehe temāsaṃ bhuñjamānopi 'ahaṃ putto tvaṃ mātā'ti na vakkhati, aho acchariyamanusso"ti.
So, although for three months he ate in the house of the mother who bore him, yet he never said ‘I am your son, you are my mother!’ Oh, admirable man!
Evarūpassa mātāpitaropi palibodhā na honti, pageva aññaṃ upaṭṭhākakula"nti.
” Even mother and father are no impediment for one such as him, so how much less any other family that supports him.
Lābhoti cattāro paccayā.
43. 3. Gain is the four requisites.
Te kathaṃ palibodhā honti?
How are they an impediment?
Puññavantassa hi bhikkhuno gatagataṭṭhāne manussā mahāparivāre paccaye denti.
Wherever a meritorious bhikkhu goes, people give him a large supply of requisites.
So tesaṃ anumodento dhammaṃ desento samaṇadhammaṃ kātuṃ na okāsaṃ labhati.
With giving blessings to them and teaching them the Dhamma he gets no chance to do the ascetic’s duties.
Aruṇuggamanato yāva paṭhamayāmo, tāva manussasaṃsaggo na upacchijjati.
From sunrise till the first watch of the night he never breaks his association with people.
Puna balavapaccūseyeva bāhullikapiṇḍapātikā āgantvā "bhante, asuko upāsako upāsikā amacco amaccadhītā tumhākaṃ dassanakāmā"ti vadanti, so gaṇhāvuso, pattacīvaranti gamanasajjova hotīti niccabyāvaṭo, tasseva te paccayā palibodhā honti.
Again, even at dawn, alms-food eaters fond of opulence come and say, “Venerable sir, such and such a man lay follower, woman lay follower, friend, friend’s daughter, wants to see you,” and being ready to go, he replies, “Take the bowl and robe, friend.” So he is always on the alert. Thus these requisites are an impediment for him.
Tena gaṇaṃ pahāya yattha naṃ na jānanti, tattha ekakena caritabbaṃ.
He should leave his group and wander by himself where he is not known.
Evaṃ so palibodho upacchijjatīti.
This is the way his impediment is severed.
Gaṇoti suttantikagaṇo vā ābhidhammikagaṇo vā, yo tassa uddesaṃ vā paripucchaṃ vā dento samaṇadhammassa okāsaṃ na labhati, tasseva gaṇo palibodho hoti, tena so evaṃ upacchinditabbo.
44.4 Class is a class (group) of students of suttas or students of Abhidhamma. If with the group’s instruction and questioning he gets no opportunity for the ascetic’s duties, then that group is an impediment for him. He should sever that impediment in this way:
Sace tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ bahu gahitaṃ hoti, appaṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ, taṃ niṭṭhapetvā araññaṃ pavisitabbaṃ.
if those bhikkhus have already acquired the main part and little still remains, he should finish that off and then go to the forest.
Sace appaṃ gahitaṃ, bahu avasiṭṭhaṃ, yojanato paraṃ agantvā antoyojanaparicchede aññaṃ gaṇavācakaṃ upasaṅkamitvā "ime āyasmā uddesādīhi saṅgaṇhatū"ti vattabbaṃ.
If they have only acquired little and much still remains, he should, without travelling more than a league, approach another instructor of a class within the radius of a league and say, “Help those venerable ones with instruction, etc.”
Evaṃ alabhamānena "mayhamāvuso, ekaṃ kiccaṃ atthi, tumhe yathāphāsukaṭṭhānāni gacchathā"ti gaṇaṃ pahāya attano kammaṃ kattabbanti.
If he does not find anyone in this way, he should take leave of the class, saying. “I have a task to see to, friends; go where it suits you,” and he should do his own work.
Kammanti navakammaṃ.
45.5. Building (kamma) is new building work (nava-kamma).
Taṃ karontena vaḍḍhakīādīhi laddhāladdhaṃ jānitabbaṃ, katākate ussukkaṃ āpajjitabbanti sabbadā palibodho hoti.
Since one engaged in this must know about what [material] has and has not been got by carpenters, etc., and must see about what has and has not been done, it is always an impediment.
Sopi evaṃ upacchinditabbo, sace appaṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ hoti niṭṭhapetabbaṃ.
It should be severed in this way. If little remains it should be completed.
Sace bahu, saṅghikañce navakammaṃ, saṅghassa vā saṅghabhārahārakabhikkhūnaṃ vā niyyādetabbaṃ.
If much remains, it should be handed over to the Community or to bhikkhus who are entrusted with the Community’s affairs, if it is a new building for the Community;
Attano santakañce, attano bhārahārakānaṃ niyyādetabbaṃ.
or if it is for himself, it should be handed over to those whom he entrusts with his own affairs,
Tādise alabhantena saṅghassa pariccajitvā gantabbanti.
but if these are not available, he should relinquish it to the Community and depart.
Addhānanti maggagamanaṃ.
46.6. Travel is going on a journey.
Yassa hi katthaci pabbajjāpekkho vā hoti, paccayajātaṃ vā kiñci laddhabbaṃ hoti.
If someone is expected to give the going forth somewhere else, or if some requisite is obtainable there
Sace taṃ alabhanto na sakkoti adhivāsetuṃ, araññaṃ pavisitvā samaṇadhammaṃ karontassapi gamikacittaṃ nāma duppaṭivinodanīyaṃ hoti, tasmā gantvā taṃ kiccaṃ tīretvāva samaṇadhamme ussukkaṃ kātabbanti.
and he cannot rest content without getting it [that will be an impediment; for] even if he goes into the forest to do the ascetic’s duties, he will find it hard to get rid of thoughts about the journey. So one in this position should apply himself to the ascetic’s duties after he has done the journey and transacted the business.
Ñātīti vihāre ācariyupajjhāyasaddhivihārikaantevāsikasamānupajjhāyakasamānācariyakā, ghare mātā pitā bhātāti evamādikā.
47.7 Kin in the case of the monastery means teacher, preceptor, co-resident, pupil, those with the same preceptor as oneself, and those with the same teacher as oneself; and in the case of the house it means mother, father, brother, and so on.
Te gilānā imassa palibodhā honti, tasmā so palibodho upaṭṭhahitvā tesaṃ pākatikakaraṇena upacchinditabbo.
When they are sick they are an impediment for him. Therefore that impediment should be severed by curing them with nursing.
Tattha upajjhāyo tāva gilāno sace lahuṃ na vuṭṭhāti, yāvajīvampi paṭijaggitabbo.
48.Herein, when the preceptor is sick he must be cared for as long as life lasts if the sickness does not soon depart.
Tathā pabbajjācariyo upasampadācariyo saddhivihāriko upasampāditapabbājitaantevāsikasamānupajjhāyakā ca.
Likewise the teacher at the going forth, the teacher at the admission, the co-resident, the pupils to whom one has given the admission and the going forth, and those who have the same preceptor.
Nissayācariyauddesācariyanissayantevāsikauddesantevāsikasamānācariyakā pana yāva nissayauddesā anupacchinnā, tāva paṭijaggitabbā.
But the teacher from whom one takes the dependence, the teacher who gives one instruction, the pupil to whom one has given the dependence, the pupil to whom one is giving instruction, and those who have that same teacher as oneself, should be looked after as long as the dependence or the instruction has not been terminated.
Pahontena tato uddhampi paṭijaggitabbā eva.
If one is able to do so, one should look after them even beyond that [period].
Mātāpitūsu upajjhāye viya paṭipajjitabbaṃ.
49.Mother and father should be treated like the preceptor;
Sacepi hi te rajje ṭhitā honti, puttato ca upaṭṭhānaṃ paccāsīsanti, kātabbameva.
if they live within the kingdom and look to their son for help, it should be given.
Atha tesaṃ bhesajjaṃ natthi, attano santakaṃ dātabbaṃ.
Also if they have no medicine, he should give them his own.
Asati bhikkhācariyāya pariyesitvāpi dātabbameva.
If he has none, he should go in search of it as alms and give that.
Bhātubhaginīnaṃ pana tesaṃ santakameva yojetvā dātabbaṃ.
But in the case of brothers or sisters, one should only give them what is theirs.
Sace natthi attano santakaṃ tāvakālikaṃ datvā pacchā labhantena gaṇhitabbaṃ.
If they have none, then one should give one’s own temporarily and later get it back,
Alabhantena na codetabbā.
but one should not complain if one does not get it back.
Aññātakassa bhaginisāmikassa bhesajjaṃ neva kātuṃ na dātuṃ vaṭṭati.
It is not allowed either to make medicine for or to give it to a sister’s husband who is not related by blood;
"Tuyhaṃ sāmikassa dehī"ti vatvā pana bhaginiyā dātabbaṃ.
but one can give it to one’s sister saying, “Give it to your husband.”
Bhātujāyāyapi eseva nayo.
The same applies to one’s brother’s wife.
Tesaṃ pana puttā imassa ñātakā evāti tesaṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭatīti.
But it is allowed to make it for their children since they are blood relatives.
Ābādhoti yokoci rogo.
50.8. Affliction is any kind of illness.
So bādhayamāno palibodho hoti, tasmā bhesajjakaraṇena upacchinditabbo.
It is an impediment when it is actually afflicting; therefore it should be severed by treatment with medicine.
Sace pana katipāhaṃ bhesajjaṃ karontassapi na vūpasammati, nāhaṃ tuyhaṃ dāso, na bhaṭako, taṃyeva hi posento anamatagge saṃsāravaṭṭe dukkhaṃ pattoti attabhāvaṃ garahitvā samaṇadhammo kātabboti.
But if it is not cured after taking medicine for a few days, then the ascetic’s duties should be done after apostrophizing one’s person in this way: “I am not your slave, or your hireling. I have come to suffering through maintaining you through the beginningless round of rebirths.”
Ganthoti pariyattiharaṇaṃ.
51. 9. Books means responsibility for the scriptures.
Taṃ sajjhāyādīhi niccabyāvaṭassa palibodho hoti, na itarassa.
That is an impediment only for one who is constantly busy with recitations, etc., but not for others.
Tatrimāni vatthūni –
Here are relevant stories.
Majjhimabhāṇakadevatthero kira malayavāsidevattherassa santikaṃ gantvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ yāci.
The Elder Revata, it seems, the Majjhima reciter, went to the Elder Revata, the dweller in Malaya (the Hill Country), and asked him for a meditation subject.
Thero kīdisosi, āvuso, pariyattiyanti pucchi.
The elder asked him, “How are you in the scriptures, friend?
Majjhimo me, bhante, paguṇoti.
”—”I am studying the Majjhima [Nikāya], venerable sir.”
Āvuso, majjhimo nāmeso dupparihāro, mūlapaṇṇāsaṃ sajjhāyantassa majjhimapaṇṇāsako āgacchati, taṃ sajjhāyantassa uparipaṇṇāsako.
—”The Majjhima is a hard responsibility, friend. When a man is still learning the First Fifty by heart, he is faced with the Middle Fifty; and when he is still learning that by heart, he is faced with the Last Fifty.
Kuto tuyhaṃ kammaṭṭhānanti?
How can you take up a meditation subject?”
Bhante, tumhākaṃ santike kammaṭṭhānaṃ labhitvā puna na olokessāmīti kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā ekūnavīsativassāni sajjhāyaṃ akatvā vīsatime vasse arahattaṃ patvā sajjhāyatthāya āgatānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ "vīsati me, āvuso, vassāni pariyattiṃ anolokentassa, apica kho kataparicayo ahamettha ārabhathā"ti vatvā ādito paṭṭhāya yāva pariyosānā ekabyañjanepissa kaṅkhā nāhosi.
—”Venerable sir, when I have taken a meditation subject from you, I shall not look at the scriptures again.” He took the meditation subject, and doing no recitation for nineteen years, he reached Arahantship in the twentieth year. He told bhikkhus who came for recitation: “I have not looked at the scriptures for twenty years, friends, yet I am familiar with them. You may begin.” And from beginning to end he had no hesitation even over a single syllable.
Karuḷiyagirivāsīnāgattheropi aṭṭhārasavassāni pariyattiṃ chaḍḍetvā bhikkhūnaṃ dhātukathaṃ uddisi.
52.The Elder Mahā-Nāga, too, who lived at Karuliyagiri (Karaliyagiri) put aside the scriptures for eighteen years, and then he recited the Dhātukathā to the bhikkhus.
Tesaṃ gāmavāsikattherehi saddhiṃ saṃsandentānaṃ ekapañhopi uppaṭipāṭiyā āgato nāhosi.
When they checked this with the town-dwelling elders [of Anurādha- pura], not a single question was found out of its order.
Mahāvihārepi tipiṭakacūḷābhayatthero nāma aṭṭhakathaṃ anuggahetvāva pañcanikāyamaṇḍale tīṇi piṭakāni parivattessāmīti suvaṇṇabheriṃ paharāpesi.
53.In the Great Monastery too the Elder Tipiṭaka-Cūḷa-Abhaya had the golden drum struck, saying: “I shall expound the three Piṭakas in the circle of [experts in] the Five Collections of discourses,” and this was before he had learnt the commentaries.
Bhikkhusaṅgho katamācariyānaṃ uggaho, attano ācariyuggahaññeva vadatu, itarathā vattuṃ na demāti āha.
The Community of Bhikkhus said, “‘Which teachers’ teaching is it? Unless you give only the teaching of our own teachers we shall not let you speak.”
Upajjhāyopi naṃ attano upaṭṭhānamāgataṃ pucchi "tvamāvuso, bheriṃ paharāpesī"ti?
Also his preceptor asked him when he went to wait on him, “Did you have the drum beaten, friend?
Āma, bhante.
”—”Yes, venerable sir.”
Kiṃ kāraṇāti?
—”For what reason?
Pariyattiṃ, bhante, parivattessāmīti.
”—”I shall expound the scriptures, venerable sir.”
Āvuso abhaya, ācariyā idaṃ padaṃ kathaṃ vadantīti?
—”Friend Abhaya, how do the teachers explain this passage?
Evaṃ vadanti, bhanteti.
”—”They explain it in this way, venerable sir.”
Thero hunti paṭibāhi.
The elder dissented, saying “Hum.”
Puna so aññena aññena pariyāyena evaṃ vadanti bhanteti tikkhattuṃ āha.
Again three times, each time in a different way, he said, “They explain it in this way, venerable sir.”
Thero sabbaṃ hunti paṭibāhitvā "āvuso, tayā paṭhamaṃ kathito eva ācariyamaggo, ācariyamukhato pana anuggahitattā 'evaṃ ācariyā vadantī'ti saṇṭhātuṃ nāsakkhi.
The elder always dissented, saying, “Hum.” Then he said, “Friend, your first explanation was the way of the teachers. But it is because you have not actually learnt it from the teachers’ lips that you are unable to maintain that the teachers say such and such.
Gaccha attano ācariyānaṃ santike suṇāhī"ti.
Go and learn it from our own teachers.”
Kuhiṃ, bhante, gacchāmīti?
—”Where shall I go, venerable sir?
Gaṅgāya parato rohaṇajanapade tulādhārapabbatavihāre sabbapariyattiko mahādhammarakkhitatthero nāma vasati, tassa santikaṃ gacchāti.
”—”There is an elder named Mahā Dhammarakkhita living in the Tulādhārapabbata Monastery in the Rohaṇa country beyond the [Mahaveli] River. He knows all the scriptures. Go to him.”
Sādhu, bhanteti theraṃ vanditvā pañcahi bhikkhusatehi saddhiṃ therassa santikaṃ gantvā vanditvā nisīdi.
Saying, “Good, venerable sir,” he paid homage to the elder. He went with five hundred bhikkhus to the Elder Mahā-Dhammarakkhita, and when he had paid homage to him, he sat down.
Thero kasmā āgatosīti pucchi.
The elder asked, “Why have you come?
Dhammaṃ sotuṃ, bhanteti.
”—”To hear the Dhamma, venerable sir.”
Āvuso abhaya, dīghamajjhimesu maṃ kālena kālaṃ pucchanti.
—”Friend Abhaya, they ask me about the Dīgha and the Majjhima from time to time,
Avasesaṃ pana me tiṃsamattāni vassāni na olokitapubbaṃ.
but I have not looked at the others for thirty years.
Apica tvaṃ rattiṃ mama santike parivattehi.
Still you may repeat them in my presence by night,
Ahaṃ te divā kathayissāmīti.
and I shall explain them to you by day.”
So sādhu, bhanteti tathā akāsi.
He said, “Good, venerable sir,” and he acted accordingly.
Pariveṇadvāre mahāmaṇḍapaṃ kāretvā gāmavāsino divase divase dhammassavanatthāya āgacchanti.
54.The inhabitants of the village had a large pavilion built at the door of his dwelling, and they came daily to hear the Dhamma.
Thero rattiṃ parivatti.
what had been repeated by night
Taṃ divā kathayanto anupubbena desanaṃ niṭṭhapetvā abhayattherassa santike taṭṭikāya nisīditvā "āvuso, mayhaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathehī"ti āha.
explaining by day ,the Elder [Dhammarakkhita] eventually completed the instruction. Then he sat down on a mat on the ground before the Elder Abhaya and said, “Friend, explain a meditation subject to me.”
Bhante, kiṃ bhaṇatha, nanu mayā tumhākameva santike sutaṃ?
—”What are you saying, venerable sir, have I not heard it all from you?
Kimahaṃ tumhehi aññātaṃ kathessāmīti?
What can I explain to you that you do not already know?
Tato naṃ thero añño esa, āvuso, gatakassa maggo nāmāti āha.
” The senior elder said, “This path is different for one who has actually travelled by.”
Abhayathero kira tadā sotāpanno hoti.
55.The Elder Abhaya was then, it seems, a stream-enterer.
Athassa so kammaṭṭhānaṃ datvā āgantvā lohapāsāde dhammaṃ parivattento thero parinibbutoti assosi.
When the Elder Abhaya had given his teacher a meditation subject, he returned to Anurādhapura. Later, while he was expounding the Dhamma in the Brazen Palace, he heard that the elder had attained Nibbāna.
Sutvā "āharathāvuso, cīvara"nti cīvaraṃ pārupitvā "anucchaviko, āvuso, amhākaṃ ācariyassa arahattamaggo.
On hearing this, he said, “Bring me [my] robe, friends.” Then he put on the robe and said, “The Arahant path befits our teacher, friends.
Ācariyo no, āvuso, uju ājānīyo.
Our teacher was a true thoroughbred.
So attano dhammantevāsikassa santike taṭṭikāya nisīditvā 'mayhaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathehī'ti āha.
He sat down on a mat before his own Dhamma pupil and said, ‘Explain a meditation subject to me.’
Anucchaviko, āvuso, therassa arahattamaggo"ti.
The Arahant path befits our teacher, friends.”
Evarūpānaṃ gantho palibodho na hotīti.
For such as these, books are no impediment.
Iddhīti pothujjanikā iddhi.
56. 10. Supernormal powers are the supernormal powers of the ordinary man.
Sā hi uttānaseyyakadārako viya taruṇasassaṃ viya ca dupparihārā hoti.
They are hard to maintain, like a prone infant or like young corn,
Appamattakeneva bhijjati.
and the slightest thing breaks them.
Sā pana vipassanāya palibodho hoti, na samādhissa, samādhiṃ patvā pattabbato.
But they are an impediment for insight, not for concentration, since they are obtainable through concentration.
Tasmā vipassanatthikena iddhipalibodho upacchinditabbo, itarena avasesāti ayaṃ tāva palibodhakathāya vitthāro.
So the supernormal powers are an impediment that should be severed by one who seeks insight; the others are impediments to be severed by one who seeks concentration. This, in the first place, is the detailed explanation of the impediments.
Kammaṭṭhānadāyakavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.5 Kammaṭṭhānadāyakavaṇṇanā

42.Kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃkalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvāti ettha pana duvidhaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ sabbatthakakammaṭṭhānaṃ pārihāriyakammaṭṭhānañca.
57.Approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject (§28): meditation subjects are of two kinds, that is, generally useful meditation subjects and special meditation subjects.
Tattha sabbatthakakammaṭṭhānaṃ nāma bhikkhusaṅghādīsu mettā maraṇassati ca.
Herein, friendly-kindness towards the Community of Bhikkhus, etc., and also mindfulness of death are what are called generally useful meditation subjects.
Asubhasaññātipi eke.
Some say perception of foulness, too.
Kammaṭṭhānikena hi bhikkhunā paṭhamaṃ tāva paricchinditvā sīmaṭṭhakabhikkhusaṅghe sukhitā hontu abyāpajjāti mettā bhāvetabbā.
58. When a bhikkhu takes up a meditation subject, he should first develop friendly-kindness towards the Community of Bhikkhus within the boundary,16 limiting it at first [to “all bhikkhus in this monastery”], in this way: “May they be happy and free from affliction.”
Tato sīmaṭṭhakadevatāsu.
Then he should develop it towards all deities within the boundary.
Tato gocaragāmamhi issarajane.
Then towards all the principal people in the village that is his alms resort;
Tato tattha manusse upādāya sabbasattesu.
then to [all human beings there and to] all living beings dependent on the human beings.
So hi bhikkhusaṅghe mettāya sahavāsīnaṃ muducittataṃ janeti.
With friendly-kindness towards the Community of Bhikkhus he produces kindliness in his co-residents;
Athassa te sukhasaṃvāsā honti.
then they are easy for him to live with.
Sīmaṭṭhakadevatāsu mettāya mudukatacittāhi devatāhi dhammikāya rakkhāya susaṃvihitarakkho hoti.
With friendly-kindness towards the deities within the boundary he is protected by kindly deities with lawful protection.
Gocaragāmamhi issarajane mettāya mudukatacittasantānehi issarehi dhammikāya rakkhāya surakkhitaparikkhāro hoti.
With friendly-kindness towards the principal people in the village that is his alms resort his requisites are protected by well-disposed principal people with lawful protection.
Tattha manussesu mettāya pasāditacittehi tehi aparibhūto hutvā vicarati.
With friendly-kindness to all human beings there he goes about without incurring their dislike since they trust him.
Sabbasattesu mettāya sabbattha appaṭihatacāro hoti.
With friendly-kindness to all living beings he can wander unhindered everywhere.
Maraṇassatiyā pana avassaṃ mayā maritabbanti cintento anesanaṃ pahāya uparūpari vaḍḍhamānasaṃvego anolīnavuttiko hoti.
With mindfulness of death, thinking, “I have got to die,” he gives up improper search (see S II 194; M-a I 115), and with a growing sense of urgency he comes to live without attachment.
Asubhasaññāparicitacittassa panassa dibbānipi ārammaṇāni lobhavasena cittaṃ na pariyādiyanti.
When his mind is familiar with the perception of foulness, then even divine objects do not tempt his mind to greed.
Evaṃ bahūpakārattā sabbattha atthayitabbaṃ icchitabbanti ca adhippetassa yogānuyogakammassa ṭhānañcāti sabbatthakakammaṭṭhānanti vuccati.
59.So these are called “generally useful” and they are “called meditation subjects” since they are needed17 generally and desirable owing to their great helpfulness and since they are subjects for the meditation work intended.
Cattālīsāya pana kammaṭṭhānesu yaṃ yassa cariyānukūlaṃ, taṃ tassa niccaṃ pariharitabbattā uparimassa ca uparimassa bhāvanākammassa padaṭṭhānattā pārihāriyakammaṭṭhānanti vuccati.
60.What is called a “special meditation subject” is that one from among the forty meditation subjects that is suitable to a man’s own temperament. It is “special” (pārihāriya) because he must carry it (pariharitabbattā) constantly about with him, and because it is the proximate cause for each higher stage of development.
Iti imaṃ duvidhampi kammaṭṭhānaṃ yo deti, ayaṃ kammaṭṭhānadāyako nāma.
So it is the one who gives this twofold meditation subject that is called the giver of a meditation subject.
Taṃ kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ.
Kalyāṇamittanti –
61.The good friend
Piyo garu bhāvanīyo, vattā ca vacanakkhamo;
He is revered and dearly loved, And one who speaks and suffers speech;
Gambhīrañca kathaṃ kattā, no caṭṭhāne niyojakoti. (a. ni. 7.37);
The speech he utters is profound, He does not urge without a reason (A IV 32) and so on.
Evamādiguṇasamannāgataṃ ekantena hitesiṃ vuddhipakkhe ṭhitaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ.
(The good friend) is one who possesses such special qualities as these (above). He is wholly solicitous of welfare and partial to progress.
"Mamaṃ hi, ānanda, kalyāṇamittaṃ āgamma jātidhammā sattā jātiyā parimuccantī"ti (saṃ. ni. 1.129; 5.2) ādivacanato pana sammāsambuddhoyeva sabbākārasampanno kalyāṇamitto.
62.Because of the words beginning, “Ānanda, it is owing to my being a good friend to them that living beings subject to birth are freed from birth” (S I 88), it is only the Fully Enlightened One who possesses all the aspects of the good friend.
Tasmā tasmiṃ sati tasseva bhagavato santike gahitakammaṭṭhānaṃ sugahitaṃ hoti.
Since that is so, while he is available only a meditation subject taken in the Blessed One’s presence is well taken.
Parinibbute pana tasmiṃ asītiyā mahāsāvakesu yo dharati, tassa santike gahetuṃ vaṭṭati.
But after his final attainment of Nibbāna, it is proper to take it from anyone of the eighty great disciples still living.
Tasmiṃ asati yaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetukāmo hoti, tasseva vasena catukkapañcakajjhānāni nibbattetvā jhānapadaṭṭhānaṃ vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā āsavakkhayappattassa khīṇāsavassa santike gahetabbaṃ.
When they are no more available, one who wants to take a particular meditation subject should take it from someone with cankers destroyed, who has, by means of that particular meditation subject, produced the fourfold and fivefold jhāna, and has reached the destruction of cankers by augmenting insight that had that jhāna as its proximate cause.
Kiṃ pana khīṇāsavo ahaṃ khīṇāsavoti attānaṃ pakāsetīti?
63.But how then, does someone with cankers destroyed declare himself thus: “I am one whose cankers are destroyed?”
Kiṃ vattabbaṃ, kārakabhāvaṃ hi jānitvā pakāseti.
Why not? He declares himself when he knows that his instructions will be carried out.
Nanu assaguttatthero āraddhakammaṭṭhānassa bhikkhuno "kammaṭṭhānakārako aya"nti jānitvā ākāse cammakhaṇḍaṃ paññāpetvā tattha pallaṅkena nisinno kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathesīti.
Did not the Elder Assagutta spread out his leather mat in the air and sitting cross-legged on it explain a meditation subject to a bhikkhu who was starting his meditation subject, because he knew that that bhikkhu was one who would carry out his instructions for the meditation subject?
Tasmā sace khīṇāsavaṃ labhati, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce labhati, anāgāmisakadāgāmisotāpannajhānalābhīputhujjanatipiṭakadharadvipiṭakadharaekapiṭakadharesu purimassa purimassa santike.
64.So if someone with cankers destroyed is available, that is good. If not, then one should take it from a non-returner, a once-returner, a stream-enterer, an ordinary man who has obtained jhāna, one who knows three Piṭakas, one who knows two Piṭakas, one who knows one Piṭaka, in descending order [according as available].
Ekapiṭakadharepi asati yassa ekasaṅgītipi aṭṭhakathāya saddhiṃ paguṇā, ayañca lajjī hoti, tassa santike gahetabbaṃ.
If not even one who knows one Piá¹­aka is available, then it should be taken from one who is familiar with one Collection together with its commentary and one who is himself conscientious.
Evarūpo hi tantidharo vaṃsānurakkhako paveṇīpālako ācariyo ācariyamatikova hoti, na attanomatiko hoti.
For a teacher such as this, who knows the texts, guards the heritage, and protects the tradition, will follow the teachers’ opinion rather than his own.
Teneva porāṇakattherā "lajjī rakkhissati lajjī rakkhissatī"ti tikkhattuṃ āhaṃsu.
Hence the Ancient Elders said three times, “One who is conscientious will guard it.”
Pubbe vuttakhīṇāsavādayo cettha attanā adhigatamaggameva ācikkhanti.
65.Now, those beginning with one whose cankers are destroyed, mentioned above, will describe only the path they have themselves reached.
Bahussuto pana taṃ taṃ ācariyaṃ upasaṅkamitvā uggahaparipucchānaṃ visodhitattā ito cito ca suttañca kāraṇañca sallakkhetvā sappāyāsappāyaṃ yojetvā gahanaṭṭhāne gacchanto mahāhatthī viya mahāmaggaṃ dassento kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathessati.
But with a learned man, his instructions and his answers to questions are purified by his having approached such and such teachers, and so he will explain a meditation subject showing a broad track, like a big elephant going through a stretch of jungle, and he will select suttas and reasons from here and there, adding [explanations of] what is suitable and unsuitable.
Tasmā evarūpaṃ kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā tassa vattapaṭipattiṃ katvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetabbaṃ.
So a meditation subject should be taken by approaching the good friend such as this, the giver of a meditation subject, and by doing all the duties to him.
Sace panetaṃ ekavihāreyeva labhati, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce labhati, yattha so vasati, tattha gantabbaṃ.
66.If he is available in the same monastery, it is good. If not, one should go to where he lives.
Gacchantena ca na dhotamakkhitehi pādehi upāhanā ārūhitvā chattaṃ gahetvā telanāḷimadhuphāṇitādīni gāhāpetvā antevāsikaparivutena gantabbaṃ.
When [a bhikkhu] goes to him, he should not do so with feet washed and anointed, wearing sandals, with an umbrella, surrounded by pupils, and bringing oil tube, honey, molasses, etc.;
Gamikavattaṃ pana pūretvā attano pattacīvaraṃ sayameva gahetvā antarāmagge yaṃ yaṃ vihāraṃ pavisati sabbattha vattapaṭipattiṃ kurumānena sallahukaparikkhārena paramasallekhavuttinā hutvā gantabbaṃ.
he should do so fulfilling the duties of a bhikkhu setting out on a journey, carrying his bowl and robes himself, doing all the duties in each monastery on the way, with few belongings, and living in the greatest effacement.
Taṃ vihāraṃ pavisantena antarāmaggeyeva dantakaṭṭhaṃ kappiyaṃ kārāpetvā gahetvā pavisitabbaṃ, na ca "muhuttaṃ vissametvā pādadhovanamakkhanādīni katvā ācariyassa santikaṃ gamissāmī"ti aññaṃ pariveṇaṃ pavisitabbaṃ.
When entering that monastery, he should do so [expecting nothing, and even provided] with a tooth-stick that he has had made allowable on the way [according to the rules]. And he should not enter some other room, thinking, “I shall go to the teacher after resting awhile and after washing and anointing my feet, and so on.”
Kasmā?
67.Why?
Sace hissa tatra ācariyassa visabhāgā bhikkhū bhaveyyuṃ, te āgamanakāraṇaṃ pucchitvā ācariyassa avaṇṇaṃ pakāsetvā "naṭṭhosi, sace tassa santikaṃ āgato"ti vippaṭisāraṃ uppādeyyuṃ, yena tatova paṭinivatteyya, tasmā ācariyassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ pucchitvā ujukaṃ tattheva gantabbaṃ.
If there are bhikkhus there who are hostile to the teacher, they might ask him the reason for his coming and speak dispraise of the teacher, saying, “You are done for if you go to him”; they might make him regret his coming and turn him back. So he should ask for the teacher’s dwelling and go straight there.
Sace ācariyo daharataro hoti, pattacīvarapaṭiggahaṇādīni na sāditabbāni.
68.If the teacher is junior, he should not consent to the teacher’s receiving his bowl and robe, and so on.
Sace vuḍḍhataro hoti, gantvā ācariyaṃ vanditvā ṭhātabbaṃ.
If the teacher is senior, then he should go and pay homage to him and remain standing.
"Nikkhipāvuso, pattacīvara"nti vuttena nikkhipitabbaṃ.
When told, “Put down the bowl and robe, friend,” he may put them down.
"Pānīyaṃ pivā"ti vuttena sace icchati pātabbaṃ.
When told, “Have some water to drink,” he can drink if he wants to.
"Pāde dhovāhī"ti vuttena na tāva pādā dhovitabbā.
When told, “You may wash your feet,” he should not do so at once,
Sace hi ācariyena ābhataṃ udakaṃ bhaveyya, na sāruppaṃ siyā.
for if the water has been brought by the teacher himself, it would be improper.
"Dhovāhāvuso, na mayā ābhataṃ, aññehi ābhata"nti vuttena pana yattha ācariyo na passati, evarūpe paṭicchanne vā okāse, abbhokāse vihārassāpi vā ekamante nisīditvā pādā dhovitabbā.
But when told “Wash, friend, it was not brought by me, it was brought by others,” then he can wash his feet, sitting in a screened place out of sight of the teacher, or in the open to one side of the dwelling.
Sace ācariyo telanāḷiṃ āharati uṭṭhahitvā ubhohi hatthehi sakkaccaṃ gahetabbā.
69.If the teacher brings an oil tube, he should get up and take it carefully with both hands.
Sace hi na gaṇheyya, "ayaṃ bhikkhu ito eva paṭṭhāya sambhogaṃ kopetī"ti ācariyassa aññathattaṃ bhaveyya.
If he did not take it, it might make the teacher wonder, “Does this bhikkhu resent sharing so soon?
Gahetvā pana na āditova pādā makkhetabbā.
” but having taken it, he should not anoint his feet at once.
Sace hi taṃ ācariyassa gattabbhañjanatelaṃ bhaveyya, na sāruppaṃ siyā.
For if it were oil for anointing the teacher’s limbs, it would not be proper.
Tasmā sīsaṃ makkhetvā khandhādīni makkhetabbāni.
So he should first anoint his head, then his shoulders, etc.;
"Sabbapārihāriyatelamidaṃ, āvuso, pādepi makkhehī"ti vuttena pana thokaṃ sīse katvā pāde makkhetvā "imaṃ telanāḷiṃ ṭhapemi, bhante"ti vatvā ācariye gaṇhante dātabbā.
but when told, “This is meant for all the limbs, friend, anoint your feet,” he should put a little on his head and then anoint his feet. Then he should give it back, saying when the teacher takes it, “May I return this oil tube, venerable sir? ”
Āgatadivasato paṭṭhāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ me, bhante, kathetha iccevaṃ na vattabbaṃ.
70.He should not say, “Explain a meditation subject to me, venerable sir” on the very day he arrives.
Dutiyadivasato pana paṭṭhāya sace ācariyassa pakatiupaṭṭhāko atthi, taṃ yācitvā vattaṃ kātabbaṃ.
But starting from the next day, he can, if the teacher has a habitual attendant, ask his permission to do the duties.
Sace yācitopi na deti, okāse laddheyeva kātabbaṃ.
If he does not allow it when asked, they can be done when the opportunity offers.
Karontena khuddakamajjhimamahantāni tīṇi dantakaṭṭhāni upanāmetabbāni.
When he does them, three tooth-sticks should be brought, a small, a medium and a big one,
Sītaṃ uṇhanti duvidhaṃ mukhadhovanaudakañca nhānodakañca paṭiyādetabbaṃ.
and two kinds of mouth-washing water and bathing water, that is, hot and cold, should be set out.
Tato yaṃ ācariyo tīṇi divasāni paribhuñjati, tādisameva niccaṃ upanāmetabbaṃ.
Whichever of these the teacher uses for three days should then be brought regularly.
Niyamaṃ akatvā yaṃ vā taṃ vā paribhuñjantassa yathāladdhaṃ upanāmetabbaṃ.
If the teacher uses either kind indiscriminately, he can bring whatever is available.
Kiṃ bahunā vuttena?
71.Why so many words?
Yaṃ taṃ bhagavatā "antevāsikena, bhikkhave, ācariyamhi sammā vattitabbaṃ.
as by the Blessed One : “Bhikkhus, a pupil should perform the duties to the teacher rightly.
Tatrāyaṃ sammā vattanā, kālasseva uṭṭhāya upāhanā omuñcitvā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā dantakaṭṭhaṃ dātabbaṃ, mukhodakaṃ dātabbaṃ, āsanaṃ paññapetabbaṃ.
Herein, this is the right performance of duties. He should rise early; removing his sandals and arranging his robe on one shoulder, he should give the tooth-sticks and the mouth-washing water, and he should prepare the seat.
Sace yāgu hoti, bhājanaṃ dhovitvā yāgu upanāmetabbā"ti (mahāva. 78) ādikaṃ khandhake sammāvattaṃ paññattaṃ, taṃ sabbampi kātabbaṃ.
If there is rice gruel, he should wash the dish and bring the rice gruel” (Vin I 61). All should be done as prescribed in the Khandhakas as the right duties in the passage beginning (above).
Evaṃ vattasampattiyā garuṃ ārādhayamānena sāyaṃ vanditvā yāhīti vissajjitena gantabbaṃ, yadā so kissāgatosīti pucchati, tadā āgamanakāraṇaṃ kathetabbaṃ.
72.To please the teacher by perfection in the duties he should pay homage in the evening, and he should leave when dismissed with the words, “You may go.” When the teacher asks him, “Why have you come?” he can explain the reason for his coming.
Sace so neva pucchati, vattaṃ pana sādiyati, dasāhe vā pakkhe vā vītivatte ekadivasaṃ vissajjitenāpi agantvā okāsaṃ kāretvā āgamanakāraṇaṃ ārocetabbaṃ.
If he does not ask but agrees to the duties being done, then after ten days or a fortnight have gone by he should make an opportunity by staying back one day at the time of his dismissal, and announcing the reason for his coming;
Akāle vā gantvā kimatthamāgatosīti puṭṭhena ārocetabbaṃ.
or he should go at an unaccustomed time, and when asked, “What have you come for? ” he can announce it.
Sace so pātova āgacchāti vadati, pātova gantabbaṃ.
73.If the teacher says, “Come in the morning,” he should do so.
Sace panassa tāya velāya pittābādhena vā kucchi pariḍayhati, aggimandatāya vā bhattaṃ na jīrati, añño vā koci rogo bādhati, taṃ yathābhūtaṃ āvikatvā attano sappāyavelaṃ ārocetvā tāya velāya upasaṅkamitabbaṃ.
But if his stomach burns with a bile affliction at that hour, or if his food does not get digested owing to sluggish digestive heat, or if some other ailment afflicts him, he should let it be known, and proposing a time that suits himself, he should come at that time.
Asappāyavelāya hi vuccamānampi kammaṭṭhānaṃ na sakkā hoti manasikātunti.
For if a meditation subject is expounded at an inconvenient time, one cannot give attention.
Ayaṃ kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvāti ettha vitthāro.
This is the detailed explanation of the words “approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject.”
Cariyāvaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.6 Cariyāvaṇṇanā

43.Idāni attano cariyānukūlanti ettha cariyāti cha cariyā rāgacariyā, dosacariyā, mohacariyā, saddhācariyā, buddhicariyā, vitakkacariyāti.
74.Now, as to the words, one that suits his temperament (§28): there are six kinds of temperament, that is, greedy temperament, hating temperament, deluded temperament, faithful temperament, intelligent temperament, and speculative temperament.
Keci pana rāgādīnaṃ saṃsaggasannipātavasena aparāpi catasso, tathā saddhādīnanti imāhi aṭṭhahi saddhiṃ cuddasa icchanti.
Some would have fourteen, taking these six single ones together with the four made up of the three double combinations and one triple combination with the greed triad and likewise with the faith triad.
Evaṃ pana bhede vuccamāne rāgādīnaṃ saddhādīhipi saṃsaggaṃ katvā anekā cariyā honti, tasmā saṅkhepena chaḷeva cariyā veditabbā.
But if this classification is admitted, there are many more kinds of temperament possible by combining greed, etc., with faith, etc.; therefore the kinds of temperament should be understood briefly as only six.
Cariyā, pakati, ussannatāti atthato ekaṃ.
As to meaning the temperaments are one, that is to say, personal nature, idiosyncrasy.
Tāsaṃ vasena chaḷeva puggalā honti rāgacarito, dosacarito, mohacarito, saddhācarito, buddhicarito, vitakkacaritoti.
According to [102] these there are only six types of persons, that is, one of greedy temperament, one of hating temperament, one of deluded temperament, one of faithful temperament, one of intelligent temperament, and one of speculative temperament.
Tattha yasmā rāgacaritassa kusalappavattisamaye saddhā balavatī hoti, rāgassa āsannaguṇattā.
75.Herein, one of faithful temperament is parallel to one of greedy temperament because faith is strong when profitable [kamma] occurs in one of greedy temperament, owing to its special qualities being near to those of greed.
Yathā hi akusalapakkhe rāgo siniddho nātilūkho, evaṃ kusalapakkhe saddhā.
For, in an unprofitable way, greed is affectionate and not over-austere, and so, in a profitable way, is faith.
Yathā rāgo vatthukāme pariyesati, evaṃ saddhā sīlādiguṇe.
Greed seeks out sense desires as object, while faith seeks out the special qualities of virtue and so on.
Yathā rāgo ahitaṃ na pariccajati, evaṃ saddhā hitaṃ na pariccajati, tasmā rāgacaritassa saddhācarito sabhāgo.
And greed does not give up what is harmful, while faith does not give up what is beneficial.
Yasmā pana dosacaritassa kusalappavattisamaye paññā balavatī hoti, dosassa āsannaguṇattā.
76.One of intelligent temperament is parallel to one of hating temperament because understanding is strong when profitable [kamma] occurs in one of hating temperament, owing to its special qualities being near to those of hate.
Yathā hi akusalapakkhe doso nissineho na ārammaṇaṃ allīyati, evaṃ kusalapakkhe paññā.
For, in an unprofitable way, hate is disaffected and does not hold to its object, and so, in a profitable way, is understanding.
Yathā ca doso abhūtampi dosameva pariyesati, evaṃ paññā bhūtaṃ dosameva.
Hate seeks out only unreal faults, while understanding seeks out only real faults.
Yathā doso sattaparivajjanākārena pavattati, evaṃ paññā saṅkhāraparivajjanākārena, tasmā dosacaritassa buddhicarito sabhāgo.
And hate occurs in the mode of condemning living beings, while understanding occurs in the mode of condemning formations.
Yasmā pana mohacaritassa anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya vāyamamānassa yebhuyyena antarāyakarā vitakkā uppajjanti, mohassa āsannalakkhaṇattā.
77.One of speculative temperament is parallel to one of deluded temperament because obstructive applied thoughts arise often in one of deluded temperament who is striving to arouse unarisen profitable states, owing to their special qualities being near to those of delusion.
Yathā hi moho paribyākulatāya anavaṭṭhito, evaṃ vitakko nānappakāravitakkanatāya.
For just as delusion is restless owing to perplexity, so are applied thoughts that are due to thinking over various aspects.
Yathā ca moho apariyogāhaṇatāya cañcalo.
And just as delusion vacillates owing to superficiality,
Tathā vitakko lahuparikappanatāya, tasmā mohacaritassa vitakkacarito sabhāgoti.
so do applied thoughts that are due to facile conjecturing.
Apare taṇhāmānadiṭṭhivasena aparāpi tisso cariyā vadanti.
78.Others say that there are three more kinds of temperament with craving, pride, and views.
Tattha taṇhā rāgoyeva, māno ca taṃsampayuttoti tadubhayaṃ rāgacariyaṃ nātivattati.
Herein craving is simply greed; and pride18 is associated with that, so neither of them exceeds greed.
Mohanidānattā ca diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhicariyā mohacariyameva anupatati.
And since views have their source in delusion, the temperament of views falls within the deluded temperament.
44.Tā panetā cariyā kinnidānā?
79.What is the source of these temperaments?
Kathañca jānitabbaṃ "ayaṃ puggalo rāgacarito, ayaṃ puggalo dosādīsu aññataracarito"ti?
And how is it to be known that such a person is of greedy temperament, that such a person is of one of those beginning with hating temperament?
Kiṃ caritassa puggalassa kiṃ sappāyanti?
What suits one of what kind of temperament?
Tatra purimā tāva tisso cariyā pubbāciṇṇanidānā, dhātudosanidānā cāti ekacce vadanti.
80.Herein, as some say,19 the first three kinds of temperament to begin with have their source in previous habit; and they have their source in elements and humours.
Pubbe kira iṭṭhappayogasubhakammabahulo rāgacarito hoti, saggā vā cavitvā idhūpapanno.
Apparently one of greedy temperament has formerly had plenty of desirable tasks and gratifying work to do, or has reappeared here after dying in a heaven.
Pubbe chedanavadhabandhanaverakammabahulo dosacarito hoti, nirayanāgayonīhi vā cavitvā idhūpapanno.
And one of hating temperament has formerly had plenty of stabbing and torturing and brutal work to do or has reappeared here after dying in one of the hells or the nāga (serpent) existences.
Pubbe majjapānabahulo sutaparipucchāvihīno ca mohacarito hoti, tiracchānayoniyā vā cavitvā idhūpapannoti evaṃ pubbāciṇṇanidānāti vadanti.
And one [103] of deluded temperament has formerly drunk a lot of intoxicants and neglected learning and questioning, or has reappeared here after dying in the animal existence. It is in this way that they have their source in previous habit, they say.
Dvinnaṃ pana dhātūnaṃ ussannattā puggalo mohacarito hoti pathavīdhātuyā ca āpodhātuyā ca.
81. Then a person is of deluded temperament because two elements are prominent, that is to say, the earth element and the water element.
Itarāsaṃ dvinnaṃ ussannattā dosacarito.
He is of hating temperament because the other two elements are prominent.
Sabbāsaṃ samattā pana rāgacaritoti.
But he is of greedy temperament because all four are equal.
Dosesu ca semhādhiko rāgacarito hoti.
And as regards the humours, one of greedy temperament has phlegm in excess
Vātādhiko mohacarito.
and one of deluded temperament has wind in excess.
Semhādhiko vā mohacarito.
Or one of deluded temperament has phlegm in excess
Vātādhiko rāgacaritoti evaṃ dhātudosanidānāti vadanti.
and one of greedy temperament has wind in excess. So they have their source in the elements and the humours, they say.
Tattha yasmā pubbe iṭṭhappayogasubhakammabahulāpi saggā cavitvā idhūpapannāpi ca na sabbe rāgacaritāyeva honti, na itare vā dosamohacaritā.
82.[Now, it can rightly be objected that] not all of those who have had plenty of desirable tasks and gratifying work to do, and who have reappeared here after dying in a heaven, are of greedy temperament, or the others respectively of hating and deluded temperament;
Evaṃ dhātūnañca yathāvutteneva nayena ussadaniyamo nāma natthi.
and there is no such law of prominence of elements (see XIV.43f.) as that asserted;
Dosaniyame ca rāgamohadvayameva vuttaṃ, tampi ca pubbāparaviruddhameva.
and only the pair, greed and delusion, are given in the law of humours, and even that subsequently contradicts itself;
Saddhācariyādīsu ca ekissāpi nidānaṃ na vuttameva.
and no source for even one among those beginning with one of faithful temperament is given.
Tasmā sabbametaṃ aparicchinnavacanaṃ.
Consequently this definition is indecisive.
Ayaṃ panettha aṭṭhakathācariyānaṃ matānusārena vinicchayo, vuttañhetaṃ ussadakittane (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 498) "ime sattā pubbahetuniyāmena lobhussadā dosussadā mohussadā alobhussadā adosussadā amohussadā ca honti.
83.The following is the exposition according to the opinion of the teachers of the commentaries; or this is said in the “explanation of prominence”: “The fact that these beings have prominence of greed, prominence of hate, prominence of delusion, is governed by previous root-cause.“
Yassa hi kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobho balavā hoti alobho mando, adosāmohā balavanto dosamohā mandā, tassa mando alobho lobhaṃ pariyādātuṃ na sakkoti.
For when in one man, at the moment of his accumulating [rebirth-producing] kamma, greed is strong and non-greed is weak, non-hate and non-delusion are strong and hate and delusion are weak, then his weak non-greed is unable to prevail over his greed,
Adosāmohā pana balavanto dosamohe pariyādātuṃ sakkoti.
but his non-hate and non-delusion being strong are able to prevail over his hate and delusion.
Tasmā so tena kammena dinnapaṭisandhivasena nibbatto luddho hoti sukhasīlo akkodhano paññavā vajirūpamañāṇo.
That is why, on being reborn through rebirth-linking given by that kamma, he has greed, is good-natured and unangry, and possesses understanding with knowledge like a lightning flash.
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobhadosā balavanto honti alobhādosā mandā, amoho balavā moho mando, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti duṭṭho ca.
84.“When, at the moment of another’s accumulating kamma, greed and hate are strong and non-greed and non-hate weak, and non-delusion is strong and delusion weak, then in the way already stated he has both greed and hate
Paññavā pana hoti vajirūpamañāṇo dattābhayatthero viya.
but possesses understanding with knowledge like a lightning flash, like the Elder Datta-Abhaya.
Yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobhādosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti dandho ca, sīlako pana hoti akkodhano (bākulatthero viya).
“When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, greed, non-hate and delusion are strong and the others are weak, then in the way already stated he both has greed and is dull but is good-tempered20 and unangry, like the Elder Bahula.“
Tathā yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe tayopi lobhadosamohā balavanto honti alobhādayo mandā, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti duṭṭho ca mūḷho ca.
Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, the three, namely, greed, hate and delusion are strong and non-greed, etc., are weak, then in the way already stated he has both greed and hate and is deluded.
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhadosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho appakileso hoti dibbārammaṇampi disvā niccalo, duṭṭho pana hoti dandhapañño ca.
85. “When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, hate and delusion are strong and the others are weak, then in the way already stated he has little defilement and is unshakable even on seeing a heavenly object, but he has hate and is slow in understanding.“
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhādosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho ceva hoti aduṭṭho sīlako ca, dandho pana hoti.
When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, non-hate and non-delusion are strong and the rest weak, then in the way already stated he has no greed and no hate, and is good-tempered but slow in understanding.“
Tathā yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhadosāmohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho ceva hoti paññavā ca, duṭṭho ca pana hoti kodhano.
Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, hate and non-delusion are strong and the rest weak, then in the way already stated he both has no greed and possesses understanding but has hate and is irascible.“
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe tayopi alobhādosāmohā balavanto honti lobhādayo mandā, so purimanayeneva mahāsaṅgharakkhitatthero viya aluddho aduṭṭho paññavā ca hotī"ti.
Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, the three, that is, non-hate, non-greed, and non-delusion, are strong and greed, etc., are weak, then in the way already stated he has no greed and no hate and possesses understanding, like the Elder Mahā-Saṅgharakkhita. ”
Ettha ca yo luddhoti vutto, ayaṃ rāgacarito.
86.One who, as it is said here, “has greed” is one of greedy temperament;
Duṭṭhadandhā dosamohacaritā.
one who “has hate” and one who “is dull” are respectively of hating temperament and deluded temperament.
Paññavā buddhicarito.
One who “possesses understanding” is one of intelligent temperament.
Aluddhaaduṭṭhā pasannapakatitāya saddhācaritā.
One who “has no greed” and one who “has no hate” are of faithful temperament because they are naturally trustful.
Yathā vā amohaparivārena kammunā nibbatto buddhicarito, evaṃ balavasaddhāparivārena kammunā nibbatto saddhācarito.
Or just as one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by non-delusion is of intelligent temperament, so one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by strong faith is of faithful temperament,
Kāmavitakkādiparivārena kammunā nibbatto vitakkacarito.
one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by thoughts of sense desire is of speculative temperament,
Lobhādinā vomissaparivārena kammunā nibbatto vomissacaritoti.
and one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by mixed greed, etc., is of mixed temperament.
Evaṃ lobhādīsu aññataraññataraparivāraṃ paṭisandhijanakaṃ kammaṃ cariyānaṃ nidānanti veditabbaṃ.
So it is the kamma productive of rebirth-linking and accompanied by someone among the things beginning with greed that should be understood as the source of the temperaments.
45.Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ kathañca jānitabbaṃ ayaṃ puggalo rāgacaritotiādi.
87. But it was asked, and how is it to be known that “This person is of greedy temperament? ” (§79), and so on.
Tatrāyaṃ nayo.
This is explained as follows:
Iriyāpathato kiccā, bhojanā dassanādito;
By the posture, by the action, By eating, seeing, and so on,
Dhammappavattito ceva, cariyāyo vibhāvayeti.
By the kind of states occurring, May temperament be recognized.
Tattha iriyāpathatoti rāgacarito hi pakatigamanena gacchanto cāturiyena gacchati, saṇikaṃ pādaṃ nikkhipati, samaṃ nikkhipati, samaṃ uddharati, ukkuṭikañcassa padaṃ hoti.
88. Herein, by the posture: when one of greedy temperament is walking in his usual manner, he walks carefully, puts his foot down slowly, puts it down evenly, lifts it up evenly, and his step is springy. 21
Dosacarito pādaggehi khaṇanto viya gacchati, sahasā pādaṃ nikkhipati, sahasā uddharati, anukaḍḍhitañcassa padaṃ hoti.
One of hating temperament walks as though he were digging with the points of his feet, puts his foot down quickly, lifts it up quickly, and his step is dragged along.
Mohacarito paribyākulāya gatiyā gacchati, chambhito viya padaṃ nikkhipati, chambhito viya uddharati, sahasānupīḷitañcassa padaṃ hoti.
One of deluded temperament walks with a perplexed gait, puts his foot down hesitantly, lifts it up hesitantly, [105] and his step is pressed down suddenly.
Vuttampi cetaṃ māgaṇḍiyasuttuppattiyaṃ –
And this is said in the account of the origin of the Māgandiya Sutta:
"Rattassa hi ukkuṭikaṃ padaṃ bhave,
The step of one of greedy nature will be springy;
Duṭṭhassa hoti anukaḍḍhitaṃ padaṃ;
The step of one of hating nature, dragged along;
Mūḷhassa hoti sahasānupīḷitaṃ,
Deluded, he will suddenly press down his step;
Vivaṭṭacchadassa idamīdisaṃ pada"nti.
And one without defilement has a step like this. 22
Ṭhānampi rāgacaritassa pāsādikaṃ hoti madhurākāraṃ, dosacaritassa thaddhākāraṃ, mohacaritassa ākulākāraṃ.
89.The stance of one of greedy temperament is confident and graceful. That of one of hating temperament is rigid. That of one of deluded temperament is muddled,
Nisajjāyapi eseva nayo.
likewise in sitting.
Rāgacarito ca ataramāno samaṃ seyyaṃ paññapetvā saṇikaṃ nipajjitvā aṅgapaccaṅgāni samodhāya pāsādikena ākārena sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca sīghaṃ avuṭṭhāya saṅkito viya saṇikaṃ paṭivacanaṃ deti.
And one of greedy temperament spreads his bed unhurriedly, lies down slowly, composing his limbs, and he sleeps in a confident manner. When woken, instead of getting up quickly, he gives his answer slowly as though doubtful.
Dosacarito taramāno yathā vā tathā vā seyyaṃ paññapetvā pakkhittakāyo bhākuṭiṃ katvā sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca sīghaṃ vuṭṭhāya kupito viya paṭivacanaṃ deti.
One of hating temperament spreads his bed hastily anyhow; with his body flung down he sleeps with a scowl. When woken, he gets up quickly and answers as though annoyed.
Mohacarito dussaṇṭhānaṃ seyyaṃ paññapetvā vikkhittakāyo bahulaṃ adhomukho sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca huṅkāraṃ karonto dandhaṃ vuṭṭhāti.
One of deluded temperament spreads his bed all awry and sleeps mostly face downwards with his body sprawling. When woken, he gets up slowly, saying, “Hum. ”
Saddhācaritādayo pana yasmā rāgacaritādīnaṃ sabhāgā, tasmā tesampi tādisova iriyāpatho hotīti.
90. Since those of faithful temperament, etc., are parallel to those of greedy temperament, etc., their postures are therefore like those described above.
Evaṃ tāva iriyāpathato cariyāyo vibhāvaye.
This firstly is how the temperaments may be recognized by the posture.
Kiccāti sammajjanādīsu ca kiccesu rāgacarito sādhukaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā ataramāno vālikaṃ avippakiranto sinduvārakusumasantharamiva santharanto suddhaṃ samaṃ sammajjati.
91.By the action: also in the acts of sweeping, etc., one of greedy temperament grasps the broom well, and he sweeps cleanly and evenly without hurrying or scattering the sand, as if he were strewing sinduvāra flowers.
Dosacarito gāḷhaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā taramānarūpo ubhato vālikaṃ ussārento kharena saddena asuddhaṃ visamaṃ sammajjati.
One of hating temperament grasps the broom tightly, and he sweeps uncleanly and unevenly with a harsh noise, hurriedly throwing up the sand on each side.
Mohacarito sithilaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā samparivattakaṃ āḷolayamāno asuddhaṃ visamaṃ sammajjati.
One of deluded temperament grasps the broom loosely, and he sweeps neither cleanly nor evenly, mixing the sand up and turning it over.
Yathā sammajjane, evaṃ cīvaradhovanarajanādīsupi sabbakiccesu nipuṇamadhurasamasakkaccakārī rāgacarito.
92.As with sweeping, so too with any action such as washing and dyeing robes, and so on. One of greedy temperament acts skilfully, gently, evenly and carefully.
Gāḷhathaddhavisamakārī dosacarito.
One of hating temperament acts tensely, stiffly and unevenly.
Anipuṇabyākulavisamāparicchinnakārī mohacarito.
One of deluded temperament acts unskilfully as if muddled, unevenly and indecisively.
Cīvaradhāraṇampi ca rāgacaritassa nātigāḷhaṃ nātisithilaṃ hoti pāsādikaṃ parimaṇḍalaṃ.
Also one of greedy temperament wears his robe neither too tightly nor too loosely, confidently and level all round.
Dosacaritassa atigāḷhaṃ aparimaṇḍalaṃ.
One of hating temperament wears it too tight and not level all round.
Mohacaritassa sithilaṃ paribyākulaṃ.
One of deluded temperament wears it loosely and in a muddled way.
Saddhācaritādayo tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃ sabhāgattāti.
Those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described, since they are parallel.
Evaṃ kiccato cariyāyo vibhāvaye.
This is how the temperaments may be recognized by the actions.
Bhojanāti rāgacarito siniddhamadhurabhojanappiyo hoti, bhuñjamāno ca nātimahantaṃ parimaṇḍalaṃ ālopaṃ katvā rasapaṭisaṃvedī ataramāno bhuñjati, kiñcideva ca sāduṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ āpajjati.
93.By eating: One of greedy temperament likes eating rich sweet food. When eating, he makes a round lump not too big and eats unhurriedly, savouring the various tastes. He enjoys getting something good.
Dosacarito lūkhaambilabhojanappiyo hoti, bhuñjamāno ca mukhapūrakaṃ ālopaṃ katvā arasapaṭisaṃvedī taramāno bhuñjati, kiñcideva ca asāduṃ labhitvā domanassaṃ āpajjati.
One of hating temperament likes eating rough sour food. When eating he makes a lump that fills his mouth, and he eats hurriedly without savouring the taste. He is aggrieved when he gets something not good.
Mohacarito aniyataruciko hoti, bhuñjamāno ca aparimaṇḍalaṃ parittaṃ ālopaṃ katvā bhājane chaḍḍento mukhaṃ makkhento vikkhittacitto taṃ taṃ vitakkento bhuñjati.
One of deluded temperament has no settled choice. When eating, he makes a small un-rounded lump, and as he eats he drops bits into his dish, smearing his face, with his mind astray, thinking of this and that.
Saddhācaritādayopi tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃsabhāgattāti.
Also those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described since they are parallel.
Evaṃ bhojanato cariyāyo vibhāvaye.
This is how the temperament may be recognized by eating.
Dassanāditoti rāgacarito īsakampi manoramaṃ rūpaṃ disvā vimhayajāto viya ciraṃ oloketi, parittepi guṇe sajjati, bhūtampi dosaṃ na gaṇhāti, pakkamantopi amuñcitukāmova hutvā sāpekkho pakkamati.
94.And by seeing and so on: when one of greedy temperament sees even a slightly pleasing visible object, he looks long as if surprised, he seizes on trivial virtues, discounts genuine faults, and when departing, he does so with regret as if unwilling to leave.
Dosacarito īsakampi amanoramaṃ rūpaṃ disvā kilantarūpo viya na ciraṃ oloketi, parittepi dose paṭihaññati, bhūtampi guṇaṃ na gaṇhāti, pakkamantopi muñcitukāmova hutvā anapekkho pakkamati.
When one of hating temperament sees even a slightly unpleasing visible object, he avoids looking long as if he were tired, he picks out trivial faults, discounts genuine virtues, and when departing, he does so without regret as if anxious to leave.
Mohacarito yaṃkiñci rūpaṃ disvā parapaccayiko hoti, paraṃ nindantaṃ sutvā nindati, pasaṃsantaṃ sutvā pasaṃsati, sayaṃ pana aññāṇupekkhāya upekkhakova hoti.
When one of deluded temperament sees any sort of visible object, he copies what others do: if he hears others criticizing, he criticizes; if he hears others praising, he praises; but actually he feels equanimity in himself—the equanimity of unknowing.
Esa nayo saddasavanādīsupi.
So too with sounds, and so on.
Saddhācaritādayo pana tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃsabhāgattāti.
And those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described since they are parallel.
Evaṃ dassanādito cariyāyo vibhāvaye.
This is how the temperaments may be recognized by seeing and so on.
Dhammappavattito cevāti rāgacaritassa ca māyā, sāṭheyyaṃ, māno, pāpicchatā, mahicchatā, asantuṭṭhitā, siṅgaṃ, cāpalyanti evamādayo dhammā bahulaṃ pavattanti.
95.By the kind of states occurring: in one of greedy temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as deceit, fraud, pride, evilness of wishes, greatness of wishes, discontent, foppery and personal vanity.23
Dosacaritassa kodho, upanāho, makkho, paḷāso, issā, macchariyanti evamādayo.
In one of hating temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as anger, enmity, disparaging, domineering, envy and avarice.
Mohacaritassa thinaṃ, middhaṃ, uddhaccaṃ, kukkuccaṃ, vicikicchā, ādhānaggāhitā, duppaṭinissaggitāti evamādayo.
In one of deluded temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as stiffness, torpor, agitation, worry, uncertainty, and holding on tenaciously with refusal to relinquish.
Saddhācaritassa muttacāgatā, ariyānaṃ dassanakāmatā, saddhammaṃ sotukāmatā, pāmojjabahulatā, asaṭhatā, amāyāvitā, pasādanīyesu ṭhānesu pasādoti evamādayo.
In one of faithful temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as free generosity, desire to see Noble Ones, desire to hear the Good Dhamma, great gladness, ingenuousness, honesty, and trust in things that inspire trust.
Buddhicaritassa sovacassatā, kalyāṇamittatā, bhojanemattaññutā, satisampajaññaṃ, jāgariyānuyogo, saṃvejanīyesu ṭhānesu saṃvego, saṃviggassa ca yoniso padhānanti evamādayo.
In one of intelligent temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as readiness to be spoken to, possession of good friends, knowledge of the right amount in eating, mindfulness and full awareness, devotion to wakefulness, a sense of urgency about things that should inspire a sense of urgency, and wisely directed endeavour.
Vitakkacaritassa bhassabahulatā, gaṇārāmatā, kusalānuyoge arati, anavaṭṭhitakiccatā, rattiṃ dhūmāyanā, divā pajjalanā, hurāhuraṃ dhāvanāti evamādayo dhammā bahulaṃ pavattantīti.
In one of speculative temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as talkativeness, sociability, boredom with devotion to the profitable, failure to finish undertakings, smoking by night and flaming by day (see M I 144—that is to say, hatching plans at night and putting them into effect by day), and mental running hither and thither (see Ud 37).
Evaṃ dhammappavattito cariyāyo vibhāvaye.
This is how the temperaments may be recognized by the kind of states occurring.
Yasmā pana idaṃ cariyāvibhāvanavidhānaṃ sabbākārena neva pāḷiyaṃ na aṭṭhakathāyaṃ āgataṃ, kevalaṃ ācariyamatānusārena vuttaṃ, tasmā na sārato paccetabbaṃ.
96.However, these directions for recognizing the temperaments have not been handed down in their entirety in either the texts or the commentaries; they are only expressed according to the opinion of the teachers and cannot therefore be treated as authentic.
Rāgacaritassa hi vuttāni iriyāpathādīni dosacaritādayopi appamādavihārino kātuṃ sakkonti.
For even those of hating temperament can exhibit postures, etc., ascribed to the greedy temperament when they try diligently.
Saṃsaṭṭhacaritassa ca puggalassa ekasseva bhinnalakkhaṇā iriyāpathādayo na upapajjanti.
And postures, etc., never arise with distinct characteristics in a person of mixed temperament.
Yaṃ panetaṃ aṭṭhakathāsu cariyāvibhāvanavidhānaṃ vuttaṃ, tadeva sārato paccetabbaṃ.
Only such directions for recognizing temperament as are given in the commentaries should be treated as authentic;
Vuttañhetaṃ "cetopariyañāṇassa lābhī ācariyo cariyaṃ ñatvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathessati, itarena antevāsiko pucchitabbo"ti.
for this is said: “A teacher who has acquired penetration of minds will know the temperament and will explain a meditation subject accordingly; one who has not should question the pupil.”
Tasmā cetopariyañāṇena vā taṃ vā puggalaṃ pucchitvā jānitabbaṃ.
So it is by penetration of minds or by questioning the person, that it can be known
Ayaṃ puggalo rāgacarito, ayaṃ dosādīsu aññataracaritoti.
whether he is one of greedy temperament or one of those beginning with hating temperament.
46.Kiṃ caritassa puggalassa kiṃ sappāyanti ettha pana senāsanaṃ tāva rāgacaritassa adhotavedikaṃ bhūmaṭṭhakaṃ akatapabbhārakaṃ tiṇakuṭikaṃ paṇṇasālādīnaṃ aññataraṃ rajokiṇṇaṃ jatukābharitaṃ oluggaviluggaṃ atiuccaṃ vā atinīcaṃ vā ujjaṅgalaṃ sāsaṅkaṃ asucivisamamaggaṃ, yattha mañcapīṭhampi maṅkuṇabharitaṃ durūpaṃ dubbaṇṇaṃ, yaṃ olokentasseva jigucchā uppajjati, tādisaṃ sappāyaṃ.
97.What suits one of what kind of temperament?(§79). A suitable lodging for one of greedy temperament has an unwashed sill and stands level with the ground, and it can be either an overhanging [rock with an] unprepared [drip-ledge] (see Ch. II, note 15), a grass hut, or a leaf house, etc. It ought to be spattered with dirt, full of bats,24 dilapidated, too high or too low, in bleak surroundings, threatened [by lions, tigers, etc.,] with a muddy, uneven path, [108] where even the bed and chair are full of bugs. And it should be ugly and unsightly, exciting loathing as soon as looked at.
Nivāsanapārupanaṃ antacchinnaṃ olambavilambasuttakākiṇṇaṃ jālapūvasadisaṃ sāṇi viya kharasamphassaṃ kiliṭṭhaṃ bhārikaṃ kicchapariharaṇaṃ sappāyaṃ.
Suitable inner and outer garments are those that have torn-off edges with threads hanging down all round like a “net cake,”25 harsh to the touch like hemp, soiled, heavy and hard to wear.
Pattopi dubbaṇṇo mattikāpatto vā āṇigaṇṭhikāhato ayopatto vā garuko dussaṇṭhāno sīsakapālamiva jeguccho vaṭṭati.
And the right kind of bowl for him is an ugly clay bowl disfigured by stoppings and joints, or a heavy and misshapen iron bowl as unappetizing as a skull.
Bhikkhācāramaggopi amanāpo anāsannagāmo visamo vaṭṭati.
The right kind of road for him on which to wander for alms is disagreeable, with no village near, and uneven.
Bhikkhācāragāmopi yattha manussā apassantā viya caranti, yattha ekakulepi bhikkhaṃ alabhitvā nikkhamantaṃ "ehi, bhante"ti āsanasālaṃ pavesetvā yāgubhattaṃ datvā gacchantā gāvī viya vaje pavesetvā anapalokentā gacchanti, tādiso vaṭṭati.
The right kind of village for him in which to wander for alms is where people wander about as if oblivious of him, where, as he is about to leave without getting alms even from a single family, people call him into the sitting hall, saying, “Come, venerable sir,” and give him gruel and rice, but do so as casually as if they were putting a cow in a pen.
Parivisakamanussāpi dāsā vā kammakarā vā dubbaṇṇā duddasikā kiliṭṭhavasanā duggandhā jegucchā, ye acittīkārena yāgubhattaṃ chaḍḍentā viya parivisanti, tādisā sappāyā.
Suitable people to serve him are slaves or workmen who are unsightly, ill-favoured, with dirty clothes, ill-smelling and disgusting, who serve him his gruel and rice as if they were throwing it rudely at him.
Yāgubhattakhajjakampi lūkhaṃ dubbaṇṇaṃ sāmākakudrūsakakaṇājakādimayaṃ pūtitakkaṃ bilaṅgaṃ jiṇṇasākasūpeyyaṃ yaṃkiñcideva kevalaṃ udarapūramattaṃ vaṭṭati.
The right kind of gruel and rice and hard food is poor, unsightly, made up of millet, kudusaka, broken rice, etc., stale buttermilk, sour gruel, curry of old vegetables, or anything at all that is merely for filling the stomach.
Iriyāpathopissa ṭhānaṃ vā caṅkamo vā vaṭṭati.
The right kind of posture for him is either standing or walking.
Ārammaṇaṃ nīlādīsu vaṇṇakasiṇesu yaṃkiñci aparisuddhavaṇṇanti idaṃ rāgacaritassa sappāyaṃ.
The object of his contemplation should be any of the colour kasiṇas, beginning with the blue, whose colour is not pure. This is what suits one of greedy temperament.
Dosacaritassa senāsanaṃ nātiuccaṃ nātinīcaṃ chāyūdakasampannaṃ suvibhattabhittithambhasopānaṃ supariniṭṭhitamālākammalatākammanānāvidhacittakammasamujjalasamasiniddhamudubhūmitalaṃ brahmavimānamiva kusumadāmavicitravaṇṇacelavitānasamalaṅkataṃ supaññattasucimanoramattharaṇamañcapīṭhaṃ tattha tattha vāsatthāya nikkhittakusumavāsagandhasugandhaṃ yaṃ dassanamatteneva pītipāmojjaṃ janayati, evarūpaṃ sappāyaṃ.
98.A suitable resting place for one of hating temperament is not too high or too low, provided with shade and water, with well-proportioned walls, posts and steps, with well-prepared frieze work and lattice work, brightened with various kinds of painting, with an even, smooth, soft floor, adorned with festoons of flowers and a canopy of many-coloured cloth like a Brahmā-god’s divine palace, with bed and chair covered with well-spread clean pretty covers, smelling sweetly of flowers, and perfumes and scents set about for homely comfort, which makes one happy and glad at the mere sight of it. 99.
Tassa pana senāsanassa maggopi sabbaparissayavimutto sucisamatalo alaṅkatapaṭiyattova vaṭṭati.
The right kind of road to his lodging is free from any sort of danger, traverses clean, even ground, and has been properly prepared.
Senāsanaparikkhāropettha kīṭamaṅkuṇadīghajātimūsikānaṃ nissayaparicchindanatthaṃ nātibahuko, ekamañcapīṭhamattameva vaṭṭati.
And here it is best that the lodging’s furnishings are not too many in order to avoid hiding-places for insects, bugs, snakes and rats: even a single bed and chair only.
Nivāsanapārupanampissa cīnapaṭṭasomārapaṭṭakoseyyakappāsikasukhumakhomādīnaṃ yaṃ yaṃ paṇītaṃ, tena tena ekapaṭṭaṃ vā dupaṭṭaṃ vā sallahukaṃ samaṇasāruppena surattaṃ suddhavaṇṇaṃ vaṭṭati.
The right kind of inner and outer garments for him are of any superior stuff such as China cloth, Somāra cloth, silk, fine cotton, fine linen, of either single or double thickness, quite light, and well dyed, quite pure in colour to befit an ascetic.
Patto udakapupphuḷamiva susaṇṭhāno maṇi viya sumaṭṭho nimmalo samaṇasāruppena suparisuddhavaṇṇo ayomayo vaṭṭati.
The right kind of bowl is made of iron, as well shaped as a water bubble, as polished as a gem, spotless, and of quite pure colour to befit an ascetic.
Bhikkhācāramaggo parissayavimutto samo manāpo nātidūranāccāsannagāmo vaṭṭati.
The right kind of road on which to wander for alms is free from dangers, level, agreeable, with the village neither too far nor too near.
Bhikkhācāragāmopi yattha manussā "idāni ayyo āgamissatī"ti sittasammaṭṭhe padese āsanaṃ paññāpetvā paccuggantvā pattaṃ ādāya gharaṃ pavesetvā paññattāsane nisīdāpetvā sakkaccaṃ sahatthā parivisanti, tādiso vaṭṭati.
The right kind of village in which to wander for alms is where people, thinking, “Now our lord is coming,” prepare a seat in a sprinkled, swept place, and going out to meet him, take his bowl, lead him to the house, seat him on a prepared seat and serve him carefully with their own hands.
Parivesakā panassa ye honti abhirūpā pāsādikā sunhātā suvilittā dhūpavāsakusumagandhasurabhino nānāvirāgasucimanuññavatthābharaṇapaṭimaṇḍitā sakkaccakārino, tādisā sappāyā.
100. Suitable people to serve him are handsome, pleasing, well bathed, well anointed, scented26 with the perfume of incense and the smell of flowers, adorned with apparel made of variously-dyed clean pretty cloth, who do their work carefully.
Yāgubhattakhajjakampi vaṇṇagandharasasampannaṃ ojavantaṃ manoramaṃ sabbākārapaṇītaṃ yāvadatthaṃ vaṭṭati.
The right kind of gruel, rice, and hard food has colour, smell and taste, possesses nutritive essence, and is inviting, superior in every way, and enough for his wants.
Iriyāpathopissa seyyā vā nisajjā vā vaṭṭati, ārammaṇaṃ nīlādīsu vaṇṇakasiṇesu yaṃkiñci suparisuddhavaṇṇanti idaṃ dosacaritassa sappāyaṃ.
The right kind of posture for him is lying down or sitting. The object of his contemplation should be anyone of the colour kasiṇas, beginning with the blue, whose colour is quite pure. This is what suits one of hating temperament.
Mohacaritassa senāsanaṃ disāmukhaṃ asambādhaṃ vaṭṭati, yattha nisinnassa vivaṭā disā khāyanti, iriyāpathesu caṅkamo vaṭṭati.
101.The right lodging for one of deluded temperament has a view and is not shut in, where the four quarters are visible to him as he sits there. As to the postures, walking is right.
Ārammaṇaṃ panassa parittaṃ suppamattaṃ sarāvamattaṃ vā (khuddakaṃ) na vaṭṭati.
The right kind of object for his contemplation is not small, that is to say, the size of a winnowing basket or the size of a saucer;
Sambādhasmiñhi okāse cittaṃ bhiyyo sammohamāpajjati, tasmā vipulaṃ mahākasiṇaṃ vaṭṭati.
for his mind becomes more confused in a confined space; so the right kind is an amply large kasiṇa.
Sesaṃ dosacaritassa vuttasadisamevāti idaṃ mohacaritassa sappāyaṃ.
The rest is as stated for one of hating temperament. This is what suits one of deluded temperament.
Saddhācaritassa sabbampi dosacaritamhi vuttavidhānaṃ sappāyaṃ.
102. For one of faithful temperament all the directions given for one of hating temperament are suitable.
Ārammaṇesu cassa anussatiṭṭhānampi vaṭṭati.
As to the object of his contemplation, one of the recollections is right as well.
Buddhicaritassa senāsanādīsu idaṃ nāma asappāyanti natthi.
For one of intelligent temperament there is nothing unsuitable as far as concerns the lodging and so on.
Vitakkacaritassa senāsanaṃ vivaṭaṃ disāmukhaṃ yattha nisinnassa ārāmavanapokkharaṇīrāmaṇeyyakāni gāmanigamajanapadapaṭipāṭiyo nīlobhāsā ca pabbatā paññāyanti, taṃ na vaṭṭati, tañhi vitakkavidhāvanasseva paccayo hoti, tasmā gambhīre darīmukhe vanappaṭicchanne hatthikucchipabbhāramahindaguhāsadise senāsane vasitabbaṃ.
For one of speculative temperament an open lodging with a view, [110] where gardens, groves and ponds, pleasant prospects, panoramas of villages, towns and countryside, and the blue gleam of mountains, are visible to him as he sits there, is not right; for that is a condition for the running hither and thither of applied thought. So he should live in a lodging such as a deep cavern screened by woods like the Overhanging Rock of the Elephant’s Belly (Hatthikucchipabbhāra), or Mahinda’s Cave.
Ārammaṇampissa vipulaṃ na vaṭṭati.
Also an ample-sized object of contemplation is not suitable for him;
Tādisañhi vitakkavasena sandhāvanassa paccayo hoti.
for one like that is a condition for the running hither and thither of applied thought.
Parittaṃ pana vaṭṭati.
A small one is right.
Sesaṃ rāgacaritassa vuttasadisamevāti idaṃ vitakkacaritassa sappāyaṃ.
The rest is as stated for one of greedy temperament. This is what suits one of speculative temperament.
Ayaṃ attano cariyānukūlanti ettha āgatacariyānaṃ pabhedanidānavibhāvanasappāyaparicchedato vitthāro.
These are the details, with definition of the kind, source, recognition, and what is suitable, as regards the various temperaments handed down here with the words “that suits his own temperament” (§60).
Na ca tāva cariyānukūlaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ sabbākārena āvikataṃ.
103. However, the meditation subject that is suitable to the temperament has not been cleared up in all its aspects yet.
Tañhi anantarassa mātikāpadassa vitthāre sayameva āvibhavissati.
This will become clear automatically when those in the following list are treated in detail. .
Cattālīsakammaṭṭhānavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

3.7 Cattālīsakammaṭṭhānavaṇṇanā

47.Tasmā yaṃ vuttaṃ cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu aññataraṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti ettha saṅkhātaniddesato, upacārappanāvahato, jhānappabhedato, samatikkamato, vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanato, ārammaṇato, bhūmito, gahaṇato, paccayato, cariyānukūlatoti imehi tāva dasahākārehi kammaṭṭhānavinicchayo veditabbo.
Now, it was said above, “and he should apprehend from among the forty meditation subjects one that suits his own temperament” (§60). Here the exposition of the meditation subject should be first understood in these ten ways: (1) as to enumeration, (2) as to which bring only access and which absorption, (3) at to the kinds of jhāna, (4) as to surmounting, (5) as to extension and non-extension, (6) as to object, (7) as to plane, (8) as to apprehending, (9) as to condition, (10) as to suitability to temperament.
Tattha saṅkhātaniddesatoti cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesūti hi vuttaṃ, tatrimāni cattālīsa kammaṭṭhānāni dasa kasiṇā, dasa asubhā, dasa anussatiyo, cattāro brahmavihārā, cattāro āruppā, ekā saññā, ekaṃ vavatthānanti.
104. 1. Herein, as to enumeration: it was said above, “from among the forty meditation subjects” (§28). Herein, the forty meditation subjects are these: ten kasiṇas (totalities), ten kinds of foulness, ten recollections, four divine abidings, four immaterial states, one perception, one defining.
Tattha pathavīkasiṇaṃ, āpokasiṇaṃ, tejokasiṇaṃ, vāyokasiṇaṃ, nīlakasiṇaṃ, pītakasiṇaṃ, lohitakasiṇaṃ, odātakasiṇaṃ, ālokakasiṇaṃ, paricchinnākāsakasiṇanti ime dasa kasiṇā.
105. Herein, the ten kasiṇas are these: earth kasiṇa, water kasiṇa, fire kasiṇa, air kasiṇa, blue kasiṇa, yellow kasiṇa, red kasiṇa, white kasiṇa, light kasiṇa, and limited-space kasiṇa. 27
Uddhumātakaṃ, vinīlakaṃ, vipubbakaṃ, vicchiddakaṃ, vikkhāyitakaṃ, vikkhittakaṃ, hatavikkhittakaṃ, lohitakaṃ, puḷuvakaṃ, aṭṭhikanti ime dasa asubhā.
The ten kinds of foulness are these: the bloated, the livid, the festering, the cut- up, the gnawed, the scattered, the hacked and scattered, the bleeding, the worm- infested, and a skeleton. 28
Buddhānussati, dhammānussati, saṅghānussati, sīlānussati, cāgānussati, devatānussati, maraṇānussati, kāyagatāsati, ānāpānassati, upasamānussatīti imā dasa anussatiyo.
The ten kinds of recollection are these: recollection of the Buddha (the Enlightened One), recollection of the Dhamma (the Law), recollection of the Sangha (the Community), recollection of virtue, recollection of generosity, recollection of deities, recollection (or mindfulness) of death, mindfulness occupied with the body, mindfulness of breathing, and recollection of peace.
Mettā, karuṇā, muditā, upekkhāti ime cattāro brahmavihārā.
The four divine abidings are these: friendly-kindness, compassion, gladness, and equanimity.
Ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ, ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti ime cattāro āruppā.
The four immaterial states are these: the base consisting of boundless space, the base consisting of boundless consciousness, the base consisting of nothingness, and the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception.
Āhāre paṭikūlasaññā ekā saññā.
The one perception is the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment.
Catudhātuvavatthānaṃ ekaṃ vavatthānanti evaṃ saṅkhātaniddesato vinicchayo veditabbo.
The one defining is the defining of the four elements. This is how the exposition should be understood “as to enumeration. ”
Upacārappanāvahatoti ṭhapetvā kāyagatāsatiñca ānāpānassatiñca avasesā aṭṭha anussatiyo, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, catudhātuvavatthānanti imāneva hettha dasakammaṭṭhānāni upacāravahāni.
106. 2 As to which bring access only and which absorption: the eight recollections— excepting mindfulness occupied with the body and mindfulness of breathing— the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, and the defining of the four elements, are ten meditation subjects that bring access only.
Sesāni appanāvahāni.
The others bring absorption.
Evaṃ upacārappanāvahato.
This is “as to which bring access only and which absorption. ”
Jhānappabhedatoti appanāvahesu cettha ānāpānassatiyā saddhiṃ dasa kasiṇā catukkajjhānikā honti.
107. 3. As to the kind of jhāna: among those that bring absorption, the ten kasiṇas together with mindfulness of breathing bring all four jhānas.
Kāyagatāsatiyā saddhiṃ dasa asubhā paṭhamajjhānikā.
The ten kinds of foulness together with mindfulness occupied with the body bring the first jhāna.
Purimā tayo brahmavihārā tikajjhānikā.
The first three divine abidings bring three jhānas.
Catutthabrahmavihāro cattāro ca āruppā catutthajjhānikāti evaṃ jhānappabhedato.
The fourth divine abiding and the four immaterial states bring the fourth jhāna. This is “as to the kind of jhāna. ”
Samatikkamatoti dve samatikkamā aṅgasamatikkamo ca ārammaṇasamatikkamo ca.
108. 4. As to surmounting: there are two kinds of surmounting, that is to say, surmounting of factors and surmounting of object.
Tattha sabbesupi tikacatukkajjhānikesu kammaṭṭhānesu aṅgasamatikkamo hoti vitakkavicārādīni jhānaṅgāni samatikkamitvā tesvevārammaṇesu dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ pattabbato.
Herein, there is surmounting of factors in the case of all meditation subjects that bring three and four jhānas because the second jhāna, etc., have to be reached in those same objects by surmounting the jhāna factors of applied thought and sustained thought, and so on.
Tathā catutthabrahmavihāre.
Likewise in the case of the fourth divine abiding;
Sopi hi mettādīnaṃyeva ārammaṇe somanassaṃ samatikkamitvā pattabboti.
for that has to be reached by surmounting joy in the same object as that of friendly-kindness, and so on.
Catūsu pana āruppesu ārammaṇasamatikkamo hoti.
But in the case of the four immaterial states there is surmounting of the object;
Purimesu hi navasu kasiṇesu aññataraṃ samatikkamitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ pattabbaṃ.
for the base consisting of boundless space has to be reached by surmounting one or other of the first nine kasiṇas,
Ākāsādīni ca samatikkamitvā viññāṇañcāyatanādīni.
and the base consisting of boundless consciousness, etc., have respectively to be reached by surmounting space, and so on.
Sesesu samatikkamo natthīti evaṃ samatikkamato.
With the rest there is no surmounting. This is “as to surmounting. ”
Vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanatoti imesu cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu dasa kasiṇāneva vaḍḍhetabbāni.
109. 5. As to extension and non-extension: only the ten kasiṇas among these forty meditation subjects need be extended.
Yattakañhi okāsaṃ kasiṇena pharati, tadabbhantare dibbāya sotadhātuyā saddaṃ sotuṃ dibbena cakkhunā rūpāni passituṃ parasattānañca cetasā cittamaññātuṃ samattho hoti.
For it is within just so much space as one is intent upon with the kasiṇa that one can hear sounds with the divine ear element, see visible objects with the divine eye, and know the minds of other beings with the mind.
Kāyagatāsati pana asubhāni ca na vaḍḍhetabbāni.
110.Mindfulness occupied with the body and the ten kinds of foulness need not be extended.
Kasmā?
Why?
Okāsena paricchinnattā ānisaṃsābhāvā ca.
Because they have a definite location and because there is no benefit in it.
Sā ca nesaṃ okāsena paricchinnatā bhāvanānaye āvibhavissati.
The definiteness of their location will become clear in explaining the method of development (VIII.83–138 and VI.40, 41, 79).
Tesu pana vaḍḍhitesu kuṇaparāsiyeva vaḍḍhati, na koci ānisaṃso atthi.
If the latter are extended, it is only a quantity of corpses that is extended and there is no benefit.
Vuttampi cetaṃ sopākapañhābyākaraṇe, "vibhūtā bhagavā rūpasaññā avibhūtā aṭṭhikasaññā"ti.
And this is said in answer to the question of Sopāka: “Perception of visible forms is quite clear, Blessed One, perception of bones is not clear” (Source untraced29);
Tatra hi nimittavaḍḍhanavasena rūpasaññā vibhūtāti vuttā.
for here the perception of visible forms is called “quite clear” in the sense of extension of the sign,
Aṭṭhikasaññā avaḍḍhanavasena avibhūtāti vuttā.
while the perception of bones is called “not quite clear” in the sense of its non-extension.
Yaṃ panetaṃ "kevalaṃ aṭṭhisaññāya, apharī pathaviṃ ima"nti (theragā. 18) vuttaṃ, taṃ lābhissa sato upaṭṭhānākāravasena vuttaṃ.
111. But the words “I was intent upon this whole earth with the perception of a skeleton” (Th 18) are said of the manner of appearance to one who has acquired that perception.
Yatheva hi dhammāsokakāle karavīkasakuṇo samantā ādāsabhittīsu attano chāyaṃ disvā sabbadisāsu karavīkasaññī hutvā madhuraṃ giraṃ nicchāresi, evaṃ theropi aṭṭhikasaññāya lābhittā sabbadisāsu upaṭṭhitaṃ nimittaṃ passanto kevalāpi pathavī aṭṭhikabharitāti cintesīti.
For just as in [the Emperor] Dhammāsoka’s time the Karavīka bird uttered a sweet song when it saw its own reflection in the looking glass walls all round and perceived Karavīkas in every direction,30 so the Elder [Siṅgāla Pitar] thought, when he saw the sign appearing in all directions through his acquisition of the perception of a skeleton, that the whole earth was covered with bones.
Yadi evaṃ yā asubhajjhānānaṃ appamāṇārammaṇatā vuttā, sā virujjhatīti.
112. If that is so, then is what is called “the measurelessness of the object of jhāna produced on foulness”31 contradicted?
Sā ca na virujjhati.
It is not contradicted.
Ekacco hi uddhumātake vā aṭṭhike vā mahante nimittaṃ gaṇhāti.
For one man apprehends the sign in a large bloated corpse or skeleton,
Ekacco appake.
another in a small one.
Iminā pariyāyena ekaccassa parittārammaṇaṃ jhānaṃ hoti.
In this way the jhāna of the one has a limited object
Ekaccassa appamāṇārammaṇanti.
and of the other a measureless object.
Yo vā etaṃ vaḍḍhane ādīnavaṃ apassanto vaḍḍheti. Taṃ sandhāya "appamāṇārammaṇa"nti vuttaṃ.
Or alternatively, “With a measureless object” (Dhs 182–84 in elision) is said of it referring to one who extends it, seeing no disadvantage in doing so.
Ānisaṃsābhāvā pana na vaḍḍhetabbānīti.
But it need not be extended because no benefit results.
Yathā ca etāni, evaṃ sesānipi na vaḍḍhetabbāni.
113. The rest need not be extended likewise.
Kasmā?
Why?
Tesu hi ānāpānanimittaṃ tāva vaḍḍhayato vātarāsiyeva vaḍḍhati, okāsena ca paricchinnaṃ.
When a man extends the sign of in-breaths and out-breaths, only a quantity of wind is extended, and it has a definite location, [the nose-tip].
Iti sādīnavattā okāsena ca paricchinnattā na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
So it need not be extended because of the disadvantage and because of the definiteness of the location.
Brahmavihārā sattārammaṇā, tesaṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhayato sattarāsiyeva vaḍḍheyya, na ca tena attho atthi, tasmā tampi na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
And the divine abidings have living beings as their object. When a man extends the sign of these, only the quantity of living beings would be extended, and there is no purpose in that. So that also need not be extended.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā"ti (dī. ni. 1.556) ādi, taṃ pariggahavaseneva vuttaṃ.
114.When it is said, “Intent upon one quarter with his heart endued with friendly-kindness” (D I 250), etc., that is said for the sake of comprehensive inclusion.
Ekāvāsadviāvāsādinā hi anukkamena ekissā disāya satte pariggahetvā bhāvento ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvāti vutto.
For it is when a man develops it progressively by including living beings in one direction by one house, by two houses, etc., that he is said to be “intent upon one direction,” [113]
Na nimittaṃ vaḍḍhento.
not when he extends the sign.
Paṭibhāganimittameva cettha natthi.
And there is no counterpart sign here that he might extend.
Yadayaṃ vaḍḍheyya, parittaappamāṇārammaṇatāpettha pariggahavaseneva veditabbā.
Also the state of having a limited or measureless object can be understood here according to the way of inclusion, too.
Āruppārammaṇesupi ākāsaṃ kasiṇugghāṭimattā.
115. As regards the immaterial states as object, space need not be extended since it is the mere removal of the kasiṇa [materiality];
Tañhi kasiṇāpagamavaseneva manasi kātabbaṃ.
for that should be brought to mind only as the disappearance of the kasiṇa [materiality];
Tato paraṃ vaḍḍhayatopi na kiñci hoti.
if he extends it, nothing further happens.
Viññāṇaṃ sabhāvadhammattā. Na hi sakkā sabhāvadhammaṃ vaḍḍhetuṃ.
And consciousness need not be extended since it is a state consisting in an individual essence, and it is not possible to extend a state consisting in an individual essence.
Viññāṇāpagamo viññāṇassa abhāvamattattā.
The disappearance of consciousness need not be extended since it is mere non-existence of consciousness.
Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanārammaṇaṃ sabhāvadhammattāyeva na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
And the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception as object need not be extended since it too is a state consisting in an individual essence. 32
Sesāni animittattā.
116. The rest need not be extended because they have no sign.
Paṭibhāganimittañhi vaḍḍhetabbaṃ nāma bhaveyya.
For it is the counterpart sign33 that would be extendable,
Buddhānussatiādīnañca neva paṭibhāganimittaṃ ārammaṇaṃ hoti, tasmā taṃ na vaḍḍhetabbanti evaṃ vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanato.
and the object of the recollection of the Buddha, etc., is not a counterpart sign. Consequently there is no need for extension there. This is “as to extension and non-extension. ”
Ārammaṇatoti imesu ca cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu dasakasiṇā, dasaasubhā, ānāpānassati, kāyagatāsatīti imāni dvāvīsatipaṭibhāganimittārammaṇāni.
117.6. As to object: of these forty meditation subjects, twenty-two have counterpart signs as object, that is to say, the ten kasiṇas, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness of breathing, and mindfulness occupied with the body;
Sesāni na paṭibhāganimittārammaṇāni.
the rest do not have counterpart signs as object.
Tathā dasasu anussatīsu ṭhapetvā ānāpānassatiñca kāyagatāsatiñca avasesā aṭṭha anussatiyo, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, catudhātuvavatthānaṃ, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti imāni dvādasa sabhāvadhammārammaṇāni.
Then twelve have states consisting in individual essences as object, that is to say, eight of the ten recollections—except mindfulness of breathing and mindfulness occupied with the body—the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, the defining of the elements, the base consisting of boundless consciousness, and the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception; and twenty-two have [counterpart] signs as object,
Dasa kasiṇā, dasa asubhā, ānāpānassati, kāyagatāsatīti imāni dvāvīsati nimittārammaṇāni.
that is to say, the ten kasiṇas, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness of breathing, and mindfulness occupied with the body;
Sesāni cha na vattabbārammaṇāni.
while the remaining six have “not-so- classifiable”34 objects.
Tathā vipubbakaṃ, lohitakaṃ, puḷuvakaṃ, ānāpānassati, āpokasiṇaṃ, tejokasiṇaṃ, vāyokasiṇaṃ, yañca ālokakasiṇe sūriyādīnaṃ obhāsamaṇḍalārammaṇanti imāni aṭṭha calitārammaṇāni, tāni ca kho pubbabhāge, paṭibhāgaṃ pana sannisinnameva hoti.
Then eight have mobile objects in the early stage though the counterpart is stationary, that is to say, the festering, the bleeding, the worm-infested, mindfulness of breathing, the water kasiṇa, the fire kasiṇa, the air kasiṇa, and in the case of the light kasiṇa the object consisting of a circle of sunlight, etc.;
Sesāni na calitārammaṇānīti evaṃ ārammaṇato.
the rest have immobile objects.35 This is “as to object.”
Bhūmitoti ettha ca dasa asubhā, kāyagatāsati, āhāre paṭikūlasaññāti imāni dvādasa devesu nappavattanti.
118.7. As to plane: here the twelve, namely, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness occupied with the body, and perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, do not occur among deities.
Tāni dvādasa, ānāpānassati cāti imāni terasa brahmaloke nappavattanti.
These twelve and mindfulness of breathing do not occur in the Brahmā-world.
Arūpabhave pana ṭhapetvā cattāro āruppe aññaṃ nappavattati.
But none except the four immaterial states occur in the immaterial becoming.
Manussesu sabbānipi pavattantīti evaṃ bhūmito.
All occur among human beings. This is “as to plane. ” [114]
Gahaṇatoti diṭṭhaphuṭṭhasutaggahaṇatopettha vinicchayo veditabbo.
119. 8. As to apprehending: here the exposition should be understood according to the seen, the touched and the heard.
Tatra ṭhapetvā vāyokasiṇaṃ sesā nava kasiṇā, dasa asubhāti imāni ekūnavīsati diṭṭhena gahetabbāni.
Herein, these nineteen, that is to say, nine kasiṇas omitting the air kasiṇa and the ten kinds of foulness, must be apprehended by the seen.
Pubbabhāge cakkhunā oloketvā nimittaṃ nesaṃ gahetabbanti attho.
The meaning is that in the early stage their sign must be apprehended by constantly looking with the eye.
Kāyagatāsatiyaṃ tacapañcakaṃ diṭṭhena, sesaṃ sutenāti evaṃ tassā ārammaṇaṃ diṭṭhasutena gahetabbaṃ.
In the case of mindfulness occupied with the body the five parts ending with skin must be apprehended by the seen and the rest by the heard, so its object must be apprehended by the seen and the heard.
Ānāpānassati phuṭṭhena, vāyokasiṇaṃ diṭṭhaphuṭṭhena, sesāni aṭṭhārasa sutena gahetabbāni.
Mindfulness of breathing must be apprehended by the touched; the air kasiṇa by the seen and the touched; the remaining eighteen by the heard.
Upekkhābrahmavihāro, cattāro āruppāti imāni cettha na ādikammikena gahetabbāni.
The divine abiding of equanimity and the four immaterial states are not apprehendable by a beginner;
Sesāni pañcatiṃsa gahetabbānīti evaṃ gahaṇato.
but the remaining thirty-five are. This is “as to apprehending. ”
Paccayatoti imesu pana kammaṭṭhānesu ṭhapetvā ākāsakasiṇaṃ sesā nava kasiṇā āruppānaṃ paccayā honti, dasa kasiṇā abhiññānaṃ, tayo brahmavihārā catutthabrahmavihārassa, heṭṭhimaṃ heṭṭhimaṃ āruppaṃ uparimassa uparimassa, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nirodhasamāpattiyā, sabbānipi sukhavihāravipassanābhavasampattīnanti evaṃ paccayato.
120.9. As to condition: of these meditation subjects nine kasiṇas omitting the space kasiṇa are conditions for the immaterial states. The ten kasiṇas are conditions for the kinds of direct-knowledge. Three divine abidings are conditions for the fourth divine abiding. Each lower immaterial state is a condition for each higher one. The base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception is a condition for the attainment of cessation. All are conditions for living in bliss-(sukha), for insight, and for the fortunate kinds of becoming. This is “as to condition. ”
Cariyānukūlatoti cariyānaṃ anukūlatopettha vinicchayo veditabbo.
121.10. As to suitability to temperament: here the exposition should be understood according to what is suitable to the temperaments.
Seyyathidaṃ – rāgacaritassa tāva ettha dasa asubhā, kāyagatāsatīti ekādasa kammaṭṭhānāni anukūlāni.
That is to say: first, the ten kinds of foulness and mindfulness occupied with the body are eleven meditation subjects suitable for one of greedy temperament.
Dosacaritassa cattāro brahmavihārā, cattāri vaṇṇakasiṇānīti aṭṭha.
The four divine abidings and four colour kasiṇas are eight suitable for one of hating temperament.
Mohacaritassa, vitakkacaritassa ca ekaṃ ānāpānassati kammaṭṭhānameva.
Mindfulness of breathing is the one [recollection as a] meditation subject suitable for one of deluded temperament and for one of speculative temperament.
Saddhācaritassa purimā cha anussatiyo.
The first six recollections are suitable for one of faithful temperament.
Buddhicaritassa maraṇassati, upasamānussati, catudhātuvavatthānaṃ, āhāre paṭikūlasaññāti cattāri.
Mindfulness of death, the recollection of peace, the defining of the four elements, and the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, are four suitable for one of intelligent temperament.
Sesakasiṇāni, cattāro ca āruppā sabbacaritānaṃ anukūlāni.
The remaining kasiṇas and the immaterial states are suitable for all kinds of temperament.
Kasiṇesu ca yaṃkiñci parittaṃ vitakkacaritassa, appamāṇaṃ mohacaritassāti.
And anyone of the kasiṇas should be limited for one of speculative temperament and measureless for one of deluded temperament.
Evamettha cariyānukūlato vinicchayo veditabboti sabbañcetaṃ ujuvipaccanīkavasena ca atisappāyavasena ca vuttaṃ.
This is how the exposition should be understood here “as to suitability to temperament. ” 122. All this has been stated in the form of direct opposition and complete suitability.
Rāgādīnaṃ pana avikkhambhikā saddhādīnaṃ vā anupakārā kusalabhāvanā nāma natthi.
But there is actually no profitable development that does not suppress greed, etc., and help faith, and so on.
Vuttampi cetaṃ meghiyasutte –
And this is said in the Meghiya Sutta:
"Cattāro dhammā uttari bhāvetabbā.
“[One] should, in addition,36 develop these four things:
Asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya.
foulness should be developed for the purpose of abandoning greed (lust).
Mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya.
friendly-kindness should be developed for the purpose of abandoning ill will.
Ānāpānassati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya.
Mindfulness of breathing should be developed for the purpose of cutting off applied thought.
Aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā asmimānasamugghātāyā"ti.
Perception of impermanence should be cultivated for the purpose of eliminating the conceit, ‘I am’” (A IV 358).
Rāhulasuttepi "mettaṃ, rāhula, bhāvanaṃ bhāvehī"tiādinā (ma. ni. 2.120) nayena ekasseva satta kammaṭṭhānāni vuttāni.
Also in the Rāhula Sutta, in the passage beginning, “Develop friendly-kindness, Rāhula” (M I 424), seven meditation subjects are given for a single temperament.
Tasmā vacanamatte abhinivesaṃ akatvā sabbattha adhippāyo pariyesitabboti ayaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti ettha kammaṭṭhānakathā vinicchayo.
So instead of insisting on the mere letter, the intention should be sought in each instance. This is the explanatory exposition of the meditation subject referred to by the words he should apprehend…one [meditation subject] (§28).
48.Gahetvāti imassa pana padassa ayamatthadīpanā.
123. Now the words and he should apprehend are illustrated as follows.
"Tena yoginā kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā"ti ettha vuttanayeneva vuttappakāraṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā buddhassa vā bhagavato ācariyassa vā attānaṃ niyyātetvā sampannajjhāsayena sampannādhimuttinā ca hutvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācitabbaṃ.
After approaching the good friend of the kind described in the explanation of the words then approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject (§28 and §57–73), the meditator should dedicate himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, or to a teacher, and he should ask for the meditation subject with a sincere inclination [of the heart] and sincere resolution.
Tatra "imāhaṃ bhagavā attabhāvaṃ tumhākaṃ pariccajāmī"ti evaṃ buddhassa bhagavato attā niyyātetabbo.
124.Herein, he should dedicate himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, in this way: “Blessed One, I relinquish this my person to you.”
Evañhi aniyyātetvā pantesu senāsanesu viharanto bheravārammaṇe āpāthamāgate santhambhituṃ asakkonto gāmantaṃ osaritvā gihīhi saṃsaṭṭho hutvā anesanaṃ āpajjitvā anayabyasanaṃ pāpuṇeyya.
For without having thus dedicated himself, when living in a remote abode he might be unable to stand fast if a frightening object made its appearance, and he might return to a village abode, become associated with laymen, take up improper search and come to ruin.
Niyyātitattabhāvassa panassa bheravārammaṇe āpāthamāgatepi bhayaṃ na uppajjati.
But when he has dedicated himself in this way no fear arises in him if a frightening object makes its appearance;
"Nanu tayā, paṇḍita, purimameva attā buddhānaṃ niyyātito"ti paccavekkhato panassa somanassameva uppajjati.
in fact only joy arises in him as he reflects: “Have you not wisely already dedicated yourself to the Enlightened One?”
Yathā hi purisassa uttamaṃ kāsikavatthaṃ bhaveyya, tassa tasmiṃ mūsikāya vā kīṭehi vā khādite uppajjeyya domanassaṃ.
125. Suppose a man had a fine piece of Kāsi cloth. He would feel grief if it were eaten by rats or moths;
Sace pana taṃ acīvarakassa bhikkhuno dadeyya, athassa taṃ tena bhikkhunā khaṇḍākhaṇḍaṃ kariyamānaṃ disvāpi somanassameva uppajjeyya.
but if he gave it to a bhikkhu needing robes, he would feel only joy if he saw the bhikkhu tearing it up [to make his patched cloak].
Evaṃsampadamidaṃ veditabbaṃ.
And so it is with this.
Ācariyassa niyyātentenāpi "imāhaṃ, bhante, attabhāvaṃ tumhākaṃ pariccajāmī"ti vattabbaṃ.
126. When he dedicates himself to a teacher, he should say: “I relinquish this my person to you, venerable sir.”
Evaṃ aniyyātitattabhāvo hi atajjanīyo vā hoti, dubbaco vā anovādakaro, yenakāmaṃgamo vā ācariyaṃ anāpucchāva yatthicchati, tattha gantā, tamenaṃ ācariyo āmisena vā dhammena vā na saṅgaṇhāti, gūḷhaṃ ganthaṃ na sikkhāpeti.
For one who has not dedicated his person thus becomes unresponsive to correction, hard to speak to, and unamenable to advice, or he goes where he likes without asking the teacher. Consequently the teacher does not help him with either material things or the Dhamma, and he does not train him in the cryptic books.37
So imaṃ duvidhaṃ saṅgahaṃ alabhanto sāsane patiṭṭhaṃ na labhati, nacirasseva dussīlyaṃ vā gihibhāvaṃ vā pāpuṇāti.
Failing to get these two kinds of help, [116] he finds no footing in the Dispensation, and he soon comes down to misconducting himself or to the lay state.
Niyyātitattabhāvo pana neva atajjanīyo hoti, na yenakāmaṃgamo, suvaco ācariyāyattavuttiyeva hoti.
But if he has dedicated his person, he is not unresponsive to correction, does not go about as he likes, is easy to speak to, and lives only in dependence on the teacher.
So ācariyato duvidhaṃ saṅgahaṃ labhanto sāsane vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ pāpuṇāti cūḷapiṇḍapātikatissattherassa antevāsikā viya.
He gets the twofold help from the teacher and attains growth, increase, and fulfilment in the Dispensation. Like the Elder Cūḷa- Piṇḍapātika-Tissa’s pupils.
Therassa kira santikaṃ tayo bhikkhū āgamaṃsu.
127.Three bhikkhus came to the elder, it seems.
Tesu eko "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte sataporise papāte patituṃ ussaheyyanti āha.
One of them said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to fall from a cliff the height of one hundred men, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Dutiyo "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte imaṃ attabhāvaṃ paṇhito paṭṭhāya pāsāṇapiṭṭhe ghaṃsento niravasesaṃ khepetuṃ ussaheyyanti āha.
The second said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to grind away this body from the heels up without remainder on a flat stone, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Tatiyo "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte assāsapassāse uparundhitvā kālakiriyaṃ kātuṃ ussaheyyanti āha.
The third said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to die by stopping breathing, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Thero bhabbāvatime bhikkhūti kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathesi.
Observing, “These bhikkhus are certainly capable of progress,” the elder expounded a meditation subject to them.
Te tassa ovāde ṭhatvā tayopi arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsūti ayamānisaṃso attaniyyātane.
Following his advice, the three attained Arahantship. This is the benefit in self-dedication.
Tena vuttaṃ "buddhassa vā bhagavato ācariyassa vā attānaṃ niyyātetvā"ti.
Hence it was said above “dedicating himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, or to a teacher. ”
49.Sampannajjhāsayena sampannādhimuttinā ca hutvāti ettha pana tena yoginā alobhādīnaṃ vasena chahākārehi sampannajjhāsayena bhavitabbaṃ.
128. With a sincere inclination [of the heart] and sincere resolution (§ 123): the meditator’s inclination should be sincere in the six modes beginning with non- greed.
Evaṃ sampannajjhāsayo hi tissannaṃ bodhīnaṃ aññataraṃ pāpuṇāti.
For it is one of such sincere inclination who arrives at one of the three kinds of enlightenment,
Yathāha, "cha ajjhāsayā bodhisattānaṃ bodhiparipākāya saṃvattanti, alobhajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā lobhe dosadassāvino, adosajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā dose dosadassāvino, amohajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā mohe dosadassāvino, nekkhammajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā gharāvāse dosadassāvino, pavivekajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā saṅgaṇikāya dosadassāvino, nissaraṇajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā sabbabhavagatīsu dosadassāvino"ti.
according as it is said: “Six kinds of inclination lead to the maturing of the enlightenment of the Bodhisattas. With the inclination to non- greed, Bodhisattas see the fault in greed. With the inclination to non-hate, Bodhisattas see the fault in hate. With the inclination to non-delusion, Bodhisattas see the fault in delusion. With the inclination to renunciation, Bodhisattas see the fault in house life. With the inclination to seclusion, Bodhisattas see the fault in society. With the inclination to relinquishment, Bodhisattas see the fault in all kinds of becoming and destiny (Source untraced.)”
Ye hi keci atītānāgatapaccuppannā sotāpannasakadāgāmianāgāmikhīṇāsavapaccekabuddhasammāsambuddhā, sabbe te imeheva chahākārehi attanā attanā pattabbaṃ visesaṃ pattā.
For stream-enterers, once-returners, non-returners, those with cankers destroyed (i.e. Arahants), Paccekabuddhas, and Fully Enlightened Ones, whether past, future or present, all arrive at the distinction peculiar to each by means of these same six modes.
Tasmā imehi chahākārehi sampannajjhāsayena bhavitabbaṃ.
That is why he should have sincerity of inclination in these six modes.
Tadadhimuttatāya pana adhimuttisampannena bhavitabbaṃ.
129. He should be whole-heartedly resolved on that.
Samādhādhimuttena samādhigarukena samādhipabbhārena, nibbānādhimuttena nibbānagarukena nibbānapabbhārena ca bhavitabbanti attho.
The meaning is [117] that he should be resolved upon concentration, respect concentration, incline to concentration, be resolved upon Nibbāna, respect Nibbāna, incline to Nibbāna.
50.Evaṃ sampannajjhāsayādhimuttino panassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācato cetopariyañāṇalābhinā ācariyena cittācāraṃ oloketvā cariyā jānitabbā.
130.When, with sincerity of inclination and whole-hearted resolution in this way, he asks for a meditation subject, then a teacher who has acquired the penetration of minds can know his temperament by surveying his mental conduct; and a teacher who has not can know it by putting such questions to him as:
Itarena kiṃ caritosi?
“What is your temperament?”
Ke vā te dhammā bahulaṃ samudācaranti?
or “What states are usually present in you?”
Kiṃ vā te manasikaroto phāsu hoti?
or “What do you like bringing to mind?”
Katarasmiṃ vā te kammaṭṭhāne cittaṃ namatīti evamādīhi nayehi pucchitvā jānitabbā.
or “What meditation subject does your mind favour? ”
Evaṃ ñatvā cariyānukūlaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetabbaṃ.
When he knows, he can expound a meditation subject suitable to that temperament.
Kathentena ca tividhena kathetabbaṃ.
And in doing so, he can expound it in three ways:
Pakatiyā uggahitakammaṭṭhānassa ekaṃ dve nisajjāni sajjhāyaṃ kāretvā dātabbaṃ.
it can be expounded to one who has already learnt the meditation subject by having him recite it at one or two sessions;
Santike vasantassa āgatāgatakkhaṇe kathetabbaṃ.
it can be expounded to one who lives in the same place each time he comes;
Uggahetvā aññatra gantukāmassa nātisaṃkhittaṃ nātivitthārikaṃ katvā kathetabbaṃ.
and to one who wants to learn it and then go elsewhere it can be expounded in such a manner that it is neither too brief nor too long.
Tattha pathavīkasiṇaṃ tāva kathentena cattāro kasiṇadosā, kasiṇakaraṇaṃ, katassa bhāvanānayo, duvidhaṃ nimittaṃ, duvidho samādhi, sattavidhaṃ sappāyāsappāyaṃ, dasavidhaṃ appanākosallaṃ, vīriyasamatā, appanāvidhānanti ime nava ākārā kathetabbā.
131. Herein, when first he is explaining the earth kasiṇa, there are nine aspects that he should explain. They are the four faults of the kasiṇa, the making of a kasiṇa, the method of development for one who has made it, the two kinds of sign, the two kinds of concentration, the seven kinds of suitable and unsuitable, the ten kinds of skill in absorption, evenness of energy, and the directions for absorption.
Sesakammaṭṭhānesupi tassa tassa anurūpaṃ kathetabbaṃ.
In the case of the other meditation subjects, each should be expounded in the way appropriate to it.
Taṃ sabbaṃ tesaṃ bhāvanāvidhāne āvibhavissati.
All this will be made clear in the directions for development.
Evaṃ kathiyamāne pana kammaṭṭhāne tena yoginā nimittaṃ gahetvā sotabbaṃ.
But when the meditation subject is being expounded in this way, the meditator must apprehend the sign as he listens.
Nimittaṃ gahetvāti idaṃ heṭṭhimapadaṃ, idaṃ uparimapadaṃ, ayamassa attho, ayamadhippāyo, idamopammanti evaṃ taṃ taṃ ākāraṃ upanibandhitvāti attho.
132. Apprehend the sign means that he must connect each aspect thus: “This is the preceding clause, this is the subsequent clause, this is its meaning, this is its intention, this is the simile.”
Evaṃ nimittaṃ gahetvā sakkaccaṃ suṇantena hi kammaṭṭhānaṃ suggahitaṃ hoti.
When he listens attentively, apprehending the sign in this way, his meditation subject is well apprehended.
Athassa taṃ nissāya visesādhigamo sampajjati, na itarassāti ayaṃ gahetvāti imassa padassa atthaparidīpanā.
Then, and because of that, he successfully attains distinction, but not otherwise. This clarifies the meaning of the words “and he must apprehend. ”
Ettāvatā kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā attano cariyānukūlaṃ cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu aññataraṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti imāni padāni sabbākārena vitthāritāni hontīti.
133.At this point the clauses approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject, and he should apprehend from among the forty meditation subjects one that suits his own temperament (§28) have been expounded in detail in all their aspects.
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge
in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Samādhibhāvanādhikāre
in the Treatise on the Development of Concentration
Kammaṭṭhānaggahaṇaniddeso nāma
called “The Description of Taking a Meditation Subject”
Tatiyo paricchedo.
The third chapter

4 - Chapter 4: The earth kasiṇa


4. The earth kasiṇa Original pali
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
51.Idāni yaṃ vuttaṃ "samādhibhāvanāya ananurūpaṃ vihāraṃ pahāya anurūpe vihāre viharantenā"ti ettha yassa tāvācariyena saddhiṃ ekavihāre vasato phāsu hoti, tena tattheva kammaṭṭhānaṃ parisodhentena vasitabbaṃ.
1. Now, it was said earlier: After that he should avoid a monastery unfavourable to the development of concentration and go to live in one that is favourable (III.28). In the first place one who finds it convenient to live with the teacher in the same monastery can live there while he is making certain of the meditation subject.
Sace tattha phāsu na hoti, yo añño gāvute vā aḍḍhayojane vā yojanamattepi vā sappāyo vihāro hoti, tattha vasitabbaṃ.
If it is inconvenient there, he can live in another monastery— a suitable one—a quarter or a half or even a whole league distant.
Evañhi sati kammaṭṭhānassa kismiñcideva ṭhāne sandehe vā satisammose vā jāte kālasseva vihāre vattaṃ katvā antarāmagge piṇḍāya caritvā bhattakiccapariyosāneyeva ācariyassa vasanaṭṭhānaṃ gantvā taṃdivasamācariyassa santike kammaṭṭhānaṃ sodhetvā dutiyadivase ācariyaṃ vanditvā nikkhamitvā antarāmagge piṇḍāya caritvā akilamantoyeva attano vasanaṭṭhānaṃ āgantuṃ sakkhissati.
In that case, when he finds he is in doubt about, or has forgotten, some passage in the meditation subject, then he should do the duties in the monastery in good time and set out afterwards, going for alms on the way and arriving at the teacher’s dwelling place after his meal. He should make certain about the meditation subject that day in the teacher’s presence. Next day, after paying homage to the teacher, he should go for alms on his way back and so he can return to his own dwelling place without fatigue.
Yo pana yojanappamāṇepi phāsukaṭṭhānaṃ na labhati, tena kammaṭṭhāne sabbaṃ gaṇṭhiṭṭhānaṃ chinditvā suvisuddhaṃ āvajjanapaṭibaddhaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ katvā dūrampi gantvā samādhibhāvanāya ananurūpaṃ vihāraṃ pahāya anurūpe vihāre vihātabbaṃ.
But one who finds no convenient place within even a league should clarify all difficulties about the meditation subject and make quite sure it has been properly attended to. Then he can even go far away and, avoiding a monastery unfavourable to development of concentration, live in one that is favourable.
Ananurūpavihāro Table view Original pali

4.1 Ananurūpavihāro

52.Tattha ananurūpo nāma aṭṭhārasannaṃ dosānaṃ aññatarena samannāgato.
2.Herein, one that is unfavourable has anyone of eighteen faults.
Tatrime aṭṭhārasa dosā – mahattaṃ, navattaṃ, jiṇṇattaṃ, panthanissitattaṃ, soṇḍī, paṇṇaṃ, pupphaṃ, phalaṃ, patthanīyatā, nagarasannissitatā, dārusannissitatā, khettasannissitatā, visabhāgānaṃ puggalānaṃ atthitā, paṭṭanasannissitatā, paccantasannissitatā, rajjasīmasannissitatā, asappāyatā, kalyāṇamittānaṃ alābhoti imesaṃ aṭṭhārasannaṃ dosānaṃ aññatarena dosena samannāgato ananurūpo nāma.
These are: (1) largeness, (2) newness, (3) dilapidatedness, (4) a nearby road, (5) a pond, (6) [edible] leaves, (7) flowers, (8) fruits, (9) famousness, (10) a nearby city, (11) nearby timber trees, (12) nearby arable fields, (13) presence of incompatible persons, (14) a nearby port of entry, (15) nearness to the border countries, (16) nearness to the frontier of a kingdom, (17) unsuitability, (18) lack of good friends. [119] One with any of these faults is not favourable.
Na tattha vihātabbaṃ.
He should not live there.
Kasmā?
Why?
Mahāvihāre tāva bahū nānāchandā sannipatanti, te aññamaññaṃ paṭiviruddhatāya vattaṃ na karonti.
3.1.Firstly, people with varying aims collect in a large monastery. They conflict with each other and so neglect the duties.
Bodhiyaṅgaṇādīni asammaṭṭhāneva honti.
The Enlightenment-tree terrace, etc., remain unswept,
Anupaṭṭhāpitaṃ pānīyaṃ paribhojanīyaṃ.
the water for drinking and washing is not set out.
Tatrāyaṃ gocaragāme piṇḍāya carissāmīti pattacīvaramādāya nikkhanto sace passati vattaṃ vā akataṃ pānīyaghaṭaṃ vā rittaṃ, athānena vattaṃ kātabbaṃ hoti, pānīyaṃ upaṭṭhāpetabbaṃ.
So if he thinks, “I shall go to the alms-resort village for alms” and takes his bowl and robe and sets out, perhaps he sees that the duties have not been done or that a drinking-water pot is empty, and so the duty has to be done by him unexpectedly. Drinking water must be maintained.
Akaronto vattabhede dukkaṭaṃ āpajjati.
By not doing it he would commit a wrongdoing in the breach of a duty.
Karontassa kālo atikkamati, atidivā paviṭṭho niṭṭhitāya bhikkhāya kiñci na labhati.
But if he does it, he loses time. He arrives too late at the village and gets nothing because the alms giving is finished.
Paṭisallānagatopi sāmaṇeradaharabhikkhūnaṃ uccāsaddena saṅghakammehi ca vikkhipati.
Also, when he goes into retreat, he is distracted by the loud noises of novices and young bhikkhus, and by acts of the Community [being carried out].
Yattha pana sabbaṃ vattaṃ katameva hoti, avasesāpi ca saṅghaṭṭanā natthi. Evarūpe mahāvihārepi vihātabbaṃ.
However, he can live in a large monastery where all the duties are done and where there are none of the other disturbances.
Navavihāre bahu navakammaṃ hoti, akarontaṃ ujjhāyanti.
4. 2. In a new monastery there is much new building activity. People criticize someone who takes no part in it.
Yattha pana bhikkhū evaṃ vadanti "āyasmā yathāsukhaṃ samaṇadhammaṃ karotu, mayaṃ navakammaṃ karissāmā"ti evarūpe vihātabbaṃ.
But he can live in such a monastery where the bhikkhus say, “Let the venerable one do the ascetic’s duties as much as he likes. We shall see to the building work. ”
Jiṇṇavihāre pana bahu paṭijaggitabbaṃ hoti, antamaso attano senāsanamattampi appaṭijaggantaṃ ujjhāyanti, paṭijaggantassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ parihāyati.
5.3. In a dilapidated monastery there is much that needs repair. People criticize someone who does not see about the repairing of at least his own lodging. When he sees to the repairs, his meditation subject suffers.
Panthanissite mahāpathavihāre rattindivaṃ āgantukā sannipatanti.
6.4. In a monastery with a nearby road, by a main street, visitors keep arriving night and day.
Vikāle āgatānaṃ attano senāsanaṃ datvā rukkhamūle vā pāsāṇapiṭṭhe vā vasitabbaṃ hoti.
He has to give up his own lodging to those who come late, and he has to go and live at the root of a tree or on top of a rock.
Punadivasepi evamevāti kammaṭṭhānassa okāso na hoti.
And next day it is the same. So there is no opportunity [to practice] his meditation subject.
Yattha pana evarūpo āgantukasambādho na hoti, tattha vihātabbaṃ.
But he can live in one where there is no such disturbance by visitors.
Soṇḍī nāma pāsāṇapokkharaṇī hoti, tattha pānīyatthaṃ mahājano samosarati, nagaravāsīnaṃ rājakulūpakattherānaṃ antevāsikā rajanakammatthāya āgacchanti, tesaṃ bhājanadārudoṇikādīni pucchantānaṃ asuke ca asuke ca ṭhāneti dassetabbāni honti, evaṃ sabbakālampi niccabyāvaṭo hoti.
7.5. A pond is a rock pool. Numbers of people come there for drinking water. Pupils of city-dwelling elders supported by the royal family come to do dyeing work. When they ask for vessels, wood, tubs, etc., they must be shown where these things are. So he is kept all the time on the alert.
Yattha nānāvidhaṃ sākapaṇṇaṃ hoti, tatthassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā divāvihāraṃ nisinnassāpi santike sākahārikā gāyamānā paṇṇaṃ uccinantiyo visabhāgasaddasaṅghaṭṭanena kammaṭṭhānantarāyaṃ karonti.
8.6. If he goes with his meditation subject to sit by day where there are many sorts of edible leaves, then women vegetable-gatherers, singing as they pick leaves nearby, endanger his meditation subject by disturbing it with sounds of the opposite sex.
Yattha pana nānāvidhā mālāgacchā supupphitā honti, tatrāpi tādisoyeva upaddavo.
7. And where there are many sorts of flowering shrubs in bloom there is the same danger too.
Yattha nānāvidhaṃ ambajambupanasādiphalaṃ hoti, tattha phalatthikā āgantvā yācanti, adentassa kujjhanti, balakkārena vā gaṇhanti, sāyanhasamaye vihāramajjhe caṅkamantena te disvā "kiṃ upāsakā evaṃ karothā"ti vuttā yathāruci akkosanti.
9.8. Where there are many sorts of fruits such as mangoes, rose-apples and jak-fruits, people who want fruits come and ask for them, and they get angry if he does not give them any, or they take them by force. When walking in the monastery in the evening he sees them and asks, “Why do you do so, lay followers? ” they abuse him as they please
Avāsāyapissa parakkamanti.
and even try to evict him.
Patthanīye pana leṇasammate dakkhiṇagirihatthikucchicetiyagiricittalapabbatasadise vihāre viharantaṃ ayamarahāti sambhāvetvā vanditukāmā manussā samantā osaranti, tenassa na phāsu hoti, yassa pana taṃ sappāyaṃ hoti, tena divā aññatra gantvā rattiṃ vasitabbaṃ.
10. 9. When he lives in a monastery that is famous and renowned in the world, like Dakkhiṇagiri1 Hatthikucchi, Cetiyagiri or Cittalapabbata, there are always people coming who want to pay homage to him, supposing that he is an Arahant, which inconveniences him. But if it suits him, he can live there at night and go elsewhere by day.
Nagarasannissite visabhāgārammaṇāni āpāthamāgacchanti, kumbhadāsiyopi ghaṭehi nighaṃsantiyo gacchanti, okkamitvā maggaṃ na denti, issaramanussāpi vihāramajjhe sāṇiṃ parikkhipitvā nisīdanti.
11.10. In one with a nearby city objects of the opposite sex come into focus. Women-pot carriers go by bumping into him with their jars and giving no room to pass. Also important people spread out carpets in the middle of the monastery and sit down.
Dārusannissaye pana yattha kaṭṭhāni ca dabbupakaraṇarukkhā ca santi, tattha kaṭṭhahārikā pubbe vuttasākapupphahārikā viya aphāsuṃ karonti, vihāre rukkhā santi, te chinditvā gharāni karissāmāti manussā āgantvā chindanti.
12. 11. One with nearby timber trees where there are timber trees and osiers useful for making framework is inconvenient because of the wood-gatherers there, like the gatherers of branches and fruits already mentioned.
Sace sāyanhasamayaṃ padhānagharā nikkhamitvā vihāramajjhe caṅkamanto te disvā "kiṃ upāsakā evaṃ karothā"ti vadati, yathāruci akkosanti, avāsāyapissa parakkamanti.
If there are trees in a monastery, people come and cut them down to build houses with. When he has come out of his meditation room in the evening and is walking up and down in the monastery, if he sees them and asks, “Why do you do so, lay followers? ” they abuse him as they please and even try to evict him.
Yo pana khettasannissito hoti samantā khettehi parivārito, tattha manussā vihāramajjheyeva khalaṃ katvā dhaññaṃ maddanti, pamukhesu sayanti, aññampi bahuṃ aphāsuṃ karonti.
13.12. People make use of one with nearby arable fields, quite surrounded by fields. They make a threshing floor in the middle of the monastery itself. They thresh corn there, dry it in the forecourts,2 and cause great inconvenience.
Yatrāpi mahāsaṅghabhogo hoti, ārāmikā kulānaṃ gāvo rundhanti, udakavāraṃ paṭisedhenti, manussā vīhisīsaṃ gahetvā "passatha tumhākaṃ ārāmikānaṃ kamma"nti saṅghassa dassenti.
And where there is extensive property belonging to the Community, the monastery attendants impound cattle belonging to families and deny the water supply [to their crops]. Then people bring an ear of paddy and show it to the Community saying “Look at your monastery attendants’ work.”
Tena tena kāraṇena rājarājamahāmattānaṃ gharadvāraṃ gantabbaṃ hoti, ayampi khettasannissiteneva saṅgahito.
For one reason or another he has to go to the portals of the king or the king’s ministers. This [matter of property belonging to the Community] is included by [a monastery that is] near arable fields.
Visabhāgānaṃ puggalānaṃ atthitāti yattha aññamaññaṃ visabhāgaverī bhikkhū viharanti, ye kalahaṃ karontā mā, bhante, evaṃ karothāti vāriyamānā etassa paṃsukūlikassa āgatakālato paṭṭhāya naṭṭhāmhāti vattāro bhavanti.
14. 13. Presence of incompatible persons: where there are bhikkhus living who are incompatible and mutually hostile, when they clash and it is protested, “Venerable sirs, do not do so,” they exclaim, “We no longer count now that this refuse-rag wearer has come. ”
Yopi udakapaṭṭanaṃ vā thalapaṭṭanaṃ vā nissito hoti, tattha abhiṇhaṃ nāvāhi ca satthehi ca āgatamanussā okāsaṃ detha, pānīyaṃ detha, loṇaṃ dethāti ghaṭṭayantā aphāsuṃ karonti.
15. 14. One with a nearby water port of entry or land port of entry3 is made inconvenient by people constantly arriving respectively by ship or by caravan and crowding round, asking for space or for drinking water or salt.
Paccantasannissite pana manussā buddhādīsu appasannā honti.
16.15. In the case of one near the border countries, people have no trust in the Buddha, etc., there.
Rajjasīmasannissite rājabhayaṃ hoti.
16. In one near the frontier of a kingdom there is fear of kings.
Tañhi padesaṃ eko rājā na mayhaṃ vase vattatīti paharati, itaropi na mayhaṃ vase vattatīti.
For perhaps one king attacks that place, thinking, “It does not submit to my rule,” and the other does likewise, thinking, “It does not submit to my rule.”
Tatrāyaṃ bhikkhu kadāci imassa rañño vijite vicarati, kadāci etassa.
A bhikkhu lives there when it is conquered by one king and when it is conquered by the other.
Atha naṃ "carapuriso aya"nti maññamānā anayabyasanaṃ pāpenti.
Then they suspect him of spying, and they bring about his undoing.
Asappāyatāti visabhāgarūpādiārammaṇasamosaraṇena vā amanussapariggahitatāya vā asappāyatā.
17.17. Unsuitability is that due to the risk of encountering visible data, etc., of the opposite sex as objects or to haunting by non-human beings.
Tatridaṃ vatthu.
Here is a story.
Eko kira thero araññe vasati.
An elder lived in a forest, it seems.
Athassa ekā yakkhinī paṇṇasāladvāre ṭhatvā gāyi.
Then an ogress stood in the door of his leaf hut and sang.
So nikkhamitvā dvāre aṭṭhāsi, sā gantvā caṅkamanasīse gāyi.
The elder came out and stood in the door. She went to the end of the walk and sang.
Thero caṅkamanasīsaṃ agamāsi.
The elder went to the end of the walk.
Sā sataporise papāte ṭhatvā gāyi.
She stood in a chasm a hundred fathoms deep and sang.
Thero paá¹­inivatti.
The elder recoiled.
Atha naṃ sā vegenāgantvā gahetvā "mayā, bhante, na eko na dve tumhādisā khāditā"ti āha.
Then she suddenly grabbed him saying, “Venerable sir, it is not just one or two of the likes of you I have eaten. ”
Kalyāṇamittānaṃ alābhoti yattha na sakkā hoti ācariyaṃ vā ācariyasamaṃ vā upajjhāyaṃ vā upajjhāyasamaṃ vā kalyāṇamittaṃ laddhuṃ.
18.18. Lack of good friends: where it is not possible to find a good friend as a teacher or the equivalent of a teacher or a preceptor or the equivalent of a preceptor,
Tattha so kalyāṇamittānaṃ alābho mahādosoyevāti imesaṃ aṭṭhārasannaṃ dosānaṃ aññatarena samannāgato ananurūpoti veditabbo.
the lack of good friends there is a serious fault. One that has any of those eighteen faults should be understood as unfavourable.
Vuttampi cetaṃ aṭṭhakathāsu –
And this is said in the commentaries:
Mahāvāsaṃ navāvāsaṃ, jarāvāsañca panthaniṃ;
A large abode, a new abode, One tumbling down, one near a road,
Soṇḍiṃ paṇṇañca pupphañca, phalaṃ patthitameva ca.
One with a pond, or leaves, or flowers, Or fruits, or one that people seek;
Nagaraṃ dārunā khettaṃ, visabhāgena paṭṭanaṃ;
In cities, among timber, fields, Where people quarrel, in a port,
Paccantasīmāsappāyaṃ, yattha mitto na labbhati.
In border lands, on frontiers, Unsuitableness, and no good friend—
Aṭṭhārasetāni ṭhānāni, iti viññāya paṇḍito;
These are the eighteen instances A wise man needs to recognize
Ārakā parivajjeyya, maggaṃ sappaṭibhayaṃ yathāti.
And give them full as wide a berth As any footpad-hunted road.
Anurūpavihāro Table view Original pali

4.2 Anurūpavihāro

53.Yo pana gocaragāmato nātidūranāccāsannatādīhi pañcahaṅgehi samannāgato, ayaṃ anurūpo nāma.
19.One that has the five factors beginning with “not too far from and not too near to” the alms resort is called favourable.
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – "kathañca, bhikkhave, senāsanaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ hoti?
For this is said by the Blessed One: “And how has a lodging five factors, bhikkhus?
Idha, bhikkhave, senāsanaṃ nātidūraṃ hoti nāccāsannaṃ gamanāgamanasampannaṃ, divā appākiṇṇaṃ rattiṃ appasaddaṃ appanigghosaṃ, appaḍaṃsamakasavātātapasarīsapasamphassaṃ, tasmiṃ kho pana senāsane viharantassa appakasireneva uppajjanti cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārā.
Here, bhikkhus, (1) a lodging is not too far, not too near, and has a path for going and coming. (2) It is little frequented by day with little sound and few voices by night. (3) There is little contact with gadflies, flies, wind, burning [sun] and creeping things. (4) One who lives in that lodging easily obtains robes, alms food, lodging, and the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick.
Tasmiṃ kho pana senāsane therā bhikkhū viharanti bahussutā āgatāgamā dhammadharā vinayadharā mātikādharā, te kālena kālaṃ upasaṅkamitvā paripucchati paripañhati 'idaṃ, bhante, kathaṃ imassa ko attho'ti, tassa te āyasmanto avivaṭañceva vivaranti, anuttānīkatañca uttānīkaronti, anekavihitesu ca kaṅkhaṭṭhāniyesu dhammesu kaṅkhaṃ paṭivinodenti.
(5) In that lodging there are elder bhikkhus living who are learned, versed in the scriptures, observers of the Dhamma, observers of the Vinaya, observers of the Codes, and when from time to time one asks them questions, ‘How is this, venerable sir? What is the meaning of this? ’ then those venerable ones reveal the unrevealed, explain the unexplained, and remove doubt about the many things that raise doubts.
Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, senāsanaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ hotī"ti (a. ni. 10.11).
This, bhikkhus, is how a lodging has five factors”(A V 15).
Ayaṃ "samādhibhāvanāya ananurūpaṃ vihāraṃ pahāya anurūpe vihāre viharantenā"ti ettha vitthāro.
These are the details for the clause, “After that he should avoid a monastery unfavourable to the development of concentration and go to live in one that is favourable” (III.28).
Khuddakapalibodhā Table view Original pali

4.3 Khuddakapalibodhā

54.Khuddakapalibodhupacchedaṃ katvāti evaṃ patirūpe vihāre viharantena yepissa te honti khuddakapalibodhā, tepi upacchinditabbā.
20. Then he should sever the lesser impediments (III.28): one living in such a favourable monastery should sever any minor impediments that he may still have,
Seyyathidaṃ, dīghāni kesanakhalomāni chinditabbāni.
that is to say, long head hair, nails, and body hair should be cut,
Jiṇṇacīvaresu daḷhīkammaṃ vā tunnakammaṃ vā kātabbaṃ.
mending and patching of old robes should be done,
Kiliṭṭhāni vā rajitabbāni.
or those that are soiled should be dyed.
Sace patte malaṃ hoti, patto pacitabbo.
If there is a stain on the bowl, the bowl should be baked.
Mañcapīṭhādīni sodhetabbānīti.
The bed, chair, etc., should be cleaned up.
"Ayaṃ khuddakapalibodhupacchedaṃ katvā"ti ettha vitthāro.
These are the details for the clause, “Then he should sever the lesser impediments. ”
Bhāvanāvidhānaṃ Table view Original pali

4.4 Bhāvanāvidhānaṃ

55.Idāni sabbaṃ bhāvanāvidhānaṃ aparihāpentena bhāvetabboti ettha ayaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ ādiṃ katvā sabbakammaṭṭhānavasena vitthārakathā hoti.
21. Now, with the clause, And not overlook any of the directions for development (III.28), the time has come for the detailed exposition of all meditation subjects, starting with the earth kasiṇa.
Evaṃ upacchinnakhuddakapalibodhena hi bhikkhunā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantena bhattasammadaṃ paṭivinodetvā pavivitte okāse sukhanisinnena katāya vā akatāya vā pathaviyā nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ.
[THE EARTH KASIṆA] When a bhikkhu has thus severed the lesser impediments, then, on his return from his alms round after his meal and after he has got rid of drowsiness due to the meal, he should sit down comfortably in a secluded place and apprehend the sign in earth that is either made up or not made up.
Vuttañhetaṃ –
22. For this is said:4
"Pathavīkasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto pathaviyaṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti kate vā akate vā sāntake, no anantake, sakoṭiye, no akoṭiye, savaṭṭume, no avaṭṭume, sapariyante, no apariyante, suppamatte vā sarāvamatte vā.
“One who is learning the earth kasiṇa apprehends the sign in earth that is either made up or not made up; that is bounded, not unbounded; limited, not unlimited; with a periphery, not without a periphery; circumscribed, not uncircumscribed; either the size of a bushel (suppa) or the size of a saucer (sarāva).
So taṃ nimittaṃ suggahitaṃ karoti, sūpadhāritaṃ upadhāreti, suvavatthitaṃ vavatthapeti.
He sees to it that that sign is well apprehended, well attended to, well defined.
So taṃ nimittaṃ suggahitaṃ katvā sūpadhāritaṃ upadhāretvā suvavatthitaṃ vavatthapetvā ānisaṃsadassāvī ratanasaññī hutvā cittīkāraṃ upaṭṭhapetvā sampiyāyamāno tasmiṃ ārammaṇe cittaṃ upanibandhati 'addhā imāya paṭipadāya jarāmaraṇamhā muccissāmī'ti.
Having done that, and seeing its advantages and perceiving it as a treasure, building up respect for it, making it dear to him, he anchors his mind to that object, thinking, ‘Surely in this way I shall be freed from aging and death.’
So vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatī"ti.
Secluded from sense desires … he enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna …”
Tattha yena atītabhavepi sāsane vā isipabbajjāya vā pabbajitvā pathavīkasiṇe catukkapañcakajjhānāni nibbattitapubbāni, evarūpassa puññavato upanissayasampannassa akatāya pathaviyā kasitaṭṭhāne vā khalamaṇḍale vā nimittaṃ uppajjati, mallakattherassa viya.
23. Herein, when in a previous becoming a man has gone forth into homelessness in the Dispensation or [outside it] with the rishis’ going forth and has already produced the jhāna tetrad or pentad on the earth kasiṇa, and so has such merit and the support [of past practice of jhāna] as well, then the sign arises in him on earth that is not made up, that is to say, on a ploughed area or on a threshing floor, as in the Elder Mallaka’s case.
Tassa kirāyasmato kasitaṭṭhānaṃ olokentassa taṃṭhānappamāṇameva nimittaṃ udapādi.
It seems that while that venerable one was looking at a ploughed area the sign arose in him the size of that area.
So taṃ vaḍḍhetvā pañcakajjhānāni nibbattetvā jhānapadaṭṭhānaṃ vipassanaṃ paṭṭhapetvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi.
He extended it and attained the jhāna pentad. Then by establishing insight with the jhāna as the basis for it, he reached Arahantship.
Yo panevaṃ akatādhikāro hoti, tena ācariyasantike uggahitakammaṭṭhānavidhānaṃ avirādhetvā cattāro kasiṇadose pariharantena kasiṇaṃ kātabbaṃ.
[MAKING AN EARTH KASIṆA] 24. But when a man has had no such previous practice, he should make a kasiṇa, guarding against the four faults of a kasiṇa and not overlooking any of the directions for the meditation subject learnt from the teacher.
Nīlapītalohitaodātasambhedavasena hi cattāro pathavīkasiṇadosā.
Now, the four faults of the earth kasiṇa are due to the intrusion of blue, yellow, red or white.
Tasmā nīlādivaṇṇaṃ mattikaṃ aggahetvā gaṅgāvahe mattikāsadisāya aruṇavaṇṇāya mattikāya kasiṇaṃ kātabbaṃ.
So instead of using clay of such colours, he should make the kasiṇa of clay like that in the stream of the Gangā,5 which is the colour of the dawn.
Tañca kho vihāramajjhe sāmaṇerādīnaṃ sañcaraṇaṭṭhāne na kātabbaṃ.
And he should make it not in the middle of the monastery in a place where novices, etc., are about
Vihārapaccante pana paṭicchannaṭṭhāne pabbhāre vā paṇṇasālāya vā saṃhārimaṃ vā tatraṭṭhakaṃ vā kātabbaṃ.
but on the confines of the monastery in a screened place, either under an overhanging rock or in a leaf hut. He can make it either portable or as a fixture.
Tatra saṃhārimaṃ catūsu daṇḍakesu pilotikaṃ vā cammaṃ vā kaṭasārakaṃ vā bandhitvā tattha apanītatiṇamūlasakkharakathalikāya sumadditāya mattikāya vuttappamāṇaṃ vaṭṭaṃ limpetvā kātabbaṃ.
25.Of these, a portable one should be made by tying rags of leather or matting onto four sticks and smearing thereon a disk of the size already mentioned, using clay picked clean of grass, roots, gravel, and sand, and well kneaded.
Taṃ parikammakāle bhūmiyaṃ attharitvā oloketabbaṃ.
At the time of the preliminary work it should be laid on the ground and looked at.
Tatraṭṭhakaṃ bhūmiyaṃ padumakaṇṇikākārena khāṇuke ākoṭetvā vallīhi vinandhitvā kātabbaṃ.
A fixture should be made by knocking stakes into the ground in the form of a lotus calyx, lacing them over with creepers.
Yadi sā mattikā nappahoti, adho aññaṃ pakkhipitvā uparibhāge suparisodhitāya aruṇavaṇṇāya mattikāya vidatthicaturaṅgulavitthāraṃ vaṭṭaṃ kātabbaṃ.
If the clay is insufficient, then other clay should be put underneath and a disk a span and four fingers across made on top of that with the quite pure dawn-coloured clay.
Etadeva hi pamāṇaṃ sandhāya "suppamattaṃ vā sarāvamattaṃ vā"ti vuttaṃ.
For it was with reference only to measurement that it was said above either the size of a bushel or the size of a saucer (§22).
"Sāntake no anantake"tiādi panassa paricchedatthāya vuttaṃ.
But that is bounded, not unbounded was said to show its delimitedness.
56.Tasmā evaṃ vuttappamāṇaparicchedaṃ katvā rukkhapāṇikā visabhāgavaṇṇaṃ samuṭṭhapeti.
26. So, having thus made it delimited and of the size prescribed, he should scrape it down with a stone trowel—a wooden trowel turns it a bad colour,
Tasmā taṃ aggahetvā pāsāṇapāṇikāya ghaṃsetvā samaṃ bherītalasadisaṃ katvā taṃ ṭhānaṃ sammajjitvā nhatvā āgantvā kasiṇamaṇḍalato aḍḍhateyyahatthantare padese paññatte vidatthicaturaṅgulapādake suatthate pīṭhe nisīditabbaṃ.
so that should not be employed—and make it as even as the surface of a drum. Then he should sweep the place out and have a bath. On his return he should seat himself on a well-covered chair with legs a span and four fingers high, prepared in a place that is two and a half cubits [that is, two and a half times elbow to finger-tip] from the kasiṇa disk.
Tato dūratare nisinnassa hi kasiṇaṃ na upaṭṭhāti, āsannatare kasiṇadosā paññāyanti.
For the kasiṇa does not appear plainly to him if he sits further off than that; and if he sits nearer than that, faults in the kasiṇa appear.
Uccatare nisinnena gīvaṃ onamitvā oloketabbaṃ hoti, nīcatare jaṇṇukāni rujanti.
If he sits higher up, he has to look at it with his neck bent; and if he sits lower down, his knees ache.
Tasmā vuttanayeneva nisīditvā "appassādā kāmā"tiādinā nayena kāmesu ādīnavaṃ paccavekkhitvā kāmanissaraṇe sabbadukkhasamatikkamupāyabhūte nekkhamme jātābhilāsena buddhadhammasaṅghaguṇānussaraṇena pītipāmojjaṃ janayitvā "ayaṃ dāni sā sabbabuddha paccekabuddha ariyasāvakehi paṭipannā nekkhammapaṭipadā"ti paṭipattiyā sañjātagāravena "addhā imāya paṭipadāya pavivekasukharasassa bhāgī bhavissāmī"ti ussāhaṃ janayitvā samena ākārena cakkhūni ummīletvā nimittaṃ gaṇhantena bhāvetabbaṃ.
[STARTING CONTEMPLATION] 27.So, after seating himself in the way stated, he should review the dangers in sense desires in the way beginning, “Sense desires give little enjoyment” (M I 91) and arouse longing for the escape from sense desires, for the renunciation that is the means to the surmounting of all suffering. He should next arouse joy of happiness by recollecting the special qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; then awe by thinking, “Now, this is the way of renunciation entered upon by all Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas and noble disciples”; and then eagerness by thinking, “In this way I shall surely come to know the taste of the bliss-(sukha) of seclusion.” [125] After that he should open his eyes moderately, apprehend the sign, and so proceed to develop it. 6
Atiummīlayato hi cakkhu kilamati, maṇḍalañca ativibhūtaṃ hoti, tenassa nimittaṃ nuppajjati.
28.If he opens his eyes too wide, they get fatigued and the disk becomes too obvious, which prevents the sign becoming apparent to him.
Atimandaṃ ummīlayato maṇḍalamavibhūtaṃ hoti, cittañca līnaṃ hoti, evampi nimittaṃ nuppajjati.
If he opens them too little, the disk is not obvious enough, and his mind becomes drowsy, which also prevents the sign becoming apparent to him.
Tasmā ādāsatale mukhanimittadassinā viya samenākārena cakkhūni ummīletvā nimittaṃ gaṇhantena bhāvetabbaṃ, na vaṇṇo paccavekkhitabbo, na lakkhaṇaṃ manasikātabbaṃ.
So he should develop it by apprehending the sign (nimitta), keeping his eyes open moderately, as if he were seeing the reflection of his face (mukha-nimitta) on the surface of a looking- glass. 7 29.The colour should not be reviewed. The characteristic should not be given attention.8
Apica vaṇṇaṃ amuñcitvā nissayasavaṇṇaṃ katvā ussadavasena paṇṇattidhamme cittaṃ paṭṭhapetvā manasi kātabbaṃ.
But rather, while not ignoring the colour, attention should be given by setting the mind on the [name] concept as the most outstanding mental datum, relegating the colour to the position of a property of its physical support.
Pathavī mahī, medinī, bhūmi, vasudhā, vasundharātiādīsu pathavīnāmesu yamicchati, yadassa saññānukūlaṃ hoti, taṃ vattabbaṃ.
That [conceptual state] can be called by anyone he likes among the names for earth (pathavī) such as “earth” (pathavī), “the Great One” (mahī), “the Friendly One” (medinī), “ground” (bhūmi), “the Provider of Wealth” (vasudhā), “the Bearer of Wealth” (vasudharā), etc., whichever suits his manner of perception.
Apica pathavīti etadeva nāmaṃ pākaṭaṃ, tasmā pākaṭavaseneva pathavī pathavīti bhāvetabbaṃ.
Still “earth” is also a name that is obvious, so it can be developed with the obvious one by saying “earth, earth.”
Kālena ummīletvā kālena nimīletvā āvajjitabbaṃ.
It should be adverted to now with eyes open, now with eyes shut.
Yāva uggahanimittaṃ nuppajjati, tāva kālasatampi kālasahassampi tato bhiyyopi eteneva nayena bhāvetabbaṃ.
And he should go on developing it in this way a hundred times, a thousand times, and even more than that, until the learning sign arises.
57.Tassevaṃ bhāvayato yadā nimīletvā āvajjantassa ummīlitakāle viya āpāthamāgacchati, tadā uggahanimittaṃ jātaṃ nāma hoti.
30. When, while he is developing it in this way, it comes into focus9 as he adverts with his eyes shut exactly as it does with his eyes open, then the learning sign is said to have been produced.
Tassa jātakālato paṭṭhāya na tasmiṃ ṭhāne nisīditabbaṃ.
After its production he should no longer sit in that place;10
Attano vasanaṭṭhānaṃ pavisitvā tattha nisinnena bhāvetabbaṃ.
he should return to his own quarters and go on developing it sitting there.
Pādadhovanapapañcaparihāratthaṃ panassa ekapaṭalikupāhanā ca kattaradaṇḍo ca icchitabbo.
But in order to avoid the delay of foot washing, a pair of single- soled sandals and a walking stick are desirable.
Athānena sace taruṇo samādhi kenacideva asappāyakāraṇena nassati, upāhanā āruyha kattaradaṇḍaṃ gahetvā taṃ ṭhānaṃ gantvā nimittaṃ ādāya āgantvā sukhanisinnena bhāvetabbaṃ, punappunaṃ samannāharitabbaṃ, takkāhataṃ vitakkāhataṃ kātabbaṃ.
Then if the new concentration vanishes through some unsuitable encounter, he can put his sandals on, take his walking stick, and go back to the place to re-apprehend the sign there. When he returns he should seat himself comfortably and develop it by reiterated reaction to it and by striking at it with thought and applied thought.
Tassevaṃ karontassa anukkamena nīvaraṇāni vikkhambhanti, kilesā sannisīdanti, upacārasamādhinā cittaṃ samādhiyati, paṭibhāganimittaṃ uppajjati.
[THE COUNTERPART SIGN] 31. As he does so, the hindrances eventually become suppressed, the defilements subside, the mind becomes concentrated with access concentration, and the counterpart sign arises.
Tatrāyaṃ purimassa ca uggahanimittassa imassa ca viseso, uggahanimitte kasiṇadoso paññāyati, paṭibhāganimittaṃ thavikato nihatādāsamaṇḍalaṃ viya sudhotasaṅkhathālaṃ viya valāhakantarā nikkhantacandamaṇḍalaṃ viya meghamukhe balākā viya uggahanimittaṃ padāletvā nikkhantamiva tato sataguṇaṃ sahassaguṇaṃ suparisuddhaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti.
The difference between the earlier learning sign and the counterpart sign is this. In the learning sign any fault in the kasiṇa is apparent. But the counterpart sign [126] appears as if breaking out from the learning sign, and a hundred times, a thousand times more purified, like a looking-glass disk drawn from its case, like a mother-of-pearl dish well washed, like the moon’s disk coming out from behind a cloud, like cranes against a thunder cloud.
Tañca kho neva vaṇṇavantaṃ, na saṇṭhānavantaṃ.
But it has neither colour nor shape;
Yadi hi taṃ īdisaṃ bhaveyya, cakkhuviññeyyaṃ siyā oḷārikaṃ sammasanupagaṃ tilakkhaṇabbhāhataṃ, na panetaṃ tādisaṃ.
for if it had, it would be cognizable by the eye, gross, susceptible of comprehension [by insight—(see XX.2f.)] and stamped with the three characteristics. 11 But it is not like that.
Kevalañhi samādhilābhino upaṭṭhānākāramattaṃ saññajametanti.
For it is born only of perception in one who has obtained concentration, being a mere mode of appearance.12
58.Uppannakālato ca panassa paṭṭhāya nīvaraṇāni vikkhambhitāneva honti, kilesā sannisinnāva, upacārasamādhinā cittaṃ samāhitamevāti.
But as soon as it arises the hindrances are quite suppressed, the defilements subside, and the mind becomes concentrated in access concentration.
Duvidho hi samādhi upacārasamādhi ca appanāsamādhi ca.
[THE TWO KINDS OF CONCENTRATION] 32.Now, concentration is of two kinds, that is to say, access concentration and absorption concentration:
Dvīhākārehi cittaṃ samādhiyati upacārabhūmiyaṃ vā paṭilābhabhūmiyaṃ vā.
the mind becomes concentrated in two ways, that is, on the plane of access and on the plane of obtainment.
Tattha upacārabhūmiyaṃ nīvaraṇappahānena cittaṃ samāhitaṃ hoti.
Herein, the mind becomes concentrated on the plane of access by the abandonment of the hindrances,
Paṭilābhabhūmiyaṃ aṅgapātubhāvena.
and on the plane of obtainment by the manifestation of the jhāna factors.
Dvinnaṃ pana samādhīnaṃ idaṃ nānākāraṇaṃ, upacāre aṅgāni na thāmajātāni honti, aṅgānaṃ athāmajātattā, yathā nāma daharo kumārako ukkhipitvā ṭhapiyamāno punappunaṃ bhūmiyaṃ patati, evameva upacāre uppanne cittaṃ kālena nimittamārammaṇaṃ karoti, kālena bhavaṅgamotarati.
33.The difference between the two kinds of concentration is this. The factors are not strong in access. It is because they are not strong that when access has arisen, the mind now makes the sign its object and now re-enters the life- continuum,13 just as when a young child is lifted up and stood on its feet, it repeatedly falls down on the ground.
Appanāyaṃ pana aṅgāni thāmajātāni honti, tesaṃ thāmajātattā, yathā nāma balavā puriso āsanā vuṭṭhāya divasampi tiṭṭheyya, evameva appanāsamādhimhi uppanne cittaṃ sakiṃ bhavaṅgavāraṃ chinditvā kevalampi rattiṃ kevalampi divasaṃ tiṭṭhati, kusalajavanapaṭipāṭivaseneva pavattatīti.
But the factors are strong in absorption. It is because they are strong that when absorption concentration has arisen, the mind, having once interrupted the flow of the life-continuum, carries on with a stream of profitable impulsion for a whole night and for a whole day, just as a healthy man, after rising from his seat, could stand for a whole day.
Tatra yadetaṃ upacārasamādhinā saddhiṃ paṭibhāganimittaṃ uppannaṃ, tassa uppādanaṃ nāma atidukkaraṃ.
34. The arousing of the counterpart sign, which arises together with access concentration, is very difficult.
Tasmā sace teneva pallaṅkena taṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhetvā appanaṃ adhigantuṃ sakkoti, sundaraṃ.
Therefore if he is able to arrive at absorption in that same session by extending the sign, it is good.
No ce sakkoti, athānena taṃ nimittaṃ appamattena cakkavattigabbho viya rakkhitabbaṃ.
If not, then he must guard the sign diligently as if it were the foetus of a Wheel-turning Monarch (World-ruler).
Evañhi –
Nimittaṃ rakkhato laddha-parihāni na vijjati;
So guard the sign, nor count the cost, And what is gained will not be lost;
Ārakkhamhi asantamhi, laddhaṃ laddhaṃ vinassati.
Who fails to have this guard maintained Will lose each time what he has gained.
Sattasappāyā Table view Original pali

4.5 Sattasappāyā

59.Tatrāyaṃ rakkhaṇavidhi –
35.Herein, the way of guarding it is this:
Āvāso gocaro bhassaṃ, puggalo bhojanaṃ utu;
(1) Abode, (2) resort, (3) and speech, (4) and person, (5) The food, (6) the climate,
Iriyāpathoti sattete, asappāye vivajjaye.
(7) and the posture— Eschew these seven different kinds Whenever found unsuitable.
Sappāye satta sevetha, evañhi paṭipajjato;
But cultivate the suitable; For one perchance so doing finds
Nacireneva kālena, hoti kassaci appanā.
He need not wait too long until Absorption shall his wish fulfil.
Tatrassa yasmiṃ āvāse vasantassa anuppannaṃ vā nimittaṃ nuppajjati, uppannaṃ vā vinassati, anupaṭṭhitā ca sati na upaṭṭhāti, asamāhitañca cittaṃ na samādhiyati, ayaṃ asappāyo.
36.1. Herein, an abode is unsuitable if, while he lives in it, the unarisen sign does not arise in him or is lost when it arises, and where unestablished mindfulness fails to become established and the unconcentrated mind fails to become concentrated.
Yattha nimittaṃ uppajjati ceva thāvarañca hoti, sati upaṭṭhāti, cittaṃ samādhiyati nāgapabbatavāsīpadhāniyatissattherassa viya, ayaṃ sappāyo.
That is suitable in which the sign arises and becomes confirmed, in which mindfulness becomes established and the mind becomes concentrated, as in the Elder Padhāniya-Tissa, resident at Nāgapabbata.
Tasmā yasmiṃ vihāre bahū āvāsā honti, tattha ekamekasmiṃ tīṇi tīṇi divasāni vasitvā yatthassa cittaṃ ekaggaṃ hoti, tattha vasitabbaṃ.
So if a monastery has many abodes he can try them one by one, living in each for three days, and stay on where his mind becomes unified.
Āvāsasappāyatāya hi tambapaṇṇidīpamhi cūḷanāgaleṇe vasantā tattheva kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā pañcasatā bhikkhū arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu.
For it was due to suitability of abode that five hundred bhikkhus reached Arahantship while still dwelling in the Lesser Nāga Cave (Cūḷa-nāga-leṇa) in Tambapaṇṇi Island (Sri Lanka) after apprehending their meditation subject there.
Sotāpannādīnaṃ pana aññattha ariyabhūmiṃ patvā tattha arahattappattānañca gaṇanā natthi.
There is no counting the stream- enterers who have reached Arahantship there after reaching the noble plane elsewhere;
Evamaññesupi cittalapabbatavihārādīsu.
so too in the monastery of Cittalapabbata, and others.
Gocaragāmo pana yo senāsanato uttarena vā dakkhiṇena vā nātidūre diyaḍḍhakosabbhantare hoti sulabhasampannabhikkho, so sappāyo.
37. 2. An alms-resort village lying to the north or south of the lodging, not too far, within one kosa and a half, and where alms food is easily obtained, is suitable.
Viparīto asappāyo.
The opposite kind is unsuitable. 14
Bhassanti dvattiṃsatiracchānakathāpariyāpannaṃ asappāyaṃ, tañhissa nimittantaradhānāya saṃvattati.
38.3. Speech: that included in the thirty-two kinds of aimless talk is unsuitable; for it leads to the disappearance of the sign.
Dasakathāvatthunissitaṃ sappāyaṃ, tampi mattāya bhāsitabbaṃ.
But talk based on the ten examples of talk is suitable, though even that should be discussed with moderation. 15
Puggalopi atiracchānakathiko sīlādiguṇasampanno, yaṃ nissāya asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ thirataraṃ hoti, evarūpo sappāyo.
39. 4. Person: one not given to aimless talk, who has the special qualities of virtue, etc., by acquaintanceship with whom the unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated, or the concentrated mind becomes more so, is suitable.
Kāyadaḷhībahulo pana tiracchānakathiko asappāyo.
One who is much concerned with his body,16 who is addicted to aimless talk, is unsuitable;
So hi taṃ kaddamodakamiva acchaṃ udakaṃ malīnameva karoti, tādisañca āgamma koṭapabbatavāsīdaharasseva samāpattipi nassati, pageva nimittaṃ.
for he only creates disturbances, like muddy water added to clear water. And it was owing to one such as this that the attainments of the young bhikkhu who lived at Koá¹­apabbata vanished, not to mention the sign.
Bhojanaṃ pana kassaci madhuraṃ, kassaci ambilaṃ sappāyaṃ hoti.
40. 5. Food: Sweet food suits one, sour food another.
Utupi kassaci sīto, kassaci uṇho sappāyo hoti.
6. Climate: a cool climate suits one, a warm one another.
Tasmā yaṃ bhojanaṃ vā utuṃ vā sevantassa phāsu hoti, asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhitaṃ vā thirataraṃ hoti, taṃ bhojanaṃ so ca utu sappāyo.
So when he finds that by using certain food or by living in a certain climate he is comfortable, or his unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated, or his concentrated mind becomes more so, then that food or that climate is suitable.
Itaraṃ bhojanaṃ itaro ca utu asappāyo.
Any other food or climate is unsuitable.
Iriyāpathesupi kassaci caṅkamo sappāyo hoti, kassaci sayanaṭṭhānanisajjānaṃ aññataro.
41. 7. Postures: walking suits one; standing or sitting or lying down suits another.
Tasmā taṃ āvāsaṃ viya tīṇi divasāni upaparikkhitvā yasmiṃ iriyāpathe asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhitaṃ vā thirataraṃ hoti, so sappāyo.
So he should try them, like the abode, for three days each, and that posture is suitable in which his unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated or his concentrated mind becomes more so.
Itaro asappāyoti veditabbo.
Any other should be understood as unsuitable.
Iti imaṃ sattavidhaṃ asappāyaṃ vajjetvā sappāyaṃ sevitabbaṃ.
So he should avoid the seven unsuitable kinds and cultivate the suitable.
Evaṃ paṭipannassa hi nimittāsevanabahulassa nacireneva kālena hoti kassaci appanā.
For when he practices in this way, assiduously cultivating the sign, then, “he need not wait too long until absorption shall his wish fulfil. ”
Dasavidhaappanākosallaṃ Table view Original pali

4.6 Dasavidhaappanākosallaṃ

60.Yassa pana evampi paṭipajjato na hoti, tena dasavidhaṃ appanākosallaṃ sampādetabbaṃ.
42.However, if this does not happen while he is practicing in this way, then he should have recourse to the ten kinds of skill in absorption.
Tatrāyaṃ nayo, dasāhākārehi appanākosallaṃ icchitabbaṃ, vatthuvisadakiriyato, indriyasamattapaṭipādanato, nimittakusalato, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggahetabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggaṇhāti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggahetabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggaṇhāti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃsitabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃseti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhitabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanato, samāhitapuggalasevanato, tadadhimuttatoti.
Here is the method. Skill in absorption needs [to be dealt with in] ten aspects: (1) making the basis clean, (2) maintaining balanced faculties, (3) skill in the sign, (4) he exerts the mind on an occasion when it should be exerted, (5) he restrains the mind on an occasion when it should be restrained, (6) he encourages the mind on an occasion when it should be encouraged, (7) he looks on at the mind with equanimity when it should be looked on at with equanimity, (8) avoidance of unconcentrated persons, (9) cultivation of concentrated persons, (10) resoluteness upon that (concentration).
61.Tattha vatthuvisadakiriyā nāma ajjhattikabāhirānaṃ vatthūnaṃ visadabhāvakaraṇaṃ.
43.1. Herein, making the basis clean is cleansing the internal and the external basis.
Yadā hissa kesanakhalomāni dīghāni honti, sarīraṃ vā sedamalaggahitaṃ, tadā ajjhattikavatthu avisadaṃ hoti aparisuddhaṃ.
For when his head hair, nails and body hair are long, or when the body is soaked with sweat, then the internal basis is unclean and unpurified.
Yadā panassa cīvaraṃ jiṇṇaṃ kiliṭṭhaṃ duggandhaṃ hoti, senāsanaṃ vā uklāpaṃ hoti, tadā bāhiravatthu avisadaṃ hoti aparisuddhaṃ.
But when an old dirty smelly robe is worn or when the lodging is dirty, then the external basis is unclean and unpurified.
Ajjhattikabāhire ca vatthumhi avisade uppannesu cittacetasikesu ñāṇampi aparisuddhaṃ hoti, aparisuddhāni dīpakapallikavaṭṭitelāni nissāya uppannadīpasikhāya obhāso viya.
When the internal and external bases are unclean, then the knowledge in the consciousness and consciousness- concomitants that arise is unpurified, like the light of a lamp’s flame that arises with an unpurified lamp-bowl, wick and oil as its support;
Aparisuddhena ñāṇena saṅkhāre sammasato saṅkhārāpi avibhūtā honti, kammaṭṭhānamanuyuñjato kammaṭṭhānampi vuḍḍhiṃ viruḷhiṃ vepullaṃ na gacchati.
formations do not become evident to one who tries to comprehend them with unpurified knowledge, and when he devotes himself to his meditation subject, it does not come to growth, increase and fulfilment.
Visade pana ajjhattikabāhire vatthumhi uppannesu cittacetasikesu ñāṇampi visadaṃ hoti parisuddhaṃ, parisuddhāni dīpakapallikavaṭṭitelāni nissāya uppannadīpasikhāya obhāso viya.
44.But when the internal and external bases are clean, then the knowledge in the consciousness and consciousness-concomitants that arise is clean and purified, like the light of a lamp’s flame that arises with a purified lamp bowl, wick and oil as its support;
Parisuddhena ca ñāṇena saṅkhāre sammasato saṅkhārāpi vibhūtā honti, kammaṭṭhānamanuyuñjato kammaṭṭhānampi vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ gacchati.
formations become evident to one who tries to comprehend them with purified knowledge, and as he devotes himself to his meditation subject, it comes to growth, increase and fulfilment.
62.Indriyasamattapaṭipādanaṃnāma saddhādīnaṃ indriyānaṃ samabhāvakaraṇaṃ.
45. 2. Maintaining balanced faculties is equalizing the [five] faculties of faith and the rest.
Sace hissa saddhindriyaṃ balavaṃ hoti itarāni mandāni, tato vīriyindriyaṃ paggahakiccaṃ, satindriyaṃ upaṭṭhānakiccaṃ, samādhindriyaṃ avikkhepakiccaṃ, paññindriyaṃ dassanakiccaṃ kātuṃ na sakkoti, tasmā taṃ dhammasabhāvapaccavekkhaṇena vā yathā vā manasikaroto balavaṃ jātaṃ, tathā amanasikārena hāpetabbaṃ.
For if his faith faculty is strong and the others weak, then the energy faculty cannot perform its function of exerting, the mindfulness faculty its function of establishing, the concentration faculty its function of not distracting, and the understanding faculty its function of seeing. So in that case the faith faculty should be modified either by reviewing the individual essences of the states [concerned, that is, the objects of attention] or by not giving [them] attention in the way in which the faith faculty became too strong.
Vakkalittheravatthu cettha nidassanaṃ.
And this is illustrated by the story of the Elder Vakkali (S III 119).
Sace pana vīriyindriyaṃ balavaṃ hoti, atha neva saddhindriyaṃ adhimokkhakiccaṃ kātuṃ sakkoti, na itarāni itarakiccabhedaṃ, tasmā taṃ passaddhādibhāvanāya hāpetabbaṃ.
46.Then if the energy faculty is too strong, the faith faculty cannot perform its function of resolving, nor can the rest of the faculties perform their several functions. So in that case the energy faculty should be modified by developing tranquillity, and so on.
Tatrāpi soṇattheravatthu dassetabbaṃ.
And this should be illustrated by the story of the Elder Soṇa (Vin I 179–85; A III 374–76).
Evaṃ sesesupi ekassa balavabhāve sati itaresaṃ attano kiccesu asamatthatā veditabbā.
So too with the rest; for it should be understood that when anyone of them is too strong the others cannot perform their several functions.
Visesato panettha saddhāpaññānaṃ samādhivīriyānañca samataṃ pasaṃsanti.
47. However, what is particularly recommended is balancing faith with understanding, and concentration with energy.
Balavasaddho hi mandapañño muddhappasanno hoti, avatthusmiṃ pasīdati.
For one strong in faith and weak in understanding has confidence uncritically and groundlessly.
Balavapañño mandasaddho kerāṭikapakkhaṃ bhajati, bhesajjasamuṭṭhito viya rogo atekiccho hoti.
One strong in understanding and weak in faith errs on the side of cunning and is as hard to cure as one sick of a disease caused by medicine.
Ubhinnaṃ samatāya vatthusmiṃyeva pasīdati.
With the balancing of the two a man has confidence only when there are grounds for it.
Balavasamādhiṃ pana mandavīriyaṃ samādhissa kosajjapakkhattā kosajjaṃ abhibhavati.
Then idleness overpowers one strong in concentration and weak in energy, since concentration favours idleness.
Balavavīriyaṃ mandasamādhiṃ vīriyassa uddhaccapakkhattā uddhaccaṃ abhibhavati.
Agitation overpowers one strong in energy and weak in concentration, since energy favours agitation.
Samādhi pana vīriyena saṃyojito kosajje patituṃ na labhati.
But concentration coupled with energy cannot lapse into idleness,
Vīriyaṃ samādhinā saṃyojitaṃ uddhacce patituṃ na labhati, tasmā tadubhayaṃ samaṃ kātabbaṃ.
and energy coupled with concentration cannot lapse into agitation. So these two should be balanced;
Ubhayasamatāya hi appanā hoti.
for absorption comes with the balancing of the two.
Apica samādhikammikassa balavatīpi saddhā vaṭṭati.
48. Again, [concentration and faith should be balanced]. One working on concentration needs strong faith,
Evaṃ saddahanto okappento appanaṃ pāpuṇissati.
since it is with such faith and confidence that he reaches absorption.
Samādhipaññāsu pana samādhikammikassa ekaggatā balavatī vaṭṭati.
Then there is [balancing of] concentration and understanding. One working on concentration needs strong unification,
Evañhi so appanaṃ pāpuṇāti.
since that is how he reaches absorption;
Vipassanākammikassa paññā balavatī vaṭṭati.
and one working on insight needs strong understanding,
Evañhi so lakkhaṇapaṭivedhaṃ pāpuṇāti.
since that is how he reaches penetration of characteristics;
Ubhinnaṃ pana samatāyapi appanā hotiyeva.
but with the balancing of the two he reaches absorption as well.
Sati pana sabbattha balavatī vaṭṭati.
49. Strong mindfulness, however, is needed in all instances;
Sati hi cittaṃ uddhaccapakkhikānaṃ saddhāvīriyapaññānaṃ vasena uddhaccapātato kosajjapakkhena ca samādhinā kosajjapātato rakkhati, tasmā sā loṇadhūpanaṃ viya sabbabyañjanesu, sabbakammikaamacco viya ca sabbarājakiccesu sabbattha icchitabbā.
for mindfulness protects the mind from lapsing into agitation through faith, energy and understanding, which favour agitation, and from lapsing into idleness through concentration, which favours idleness. So it is as desirable in all instances as a seasoning of salt in all sauces, as a prime minister in all the king’s business.
Tenāha – "sati ca pana sabbatthikā vuttā bhagavatā.
Hence it is said [in the commentaries (D-a 788, M-a I 292, etc)]: “And mindfulness has been called universal by the Blessed One.
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
For what reason?
Cittañhi satipaṭisaraṇaṃ, ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā ca sati, na vinā satiyā cittassa paggahaniggaho hotī"ti.
Because the mind has mindfulness as its refuge, and mindfulness is manifested as protection, and there is no exertion and restraint of the mind without mindfulness. ”
63.Nimittakosallaṃ nāma pathavīkasiṇādikassa cittekaggatānimittassa akatassa karaṇakosallaṃ, katassa ca bhāvanākosallaṃ, bhāvanāya laddhassa rakkhaṇakosallañca, taṃ idha adhippetaṃ.
50. 3. Skill in the sign is skill in producing the as yet unproduced sign of unification of mind through the earth kasiṇa, etc.; and it is skill in developing [the sign] when produced, and skill in protecting [the sign] when obtained by development. The last is what is intended here.
64.Kathañca yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggahetabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggaṇhāti?
51. 4. How does he exert the mind on an occasion when it should be exerted?
Yadāssa atisithilavīriyatādīhi līnaṃ cittaṃ hoti, tadā passaddhisambojjhaṅgādayo tayo abhāvetvā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgādayo bhāveti.
When his mind is slack with over-laxness of energy, etc., then, instead of developing the three enlightenment factors beginning with tranquillity, he should develop those beginning with investigation-of-states.
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –
For this is said by the Blessed One:
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso parittaṃ aggiṃ ujjāletukāmo assa, so tattha allāni ceva tiṇāni pakkhipeyya, allāni ca gomayāni pakkhipeyya, allāni ca kaṭṭhāni pakkhipeyya, udakavātañca dadeyya, paṃsukena ca okireyya, bhabbo nu kho so, bhikkhave, puriso parittaṃ aggiṃ ujjāletunti?
“Bhikkhus, suppose a man wanted to make a small fire burn up, and he put wet grass on it, put wet cow-dung on it, put wet sticks on it, sprinkled it with water, and scattered dust on it, would that man be able to make the small fire burn up?” [131]
No hetaṃ, bhante.
—“No, venerable sir.”
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yasmiṃ samaye līnaṃ cittaṃ hoti, akālo tasmiṃ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, akālo samādhi - pe - akālo upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya.
—“So too, bhikkhus, when the mind is slack, that is not the time to develop the tranquillity enlightenment factor, the concentration enlightenment factor or the equanimity enlightenment factor.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Līnaṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, taṃ etehi dhammehi dusamuṭṭhāpayaṃ hoti.
Because a slack mind cannot well be roused by those states.
Yasmiṃ ca kho, bhikkhave, līnaṃ cittaṃ hoti, kālo tasmiṃ samaye dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, kālo vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, kālo pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya.
When the mind is slack, that is the time to develop the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor, the energy enlightenment factor and the happiness enlightenment factor.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Līnaṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, taṃ etehi dhammehi susamuṭṭhāpayaṃ hoti.
Because a slack mind can well be roused by those states.
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso parittaṃ aggiṃ ujjāletukāmo assa, so tattha sukkhāni ceva tiṇāni pakkhipeyya, sukkhāni ca gomayāni pakkhipeyya, sukkhāni ca kaṭṭhāni pakkhipeyya, mukhavātañca dadeyya, na ca paṃsukena okireyya, bhabbo nu kho so, bhikkhave, puriso parittaṃ aggiṃ ujjāletunti?
“Bhikkhus, suppose a man wanted to make a small fire burn up, and he put dry grass on it, put dry cow-dung on it, put dry sticks on it, blew on it with his mouth, and did not scatter dust on it, would that man be able to make that small fire burn up?”
Evaṃ bhante"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.234).
—“Yes, venerable sir” (S V 112).
Ettha ca yathāsakamāhāravasena dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgādīnaṃ bhāvanā veditabbā.
52. And here the development of the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor, etc., should be understood as the nutriment for each one respectively,
Vuttañhetaṃ –
for this is said:
"Atthi, bhikkhave, kusalākusalā dhammā sāvajjānavajjā dhammā hīnappaṇītā dhammā kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā.
“Bhikkhus, there are profitable and unprofitable states, reprehensible and blameless states, inferior and superior states, dark and bright states the counterpart of each other.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Wise attention much practiced therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen investigation-of-states enlightenment factor, or leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen investigation-of-states enlightenment factor.”
Tathā "atthi, bhikkhave, ārambhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu.
Likewise: “Bhikkhus there is the element of initiative, the element of launching, and the element of persistence.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Wise attention much practiced therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen energy enlightenment factor, or leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen energy enlightenment factors.”
Tathā "atthi, bhikkhave, pītisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhāniyā dhammā.
Likewise: “Bhikkhus, there are states productive of the happiness enlightenment factor.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Wise attention much practiced therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen happiness enlightenment factor, or leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen happiness enlightenment factor” (S V 104).
Tattha sabhāvasāmaññalakkhaṇapaṭivedhavasena pavattamanasikāro kusalādīsu yoniso manasikāro nāma.
53. Herein, wise attention given to the profitable, etc., is attention occurring in penetration of individual essences and of [the three] general characteristics.
Ārambhadhātuādīnaṃ uppādanavasena pavattamanasikāro ārambhadhātuādīsu yoniso manasikāro nāma.
Wise attention given to the element of initiative, etc., is attention occurring in the arousing of the element of initiative, and so on.
Tattha ārambhadhātūti paṭhamavīriyaṃ vuccati.
Herein, initial energy is called the element of initiative.
Nikkamadhātūti kosajjato nikkhantattā tato balavataraṃ.
The element of launching is stronger than that because it launches out from idleness.
Parakkamadhātūti paraṃ paraṃ ṭhānaṃ akkamanato tatopi balavataraṃ.
The element of persistence is still stronger than that because it goes on persisting in successive later stages.
Pītisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhāniyā dhammāti pana pītiyā eva etaṃ nāmaṃ.
States productive of the happiness enlightenment factor is a name for happiness itself;
Tassāpi uppādakamanasikārova yoniso manasikāro nāma.
and attention that arouses that is wise attention.
Apica satta dhammā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti paripucchakatā, vatthuvisadakiriyā, indriyasamattapaṭipādanā, duppaññapuggalaparivajjanā, paññavantapuggalasevanā, gambhīrañāṇacariyapaccavekkhaṇā, tadadhimuttatāti.
54.There are, besides, seven things that lead to the arising of the investigation- of-states enlightenment factor: (i) asking questions, (ii) making the basis clean, (iii) balancing the faculties, (iv) avoidance of persons without understanding, (v) cultivation of persons with understanding, (vi) reviewing the field for the exercise of profound knowledge, (vii) resoluteness upon that [investigation of states].
Ekādasadhammā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti apāyādibhayapaccavekkhaṇatā, vīriyāyattalokiyalokuttaravisesādhigamānisaṃsadassitā, "buddhapaccekabuddhamahāsāvakehi gatamaggo mayā gantabbo, so ca na sakkā kusītena gantu"nti evaṃ gamanavīthipaccavekkhaṇatā, dāyakānaṃ mahapphalabhāvakaraṇena piṇḍāpacāyanatā, "vīriyārambhassa vaṇṇavādī me satthā, so ca anatikkamanīyasāsano amhākañca bahūpakāro paṭipattiyā ca pūjiyamāno pūjito hoti na itarathā"ti evaṃ satthu mahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, "saddhammasaṅkhātaṃ me mahādāyajjaṃ gahetabbaṃ, tañca na sakkā kusītena gahetu"nti evaṃ dāyajjamahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, ālokasaññāmanasikārairiyāpathaparivattanaabbhokāsasevanādīhi thinamiddhavinodanatā, kusītapuggalaparivajjanatā, āraddhavīriyapuggalasevanatā, sammappadhānapaccavekkhaṇatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
55. Eleven things lead to the arising of the energy enlightenment factor: (i) reviewing the fearfulness of the states of loss such as the hell realms, etc., (ii) seeing benefit in obtaining the mundane and supramundane distinctions dependent on energy, (iii) reviewing the course of the journey [to be travelled] thus: “The path taken by the Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas, and the great disciples has to be taken by me, and it cannot be taken by an idler,” (iv) being a credit to the alms food by producing great fruit for the givers, (v) reviewing the greatness of the Master thus: “My Master praises the energetic, and this unsurpassable Dispensation that is so helpful to us is honoured in the practice, not otherwise,” (vi) reviewing the greatness of the heritage thus: “It is the great heritage called the Good Dhamma that is to be acquired by me, and it cannot be acquired by an idler,” (vii) removing stiffness and torpor by attention to perception of light, change of postures, frequenting the open air, etc., (viii) avoidance of idle persons, (ix) cultivation of energetic persons, (x) reviewing the right endeavours, (xi) resoluteness upon that [energy].
Ekādasadhammā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti buddhānussati, dhamma… saṅgha… sīla… cāga… devatānussati, upasamānussati, lūkhapuggalaparivajjanatā, siniddhapuggalasevanatā, pasādaniyasuttantapaccavekkhaṇatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
56. Eleven things lead to the arising of the happiness enlightenment factor: the recollections (i) of the Buddha, (ii) of the Dhamma, (iii) of the Sangha, (iv) of virtue, (v) of generosity, and (vi) of deities, (vii) the recollection of peace, [133] (viii) avoidance of rough persons, (ix) cultivation of refined persons, (x) reviewing encouraging discourses, (xi) resoluteness upon that [happiness].
Iti imehi ākārehi ete dhamme uppādento dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgādayo bhāveti nāma.
So by arousing these things in these ways he develops the investigation-of- states enlightenment factor, and the others.
Evaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggahetabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggaṇhāti.
This is how he exerts the mind on an occasion when it should be exerted.
65.Kathaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggahetabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggaṇhāti?
57. 5. How does he restrain the mind on an occasion when it should be restrained?
Yadāssa accāraddhavīriyatādīhi uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti, tadā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgādayo tayo abhāvetvā passaddhisambojjhaṅgādayo bhāveti.
When his mind is agitated through over-energeticness, etc., then, instead of developing the three enlightenment factors beginning with investigation-of- states, he should develop those beginning with tranquillity;
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –
for this is said by the Blessed One:
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ nibbāpetukāmo assa, so tattha sukkhāni ceva tiṇāni pakkhipeyya - pe - na ca paṃsukena okireyya, bhabbo nu kho so, bhikkhave, puriso mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ nibbāpetunti?
“Bhikkhus, suppose a man wanted to extinguish a great mass of fire, and he put dry grass on it … and did not scatter dust on it, would that man be able to extinguish that great mass of fire?”
No hetaṃ, bhante.
—“No, venerable sir.”
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yasmiṃ samaye uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti, akālo tasmiṃ samaye dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, akālo vīriya - pe - akālo pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya.
—“So too, bhikkhus, when the mind is agitated, that is not the time to develop the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor, the energy enlightenment factor or the happiness enlightenment factor.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Uddhataṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, taṃ etehi dhammehi duvūpasamayaṃ hoti.
Because an agitated mind cannot well be quieted by those states.
Yasmiṃ ca kho, bhikkhave, samaye uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti, kālo tasmiṃ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, kālo samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya, kālo upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya.
When the mind is agitated, that is the time to develop the tranquillity enlightenment factor, the concentration enlightenment factor and the equanimity enlightenment factor.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Uddhataṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, taṃ etehi dhammehi suvūpasamayaṃ hoti.
Because an agitated mind can well be quieted by those states. ”
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ nibbāpetukāmo assa, so tattha allāni ceva tiṇāni pakkhipeyya - pe - paṃsukena ca okireyya, bhabbo nu kho so, bhikkhave, puriso mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ nibbāpetunti?
“Bhikkhus, suppose a man wanted to extinguish a great mass of fire, and he put wet grass on it … and scattered dust on it, would that man be able to extinguish that great mass of fire?”
Evaṃ, bhante"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.234).
—“Yes, venerable sir” (S V 114).
Etthāpi yathāsakaṃ āhāravasena passaddhisambojjhaṅgādīnaṃ bhāvanā veditabbā.
58. And here the development of the tranquillity enlightenment factor, etc., should be understood as the nutriment for each one respectively,
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –
for this is said:
"Atthi, bhikkhave, kāyapassaddhi cittapassaddhi.
“Bhikkhus, there is bodily tranquillity and mental tranquillity.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
[134] Wise attention much practiced therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen tranquillity enlightenment factor, or leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen tranquillity enlightenment factor.”
Tathā "atthi, bhikkhave, samathanimittaṃ abyagganimittaṃ.
Likewise: “Bhikkhus, there is the sign of serenity, the sign of non-diversion.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Wise attention, much practiced, therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen concentration enlightenment factor, or it leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen concentration enlightenment factor.”
Tathā "atthi, bhikkhave, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṭṭhāniyā dhammā.
Likewise: “Bhikkhus, there are states productive of the equanimity enlightenment factor.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā saṃvattatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.232).
Wise attention, much practiced, therein is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen equanimity enlightenment factor, or it leads to the growth, fulfilment, development and perfection of the arisen equanimity enlightenment factor” (S V 104).
Tattha yathāssa passaddhiādayo uppannapubbā, taṃ ākāraṃ sallakkhetvā tesaṃ uppādanavasena pavattamanasikārova tīsupi padesu yoniso manasikāro nāma.
59.Herein wise attention given to the three instances is attention occurring in arousing tranquillity, etc., by observing the way in which they arose in him earlier.
Samathanimittanti ca samathassevetamadhivacanaṃ.
The sign of serenity is a term for serenity itself,
Avikkhepaá¹­á¹­hena ca tasseva abyagganimittanti.
and non-diversion is a term for that too in the sense of non-distraction.
Apica satta dhammā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti paṇītabhojanasevanatā, utusukhasevanatā, iriyāpathasukhasevanatā, majjhattapayogatā, sāraddhakāyapuggalaparivajjanatā, passaddhakāyapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
60.There are, besides, seven things that lead to the arising of the tranquillity enlightenment factor: (i) using superior food, (ii) living in a good climate, (iii) maintaining a pleasant posture, (iv) keeping to the middle, (v) avoidance of violent persons, (vi) cultivation of persons tranquil in body, (vii) resoluteness upon that [tranquillity].
Ekādasa dhammā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti vatthuvisadatā, nimittakusalatā, indriyasamattapaṭipādanatā, samaye cittassa niggahaṇatā, samaye cittassa paggahaṇatā, nirassādassa cittassa saddhāsaṃvegavasena sampahaṃsanatā, sammāpavattassa ajjhupekkhanatā, asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanatā, samāhitapuggalasevanatā, jhānavimokkhapaccavekkhaṇatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
61.Eleven things lead to the arising of the concentration enlightenment factor: (i) making the basis clean, (ii) skill in the sign, (iii) balancing the faculties, (iv) restraining the mind on occasion, (v) exerting the mind on occasion, (vi) encouraging the listless mind by means of faith and a sense of urgency, (vii) looking on with equanimity at what is occurring rightly, (viii) avoidance of unconcentrated persons, (ix) cultivation of concentrated persons, (x) reviewing of the jhānas and liberations, (xi) resoluteness upon that [concentration].
Pañca dhammā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti sattamajjhattatā, saṅkhāramajjhattatā, sattasaṅkhārakelāyanapuggalaparivajjanatā, sattasaṅkhāramajjhattapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
62.Five things lead to the arising of the equanimity enlightenment factor: (i) maintenance of neutrality towards living beings; (ii) maintenance of neutrality towards formations (inanimate things); (iii) avoidance of persons who show favouritism towards beings and formations; (iv) cultivation of persons who maintain neutrality towards beings and formations; (v) resoluteness upon that [equanimity].
Iti imehākārehi ete dhamme uppādento passaddhisambojjhaṅgādayo bhāveti nāma.
So by arousing these things in these ways he develops the tranquillity enlightenment factor, as well as the others.
Evaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggahetabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggaṇhāti.
This is how he restrains the mind on an occasion when it should be restrained.
66.Kathaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃsitabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃseti?
63. 6. How does he encourage the mind on an occasion when it should be encouraged?
Yadāssa paññāpayogamandatāya vā upasamasukhānadhigamena vā nirassādaṃ cittaṃ hoti, tadā naṃ aṭṭhasaṃvegavatthupaccavekkhaṇena saṃvejeti.
When his mind is listless owing to sluggishness in the exercise of understanding or to failure to attain the bliss-(sukha) of peace, then he should stimulate it by reviewing the eight grounds for a sense of urgency.
Aṭṭha saṃvegavatthūni nāma jātijarābyādhimaraṇāni cattāri, apāyadukkhaṃ pañcamaṃ, atīte vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, anāgate vaṭṭamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ, paccuppanne āhārapariyeṭṭhimūlakaṃ dukkhanti.
These are the four, namely, birth, aging, sickness, and death, with the suffering of the states of loss as the fifth, and also the suffering in the past rooted in the round [of rebirths], the suffering in the future rooted in the round [of rebirths], and the suffering in the present rooted in the search for nutriment.
Buddhadhammasaṅghaguṇānussaraṇena cassa pasādaṃ janeti.
And he creates confidence by recollecting the special qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.
Evaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃsitabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃseti.
This is how he encourages the mind on an occasion when it should be encouraged.
Kathaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhitabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati?
64. 7. How does he look on at the mind with equanimity on an occasion when it should be looked on at with equanimity?
Yadāssa evaṃ paṭipajjato alīnaṃ anuddhataṃ anirassādaṃ ārammaṇe samappavattaṃ samathavīthipaṭipannaṃ cittaṃ hoti, tadāssa paggahaniggahasampahaṃsanesu na byāpāraṃ āpajjati, sārathi viya samappavattesu assesu.
When he is practicing in this way and his mind follows the road of serenity, occurs evenly on the object, and is unidle, unagitated and not listless, then he is not interested to exert or restrain or encourage it; he is like a charioteer when the horses are progressing evenly.
Evaṃ yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhitabbaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati.
This is how he looks on at the mind with equanimity on an occasion when it should be looked on at with equanimity.
Asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanatā nāma nekkhammapaṭipadaṃ anāruḷhapubbānaṃ anekakiccapasutānaṃ vikkhittahadayānaṃ puggalānaṃ ārakā pariccāgo.
65.8. Avoidance of unconcentrated persons is keeping far away from persons who have never trodden the way of renunciation, who are busy with many affairs, and whose hearts are distracted.
Samāhitapuggalasevanatā nāma nekkhammapaṭipadaṃ paṭipannānaṃ samādhilābhīnaṃ puggalānaṃ kālena kālaṃ upasaṅkamanaṃ.
9. Cultivation of concentrated persons is approaching periodically persons who have trodden the way of renunciation and obtained concentration.
Tadadhimuttatānāma samādhiadhimuttatā samādhigarusamādhininnasamādhipoṇasamādhipabbhāratāti attho.
10. Resoluteness upon that is the state of being resolute upon concentration; the meaning is, giving concentration importance, tending, leaning and inclining to concentration.
Evametaṃ dasavidhaṃ appanākosallaṃ sampādetabbaṃ.
This is how the tenfold skill in concentration should be undertaken.
67
66
Evañhi sampādayato, appanākosallaṃ imaṃ;
Any man who acquires this sign, This tenfold skill will need to heed
Paṭiladdhe nimittasmiṃ, appanā sampavattati.
In order for absorption to gain Thus achieving his bolder goal.
Evañhi paṭipannassa, sace sā nappavattati;
But if in spite of his efforts No result comes that might requite
Tathāpi na jahe yogaṃ, vāyametheva paṇḍito.
His work, still a wise wight persists, Never this task relinquishing, [136]
Hitvā hi sammāvāyāmaṃ, visesaṃ nāma māṇavo;
Since a tiro, if he gives up, Thinking not to continue in
Adhigacche parittampi, ṭhānametaṃ na vijjati.
The task, never gains distinction Here no matter how small at all.
Cittappavattiākāraṃ, tasmā sallakkhayaṃ budho;
A man wise in temperament17 Notices how his mind inclines:
Samataṃ vīriyasseva, yojayetha punappunaṃ.
Energy and serenity Always he couples each to each.
Īsakampi layaṃ yantaṃ, paggaṇhetheva mānasaṃ;
Now, his mind, seeing that it holds back, He prods, now the restraining rein
Accāraddhaṃ nisedhetvā, samameva pavattaye.
Tightening, seeing it pull too hard; Guiding with even pace the race.
Reṇumhi uppaladale, sutte nāvāya nāḷiyā;
Well-controlled bees get the pollen; Well-balanced efforts meet to treat
Yathā madhukarādīnaṃ, pavatti sammavaṇṇitā.
Leaves, thread, and ships, and oil-tubes too, Gain thus, not otherwise, the prize.
Līnauddhatabhāvehi, mocayitvāna sabbaso;
Let him set aside this lax Also this agitated state,
Evaṃ nimittābhimukhaṃ, mānasaṃ paṭipādayeti.
Steering here his mind at the sign As the bee and the rest suggest.
Nimittābhimukhapaṭipādanaṃ Table view Original pali

4.7 Nimittābhimukhapaṭipādanaṃ

68.Tatrāyamatthadīpanā – yathā hi acheko madhukaro asukasmiṃ rukkhe pupphaṃ pupphitanti ñatvā tikkhena vegena pakkhando taṃ atikkamitvā paṭinivattento khīṇe reṇumhi sampāpuṇāti.
67.Here is the explanation of the meaning. When a too clever bee learns that a flower on a tree is blooming, it sets out hurriedly, overshoots the mark, turns back, and arrives when the pollen is finished;
Aparo acheko mandena javena pakkhando khīṇeyeva sampāpuṇāti.
and another, not clever enough bee, who sets out with too slow a speed, arrives when the pollen is finished too;
Cheko pana samena javena pakkhando sukhena puppharāsiṃ sampatvā yāvadicchakaṃ reṇuṃ ādāya madhuṃ sampādetvā madhurasamanubhavati.
but a clever bee sets out with balanced speed, arrives with ease at the cluster of flowers, takes as much pollen as it pleases and enjoys the honey-dew.
Yathā ca sallakattaantevāsikesu udakathālagate uppalapatte satthakammaṃ sikkhantesu eko acheko vegena satthaṃ pātento uppalapattaṃ dvidhā vā chindati, udake vā paveseti.
68.Again, when a surgeon’s pupils are being trained in the use of the scalpel on a lotus leaf in a dish of water, one who is too clever applies the scalpel hurriedly and either cuts the lotus leaf in two or pushes it under the water,
Aparo acheko chijjanapavesanabhayā satthakena phusitumpi na visahati.
and another who is not clever enough does not even dare to touch it with the scalpel for fear of cutting it in two or pushing it under;
Cheko pana samena payogena tattha satthapahāraṃ dassetvā pariyodātasippo hutvā tathārūpesu ṭhānesu kammaṃ katvā lābhaṃ labhati.
but one who is clever shows the scalpel stroke on it by means of a balanced effort, and being good at his craft he is rewarded on such occasions.
Yathā ca yo catubyāmappamāṇaṃ makkaṭasuttamāharati, so cattāri sahassāni labhatīti raññā vutte eko achekapuriso vegena makkaṭasuttamākaḍḍhanto tahiṃ tahiṃ chindatiyeva.
69. Again when the king announces, “Anyone who can draw out a spider’s thread four fathoms long shall receive four thousand,” one man who is too clever breaks the spider’s thread here and there by pulling it hurriedly,
Aparo acheko chedanabhayā hatthena phusitumpi na visahati.
and another who is not clever enough does not dare to touch it with his hand for fear of breaking it,
Cheko pana koṭito paṭṭhāya samena payogena daṇḍake vedhetvā āharitvā lābhaṃ labhati.
but a clever man pulls it out starting from the end with a balanced effort, winds it on a stick, and so wins the prize.
Yathā ca acheko niyāmako balavavāte laṅkāraṃ pūrento nāvaṃ videsaṃ pakkhandāpeti.
70.Again, a too clever [137] skipper hoists full sails in a high wind and sends his ship adrift,
Aparo acheko mandavāte laṅkāraṃ oropento nāvaṃ tattheva ṭhapeti.
and another, not clever enough skipper, lowers his sails in a light wind and remains where he is,
Cheko pana mandavāte laṅkāraṃ pūretvā balavavāte aḍḍhalaṅkāraṃ katvā sotthinā icchitaṭṭhānaṃ pāpuṇāti.
but a clever skipper hoists full sails in a light wind, takes in half his sails in a high wind, and so arrives safely at his desired destination.
Yathā ca yo telena achaḍḍento nāḷiṃ pūreti, so lābhaṃ labhatīti ācariyena antevāsikānaṃ vutte eko acheko lābhaluddho vegena pūrento telaṃ chaḍḍeti.
71.Again, when a teacher says, “Anyone who fills the oil-tube without spilling any oil will win a prize,” one who is too clever fills it hurriedly out of greed for the prize, and he spills the oil,
Aparo acheko telachaḍḍanabhayā āsiñcitumpi na visahati.
and another who is not clever enough does not dare to pour the oil at all for fear of spilling it,
Cheko pana samena payogena pūretvā lābhaṃ labhati.
but one who is clever fills it with a balanced effort and wins the prize.
Evameva eko bhikkhu uppanne nimitte sīghameva appanaṃ pāpuṇissāmīti gāḷhaṃ vīriyaṃ karoti, tassa cittaṃ accāraddhavīriyattā uddhacce patati, so na sakkoti appanaṃ pāpuṇituṃ.
72.Just as in these five similes, so too when the sign arises, one bhikkhu forces his energy, thinking “I shall soon reach absorption.” Then his mind lapses into agitation because of his mind’s over-exerted energy and he is prevented from reaching absorption.
Eko accāraddhavīriyatāya dosaṃ disvā kiṃ dānime appanāyāti vīriyaṃ hāpeti, tassa cittaṃ atilīnavīriyattā kosajje patati, sopi na sakkoti appanaṃ pāpuṇituṃ.
Another who sees the defect in over-exertion slacks off his energy, thinking, “What is absorption to me now?” Then his mind lapses into idleness because of his mind’s too lax energy and he too is prevented from reaching absorption.
Yo pana īsakampi līnaṃ līnabhāvato uddhataṃ uddhaccato mocetvā samena payogena nimittābhimukhaṃ pavatteti, so appanaṃ pāpuṇāti, tādisena bhavitabbaṃ.
Yet another who frees his mind from idleness even when it is only slightly idle and from agitation when only slightly agitated, confronting the sign with balanced effort, reaches absorption. One should be like the last-named.
Imamatthaṃ sandhāya etaṃ vuttaṃ –
73.It was with reference to this meaning that it was said above:
Reṇumhi uppaladale, sutte nāvāya nāḷiyā;
“Well-controlled bees get the pollen; Well-balanced efforts meet to treat
Yathā madhukarādīnaṃ, pavatti sammavaṇṇitā.
Leaves, thread, and ships, and oil-tubes too, Gain thus, not otherwise, the prize.
Līnauddhatabhāvehi, mocayitvāna sabbaso;
Let him set aside then this lax Also this agitated state,
Evaṃ nimittābhimukhaṃ, mānasaṃ paṭipādayeti.
Steering here his mind at the sign As the bee and the rest suggest”.
Paṭhamajjhānakathā Table view Original pali

4.8 Paṭhamaj-jhāna-kathā: 1st jhāna discussion

69.Iti evaṃ nimittābhimukhaṃ mānasaṃ paṭipādayato panassa idāni appanā ijjhissatīti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā pathavī pathavīti anuyogavasena upaṭṭhitaṃ tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanamuppajjati.
74. So, while he is guiding his mind in this way, confronting the sign, [then knowing]: “Now absorption will succeed,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the [occurrence of consciousness as] life-continuum, and evoked by the constant repeating of “earth, earth.”
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti.
After that, either four or five impulsions impel on that same object,
Tesu avasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ, sesāni kāmāvacarāni.
the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere. The rest are of the sense sphere,
Pakaticittehi balavataravitakkavicārapītisukhacittekaggatāni yāni appanāya parikammattā parikammānītipi, yathā gāmādīnaṃ āsannapadeso gāmūpacāro nagarūpacāroti vuccati, evaṃ appanāya āsannattā samīpacārattā vā upacārānītipi, ito pubbe parikammānaṃ, upari appanāya ca anulomato anulomānītipi vuccanti.
but they have stronger applied thought, sustained thought, happiness, bliss-(sukha), and unification of mind than the normal ones. They are called “preliminary work” [consciousnesses] because they are the preliminary work for absorption; [138] and they are also called “access” [consciousnesses] because of their nearness to absorption because they happen in its neighbourhood, just as the words “village access” and “city access” are used for a place near to a village, etc.; and they are also called “conformity” [consciousnesses] because they conform to those that precede the “preliminary work” [consciousnesses] and to the absorption that follows.
Yañcettha sabbantimaṃ, taṃ parittagottābhibhavanato, mahaggatagottabhāvanato ca gotrabhūtipi vuccati.
And the last of these is also called “change- of-lineage” because it transcends the limited [sense-sphere] lineage and brings into being the exalted [fine-material-sphere] lineage. 18
Agahitaggahaṇena panettha paṭhamaṃ parikammaṃ, dutiyaṃ upacāraṃ, tatiyaṃ anulomaṃ, catutthaṃ gotrabhu.
75. But omitting repetitions,19 then either the first is the “preliminary work,” the second “access,” the third “conformity,” and the fourth, “change-of-lineage,”
Paṭhamaṃ vā upacāraṃ, dutiyaṃ anulomaṃ, tatiyaṃ gotrabhu, catutthaṃ pañcamaṃ vā appanācittaṃ.
or else the first is “access,” the second “conformity,” and the third “change-of- lineage.” Then either the fourth [in the latter case] or the fifth [in the former case] is the absorption consciousness.
Catutthameva hi pañcamaṃ vā appeti, tañca kho khippābhiññadandhābhiññavasena.
For it is only either the fourth or the fifth that fixes in absorption. And that is according as there is swift or sluggish direct- knowledge. (cf. XXI.117)
Tato paraṃ javanaṃ patati.
Beyond that, impulsion lapses
Bhavaṅgassa vāro hoti.
and the life-continuum20 takes over.
Ābhidhammikagodattatthero pana "purimā purimā kusalā dhammā pacchimānaṃ pacchimānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ āsevanapaccayena paccayo"ti (paṭṭhā. 1.1.12) imaṃ suttaṃ vatvā āsevanapaccayena pacchimo pacchimo dhammo balavā hoti, tasmā chaṭṭhepi sattamepi appanā hotīti āha, taṃ aṭṭhakathāsu "attano matimattaṃ therasseta"nti vatvā paṭikkhittaṃ.
76.But the Abhidhamma scholar, the Elder Godatta, quoted this text: “Preceding profitable states are a condition, as repetition condition, for succeeding profitable states” (Paṭṭh I 5). Adding, “It is owing to the repetition condition that each succeeding state is strong, so there is absorption also in the sixth and seventh. ” 77.That is rejected by the commentaries with the remark that it is merely that elder’s opinion,
Catutthapañcamesuyeva pana appanā hoti.
adding that, “It is only either in the fourth or the fifth21 that there is absorption.
Parato javanaṃ patitaṃ nāma hoti, bhavaṅgassa āsannattāti vuttaṃ.
Beyond that, impulsion lapses. It is said to do so because of nearness of the life-continuum.”
Tameva vicāretvā vuttattā na sakkā paṭikkhipituṃ.
And that has been stated in this way after consideration, so it cannot be rejected.
Yathā hi puriso chinnapapātābhimukho dhāvanto ṭhātukāmopi pariyante pādaṃ katvā ṭhātuṃ na sakkoti papāte eva patati, evaṃ chaṭṭhe vā sattame vā appetuṃ na sakkoti, bhavaṅgassa āsannattā.
For just as a man who is running towards a precipice and wants to stop cannot do so when he has his foot on the edge but falls over it, so there can be no fixing in absorption in the sixth or the seventh because of the nearness to the life-continuum.
Tasmā catutthapañcamesuyeva appanā hotīti veditabbā.
That is why it should be understood that there is absorption only in the fourth or the fifth.
Sā ca pana ekacittakkhaṇikāyeva.
78. But that absorption is only of a single conscious moment.
Sattasu hi ṭhānesu addhānaparicchedo nāma natthi paṭhamappanāyaṃ, lokiyābhiññāsu, catūsu maggesu, maggānantaraphale, rūpārūpabhavesu bhavaṅgajjhāne, nirodhassa paccaye nevasaññānāsaññāyatane, nirodhā vuṭṭhahantassa phalasamāpattiyanti.
For there are seven instances in which the normal extent22 [of the cognitive series] does not apply. They are in the cases of the first absorption, the mundane kinds of direct- knowledge, the four paths, fruition next after the path, life-continuum jhāna in the fine-material and immaterial kinds of becoming, the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception as condition for cessation [of perception and feeling], and the fruition attainment in one emerging from cessation.
Ettha maggānantaraphalaṃ tiṇṇaṃ upari na hoti.
Here the fruition next after the path does not exceed three [consciousnesses in number];
Nirodhassa paccayo nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ dvinnamupari na hoti.
the [consciousnesses] of the base consisting of neither perception nor non- perception as condition for cessation do not exceed two [in number]; there is no measure of the [number of consciousnesses in the] life-continuum in the fine- material and immaterial [kinds of becoming].
Rūpārūpesu bhavaṅgassa parimāṇaṃ natthi, sesaṭṭhānesu ekameva cittanti.
In the remaining instances [the number of consciousnesses is] one only.
Iti ekacittakkhaṇikāyeva appanā.
So absorption is of a single consciousness moment.
Tato bhavaṅgapāto.
After that, it lapses into the life-continuum.
Atha bhavaṅgaṃ vocchinditvā jhānapaccavekkhaṇatthāya āvajjanaṃ, tato jhānapaccavekkhaṇanti.
Then the life-continuum is interrupted by adverting for the purpose of reviewing the jhāna, next to which comes the reviewing of the jhāna.
Ettāvatā ca panesa vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati (dha. sa. 160; dī. ni. 1.226).
[THE FIRST JHĀNA]79. At this point, “Quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things he enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of seclusion” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ.
and so he has attained the first jhāna, which abandons five factors, possesses five factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics, and is of the earth kasiṇa.

4.8.11 gloss: vivicceva kāmehī: secluded from ‘desire’, not ‘objects of’!

70.Tattha vivicceva kāmehīti kāmehi viviccitvā vinā hutvā apakkamitvā.
80. Herein, quite secluded from sense desires means having secluded himself from, having become without, having gone away from, sense desires.
Yo panāyamettha evakāro, so niyamatthoti veditabbo.
Now, this word quite (eva) should be understood to have the meaning of absoluteness.
Yasmā ca niyamattho, tasmā tasmiṃ paṭhamajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharaṇasamaye avijjamānānampi kāmānaṃ tassa paṭhamajjhānassa paṭipakkhabhāvaṃ kāmapariccāgeneva cassa adhigamaṃ dīpeti.
Precisely because it has the meaning of absoluteness it shows how, on the actual occasion of entering upon and dwelling in the first jhāna, sense desires as well as being non-existent then are the first jhāna’s contrary opposite, and it also shows that the arrival takes place only (eva) through the letting go of sense desires.
Kathaṃ?
How?
"Vivicceva kāmehī"ti evañhi niyame kariyamāne idaṃ paññāyati, nūna jhānassa kāmā paṭipakkhabhūtā yesu sati idaṃ nappavattati, andhakāre sati padīpobhāso viya.
81.When absoluteness is introduced thus, “quite secluded from sense desires,” what is expressed is this: sense desires are certainly incompatible with this jhāna; when they exist, it does not occur, just as when there is darkness, there is no lamplight;
Tesaṃ pariccāgeneva cassa adhigamo hoti, orimatīrapariccāgena pārimatīrasseva.
and it is only by letting go of them that it is reached, just as the further bank is reached only by letting go of the near bank.
Tasmā niyamaṃ karotīti.
That is why absoluteness is introduced.
Tattha siyā, kasmā panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto, na uttarapade, kiṃ akusalehi dhammehi aviviccāpi jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyāti?
82.Here it might be asked: But why is this [word “quite”] mentioned only in the first phrase and not in the second? How is this, might he enter upon and dwell in the first jhāna even when not secluded from unprofitable things?
Na kho panetaṃ evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ.
—It should not be regarded in that way.
Taṃnissaraṇato hi pubbapade esa vutto.
It is mentioned in the first phrase as the escape from them;
Kāmadhātusamatikkamanato hi kāmarāgapaṭipakkhato ca idaṃ jhānaṃ kāmānameva nissaraṇaṃ.
for this jhāna is the escape from sense desires since it surmounts the sense-desire element and since it is incompatible with greed for sense desires,
Yathāha, "kāmānametaṃ nissaraṇaṃ yadidaṃ nekkhamma"nti (dī. ni. 3.353).
according as it is said: “The escape from sense desires is this, that is to say, renunciation” (D III 275).
Uttarapadepi pana yathā "idheva, bhikkhave, samaṇo, idha dutiyo samaṇo"ti (ma. ni. 1.139; a. ni. 4.241) ettha evakāro ānetvā vuccati, evaṃ vattabbo.
But in the second phrase [140] the word eva should be adduced and taken as said, as in the passage, “Bhikkhus, only (eva) here is there an ascetic, here a second ascetic” (M I 63).
Na hi sakkā ito aññehipi nīvaraṇasaṅkhātehi akusaladhammehi avivicca jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ.
For it is impossible to enter upon and dwell in jhāna unsecluded also from unprofitable things, in other words, the hindrances other than that [sense desire].
Tasmā "vivicceva kāmehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammehī"ti evaṃ padadvayepi esa daṭṭhabbo.
So this word must be read in both phrases thus: “Quite secluded from sense desires, quite secluded from unprofitable things.”
Padadvayepi ca kiñcāpi viviccāti iminā sādhāraṇavacanena tadaṅgavivekādayo, kāyavivekādayo ca sabbepi vivekā saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, tathāpi kāyaviveko cittaviveko vikkhambhanavivekoti tayo eva idha daṭṭhabbā.
And although the word “secluded” as a general term includes all kinds of seclusion, that is to say, seclusion by substitution of opposites, etc., and bodily seclusion, etc.,23 still only the three, namely, bodily seclusion, mental seclusion, and seclusion by suppression (suspension) should be regarded here.
Kāmehīti iminā pana padena ye ca niddese "katame vatthukāmā, manāpiyā rūpā"tiādinā (mahāni. 1) nayena vatthukāmā vuttā, ye ca tattheva vibhaṅge ca "chando kāmo, rāgo kāmo, chandarāgo kāmo, saṅkappo kāmo, rāgo kāmo, saṅkapparāgo kāmo, ime vuccanti kāmā"ti (mahāni. 1; vibha. 564) evaṃ kilesakāmā vuttā, te sabbepi saṅgahitāicceva daṭṭhabbā.
83. But this term “sense desires” should be regarded as including all kinds, that is to say, sense desires as object as given in the Niddesa in the passage beginning, “What are sense desires as object? They are agreeable visible objects …” (Nidd I 1), and the sense desires as defilement given there too and in the Vibhaṅga thus: “Zeal as sense desire (kāma), greed as sense desire, zeal and greed as sense desire, thinking as sense desire, greed as sense desire, thinking and greed as sense desire”24 (Nidd I 2; Vibh 256).
Evañhi sati vivicceva kāmehīti vatthukāmehipi viviccevāti attho yujjati, tena kāyaviveko vutto hoti.
That being so, the words “quite secluded from sense desires” properly mean “quite secluded from sense desires as object,” and express bodily seclusion,
Vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti kilesakāmehi sabbākusalehi vā viviccāti attho yujjati, tena cittaviveko vutto hoti.
while the words “secluded from unprofitable things” properly mean “secluded from sense desires as defilement or from all unprofitable things,” and express mental seclusion.
Purimena cettha vatthukāmehi vivekavacanato eva kāmasukhapariccāgo, dutiyena kilesakāmehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibhāvito hoti.
And in this case giving up of pleasure in sense desires is indicated by the first since it only expresses seclusion from sense desires as object, while acquisition of pleasure in renunciation is indicated by the second since it expresses seclusion from sense desire as defilement.
Evaṃ vatthukāmakilesakāmavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesaṃ paṭhamena saṃkilesavatthuppahānaṃ, dutiyena saṃkilesappahānaṃ.
84.And with sense desires as object and sense desires as defilement expressed in this way, it should also be recognized that the abandoning of the objective basis for defilement is indicated by the first of these two phrases and the abandoning of the [subjective] defilement by the second;
Paṭhamena lolabhāvassa hetupariccāgo, dutiyena bālabhāvassa.
also that the giving up of the cause of cupidity is indicated by the first and [the giving up of the cause] of stupidity by the second;
Paṭhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena āsayaposanaṃ vibhāvitaṃ hotīti viññātabbaṃ.
also that the purification of one’s occupation is indicated by the first and the educating of one’s inclination by the second.
Esa tāva nayo kāmehīti ettha vuttakāmesu vatthukāmapakkhe.
This, firstly, is the method here when the words from sense desires are treated as referring to sense desires as object.
Kilesakāmapakkhe pana chandoti ca rāgoti ca evamādīhi anekabhedo kāmacchandoyeva kāmoti adhippeto.
85.But if they are treated as referring to sense desires as defilement, then it is simply just zeal for sense desires (kāmacchanda) in the various forms of zeal (chanda), greed (rāga), etc., that is intended as “sense desires” (kāma) (§83, 2nd quotation).
So ca akusalapariyāpannopi samāno "tattha katamo kāmo chando kāmo"tiādinā (vibha. 564) nayena vibhaṅge jhānapaṭipakkhato visuṃ vutto.
And although that [lust] is also included by [the word] “unprofitable,” it is nevertheless stated separately in the Vibhaṅga in the way beginning, “Herein, what are sense desires? Zeal as sense desire …” (Vibh 256) because of its incompatibility with jhāna.
Kilesakāmattā vā purimapade vutto, akusalapariyāpannattā dutiyapade.
Or, alternatively, it is mentioned in the first phrase because it is sense desire as defilement and in the second phrase because it is included in the “unprofitable.”
Anekabhedato cassa kāmatoti avatvā kāmehīti vuttaṃ.
And because this [lust] has various forms, therefore “from sense desires” is said instead of “from sense desire. ”
Aññesampi ca dhammānaṃ akusalabhāve vijjamāne "tattha katame akusalā dhammā, kāmacchando"tiādinā nayena vibhaṅge upari jhānaṅgānaṃ paccanīkapaṭipakkhabhāvadassanato nīvaraṇāneva vuttāni.
86. And although there may be unprofitableness in other states as well, nevertheless only the hindrances are mentioned subsequently in the Vibhaṅga thus, “Herein, what states are unprofitable? Lust …” (Vibh 256), etc., in order to show their opposition to, and incompatibility with, the jhāna factors.
Nīvaraṇāni hi jhānaṅgapaccanīkāni, tesaṃ jhānaṅgāneva paṭipakkhāni viddhaṃsakāni vighātakānīti vuttaṃ hoti.
For the hindrances are the contrary opposites of the jhāna factors: what is meant is that the jhāna factors are incompatible with them, eliminate them, abolish them.
Tathā hi samādhi kāmacchandassa paṭipakkho, pīti byāpādassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukhaṃ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vicāro vicikicchāyāti peṭake vuttaṃ.
And it is said accordingly in the Peṭaka (Peṭakopadesa): “Concentration is incompatible with lust, happiness with ill will, applied thought with stiffness and torpor, bliss-(sukha) with agitation and worry, and sustained thought with uncertainty” (not in Peṭakopadesa).

(confirming it’s ‘desire’ that is secluded from, not ‘objects’)

Evamettha vivicceva kāmehīti iminā kāmacchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti.
87. So in this case it should be understood that seclusion by suppression (suspension) of lust is indicated by the phrase quite secluded from sense desires,
Vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti iminā pañcannampi nīvaraṇānaṃ, agahitaggahaṇena pana paṭhamena kāmacchandassa, dutiyena sesanīvaraṇānaṃ.
and seclusion by suppression (suspension) of [all] five hindrances by the phrase secluded from unprofitable things. But omitting repetitions, that of lust is indicated by the first and that of the remaining hindrances by the second.
Tathā paṭhamena tīsu akusalamūlesu pañcakāmaguṇabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena āghātavatthubhedādivisayānaṃ dosamohānaṃ.
Similarly with the three unprofitable roots, that of greed, which has the five cords of sense desire (M I 85) as its province, is indicated by the first, and that of hate and delusion, which have as their respective provinces the various grounds for annoyance (A IV 408; V 150), etc., by the second.
Oghādīsu vā dhammesu paṭhamena kāmoghakāmayogakāmāsavakāmupādānaabhijjhākāyaganthakāmarāgasaṃyojanānaṃ, dutiyena avasesaoghayogāsavaupādānaganthasaṃyojanānaṃ.
Or with the states consisting of the floods, etc., that of the flood of sense desires, of the bond of sense desires, of the canker of sense desires, of sense-desire clinging, of the bodily tie of covetousness, and of the fetter of greed for sense desires, is indicated by the first, and that of the remaining floods, bonds, cankers, clingings, ties, and fetters, is indicated by the second.
Paṭhamena ca taṇhāya taṃsampayuttakānañca, dutiyena avijjāya taṃsampayuttakānañca.
Again, that of craving and of what is associated with craving is indicated by the first, and that of ignorance and of what is associated with ignorance is indicated by the second.
Apica paṭhamena lobhasampayuttānaṃ aṭṭhannaṃ cittuppādānaṃ, dutiyena sesānaṃ catunnaṃ akusalacittuppādānaṃ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hotīti veditabbo.
Furthermore, that of the eight thought- arisings associated with greed (XIV.90) is indicated by the first, and that of the remaining kinds of unprofitable thought-arisings is indicated by the second.
Ayaṃ tāva vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti ettha atthappakāsanā.
This, in the first place, is the explanation of the meaning of the words “quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things. ”

4.8.21 redefine vitakka and vicāra as ‘mount mind on object and ‘keep it glued there’

71.Ettāvatā ca paṭhamassa jhānassa pahānaṅgaṃ dassetvā idāni sampayogaṅgaṃ dassetuṃ savitakkaṃ savicārantiādi vuttaṃ.
88.So far the factors abandoned by the jhāna have been shown. And now, in order to show the factors associated with it, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought is said.
Tattha vitakkanaṃ vitakko, ūhananti vuttaṃ hoti.
Herein, applied thinking (vitakkana) is applied thought (vitakka); hitting upon, is what is meant.25
Svāyaṃ ārammaṇe cittassa abhiniropanalakkhaṇo, āhananapariyāhananaraso.
It has the characteristic of directing the mind on to an object (mounting the mind on its object). Its function is to strike at and thresh
Tathā hi tena yogāvacaro ārammaṇaṃ vitakkāhataṃ vitakkapariyāhataṃ karotīti vuccati.
—for the meditator is said, in virtue of it, to have the object struck at by applied thought, threshed by applied thought.
Ārammaṇe cittassa ānayanapaccupaṭṭhāno.
It is manifested as the leading of the mind onto an object.

(vicāra = ‘exploring’, but gets redefined to mean the opposite, ‘staying frozen’)

Vicaraṇaṃ vicāro, anusañcaraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti.
Sustained thinking (vicaraṇa) is sustained thought (vicāra); continued sustainment (anusañcaraṇa), is what is meant.
Svāyaṃ ārammaṇānumajjanalakkhaṇo, tattha sahajātānuyojanaraso, cittassa anuppabandhanapaccupaṭṭhāno.
It has the characteristic of continued pressure on (occupation with) the object. Its function is to keep conascent [mental] states [occupied] with that. It is manifested as keeping consciousness anchored [on that object].
Santepi ca nesaṃ katthaci avippayoge oḷārikaṭṭhena pubbaṅgamaṭṭhena ca ghaṇḍābhighāto viya cetaso paṭhamābhinipāto vitakko.
89.And, though sometimes not separate, applied thought is the first impact of the mind in the sense that it is both gross and inceptive, like the striking of a bell.
Sukhumaṭṭhena anumajjanasabhāvena ca ghaṇḍānuravo viya anuppabandho vicāro.
Sustained thought is the act of keeping the mind anchored, in the sense that it is subtle with the individual essence of continued pressure, like the ringing of the bell.
Vipphāravā cettha vitakko paṭhamuppattikāle paripphandanabhūto cittassa ākāse uppatitukāmassa pakkhino pakkhavikkhepo viya padumābhimukhapāto viya ca gandhānubandhacetaso bhamarassa.
Applied thought intervenes, being the interference of consciousness at the time of first arousing [thought], like a bird’s spreading out its wings when about to soar into the air, and like a bee’s diving towards a lotus when it is minded to follow up the scent of it.
Santavutti vicāro nātiparipphandanabhāvo cittassa ākāse uppatitassa pakkhino pakkhappasāraṇaṃ viya, paribbhamanaṃ viya ca padumābhimukhapatitassa bhamarassa padumassa uparibhāge.
The behaviour of sustained thought is quiet, being the near non-interference of consciousness, like the bird’s planing with outspread wings after soaring into the air, and like the bee’s buzzing above the lotus after it has dived towards it.

(simile of bird taking flight gets redefined from KN Pe version)

Dukanipātaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana "ākāse gacchato mahāsakuṇassa ubhohi pakkhehi vātaṃ gahetvā pakkhe sannisīdāpetvā gamanaṃ viya ārammaṇe cetaso abhiniropanabhāvena pavatto vitakko.
90. In the commentary to the Book of Twos26 this is said: “Applied thought occurs as a state of directing the mind onto an object, like the movement of a large bird taking off into the air by engaging the air with both wings and forcing them downwards. For it causes absorption by being unified.
Vātaggahaṇatthaṃ pakkhe phandāpayamānassa gamanaṃ viya anumajjanabhāvena pavatto vicāro"ti vuttaṃ, taṃ anuppabandhena pavattiyaṃ yujjati.
Sustained thought occurs with the individual essence of continued pressure, like the bird’s movement when it is using (activating) its wings for the purpose of keeping hold on the air. For it keeps pressing the object27”. That fits in with the latter’s occurrence as anchoring.
So pana nesaṃ viseso paṭhamadutiyajjhānesu pākaṭo hoti.
This difference of theirs becomes evident in the first and second jhānas [in the fivefold reckoning].

(simile of hand working tools)

Apica malaggahitaṃ kaṃsabhājanaṃ ekena hatthena daḷhaṃ gahetvā itarena hatthena cuṇṇatelavālaṇḍupakena parimajjantassa daḷhagahaṇahattho viya vitakko, parimajjanahattho viya vicāro.
91.Furthermore, applied thought is like the hand that grips firmly and sustained thought is like the hand that rubs, when one grips a tarnished metal dish firmly with one hand and rubs it with powder and oil and a woollen pad with the other hand.
Tathā kumbhakārassa daṇḍappahārena cakkaṃ bhamayitvā bhājanaṃ karontassa uppīḷanahattho viya vitakko, ito cito ca sañcaraṇahattho viya vicāro.
Likewise, when a potter has spun his wheel with a stroke on the stick and is making a dish [143], his supporting hand is like applied thought and his hand that moves back and forth is like sustained thought.
Tathā maṇḍalaṃ karontassa majjhe sannirumbhitvā ṭhitakaṇṭako viya abhiniropano vitakko, bahi paribbhamanakaṇṭako viya anumajjano vicāro.
Likewise, when one is drawing a circle, the pin that stays fixed down in the centre is like applied thought, which directs onto the object, and the pin that revolves round it is like sustained thought, which continuously presses.
Iti iminā ca vitakkena iminā ca vicārena saha vattati rukkho viya pupphena phalena cāti idaṃ jhānaṃ "savitakkaṃ savicāra"nti vuccati.
92.So this jhāna occurs together with this applied thought and this sustained thought and it is called, “accompanied by applied and sustained thought” as a tree is called “accompanied by flowers and fruits.”
Vibhaṅge pana "iminā ca vitakkena iminā ca vicārena upeto hoti samupeto"tiādinā (vibha. 565) nayena puggalādhiṭṭhānā desanā katā.
But in the Vibhaṅga the teaching is given in terms of a person28 in the way beginning, “He is possessed, fully possessed, of this applied thought and this sustained thought” (Vibh 257).
Attho pana tatrāpi evameva daṭṭhabbo.
The meaning should be regarded in the same way there too.

4.8.31 gloss: viveka: seclusion

Vivekajanti ettha vivitti viveko, nīvaraṇavigamoti attho.
93.Born of seclusion: here secludedness (vivitti) is seclusion (viveka); the meaning is, disappearance of hindrances.
Vivittoti vā viveko, nīvaraṇavivitto jhānasampayuttadhammarāsīti attho.
Or alternatively, it is secluded (vivitta), thus it is seclusion; the meaning is, the collection of states associated with the jhāna is secluded from hindrances.
Tasmā vivekā, tasmiṃ vā viveke jātanti vivekajaṃ.
“Born of seclusion” is born of or in that kind of seclusion.

4.8.32 gloss: pīti: rapture, ‘happiness’

72.Pītisukhanti ettha pīṇayatīti pīti.
94.Happiness and bliss-(sukha): it refreshes (pīnayati), thus it is happiness (pīti).
Sā sampiyāyanalakkhaṇā, kāyacittapīnanarasā, pharaṇarasā vā, odagyapaccupaṭṭhānā.
It has the characteristic of endearing (sampiyāyanā). Its function is to refresh the body and the mind; or its function is to pervade (thrill with rapture). It is manifested as elation.
Sā panesā khuddikā pīti, khaṇikāpīti, okkantikāpīti, ubbegāpīti, pharaṇāpītīti pañcavidhā hoti.
But it is of five kinds as minor happiness, momentary happiness, showering happiness, uplifting happiness, and pervading (rapturous) happiness.
Tattha khuddikāpīti sarīre lomahaṃsamattameva kātuṃ sakkoti.
Herein, minor happiness is only able to raise the hairs on the body.
Khaṇikāpīti khaṇe khaṇe vijjuppādasadisā hoti.
Momentary happiness is like flashes of lightning at different moments.
Okkantikāpīti samuddatīraṃ vīci viya kāyaṃ okkamitvā okkamitvā bhijjati.
Showering happiness breaks over the body again and again like waves on the sea shore.

(uplifting pīti can cause levitation)

Ubbegāpīti balavatī hoti kāyaṃ uddhaggaṃ katvā ākāse laṅghāpanappamāṇappattā.
95. Uplifting happiness can be powerful enough to levitate the body and make it spring up into the air.
Tathā hi puṇṇavallikavāsī mahātissatthero puṇṇamadivase sāyaṃ cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ gantvā candālokaṃ disvā mahācetiyābhimukho hutvā "imāya vata velāya catasso parisā mahācetiyaṃ vandantī"ti pakatiyā diṭṭhārammaṇavasena buddhārammaṇaṃ ubbegāpītiṃ uppādetvā sudhātale pahaṭacitrageṇḍuko viya ākāse uppatitvā mahācetiyaṅgaṇeyeva patiṭṭhāsi.
For this was what happened to the Elder Mahā-Tissa, resident at Puṇṇavallika. He went to the shrine terrace on the evening of the full-moon day. Seeing the moonlight, he faced in the direction of the Great Shrine [at Anurādhapura], thinking, “At this very hour the four assemblies29 are worshipping at the Great Shrine!” By means of objects formerly seen [there] he aroused uplifting happiness with the Enlightened One as object, and he rose into the air like a painted ball bounced off a plastered floor and alighted on the terrace of the Great Shrine.
Tathā girikaṇḍakavihārassa upanissaye vattakālakagāme ekā kuladhītāpi balavabuddhārammaṇāya ubbegāpītiyā ākāse laṅghesi.
96. And this was what happened to the daughter of a clan in the village of Vattakālaka near the Girikaṇḍaka Monastery when she sprang up into the air owing to strong uplifting happiness with the Enlightened One as object.
Tassā kira mātāpitaro sāyaṃ dhammassavanatthāya vihāraṃ gacchantā "amma tvaṃ garubhārā akāle vicarituṃ na sakkosi, mayaṃ tuyhaṃ pattiṃ katvā dhammaṃ sossāmā"ti agamaṃsu.
As her parents were about to go to the monastery in the evening, it seems, in order to hear the Dhamma [144], they told her: “My dear, you are expecting a child; you cannot go out at an unsuitable time. We shall hear the Dhamma and gain merit for you. ” So they went out.
Sā gantukāmāpi tesaṃ vacanaṃ paṭibāhituṃ asakkontī ghare ohīyitvā gharājire ṭhatvā candālokena girikaṇḍake ākāsacetiyaṅgaṇaṃ olokentī cetiyassa dīpapūjaṃ addasa, catasso ca parisā mālāgandhādīhi cetiyapūjaṃ katvā padakkhiṇaṃ karontiyo bhikkhusaṅghassa ca gaṇasajjhāyasaddaṃ assosi.
And though she wanted to go too, she could not well object to what they said. She stepped out of the house onto a balcony and stood looking at the Ākāsacetiya Shrine at Girikaṇḍaka lit by the moon. She saw the offering of lamps at the shrine, and the four communities as they circumambulated it to the right after making their offerings of flowers and perfumes; and she heard the sound of the massed recital by the Community of Bhikkhus.
Athassā "dhaññāvatime, ye vihāraṃ gantvā evarūpe cetiyaṅgaṇe anusañcarituṃ, evarūpañca madhuradhammakathaṃ sotuṃ labhantī"ti muttarāsisadisaṃ cetiyaṃ passantiyā eva ubbegāpīti udapādi.
Then she thought: “How lucky they are to be able to go to the monastery and wander round such a shrine terrace and listen to such sweet preaching of Dhamma!” Seeing the shrine as a mound of pearls and arousing uplifting happiness,
Sā ākāse laṅghitvā mātāpitūnaṃ purimataraṃyeva ākāsato cetiyaṅgaṇe oruyha cetiyaṃ vanditvā dhammaṃ suṇamānā aṭṭhāsi.
she sprang up into the air, and before her parents arrived she came down from the air into the shrine terrace, where she paid homage and stood listening to the Dhamma.
Atha naṃ mātāpitaro āgantvā "amma tvaṃ katarena maggena āgatāsī"ti pucchiṃsu.
97.When her parents arrived, they asked her, “What road did you come by?”
Sā "ākāsena āgatāmhi, na maggenā"ti vatvā "amma ākāsena nāma khīṇāsavā sañcaranti, tvaṃ kathaṃ āgatā"ti vuttā āha – "mayhaṃ candālokena cetiyaṃ ālokentiyā ṭhitāya buddhārammaṇā balavapīti uppajji.
She said, “I came through the air, not by the road,” and when they told her, “My dear, those whose cankers are destroyed come through the air. But how did you come? ” she replied: “As I was standing looking at the shrine in the moonlight a strong sense of happiness arose in me with the Enlightened One as its object.
Athāhaṃ neva attano ṭhitabhāvaṃ, na nisinnabhāvaṃ aññāsiṃ, gahitanimitteneva pana ākāse laṅghitvā cetiyaṅgaṇe patiṭṭhitāmhī"ti.
Then I knew no more whether I was standing or sitting, but only that I was springing up into the air with the sign that I had grasped, and I came to rest on this shrine terrace. ”
Evaṃ ubbegāpīti ākāse laṅghāpanappamāṇā hoti.
So uplifting happiness can be powerful enough to levitate the body, make it spring up into the air.

(whole body pervasion with pīti)

Pharaṇāpītiyā pana uppannāya sakalasarīraṃ dhamitvā pūritavatthi viya mahatā udakoghena pakkhandapabbatakucchi viya ca anuparipphuṭaṃ hoti.
98. But when pervading (rapturous) happiness arises, the whole body is completely pervaded, like a filled bladder, like a rock cavern invaded by a huge inundation.
Sā panesā pañcavidhā pīti gabbhaṃ gaṇhantī paripākaṃ gacchantī duvidhaṃ passaddhiṃ paripūreti kāyapassaddhiñca cittapassaddhiñca.
99.Now, this fivefold happiness, when conceived and matured, perfects the twofold tranquillity, that is, bodily and mental tranquillity.
Passaddhi gabbhaṃ gaṇhantī paripākaṃ gacchantī duvidhampi sukhaṃ paripūreti kāyikañca cetasikañca.
When tranquillity is conceived and matured, it perfects the twofold bliss-(sukha), that is, bodily and mental bliss-(sukha).
Sukhaṃ gabbhaṃ gaṇhantaṃ paripākaṃ gacchantaṃ tividhaṃ samādhiṃ paripūreti khaṇikasamādhiṃ upacārasamādhiṃ appanā samādhinti.
When bliss-(sukha) is conceived and matured, it perfects the threefold concentration, that is, momentary concentration, access concentration, and absorption concentration.
Tāsu yā appanāsamādhissa mūlaṃ hutvā vaḍḍhamānā samādhisampayogaṃ gatā pharaṇāpīti, ayaṃ imasmiṃ atthe adhippetā pītīti.
Of these, what is intended in this context by happiness is pervading happiness, which is the root of absorption and comes by growth into association with absorption.

4.8.40 gloss: sukha: pleasure, ‘bliss-(sukha)’

73.Itaraṃ pana sukhanaṃ sukhaṃ, suṭṭhu vā khādati, khanati ca kāyacittābādhanti sukhaṃ, taṃ sātalakkhaṇaṃ, sampayuttānaṃ upabrūhanarasaṃ, anuggahapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ.
100. But as to the other word: pleasing (sukhana) is bliss-(sukha) (sukha). Or alternatively: it thoroughly (SUṭṭhu) devours (KHĀdati), consumes (KHAṇati),30 bodily and mental affliction, thus it is bliss-(sukha) (sukha). It has gratifying as its characteristic. Its function is to intensify associated states. It is manifested as aid.
Satipi ca nesaṃ katthaci avippayoge iṭṭhārammaṇapaṭilābhatuṭṭhi pīti.
And wherever the two are associated, happiness is the contentedness at getting a desirable object,
Paṭiladdharasānubhavanaṃ sukhaṃ.
and bliss-(sukha) is the actual experiencing of it when got.
Yattha pīti, tattha sukhaṃ.
Where there is happiness there is bliss-(sukha) (pleasure);
Yattha sukhaṃ, tattha na niyamato pīti.
but where there is bliss-(sukha) there is not necessarily happiness.

4.8.41 pīti part of sankhāra, sukha part of vedana

Saṅkhārakkhandhasaṅgahitā pīti.
Happiness is included in the formations aggregate;
Vedanākkhandhasaṅgahitaṃ sukhaṃ.
bliss-(sukha) is included in the feeling aggregate.

4.8.42 simile, man in desert tasting water, pīti is mentally caused, sukha physical

Kantārakhinnassa vanantudakadassanasavanesu viya pīti.
If a man, exhausted31 in a desert, saw or heard about a pond on the edge of a wood, he would have happiness;
Vanacchāyāpavesanaudakaparibhogesu viya sukhaṃ.
if he went into the wood’s shade and used the water, he would have bliss-(sukha).
Tasmiṃ tasmiṃ samaye pākaṭabhāvato cetaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
And it should be understood that this is said because they are obvious on such occasions.
Iti ayañca pīti idañca sukhaṃ assa jhānassa, asmiṃ vā jhāne atthīti idaṃ jhānaṃ pītisukhanti vuccati.
101. Accordingly, (a) this happiness and this bliss-(sukha) are of this jhāna, or in this jhāna; so in this way this jhāna is qualified by the words with happiness and bliss-(sukha) [and also born of seclusion].
Atha vā pīti ca sukhañca pītisukhaṃ, dhammavinayādayo viya.
Or alternatively: (b) the words happiness and bliss-(sukha) (pītisukhaṃ) can be taken as “the happiness and the bliss-(sukha)” independently, like “the Dhamma and the Discipline” (dhammavinaya),
Vivekajaṃ pītisukhamassa jhānassa, asmiṃ vā jhāne atthīti evampi vivekajaṃpītisukhaṃ.
and so then it can be taken as seclusion-born happiness-and-bliss-(sukha) of this jhāna, or in this jhāna; so in this way it is the happiness and bliss-(sukha) [rather than the jhāna] that are born of seclusion.
Yatheva hi jhānaṃ, evaṃ pītisukhampettha vivekajameva hoti, tañcassa atthi, tasmā ekapadeneva "vivekajaṃpītisukha"ntipi vattuṃ yujjati.
For just as the words “born of seclusion” can [as at (a)] be taken as qualifying the word “jhāna,” so too they can be taken here [as at (b)] as qualifying the expression “happiness and bliss-(sukha),” and then that [total expression] is predicated of this [jhāna]. So it is also correct to call “happiness-and-bliss-(sukha) born-of-seclusion” a single expression.
Vibhaṅge pana "idaṃ sukhaṃ imāya pītiyā sahagata"ntiādinā (vibha. 567) nayena vuttaṃ.
In the Vibhaṅga it is stated in the way beginning, “This bliss-(sukha) accompanied by this happiness” (Vibh 257).
Attho pana tatthāpi evameva daṭṭhabbo.
The meaning should be regarded in the same way there too.
Paṭhamaṃ jhānanti idaṃ parato āvibhavissati.
102. First jhāna: this will be explained below (§119).
Upasampajjāti upagantvā, pāpuṇitvāti vuttaṃ hoti.
Enters upon (upasampajja): arrives at; reaches, is what is meant;
Upasampādayitvā vā, nipphādetvāti vuttaṃ hoti.
or else, taking it as “makes enter” (upasampādayitvā), then producing, is what is meant.
Vibhaṅge pana "upasampajjāti paṭhamassa jhānassa lābho paṭilābho patti sampatti phusanā sacchikiriyā upasampadā"ti vuttaṃ.
In the Vibhaṅga this is said: “‘Enters upon’: the gaining, the regaining, the reaching, the arrival at, the touching, the realizing of, the entering upon (upasampadā, the first jhāna” (Vibh 257),
Tassāpi evamevattho daṭṭhabbo.
the meaning of which should be regarded in the same way.
Viharatīti tadanurūpena iriyāpathavihārena itivuttappakārajhānasamaṅgī hutvā attabhāvassa iriyaṃ vuttiṃ pālanaṃ yapanaṃ yāpanaṃ cāraṃ vihāraṃ abhinipphādeti.
103. And dwells in (viharati): by becoming possessed of jhāna of the kind described above through dwelling in a posture favourable to that [jhāna], he produces a posture, a procedure, a keeping, an enduring, a lasting, a behaviour, a dwelling, of the person.
Vuttañhetaṃ vibhaṅge "viharatīti iriyati vattati pāleti yapeti yāpeti carati viharati, tena vuccati viharatī"ti (vibha. 540).
For this is said in the Vibhaṅga: “‘Dwells in’: poses, proceeds, keeps, endures, lasts, behaves, dwells; [146] hence ‘dwells’ is said” (Vibh 252).
Pañcaṅgavippahīnādi Table view Original pali

4.9 Pañc-aṅga-vippahīnādi: 5 factors abandoned

74.Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgata"nti, tattha kāmacchando, byāpādo, thinamiddhaṃ, uddhaccakukkuccaṃ, vicikicchāti imesaṃ pañcannaṃ nīvaraṇānaṃ pahānavasena pañcaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā.
104.Now, it was also said above which abandons five factors, possesses five factors (§79; cf. M I 294). Herein, the abandoning of the five factors should be understood as the abandoning of these five hindrances, namely, lust, ill will, stiffness and torpor, agitation and worry, and uncertainty;
Na hi etesu appahīnesu jhānaṃ uppajjati.
for no jhāna arises until these have been abandoned,
Tenassetāni pahānaṅgānīti vuccanti.
and so they are called the factors of abandoning.
Kiñcāpi hi jhānakkhaṇe aññepi akusalā dhammā pahīyanti, tathāpi etāneva visesena jhānantarāyakarāni.
For although other unprofitable things too are abandoned at the moment of jhāna, still only these are specifically obstructive to jhāna.
Kāmacchandena hi nānāvisayappalobhitaṃ cittaṃ na ekattārammaṇe samādhiyati.
105. The mind affected through lust by greed for varied objective fields does not become concentrated on an object consisting in unity,
Kāmacchandābhibhūtaṃ vā taṃ na kāmadhātuppahānāya paṭipadaṃ paṭipajjati.
or being overwhelmed by lust, it does not enter on the way to abandoning the sense-desire element.
Byāpādena cārammaṇe paṭihaññamānaṃ na nirantaraṃ pavattati.
When pestered by ill will towards an object, it does not occur uninterruptedly.
Thinamiddhābhibhūtaṃ akammaññaṃ hoti.
When overcome by stiffness and torpor, it is unwieldy.
Uddhaccakukkuccaparetaṃ avūpasantameva hutvā paribbhamati.
When seized by agitation and worry, it is unquiet and buzzes about.
Vicikicchāya upahataṃ jhānādhigamasādhikaṃ paṭipadaṃ nārohati.
When stricken by uncertainty, it fails to mount the way to accomplish the attainment of jhāna.
Iti visesena jhānantarāyakarattā etāneva pahānaṅgānīti vuttānīti.
So it is these only that are called factors of abandoning because they are specifically obstructive to jhāna.
Yasmā pana vitakko ārammaṇe cittaṃ abhiniropeti, vicāro anuppabandhati, tehi avikkhepāya sampāditappayogassa cetaso payogasampattisambhavā pīti pīṇanaṃ, sukhañca upabrūhanaṃ karoti.
106. But applied thought directs the mind onto the object; sustained thought keeps it anchored there. Happiness produced by the success of the effort refreshes the mind whose effort has succeeded through not being distracted by those hindrances; and bliss-(sukha) intensifies it for the same reason.
Atha naṃ sasesasampayuttadhammaṃ etehi abhiniropanānuppabandhanapīṇanaupabrūhanehi anuggahitā ekaggatā ekattārammaṇe samaṃ sammā ca ādhiyati, tasmā vitakko vicāro pīti sukhaṃ cittekaggatāti imesaṃ pañcannaṃ uppattivasena pañcaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā.
Then unification aided by this directing onto, this anchoring, this refreshing and this intensifying, evenly and rightly centres (III.3) the mind with its remaining associated states on the object consisting in unity. Consequently, possession of five factors should be understood as the arising of these five, namely, applied thought, sustained thought, happiness, bliss-(sukha) and unification of mind.
Uppannesu hi etesu pañcasu jhānaṃ uppannaṃ nāma hoti.
107. For it is when these are arisen that jhāna is said to be arisen,
Tenassa etāni pañca samannāgataṅgānīti vuccanti.
which is why they are called the five factors of possession.
Tasmā na etehi samannāgataṃ aññadeva jhānaṃ nāma atthīti gahetabbaṃ.
Therefore it should not be assumed that the jhāna is something other which possesses them.
Yathā pana aṅgamattavaseneva caturaṅginī senā, pañcaṅgikaṃ tūriyaṃ, aṭṭhaṅgiko ca maggoti vuccati, evamidampi aṅgamattavaseneva pañcaṅgikanti vā pañcaṅgasamannāgatanti vā vuccatīti veditabbaṃ.
But just as “The army with the four factors” (Vin IV 104) and “Music with the five factors” (M-a II 300) and “The path with the eight factors (eightfold path)” are stated simply in terms of their factors, so this too [147] should be understood as stated simply in terms of its factors, when it is said to “have five factors” or “possess five factors. ”
Etāni ca pañcaṅgāni kiñcāpi upacārakkhaṇepi atthi, atha kho upacāre pakaticittato balavatarāni.
108. And while these five factors are present also at the moment of access and are stronger in access than in normal consciousness,
Idha pana upacāratopi balavatarāni rūpāvacaralakkhaṇappattāni.
they are still stronger here than in access and acquire the characteristic of the fine-material sphere.
Ettha hi vitakko suvisadena ākārena ārammaṇe cittaṃ abhiniropayamāno uppajjati.
For applied thought arises here directing the mind on to the object in an extremely lucid manner,
Vicāro ativiya ārammaṇaṃ anumajjamāno.
and sustained thought does so pressing the object very hard,
Pītisukhaṃ sabbāvantampi kāyaṃ pharamānaṃ.
and the happiness and bliss-(sukha) pervade the entire body.
Tenevāha – "nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hotī"ti (dī. ni. 1.228).
Hence it is said: “And there is nothing of his whole body not permeated by the happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of seclusion” (D I 73).
Cittekaggatāpi heṭṭhimamhi samuggapaṭale uparimaṃ samuggapaṭalaṃ viya ārammaṇesu phusitā hutvā uppajjati, ayametesaṃ itarehi viseso.
And unification too arises in the complete contact with the object that the surface of a box’s lid has with the surface of its base. This is how they differ from the others.
Tattha cittekaggatā kiñcāpi savitakkaṃ savicāranti imasmiṃ pāṭhe na niddiṭṭhā, tathāpi vibhaṅge "jhānanti vitakko vicāro pīti sukhaṃ cittassekaggatā"ti (vibha. 569) evaṃ vuttattā aṅgameva.
109. Although unification of mind is not actually listed among these factors in the [summary] version [beginning] “which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought” (Vibh 245), nevertheless it is mentioned [later] in the Vibhaṅga as follows: “‘Jhāna’: it is applied thought, sustained thought, happiness, bliss-(sukha), unification”(Vibh 257), and so it is a factor too;
Yena hi adhippāyena bhagavatā uddeso kato, soyeva tena vibhaṅge pakāsitoti.
for the intention with which the Blessed One gave the summary is the same as that with which he gave the exposition that follows it.
Tividhakalyāṇaṃ Table view Original pali

4.10 Tividha-kalyāṇaṃ: 3 ways of goodness

75.Tividhakalyāṇaṃdasalakkhaṇasampannanti ettha pana ādimajjhapariyosānavasena tividhakalyāṇatā.
110. Is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics (§79): the goodness in three ways is in the beginning, middle, and end.
Tesaṃyeva ca ādimajjhapariyosānānaṃ lakkhaṇavasena dasalakkhaṇasampannatā veditabbā.
The possession of the ten characteristics should be understood as the characteristics of the beginning, middle, and end, too.
Tatrāyaṃ pāḷi –
Here is the text:
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, ādissa kati lakkhaṇāni?
111. “Of the first jhāna, purification of the way is the beginning, intensification of equanimity is the middle, and satisfaction is the end. “‘Of the first jhāna, purification of the way is the beginning’: how many characteristics has the beginning?
Ādissa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni, yo tassa paribandho, tato cittaṃ visujjhati, visuddhattā cittaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati, paṭipannattā tattha cittaṃ pakkhandati.
The beginning has three characteristics: the mind is purified of obstructions to that [jhāna]; because it is purified the mind makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity; because it has made way the mind enters into that state.
Yañca paribandhato cittaṃ visujjhati, yañca visuddhattā cittaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati, yañca paṭipannattā tattha cittaṃ pakkhandati.
And it is since the mind becomes purified of obstructions and, through being purified, makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity and, having made way, enters into that state,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa paṭipadāvisuddhi ādi, ādissa imāni tīṇi lakkhaṇāni.
that the purification of the way is the beginning of the first jhāna. These are the three characteristics of the beginning.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ ādikalyāṇañceva hoti tilakkhaṇasampannañca.
Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the beginning which possesses three characteristics. ’ [148]
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, majjhassa kati lakkhaṇāni?
112. “‘Of the first jhāna intensification of equanimity is the middle’: how many characteristics has the middle?
Majjhassa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni, visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati.
The middle has three characteristics. He [now] looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified; he looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity; he looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity.32
Yañca visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati.
And in that he [now] looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified and looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity and looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe, majjhassa imāni tīṇi lakkhaṇāni.
that intensification of equanimity is the middle of the first jhāna. These are the three characteristics of the middle.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ majjhekalyāṇañceva hoti tilakkhaṇasampannañca.
Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the middle which possesses three characteristics. ’
"Paṭhamassa jhānassa sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, pariyosānassa kati lakkhaṇāni?
113. “‘Of the first jhāna satisfaction is the end’: how many characteristics has the end?
Pariyosānassa cattāri lakkhaṇāni, tattha jātānaṃ dhammānaṃ anativattanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, indriyānaṃ ekarasaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, tadupagavīriyavāhanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā, āsevanaṭṭhena sampahaṃsanā.
The end has four characteristics. The satisfaction in the sense that there was non-excess of any of the states arisen therein, and the satisfaction in the sense that the faculties had a single function, and the satisfaction in the sense that the appropriate energy was effective, and the satisfaction in the sense of repetition,
Paṭhamassa jhānassa sampahaṃsanā pariyosānaṃ, pariyosānassa imāni cattāri lakkhaṇāni.
are the satisfaction in the end of the first jhāna. These are the four characteristics of the end.
Tena vuccati paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇañceva hoti catulakkhaṇasampannañcā"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.158).
Hence it is said: ‘The first jhāna is good in the end which possesses four characteristics’” (Paṭis I 167–68).
Tatra paṭipadāvisuddhi nāma sasambhāriko upacāro.
114. Herein, purification of the way is access together with its concomitants.
Upekkhānubrūhanā nāma appanā.
Intensification of equanimity is absorption.
Sampahaṃsanā nāma paccavekkhaṇāti evameke vaṇṇayanti.
Satisfaction is reviewing. So some comment.33
Yasmā pana "ekattagataṃ cittaṃ paṭipadāvisuddhipakkhandañceva hoti upekkhānubrūhitañca ñāṇena ca sampahaṃsita"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.158) pāḷiyaṃ vuttaṃ, tasmā antoappanāyameva āgamanavasena paṭipadāvisuddhi, tatramajjhattupekkhāya kiccavasena upekkhānubrūhanā, dhammānaṃ anativattanādibhāvasādhanena pariyodāpakassa ñāṇassa kiccanipphattivasena sampahaṃsanā ca veditabbā.
But it is said in the text, “The mind arrived at unity enters into purification of the way, is intensified in equanimity, and is satisfied by knowledge” (Paṭis I 167), and therefore it is from the standpoint within actual absorption that purification of the way firstly should be understood as the approach, with intensification of equanimity as the function of equanimity consisting in specific neutrality, and satisfaction as the manifestation of clarifying knowledge’s function in accomplishing non-excess of states.
Kathaṃ?
How?
Yasmiñhi vāre appanā uppajjati, tasmiṃ yo nīvaraṇasaṅkhāto kilesagaṇo tassa jhānassa paribandho, tato cittaṃ visujjhati.
115. Firstly, in a cycle [of consciousness] in which absorption arises the mind becomes purified from the group of defilements called hindrances that are an obstruction to jhāna.
Visuddhattā āvaraṇavirahitaṃ hutvā majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati.
Being devoid of obstruction because it has been purified, it makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity.
Majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ nāma samappavatto appanāsamādhiyeva.
Now, it is the absorption concentration itself occurring evenly that is called the sign of serenity.
Tadanantaraṃ pana purimacittaṃ ekasantatipariṇāmanayena tathattamupagacchamānaṃ majjhimaṃ samathanimittaṃ paṭipajjati nāma, evaṃ paṭipannattā tathattupagamanena tattha pakkhandati nāma.
But the consciousness immediately before that [149] reaches that state by way of change in a single continuity (cf. XXII.1–6), and so it is said that it makes way for the central [state of equilibrium, which is the] sign of serenity. And it is said that it enters into that state by approaching it through having made way for it.
Evaṃ tāva purimacitte vijjamānākāranipphādikā paṭhamassa jhānassa uppādakkhaṇeyeva āgamanavasena paṭipadāvisuddhi veditabbā.
That is why in the first place purification of the way, while referring to aspects existing in the preceding consciousness, should nevertheless be understood as the approach at the moment of the first jhāna’s actual arising.
Evaṃ visuddhassa pana tassa puna visodhetabbābhāvato visodhane byāpāraṃ akaronto visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma.
116. Secondly, when he has more interest in purifying, since there is no need to re-purify what has already been purified thus, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at the mind that is purified.
Samathabhāvupagamanena samathapaṭipannassa puna samādhāne byāpāraṃ akaronto samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma.
And when he has no more interest in concentrating again what has already made way for serenity by arriving at the state of serenity, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at it as having made way for serenity.
Samathapaṭipannabhāvato eva cassa kilesasaṃsaggaṃ pahāya ekattena upaṭṭhitassa puna ekattupaṭṭhāne byāpāraṃ akaronto ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati nāma.
And when he has no more interest in again causing appearance of unity in what has already appeared as unity through abandonment of its association with defilement in making way for serenity, it is said that he looks on with equanimity at the appearance of unity.
Evaṃ tatramajjhattupekkhāya kiccavasena upekkhānubrūhanā veditabbā.
That is why intensification of equanimity should be understood as the function of equanimity that consists in specific neutrality.
Ye panete evaṃ upekkhānubrūhite tattha jātā samādhipaññāsaṅkhātā yuganaddhadhammā aññamaññaṃ anativattamānā hutvā pavattā, yāni ca saddhādīni indriyāni nānākilesehi vimuttattā vimuttirasena ekarasāni hutvā pavattāni, yañcesa tadupagaṃ tesaṃ anativattanaekarasabhāvānaṃ anucchavikaṃ vīriyaṃ vāhayati, yā cassa tasmiṃ khaṇe pavattā āsevanā, sabbepi te ākārā yasmā ñāṇena saṃkilesavodānesu taṃ taṃ ādīnavañca ānisaṃsañca disvā tathā tathā sampahaṃsitattā visodhitattā pariyodāpitattā nipphannāva, tasmā "dhammānaṃ anativattanādibhāvasādhanena pariyodāpakassa ñāṇassa kiccanipphattivasena sampahaṃsanā veditabbā"ti vuttaṃ.
117. And lastly, when equanimity was thus intensified, the states called concentration and understanding produced there, occurred coupled together without either one exceeding the other. And also the [five] faculties beginning with faith occurred with the single function (taste) of deliverance owing to deliverance from the various defilements. And also the energy appropriate to that, which was favourable to their state of non-excess and single function, was effective. And also its repetition occurs at that moment. 34 Now, all these [four] aspects are only produced because it is after seeing with knowledge the various dangers in defilement and advantages in cleansing that satisfiedness, purifiedness and clarifiedness ensue accordingly. That is the reason why it was said that satisfaction should be understood as the manifestation of clarifying knowledge’s function in accomplishing non-excess, etc., of states (§114).
Tattha yasmā upekkhāvasena ñāṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti.
118. Herein, satisfaction as a function of knowledge is called “the end” since the knowledge is evident as due to onlooking equanimity,
Yathāha – "tathāpaggahitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhati, upekkhāvasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti, upekkhāvasena nānattakilesehi cittaṃ vimuccati, vimokkhavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti.
according as it is said: “He looks on with complete equanimity at the mind thus exerted; then the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to equanimity. Owing to equanimity the mind is liberated from the many sorts of defilements; then the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to liberation.
Vimuttattā te dhammā ekarasā honti.
Because of being liberated these states come to have a single function;
Ekarasaṭṭhena bhāvanā"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.201).
then [the understanding faculty is outstanding as understanding due to] development in the sense of the single function”35 (Paṭis II 25).
Tasmā ñāṇakiccabhūtā sampahaṃsanā pariyosānanti vuttā.
Idāni paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇanti ettha gaṇanānupubbatā paṭhamaṃ, paṭhamaṃ uppannantipi paṭhamaṃ.
119. Now, as to the words and so he has attained the first jhāna … of the earth kasiṇa (§79): Here it is first because it starts a numerical series; [150] also it is first because it arises first.
Ārammaṇūpanijjhānato paccanīkajhāpanato vā jhānaṃ.
It is called jhāna because of lighting (upanijjhāna) the object and because of burning up (jhāpana) opposition (Paṭis I 49).
Pathavīmaṇḍalaṃ pana sakalaṭṭhena pathavīkasiṇanti vuccati, taṃ nissāya paṭiladdhanimittampi, pathavīkasiṇanimitte paṭiladdhajhānampi.
The disk of earth is called earth kasiṇa (paṭhavīkasiṇa—lit. “earth universal”) in the sense of entirety,36 and the sign acquired with that as its support and also the jhāna acquired in the earth-kasiṇa sign are so called too.
Tatra imasmiṃ atthe jhānaṃ pathavīkasiṇanti veditabbaṃ.
So that jhāna should be understood as of the earth kasiṇa in this sense,
Taṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ "paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇa"nti.
with reference to which it was said above “and so he has attained to the first jhāna … of the earth kasiṇa.”
Ciraṭṭhitisampādanaṃ Table view Original pali

4.11 Ciraṭṭhitisampādanaṃ

76.Evamadhigate pana etasmiṃ tena yoginā vālavedhinā viya, sūdena viya ca ākārā pariggahetabbā.
120. When it has been attained in this way, the mode of its attainment must be discerned by the meditator as if he were a hair-splitter or a cook.
Yathā hi sukusalo dhanuggaho vālavedhāya kammaṃ kurumāno yasmiṃ vāre vālaṃ vijjhati, tasmiṃ vāre akkantapadānañca dhanudaṇḍassa ca jiyāya ca sarassa ca ākāraṃ pariggaṇheyya.
For when a very skilful archer, who is working to split a hair, actually splits the hair on one occasion, he discerns the modes of the position of his feet, the bow, the bowstring, and the arrow thus:
"Evaṃ me ṭhitena evaṃ dhanudaṇḍaṃ evaṃ jiyaṃ evaṃ saraṃ gahetvā vālo viddho"ti.
“I split the hair as I stood thus, with the bow thus, the bowstring thus, the arrow thus.”
So tato paṭṭhāya tatheva te ākāre sampādento avirādhetvā vālaṃ vijjheyya.
From then on he recaptures those same modes and repeats the splitting of the hair without fail.
Evameva yogināpi "imaṃ nāma me bhojanaṃ bhuñjitvā evarūpaṃ puggalaṃ sevamānena evarūpe senāsane iminā nāma iriyāpathena imasmiṃ kāle idaṃ adhigata"nti ete bhojanasappāyādayo ākārā pariggahetabbā.
So too the meditator must discern such modes as that of suitable food, etc., thus: “I attained this after eating this food, attending on such a person, in such a lodging, in this posture at this time.”
Evañhi so naṭṭhe vā tasmiṃ te ākāre sampādetvā puna uppādetuṃ, appaguṇaṃ vā paguṇaṃ karonto punappunaṃ appetuṃ sakkhissati.
In this way, when that [absorption] is lost, he will be able to recapture those modes and renew the absorption, or while familiarizing himself with it he will be able to repeat that absorption again and again.
Yathā ca kusalo sūdo bhattāraṃ parivisanto tassa yaṃ yaṃ ruciyā bhuñjati, taṃ taṃ sallakkhetvā tato paṭṭhāya tādisameva upanāmento lābhassa bhāgī hoti, evamayampi adhigatakkhaṇe bhojanādayo ākāre gahetvā te sampādento naṭṭhe naṭṭhe punappunaṃ appanāya lābhī hoti.
121. And just as when a skilled cook is serving his employer, he notices whatever he chooses to eat and from then on brings only that sort and so obtains a reward, so too this meditator discerns such modes as that of the food, etc., at the time of the attaining, and he recaptures them and re-obtains absorption each time it is lost.
Tasmā tena vālavedhinā viya sūdena viya ca ākārā pariggahetabbā.
So he must discern the modes as a hair-splitter or a cook does.

4.11.5 simile of cook, nimitta gets redefined as visual VRJ kasina

Vuttampi cetaṃ bhagavatā –
122.And this has been said by the Blessed One:
(The cook sutta, SN 47.8, in EBT samādhi nimitta are not VRJ👻🥶 visual kasinas! They are the 5 types of skillful Dharma thoughts & perceptions to abandon unskillful mental states MN 20)

"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo sūdo rājānaṃ vā rājamahāmattaṃ vā nānaccayehi sūpehi paccupaṭṭhito assa ambilaggehipi tittakaggehipi kaṭukaggehipi madhuraggehipi khārikehipi akhārikehipi loṇikehipi aloṇikehipi.
“Bhikkhus, suppose a wise, clever, skilful cook set various kinds of sauces before a king or a king’s minister, such as sour, bitter, sharp, [151] sweet, peppery and unpeppery, salty and unsalty sauces;
Sa kho so, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo sūdo sakassa bhattu nimittaṃ uggaṇhāti 'idaṃ vā me ajja bhattu sūpeyyaṃ ruccati, imassa vā abhiharati, imassa vā bahuṃ gaṇhāti, imassa vā vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati, ambilaggaṃ vā me ajja bhattu sūpeyyaṃ ruccati, ambilaggassa vā abhiharati, ambilaggassa vā bahuṃ gaṇhāti, ambilaggassa vā vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati - pe - aloṇikassa vā vaṇṇaṃ bhāsatī'ti.
then the wise, clever, skilful cook learned his master’s sign thus ‘today this sauce pleased my master’ or ‘he held out his hand for this one’ or ‘he took a lot of this one’ or ‘he praised this one’ or ‘today the sour kind pleased my master’ or ‘he held out his hand for the sour kind’ or ‘he took a lot of the sour kind’ or ‘he praised the sour kind’ … or ‘he praised the unsalty kind’;
Sa kho so, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo sūdo lābhī ceva hoti acchādanassa, lābhī vetanassa, lābhī abhihārānaṃ.
then the wise, clever, skilful cook is rewarded with clothing and wages and presents.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Tathā hi so, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo sūdo sakassa bhattu nimittaṃ uggaṇhāti.
Because that wise, clever, skilful cook learned his master’s sign in this way.
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco paṇḍito byatto kusalo bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati - pe - vedanāsu vedanā… citte cittā… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
So too, bhikkhus, here a wise, clever, skilful bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body as a body … He dwells contemplating feelings as feelings … consciousness as consciousness … mental objects as mental objects, ardent, fully aware and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
Tassa dhammesu dhammānupassino viharato cittaṃ samādhiyati, upakkilesā pahīyanti, so taṃ nimittaṃ uggaṇhāti.
As he dwells contemplating mental objects as mental objects, his mind becomes concentrated, his defilements are abandoned. He learns the sign of that.
Sa kho so, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo bhikkhu lābhī ceva hoti diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṃ, lābhī satisampajaññassa.
Then that wise, clever, skilful bhikkhu is rewarded with a happy abiding here and now, he is rewarded with mindfulness and full awareness.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Tathā hi so, bhikkhave, paṇḍito byatto kusalo bhikkhu sakassa cittassa nimittaṃ uggaṇhātī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.374).
Because that wise, clever, skilful bhikkhu learned his consciousness’s sign” (S V 151–52).
Nimittaggahaṇena cassa puna te ākāre sampādayato appanāmattameva ijjhati, na ciraṭṭhānaṃ.
123. And when he recaptures those modes by apprehending the sign, he just succeeds in reaching absorption, but not in making it last.
Ciraṭṭhānaṃ pana samādhiparibandhānaṃ dhammānaṃ suvisodhitattā hoti.
It lasts when it is absolutely purified from states that obstruct concentration.
Yo hi bhikkhu kāmādīnavapaccavekkhaṇādīhi kāmacchandaṃ na suṭṭhu vikkhambhetvā, kāyapassaddhivasena kāyaduṭṭhullaṃ na suppaṭipassaddhaṃ katvā, ārambhadhātumanasikārādivasena thinamiddhaṃ na suṭṭhu paṭivinodetvā, samathanimittamanasikārādivasena uddhaccakukkuccaṃ na susamūhataṃ katvā, aññepi samādhiparibandhe dhamme na suṭṭhu visodhetvā jhānaṃ samāpajjati, so avisodhitaṃ āsayaṃ paviṭṭhabhamaro viya avisuddhaṃ uyyānaṃ paviṭṭharājā viya ca khippameva nikkhamati.
124. When a bhikkhu enters upon a jhāna without [first] completely suppressing lust by reviewing the dangers in sense desires, etc., and without [first] completely tranquillizing bodily irritability37 by tranquillizing the body, and without [first] completely removing stiffness and torpor by bringing to mind the elements of initiative, etc., (§55), and without [first] completely abolishing agitation and worry by bringing to mind the sign of serenity, etc., [152] and without [first] completely purifying his mind of other states that obstruct concentration, then that bhikkhu soon comes out of that jhāna again, like a bee that has gone into an unpurified hive, like a king who has gone into an unclean park.
Yo pana samādhiparibandhe dhamme suṭṭhu visodhetvā jhānaṃ samāpajjati, so suvisodhitaṃ āsayaṃ paviṭṭhabhamaro viya suparisuddhaṃ uyyānaṃ paviṭṭharājā viya ca sakalampi divasabhāgaṃ antosamāpattiyaṃyeva hoti.
125. But when he enters upon a jhāna after [first] completely purifying his mind of states that obstruct concentration, then he remains in the attainment even for a whole day, like a bee that has gone into a completely purified hive, like a king who has gone into a perfectly clean park.
Tenāhu porāṇā –
Hence the Ancients said:
"Kāmesu chandaṃ paṭighaṃ vinodaye,
“So let him dispel any sensual lust, and resentment,
Uddhaccamiddhaṃ vicikicchapañcamaṃ;
Agitation as well, and then torpor, and doubt as the fifth;
Vivekapāmojjakarena cetasā,
There let him find joy with a heart that is glad in seclusion,
Rājāva suddhantagato tahiṃ rame"ti.
Like a king in a garden where all and each corner is clean.”
Tasmā ciraṭṭhitikāmena paribandhakadhamme visodhetvā jhānaṃ samāpajjitabbaṃ.
126. So if he wants to remain long in the jhāna, he must enter upon it after [first] purifying his mind from obstructive states.
Cittabhāvanāvepullatthañca yathāladdhaṃ paṭibhāganimittaṃ vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
[EXTENSION OF THE SIGN] In order to perfect the development of consciousness he should besides extend the counterpart sign according as acquired.
Tassa dve vaḍḍhanābhūmiyo upacāraṃ vā appanaṃ vā.
Now, there are two planes for extension, namely, access and absorption;
Upacāraṃ patvāpi hi taṃ vaḍḍhetuṃ vaṭṭati appanaṃ patvāpi.
for it is possible to extend it on reaching access and on reaching absorption.
Ekasmiṃ pana ṭhāne avassaṃ vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
But the extending should be done consistently in one [or the other],
Tena vuttaṃ "yathāladdhaṃ paṭibhāganimittaṃ vaḍḍhetabba"nti.
which is why it was said “he should besides extend the counterpart sign according as acquired.”
Nimittavaḍḍhananayo Table view Original pali

4.12 Nimittavaḍḍhananayo

77.Tatrāyaṃ vaḍḍhananayo, tena yoginā taṃ nimittaṃ pattavaḍḍhanapūvavaḍḍhanabhattavaḍḍhanalatāvaḍḍhanadussavaḍḍhanayogena avaḍḍhetvā yathā nāma kassako kasitabbaṭṭhānaṃ naṅgalena paricchinditvā paricchedabbhantare kasati, yathā vā pana bhikkhū sīmaṃ bandhantā paṭhamaṃ nimittāni sallakkhetvā pacchā bandhanti, evameva tassa yathāladdhassa nimittassa anukkamena ekaṅguladvaṅgulativaṅgulacaturaṅgulamattaṃ manasā paricchinditvā yathāparicchedaṃ vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
127. The way to extend it is this.The meditator should not extend the sign as a clay bowl or a cake or boiled rice or a creeper or a piece of cloth is extended. He should first delimit with his mind successive sizes for the sign, according as acquired, that is to say, one finger, two fingers, three fingers, four fingers, and then extend it by the amount delimited, just as a ploughman delimits with the plough the area to be ploughed and then ploughs within the area delimited, or just as bhikkhus fixing a boundary first observe the marks and then fix it.
Aparicchinditvā pana na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
He should not, in fact, extend it without having delimited [the amount it is to be extended by].
Tato vidatthiratanapamukhapariveṇavihārasīmānaṃ gāmanigamajanapadarajjasamuddasīmānañca paricchedavasena vaḍḍhayantena cakkavāḷaparicchedena vā tato vāpi uttari paricchinditvā vaḍḍhetabbaṃ.
After that has been done, he can further extend it, doing so by delimiting successive boundaries of, say, a span, a ratana (=2 spans), the veranda, the surrounding space,38 the monastery, and the boundaries of the village, the town, the district, the kingdom and the ocean, [153] making the extreme limit the world-sphere or even beyond.
Yathā hi haṃsapotakā pakkhānaṃ uṭṭhitakālato paṭṭhāya parittaṃ parittaṃ padesaṃ uppatantā paricayaṃ katvā anukkamena candimasūriyasantikaṃ gacchanti, evameva bhikkhu vuttanayena nimittaṃ paricchinditvā vaḍḍhento yāva cakkavāḷaparicchedā tato vā uttari vaḍḍheti.
128. Just as young swans first starting to use their wings soar a little distance at a time, and by gradually increasing it eventually reach the presence of the moon and sun, so too when a bhikkhu extends the sign by successive delimitations in the way described, he can extend it up to the limit of the world- sphere or even beyond.
Athassa taṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhitavaḍḍhitaṭṭhāne pathaviyā ukkūlavikūlanadīviduggapabbatavisamesu saṅkusatasamabbhāhataṃ usabhacammaṃ viya hoti.
129. Then that sign [appears] to him like an ox hide stretched out with a hundred pegs39 over the earth’s ridges and hollows, river ravines, tracts of scrub and thorns, and rocky inequalities (see M III 105) in any area to which it has been extended.
Tasmiṃ pana nimitte pattapaṭhamajjhānena ādikammikena samāpajjanabahulena bhavitabbaṃ, na paccavekkhaṇabahulena.
When a beginner has reached the first jhāna in this sign, he should enter upon it often without reviewing it much.
Paccavekkhaṇabahulassa hi jhānaṅgāni thūlāni dubbalāni hutvā upaṭṭhahanti.
For the first jhāna factors occur crudely and weakly in one who reviews it much.
Athassa tāni evaṃ upaṭṭhitattā upari ussukkanāya paccayataṃ āpajjanti.
Then because of that they do not become conditions for higher endeavour.
So appaguṇe jhāne ussukkamāno pattapaṭhamajjhānā ca parihāyati, na ca sakkoti dutiyaṃ pāpuṇituṃ.
While he is endeavouring for the unfamiliar [higher jhāna] he falls away from the first jhāna and fails to reach the second.
Tenāha bhagavā –
130. Hence the Blessed One said:
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ.
“Bhikkhus, suppose there were a foolish stupid mountain cow, with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains,
Tassā evamassa 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyya'nti.
who thought: ‘What if I walked in a direction I never walked in before, ate grass I never ate before, drank water I never drank before?’
Sā purimaṃ pādaṃ na supatiṭṭhitaṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā pacchimaṃ pādaṃ uddhareyya, sā na ceva agatapubbaṃ disaṃ gaccheyya, na ca akhāditapubbāni tiṇāni khādeyya, na ca apītapubbāni pānīyāni piveyya.
and without placing her forefoot properly she lifted up her hind foot; then she would not walk in the direction she never walked in before or eat the grass she never ate before or drink the water she never drank before,
Yasmiñcassā padese ṭhitāya evamassa 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva - pe - piveyya'nti.
‘What if I walked in a direction I never walked in before … drank water I never drank before?
Tañca padesaṃ na sotthinā paccāgaccheyya.
and also she would not get back safely to the place where she had thought,
Taṃ kissa hetu ?
Why is that?
Tathā hi sā, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ, evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco bhikkhu bālo abyatto akhettaññū akusalo vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ.
Because that mountain cow was foolish and stupid with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains. So too, bhikkhus, here is a certain foolish stupid bhikkhu with no knowledge of fields and no skill, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, in entering upon and dwelling in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied thought and sustained thought with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of seclusion;
So taṃ nimittaṃ nāsevati, na bhāveti, na bahulīkaroti, na svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti, tassa evaṃ hoti 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā - pe - dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya'nti.
he does not repeat, develop or cultivate that sign or properly establish it. He thinks: ‘What if with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought I entered upon and dwelt in the second jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of concentration?’ [154]
So na sakkoti vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā - pe - dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ.
He is unable with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought to enter upon and dwell in the second jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of concentration.
Tassevaṃ hoti 'yaṃnūnāhaṃ vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya'nti.
Then he thinks: ‘What if, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, I entered upon and dwelt in the first jhāna, which is … with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of seclusion?’
So na sakkoti vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ.
He is unable, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, to enter upon and dwell in the first jhāna which is … with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of seclusion.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ubhato bhaṭṭho ubhato parihīno, seyyathāpi sā gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate caritu"nti (a. ni. 9.35).
This bhikkhu is called one who has slipped between the two, who has fallen between the two, just like the foolish stupid mountain cow with no knowledge of fields and no skill in walking on craggy mountains …” (A IV 418–19).
Tasmānena tasmiṃyeva tāva paṭhamajjhāne pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā bhavitabbaṃ.
131. Therefore he should acquire mastery in the five ways first of all with respect to the first jhāna.
Pañcavasīkathā Table view Original pali

4.13 Pañcavasīkathā

78.Tatrimā pañca vasiyo āvajjanavasī, samāpajjanavasī, adhiṭṭhānavasī, vuṭṭhānavasī, paccavekkhaṇavasīti.
Herein, these are the five kinds of mastery: mastery in adverting, mastery in attaining, mastery in resolving (steadying the duration), mastery in emerging, and mastery in reviewing.
Paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ yatthicchakaṃ yadicchakaṃ yāvadicchakaṃ āvajjeti, āvajjanāya dandhāyitattaṃ natthīti āvajjanavasī.
“He adverts to the first jhāna where, when, and for as long as, he wishes; he has no difficulty in adverting; thus it is mastery in adverting.
Paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ yatthicchakaṃ - pe - samāpajjati, samāpajjanāya dandhāyitattaṃ natthīti samāpajjanavasī.
He attains the first jhāna where … he has no difficulty in attaining; thus it is mastery in attaining” (Paṭis I 100),
Evaṃ sesāpi vitthāretabbā.
and all the rest should be quoted in detail (XXIII.27).
Ayaṃ panettha atthappakāsanā, paṭhamajjhānato vuṭṭhāya paṭhamaṃ vitakkaṃ āvajjayato bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā uppannāvajjanānantaraṃ vitakkārammaṇāneva cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti.
132. The explanation of the meaning here is this. When he emerges from the first jhāna and first of all adverts to the applied thought, then, next to the adverting that arose interrupting the life-continuum, either four or five impulsions impel with that applied thought as their object.
Tato dve bhavaṅgāni, tato puna vicārārammaṇaṃ āvajjanaṃ, vuttanayāneva javanānīti evaṃ pañcasu jhānaṅgesu yadā nirantaraṃ cittaṃ pesetuṃ sakkoti, athassa āvajjanavasī siddhā hoti.
Then there are two life-continuum [consciousnesses]. Then there is adverting with the sustained thought as its object and followed by impulsions in the way just stated. When he is able to prolong his conscious process uninterruptedly in this way with the five jhāna factors, then his mastery of adverting is successful.
Ayaṃ pana matthakappattā vasī bhagavato yamakapāṭihāriye labbhati, aññesaṃ vā evarūpe kāle.
But this mastery is found at its acme of perfection in the Blessed One’s Twin Marvel (Paṭis I 125), or for others on the aforesaid occasions.
Ito paraṃ sīghatarā āvajjanavasī nāma natthi.
There is no quicker mastery in adverting than that.
Āyasmato pana mahāmoggallānassa nandopanandanāgarājadamane viya sīghaṃ samāpajjanasamatthatā samāpajjanavasī nāma.
133. The venerable Mahā-Moggallāna’s ability to enter upon jhāna quickly, as in the taming of the royal nāga-serpent Nandopananda (XII.106f.), is called mastery in attaining.
Accharāmattaṃ vā dasaccharāmattaṃ vā khaṇaṃ ṭhapetuṃ samatthatā adhiṭṭhānavasī nāma.
134. Ability to remain in jhāna for a moment consisting in exactly a finger- snap or exactly ten finger-snaps is called mastery in resolving (steadying the duration).
Tatheva lahuṃ vuṭṭhātuṃ samatthatā vuṭṭhānavasī nāma.
Ability to emerge quickly in the same way is called mastery in emerging.
Tadubhayadassanatthaṃ buddharakkhitattherassa vatthuṃ kathetuṃ vaṭṭati.
135. The story of the Elder Buddharakkhita may be told in order to illustrate both these last.
So hāyasmā upasampadāya aṭṭhavassiko hutvā therambatthale mahārohaṇaguttattherassa gilānupaṭṭhānaṃ āgatānaṃ tiṃsamattānaṃ iddhimantasahassānaṃ majjhe nisinno therassa yāguṃ paṭiggāhayamānaṃ upaṭṭhākanāgarājānaṃ gahessāmīti ākāsato pakkhandantaṃ supaṇṇarājānaṃ disvā tāvadeva pabbataṃ nimminitvā nāgarājānaṃ bāhāyaṃ gahetvā tattha pāvisi.
Eight years after his admission to the Community that elder was sitting in the midst of thirty thousand bhikkhus possessed of supernormal powers who had gathered to attend upon the sickness of the Elder Mahā- Rohanagutta at Therambatthala. He saw a royal supaṇṇa (bird) swooping down from the sky intending to seize an attendant royal nāga-serpent as he was getting rice-gruel accepted for the elder. The Elder Buddharakkhita created a rock meanwhile, and seizing the royal nāga by the arm, he pushed him inside it.
Supaṇṇarājā pabbate pahāraṃ datvā palāyi.
The royal supaṇṇa gave the rock a blow and made off.
Mahāthero āha – "sace, āvuso, buddharakkhito nābhavissa, sabbeva gārayhā assāmā"ti.
The senior elder remarked: “Friends, if Rakkhita had not been there, we should all have been put to shame. ”40
Paccavekkhaṇavasī pana āvajjanavasiyā eva vuttā.
136. Mastery in reviewing is described in the same way as mastery in adverting;
Paccavekkhaṇajavanāneva hi tattha āvajjanānantarānīti.
for the reviewing impulsions are in fact those next to the adverting mentioned there (§132).
Dutiyajjhānakathā Table view Original pali

4.14 Dutiyaj-jhāna-kathā: 2rd jhāna discussion

79.Imāsu pana pañcasu vasīsu ciṇṇavasinā paguṇapaṭhamajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannanīvaraṇapaccatthikā, vitakkavicārānaṃ oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā dutiyajjhānaṃ santato manasikatvā paṭhamajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya dutiyādhigamāya yogo kātabbo.
137. When he has once acquired mastery in these five ways, then on emerging from the now familiar first jhāna he can regard the flaws in it in this way: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of the hindrances, and its factors are weakened by the grossness of the applied and sustained thought.” He can bring the second jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the first jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the second.
Athassa yadā paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato vitakkavicārā oḷārikato upaṭṭhahanti, pītisukhañceva cittekaggatā ca santato upaṭṭhāti, tadāssa oḷārikaṅgaṃ pahānāya santaaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto "idāni dutiyajjhānaṃ uppajjissatī"ti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati.
138. When he has emerged from the first jhāna, applied and sustained thought appear gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness, while happiness and bliss-(sukha) and unification of mind appear peaceful. Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factors and obtaining the peaceful factors, [knowing] “now the second jhāna will arise,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the life-continuum.
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti, yesamavasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ dutiyajjhānikaṃ.
After that, either four or five impulsions impel on that same object, the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere belonging to the second jhāna.
Sesāni vuttappakārāneva kāmāvacarānīti.
The rest are of the sense sphere of the kinds already stated (§74).
Ettāvatā cesa vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
[THE SECOND JHĀNA] 139. And at this point, “With the stilling of applied and sustained thought he enters upon and dwells in the second jhāna, which has internal confidence and singleness of mind without applied thought, without sustained thought, with happiness and bliss-(sukha) born of concentration” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena dvaṅgavippahīnaṃ tivaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ.
and so he has attained the second jhāna, which abandons two factors, possesses three factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics and is of the earth kasiṇa.
80.Tattha vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamāti vitakkassa ca vicārassa cāti imesaṃ dvinnaṃ vūpasamā samatikkamā, dutiyajjhānakkhaṇe apātubhāvāti vuttaṃ hoti.
140. Herein, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought: with the stilling, with the surmounting, of these two, namely, applied thought and sustained thought; with their non-manifestation at the moment of the second jhāna, is what is meant.
Tattha kiñcāpi dutiyajjhāne sabbepi paṭhamajjhānadhammā na santi.
Herein, although none of the states belonging to the first jhāna exist in the second jhāna—
Aññeyeva hi paṭhamajjhāne phassādayo, aññe idha.
for the contact, etc. (see M III 25), in the first jhāna are one and here they are another—
Oḷārikassa pana oḷārikassa aṅgassa samatikkamā paṭhamajjhānato paresaṃ dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ adhigamo hotīti dīpanatthaṃ "vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā"ti evaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
it should be understood all the same that the phrase “with the stilling of applied and sustained thought” is expressed in this way in order to indicate that the attaining of the other jhānas, beginning with that of the second from the first, is effected by the surmounting of the gross factor in each case.
Ajjhattanti idha niyakajjhattamadhippetaṃ.
141. Internal: here one’s own internal41 is intended;
Vibhaṅge pana "ajjhattaṃ paccatta"nti ettakameva vuttaṃ.
but that much is actually stated in the Vibhaṅga too with the words “internally in oneself” (Vibh 258).
Yasmā ca niyakajjhattamadhippetaṃ, tasmā attani jātaṃ attano santāne nibbattanti ayamettha attho.
And since one’s own internal is intended, the meaning here is this: born in oneself, generated in one’s own continuity.
Sampasādananti sampasādanaṃ vuccati saddhā.
142. Confidence: it is faith that is called confidence.
Sampasādanayogato jhānampi sampasādanaṃ.
The jhāna “has confidence” because it is associated with confidence
Nīlavaṇṇayogato nīlavatthaṃ viya.
as a cloth “has blue colour” because it is associated with blue colour.
Yasmā vā taṃ jhānaṃ sampasādanasamannāgatattā vitakkavicārakkhobhavūpasamanena ca cetaso sampasādayati, tasmāpi sampasādananti vuttaṃ.
Or alternatively, that jhāna is stated to “have confidence” because it makes the mind confident with the confidence possessed by it and by stilling the disturbance created by applied and sustained thought.
Imasmiñca atthavikappe sampasādanaṃ cetasoti evaṃ padasambandho veditabbo.
And with this conception of the meaning the word construction must be taken as “confidence of mind.”
Purimasmiṃ pana atthavikappe cetasoti etaṃ ekodibhāvena saddhiṃ yojetabbaṃ.
But with the first-mentioned conception of the meaning the words “of mind” must be construed with “singleness42”.
Tatrāyamatthayojanā, eko udetīti ekodi, vitakkavicārehi anajjhārūḷhattā aggo seṭṭho hutvā udetīti attho.
143. Here is the construction of the meaning in that case. Unique (eka) it comes up (udeti), thus it is single (ekodi); the meaning is, it comes up as the superlative, the best, because it is not overtopped by applied and sustained thought,
Seá¹­á¹­hopi hi loke ekoti vuccati.
for the best is called “unique” in the world.
Vitakkavicāravirahato vā eko asahāyo hutvā itipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati.
Or it is permissible to say that when deprived of applied and sustained thought it is unique, without companion.
Atha vā sampayuttadhamme udāyatīti udi, uṭṭhāpetīti attho.
Or alternatively: it evokes (udāyati) associated states, thus it is an evoker (udi); the meaning is, it arouses.
Seṭṭhaṭṭhena eko ca so udi cāti ekodi, samādhissetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
And that is unique (eka) in the sense of best, and it is an evoker (udi), thus it is a unique evoker (ekodi = single). This is a term for concentration.
Iti imaṃ ekodiṃ bhāveti vaḍḍhetīti idaṃ dutiyajjhānaṃ ekodibhāvaṃ.
Then, since the second jhāna gives existingness to (bhāveti), augments, this single [thing], it “gives singleness” (ekodibhāva).
So panāyaṃ ekodi yasmā cetaso, na sattassa, na jīvassa, tasmā etaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvanti vuttaṃ.
But as this single [thing] is a mind’s, not a being’s or a soul’s, so singleness of mind is said.
Nanu cāyaṃ saddhā paṭhamajjhānepi atthi, ayañca ekodināmako samādhi, atha kasmā idameva "sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvañcā"ti vuttanti.
144. It might be asked: But does not this faith exist in the first jhāna too, and also this concentration with the name of the “single [thing]?” Then why is only this second jhāna said to have confidence and singleness of mind?
Vuccate, aduñhi paṭhamajjhānaṃ vitakkavicārakkhobhena vīcitaraṅgasamākulamiva jalaṃ na suppasannaṃ hoti, tasmā satiyāpi saddhāya "sampasādana"nti na vuttaṃ.
—It may be replied as follows: It is because that first jhāna [157] is not fully confident owing to the disturbance created by applied and sustained thought, like water ruffled by ripples and wavelets. That is why, although faith does exist in it, it is not called “confidence.”
Na suppasannattāyeva cettha samādhipi na suṭṭhu pākaṭo, tasmā "ekodibhāva"ntipi na vuttaṃ.
And there too concentration is not fully evident because of the lack of full confidence. That is why it is not called “singleness” there.
Imasmiṃ pana jhāne vitakkavicārapalibodhābhāvena laddhokāsā balavatī saddhā, balavasaddhāsahāyapaṭilābheneva ca samādhipi pākaṭo, tasmā idameva evaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
But in this second jhāna faith is strong, having got a footing in the absence of the impediments of applied and sustained thought; and concentration is also evident through having strong faith as its companion. That may be understood as the reason why only this jhāna is described in this way.
Vibhaṅge pana "sampasādananti yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo.
145. But that much is actually stated in the Vibhaṅga too with the words: “‘Confidence’ is faith, having faith, trust, full confidence.
Cetaso ekodibhāvanti yā cittassa ṭhiti - pe - sammāsamādhī"ti ettakameva vuttaṃ.
‘Singleness of mind’ is steadiness of consciousness … right concentration” (Vibh 258).
Evaṃ vuttena pana tena saddhiṃ ayamatthavaṇṇanā yathā na virujjhati, aññadatthu saṃsandati ceva sameti ca, evaṃ veditabbā.
And this commentary on the meaning should not be so understood as to conflict with the meaning stated in that way, but on the contrary so as to agree and concur with it.
81.Avitakkaṃ avicāranti bhāvanāya pahīnattā etasmiṃ, etassa vā vitakko natthīti avitakkaṃ.
146. Without applied thought, without sustained thought: since it has been abandoned by development, there is no applied thought in this, or of this, [jhāna], thus it is without applied thought.
Imināva nayena avicāraṃ.
The same explanation applies to sustained thought.
Vibhaṅgepi vuttaṃ "iti ayañca vitakko ayañca vicāro santā honti samitā vūpasantā atthaṅgatā abbhatthaṅgatā appitā byappitā sositā visositā byantikatā, tena vuccati avitakkaṃ avicāra"nti (vibha. 576).
Also it is said in the Vibhaṅga: “So this applied thought and this sustained thought are quieted, quietened, stilled, set at rest, set quite at rest, done away with, quite done away with,43 dried up, quite dried up, made an end of; hence it is said: without applied thought, without sustained thought” (Vibh 258).
Etthāha "nanu ca 'vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā'ti imināpi ayamattho siddho, atha kasmā puna vuttaṃ 'avitakkaṃ avicāra'nti".
Here it may be asked: Has not this meaning already been established by the words “with the stilling of applied and sustained thought?”
Vuccate, evametaṃ siddhovāyamattho, na panetaṃ tadatthadīpakaṃ.
So why is it said again “without applied thought, without sustained thoughts?”
Nanu avocumha "oḷārikassa pana oḷārikassa aṅgassa samatikkamā paṭhamajjhānato paresaṃ dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ samadhigamo hotīti dassanatthaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamāti evaṃ vutta"nti.
—It may be replied: Yes, that meaning has already been established. But this does not indicate that meaning. Did we not say earlier: “The phrase ‘with the stilling of applied and sustained thought’ is expressed in this way in order to indicate that the act of attaining the other jhānas, beginning with that of the second from the first, is effected by the surmounting of the gross factor in each case? ” (§140).
Apica vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā idaṃ sampasādanaṃ, na kilesakālussiyassa.
147. Besides, this confidence comes about with the act of stilling, not the darkness of defilement, but the applied and sustained thought.
Vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamā ekodibhāvaṃ, na upacārajjhānamiva nīvaraṇappahānā, paṭhamajjhānamiva ca na aṅgapātubhāvāti evaṃ sampasādanaekodibhāvānaṃ hetuparidīpakamidaṃ vacanaṃ.
And the singleness comes about, not as in access jhāna with the abandoning of the hindrances, nor as in the first jhāna with the manifestation of the factors, but with the act of stilling the applied and sustained thought. So that [first] clause indicates the cause of the confidence and singleness.
Tathā vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā idaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ, na tatiyacatutthajjhānāni viya cakkhuviññāṇādīni viya ca abhāvāti evaṃ avitakkaavicārabhāvassa hetuparidīpakañca, na vitakkavicārābhāvamattaparidīpakaṃ.
In the same way this jhāna is without applied thought and without sustained thought, not as in the third and fourth jhānas or as in eye-consciousness, etc., with just absence, but with the actual act of stilling the applied and sustained thought. So that [first clause] also indicates the cause of the state without applied and sustained thought; it does not indicate the bare absence of applied and sustained thought.
Vitakkavicārābhāvamattaparidīpakameva pana "avitakkaṃ avicāra"nti idaṃ vacanaṃ.
The bare absence of applied and sustained thought is indicated by this [second] clause, namely, “without applied thought, without sustained thought.”
Tasmā purimaṃ vatvāpi vattabbamevāti.
Consequently it needs to be stated notwithstanding that the first has already been stated.
Samādhijanti paṭhamajjhānasamādhito sampayuttasamādhito vā jātanti attho.
148. Born of concentration: born of the first-jhāna concentration, or born of associated concentration, is the meaning.
Tattha kiñcāpi paṭhamampi sampayuttasamādhito jātaṃ, atha kho ayameva samādhi "samādhī"ti vattabbataṃ arahati vitakkavicārakkhobhavirahena ativiya acalattā, suppasannattā ca, tasmā imassa vaṇṇabhaṇanatthaṃ idameva "samādhija"nti vuttaṃ.
Herein, although the first was born of associated concentration too, still it is only this concentration that is quite worthy to be called “concentration” because of its complete confidence and extreme immobility due to absence of disturbance by applied and sustained thought. So only this [jhāna] is called “born of concentration,” and that is in order to recommend it.
Pītisukhanti idaṃ vuttanayameva.
With happiness and bliss-(sukha) is as already explained.
Dutiyanti gaṇanānupubbatā dutiyaṃ.
Second: second in numerical series.
Idaṃ dutiyaṃ samāpajjatītipi dutiyaṃ.
Also second because entered upon second.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "dvaṅgavippahīnaṃ tivaṅgasamannāgata"nti, tattha vitakkavicārānaṃ pahānavasena dvaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā.
149. Then it was also said above which abandons two factors, possesses three factors (§139). Herein, the abandoning of two factors should be understood as the abandoning of applied thought and sustained thought.
Yathā ca paṭhamajjhānassa upacārakkhaṇe nīvaraṇāni pahīyanti, na tathā imassa vitakkavicārā.
But while the hindrances are abandoned at the moment of the access of the first jhāna, in the case of this jhāna the applied thought and sustained thought are not abandoned at the moment of its access.
Appanākkhaṇeyeva ca panetaṃ vinā tehi uppajjati.
It is only at the moment of actual absorption that the jhāna arises without them.
Tenassa te "pahānaṅga"nti vuccanti.
Hence they are called its factors of abandoning.
Pīti sukhaṃ cittekaggatāti imesaṃ pana tiṇṇaṃ uppattivasena tivaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā.
150. Its possession of three factors should be understood as the arising of the three, that is, happiness, bliss-(sukha), and unification of mind.
Tasmā yaṃ vibhaṅge "jhānanti sampasādo pīti sukhaṃ cittassa ekaggatā"ti (vibha. 580) vuttaṃ, taṃ saparikkhāraṃ jhānaṃ dassetuṃ pariyāyena vuttaṃ.
So when it is said in the Vibhaṅga, “‘Jhāna’: confidence, happiness, bliss-(sukha), unification of mind” (Vibh 258), this is said figuratively in order to show that jhāna with its equipment.
Ṭhapetvā pana sampasādanaṃ nippariyāyena upanijjhānalakkhaṇappattānaṃ aṅgānaṃ vasena tivaṅgikameva etaṃ hoti.
But, excepting the confidence, this jhāna has literally three factors qua factors that have attained to the characteristic of lighting (see §119),
Yathāha – "katamaṃ tasmiṃ samaye tivaṅgikaṃ jhānaṃ hoti, pīti sukhaṃ cittassa ekaggatā"ti (dha. sa. 161; vibha. 628).
according as it is said: “What is jhāna of three factors on that occasion? It is happiness, bliss-(sukha), unification of mind” (Vibh 263).
Sesaṃ paṭhamajjhāne vuttanayameva.
The rest is as in the case of the first jhāna.
Tatiyajjhānakathā Table view Original pali

4.15 Tatiya-j-jhāna-kathā: 3rd jhāna discussion

82.Evamadhigate pana tasmimpi vuttanayeneva pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā hutvā paguṇadutiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannavitakkavicārapaccatthikā, 'yadeva tattha pītigataṃ cetaso uppilāvitaṃ, etenetaṃ oḷārikaṃ akkhāyatī'ti (dī. ni. 1.96) vuttāya pītiyā oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā tatiyajjhānaṃ santato manasikaritvā dutiyajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya tatiyādhigamāya yogo kātabbo.
151.Once this has been obtained in this way, and he has mastery in the five ways already described, then on emerging from the now familiar second jhāna he can regard the flaws in it thus: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of applied and sustained thought; ‘Whatever there is in it of happiness, of mental excitement, proclaims its grossness’ (D I 37), and its factors are weakened by the grossness of the happiness so expressed.” He can bring the third jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the second jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the third.
Athassa yadā dutiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato pīti oḷārikato upaṭṭhāti, sukhañceva ekaggatā ca santato upaṭṭhāti.
152. When he has emerged from the second jhāna [159] happiness appears gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness, while bliss-(sukha) and unification appear peaceful.
Tadāssa oḷārikaṅgappahānāya santaaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto "idāni tatiyajjhānaṃ uppajjissatī"ti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati.
Then as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factor and obtaining the peaceful factors, [knowing] “now the third jhāna will arise,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the life-continuum.
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti, yesaṃ avasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ tatiyajjhānikaṃ, sesāni vuttanayeneva kāmāvacarānīti.
After that, either four or five impulsions impel on that same object, the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere belonging to the third jhāna. The rest are of the kinds already stated (§74).
Ettāvatā ca panesa pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti, tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatīti (dī. ni. 1.230; dha. sa. 163).
[THE THIRD JHĀNA] 153. And at this point, “With the fading away of happiness as well he dwells in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, he feels bliss-(sukha) with his body; he enters upon and dwells in the third jhāna, on account of which the Noble Ones announce: ‘He dwells in bliss-(sukha) who has equanimity and is mindful’ (Vibh 245),
Evamanena ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ.
and so he has attained the third jhāna, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics, and is of the earth kasiṇa.

4.15.1 gloss: pītiyā ca virāgā

83.Tattha pītiyā ca virāgāti virāgo nāma vuttappakārāya pītiyā jigucchanaṃ vā samatikkamo vā.
154.Herein, with the fading away of happiness as well (pītiyā ca virāgā): fading away is distaste for, or surmounting of, happiness of the kind already described.
Ubhinnaṃ pana antarā casaddo sampiṇḍanattho, so vūpasamaṃ vā sampiṇḍeti vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamaṃ vā.
But the words “as well” (ca) between the two [words pītiyā and virāgā] have the meaning of a conjunction;44 they conjoin [to them] either the word “stilling” or the expression “the stilling of applied and sustained thought” [in the description of the second jhāna].
Tattha yadā vūpasamameva sampiṇḍeti, tadā "pītiyā ca virāgā kiñca bhiyyo vūpasamā cā"ti evaṃ yojanā veditabbā.
Herein, when taken as conjoining “stilling” the construction to be understood is “with the fading away and, what is more, with the stilling, of happiness.”
Imissā ca yojanāya virāgo jigucchanattho hoti, tasmā "pītiyā jigucchanā ca vūpasamā cā"ti ayamattho daṭṭhabbo.
With this construction “fading away” has the meaning of distaste; so the meaning can be regarded as “with distaste for, and with the stilling of, happiness.”
Yadā pana vitakkavicāravūpasamaṃ sampiṇḍeti, tadā "pītiyā ca virāgā, kiñca bhiyyo vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamā"ti evaṃ yojanā veditabbā.
But when taken as conjoining the words “stilling of applied and sustained thought,” then the construction to be understood is “with the fading of happiness and, further, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought.”
Imissā ca yojanāya virāgo samatikkamanattho hoti, tasmā "pītiyā ca samatikkamā vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamā"ti ayamattho daṭṭhabbo.
With this construction “fading away” has the meaning of surmounting; so this meaning can be regarded as “with the surmounting of happiness and with the stilling of applied and sustained thought. ”
Kāmañcete vitakkavicārā dutiyajjhāneyeva vūpasantā, imassa pana jhānassa maggaparidīpanatthaṃ vaṇṇabhaṇanatthañcetaṃ vuttaṃ.
155. Of course, applied and sustained thought have already been stilled in the second jhāna, too. However, this is said in order to show the path to this third jhāna and in order to recommend it.
Vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamāti hi vutte idaṃ paññāyati, nūna vitakkavicāravūpasamo maggo imassa jhānassāti.
For when “with the stilling of applied and sustained thought” is said, it is declared that the path to this jhāna is necessarily by the stilling of applied and sustained thought.
Yathā ca tatiye ariyamagge appahīnānampi sakkāyadiṭṭhādīnaṃ "pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānā"ti (dī. ni. 1.373; ma. ni. 2.133; saṃ. ni. 5.184; a. ni. 3.88) evaṃ pahānaṃ vuccamānaṃ vaṇṇabhaṇanaṃ hoti, tadadhigamāya ussukkānaṃ ussāhajanakaṃ, evameva idha avūpasantānampi vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamo vuccamāno vaṇṇabhaṇanaṃ hoti.
And just as, although mistaken view of individuality, etc., are not abandoned in the attaining of the third noble path [but in the first], yet when it is recommended by describing their abandonment thus, “With the abandoning of the five lower fetters” (A I 232), [160] then it awakens eagerness in those trying to attain that third noble path— so too, when the stilling of applied and sustained thought is mentioned, though they are not actually stilled here [but in the second], this is a recommendation.
Tenāyamattho vutto "pītiyā ca samatikkamā vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamā"ti.
Hence the meaning expressed is this: “With the surmounting of happiness and with the stilling of applied and sustained thought. ”

4.15.2 gloss: Upekkhako ca viharatī

84.Upekkhako ca viharatīti ettha upapattito ikkhatīti upekkhā.
156. He dwells in equanimity: it watches [things] as they arise (UPApattito IKKHATI), thus it is equanimity (upekkhā—or onlooking);
Samaṃ passati, apakkhapatitā hutvā passatīti attho.
it sees fairly, sees without partiality (a-pakkha-patita), is the meaning.
Tāya visadāya vipulāya thāmagatāya samannāgatattā tatiyajjhānasamaṅgī upekkhakoti vuccati.
A possessor of the third jhāna is said to “dwell in equanimity” since he possesses equanimity that is clear, abundant and sound.
Upekkhā pana dasavidhā hoti chaḷaṅgupekkhā, brahmavihārupekkhā, bojjhaṅgupekkhā, vīriyupekkhā, saṅkhārupekkhā, vedanupekkhā, vipassanupekkhā, tatramajjhattupekkhā, jhānupekkhā, pārisuddhupekkhāti.
Equanimity is of ten kinds; six-factored equanimity, equanimity as a divine abiding, equanimity as an enlightenment factor, equanimity of energy, equanimity about formations, equanimity as a feeling, equanimity about insight, equanimity as specific neutrality, equanimity of jhāna and equanimity of purification.
Tattha yā "idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā neva sumano hoti, na dummano, upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajāno"ti (a. ni. 6.1) evamāgatā khīṇāsavassa chasu dvāresu iṭṭhāniṭṭhachaḷārammaṇāpāthe parisuddhapakatibhāvāvijahanākārabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ chaḷaṅgupekkhā nāma.
157. Herein, six factored equanimity is a name for the equanimity in one whose cankers are destroyed. It is the mode of non-abandonment of the natural state of purity when desirable or undesirable objects of the six kinds come into focus in the six doors described thus: “Here a bhikkhu whose cankers are destroyed is neither glad nor sad on seeing a visible object with the eye: he dwells in equanimity, mindful and fully aware” (A III 279).
Yā pana "upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharatī"ti (dī. ni. 1.556; ma. ni. 1.77) evamāgatā sattesu majjhattākārabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ brahmavihārupekkhā nāma.
158. Equanimity as a divine abiding is a name for equanimity consisting in the mode of neutrality towards beings described thus: “He dwells intent upon one quarter with his heart endued with equanimity” (D I 251).
Yā "upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissita"nti (ma. ni. 1.27) evamāgatā sahajātadhammānaṃ majjhattākārabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ bojjhaṅgupekkhā nāma.
159. Equanimity as an enlightenment factor is a name for equanimity consisting in the mode of neutrality in conascent states described thus: “He develops the equanimity enlightenment factor depending on relinquishment” (M I 11).
Yā pana "kālenakālaṃ upekkhānimittaṃ manasikarotī"ti (a. ni. 3.103) evamāgatā anaccāraddhanātisithilavīriyasaṅkhātā upekkhā, ayaṃ vīriyupekkhā nāma.
160. Equanimity of energy is a name for the equanimity otherwise known as neither over-strenuous nor over-lax energy described thus: “From time to time he brings to mind the sign of equanimity” (A I 257).
Yā "kati saṅkhārupekkhā samathavasena uppajjanti, kati saṅkhārupekkhā vipassanāvasena uppajjanti. Aṭṭha saṅkhārupekkhā samathavasena uppajjanti. Dasa saṅkhārupekkhā vipassanāvasena uppajjantī"ti (paṭi. ma. 1.57) evamāgatā nīvaraṇādipaṭisaṅkhāsantiṭṭhanā gahaṇe majjhattabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ saṅkhārupekkhā nāma.
161. Equanimity about formations is a name for equanimity consisting in neutrality about apprehending reflexion and composure regarding the hindrances, etc., described thus: “How many kinds of equanimity about formations arise through concentration? How many kinds of equanimity about formations arise through insight? Eight kinds of equanimity about formations arise through concentration. Ten kinds of equanimity about formations arise through insight”45 (Paṭis I 64). [161]
Yā pana "yasmiṃ samaye kāmāvacaraṃ kusalaṃ cittaṃ uppannaṃ hoti upekkhāsahagata"nti (dha. sa. 150) evamāgatā adukkhamasukhasaññitā upekkhā, ayaṃ vedanupekkhā nāma.
162. Equanimity as a feeling is a name for the equanimity known as neither- pain-nor-pleasure described thus: “On the occasion on which a sense-sphere profitable consciousness has arisen accompanied by equanimity” (Dhs §156).
Yā "yadatthi yaṃ bhūtaṃ, taṃ pajahati, upekkhaṃ paṭilabhatī"ti (ma. ni. 3.71; a. ni. 7.55) evamāgatā vicinane majjhattabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ vipassanupekkhā nāma.
163. Equanimity about insight is a name for equanimity consisting in neutrality about investigation described thus: “What exists, what has become, that he abandons, and he obtains equanimity” (M II 264–65, A IV 70f).
Yā pana chandādīsu yevāpanakesu āgatā sahajātānaṃ samavāhitabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ tatramajjhattupekkhā nāma.
164. Equanimity as specific neutrality is a name for equanimity consisting in the equal efficiency of conascent states; it is contained among the “or-whatever states” beginning with zeal (XIV.133; Dhs-a 132).
Yā "upekkhako ca viharatī"ti (dī. ni. 1.230; dha. sa. 163) evamāgatā aggasukhepi tasmiṃ apakkhapātajananī upekkhā, ayaṃ jhānupekkhā nāma.
165. Equanimity of jhāna is a name for equanimity producing impartiality towards even the highest bliss-(sukha) described thus: “He dwells in equanimity” (Vibh 245).
Yā pana "upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhāna"nti (dī. ni. 1.232; dha. sa. 165) evamāgatā sabbapaccanīkaparisuddhā paccanīkavūpasamanepi abyāpārabhūtā upekkhā, ayaṃ pārisuddhupekkhā nāma.
166. Purifying equanimity is a name for equanimity purified of all opposition, and so consisting in uninterestedness in stilling opposition described thus: “The fourth jhāna, which … has mindfulness purified by equanimity” (Vibh 245).
Tatra chaḷaṅgupekkhā ca brahmavihārupekkhā ca bojjhaṅgupekkhā ca tatramajjhattupekkhā ca jhānupekkhā ca pārisuddhupekkhā ca atthato ekā, tatramajjhattupekkhāva hoti.
167. Herein, six-factored equanimity, equanimity as a divine abiding, equanimity as an enlightenment factor, equanimity as specific neutrality, equanimity of jhāna and purifying equanimity are one in meaning, that is, equanimity as specific neutrality.
Tena tena avatthābhedena panassā ayaṃ bhedo.
Their difference, however, is one of position,46
Ekassāpi sato sattassa kumārayuvatherasenāpatirājādivasena bhedo viya.
like the difference in a single being as a boy, a youth, an adult, a general, a king, and so on.
Tasmā tāsu yattha chaḷaṅgupekkhā, na tattha bojjhaṅgupekkhādayo.
Therefore of these it should be understood that equanimity as an enlightenment factor, etc., are not found where there is six-factored equanimity;
Yattha vā pana bojjhaṅgupekkhā, na tattha chaḷaṅgupekkhādayo hontīti veditabbā.
or that six-factored equanimity, etc., are not found where there is equanimity as an enlightenment factor.
Yathā cetāsamatthato ekībhāvo, evaṃ saṅkhārupekkhā vipassanupekkhānampi.
And just as these have one meaning, so also equanimity about formations and equanimity about insight have one meaning too;
Paññā eva hi sā kiccavasena dvidhā bhinnā.
for they are simply understanding classed in these two ways according to function.

(just as a man seeing snake…)

Yathā hi purisassa sāyaṃ gehaṃ paviṭṭhaṃ sappaṃ ajapadadaṇḍaṃ gahetvā pariyesamānassa taṃ thusakoṭṭhake nipannaṃ disvā "sappo nu kho, no"ti avalokentassa sovattikattayaṃ disvā nibbematikassa "sappo, na sappo"ti vicinane majjhattatā hoti, evameva yā āraddhavipassakassa vipassanāñāṇena lakkhaṇattaye diṭṭhe saṅkhārānaṃ aniccabhāvādivicinane majjhattatā uppajjati, ayaṃ vipassanupekkhā nāma.
168. Just as, when a man has seen a snake go into his house in the evening and has hunted for it with a forked stick, and then when he has seen it lying in the grain store and has looked to discover whether it is actually a snake or not, and then by seeing three marks47 has no more doubt, and so there is neutrality in him about further investigating whether or not it is a snake, [162] so too, when a man has begun insight, and he sees with insight knowledge the three characteristics, then there is neutrality in him about further investigating the impermanence, etc., of formations, and that neutrality is called equanimity about insight.
Yathā pana tassa purisassa ajapadadaṇḍena gāḷhaṃ sappaṃ gahetvā "kiṃ tāhaṃ imaṃ sappaṃ aviheṭhento attānañca iminā aḍaṃsāpento muñceyya"nti muñcanākārameva pariyesato gahaṇe majjhattatā hoti.
169. But just as, when the man has caught hold of the snake securely with the forked stick and thinks, “How shall I get rid of the snake without hurting it or getting bitten by it?” then as he is seeking only the way to get rid of it, there is neutrality in him about the catching hold of it,
Evameva yā lakkhaṇattayassa diṭṭhattā āditte viya tayo bhave passato saṅkhāraggahaṇe majjhattatā, ayaṃ saṅkhārupekkhā nāma.
so too, when a man, through seeking the three characteristics, sees the three kinds of becoming as if burning, then there is neutrality in him about catching hold of formations, and that neutrality is called equanimity about formations.
Iti vipassanupekkhāya siddhāya saṅkhārupekkhāpi siddhāva hoti.
170. So when equanimity about insight is established, equanimity about formations is established too.
Iminā panesā vicinanaggahaṇesu majjhattasaṅkhātena kiccena dvidhā bhinnāti.
But it is divided into two in this way according to function, in other words, according to neutrality about investigating and about catching hold.
Vīriyupekkhā pana vedanupekkhā ca aññamaññañca avasesāhi ca atthato bhinnā evāti.
Equanimity of energy and equanimity as feeling are different both from each other and from the rest.

4.15.3 equanimous-observation of jhāna is the meaning out of the 6

Iti imāsu upekkhāsu jhānupekkhā idhādhippetā.
171. So, of these kinds of equanimity, it is equanimity of jhāna that is intended here.
Sā majjhattalakkhaṇā, anābhogarasā, abyāpārapaccupaṭṭhānā, pītivirāgapadaṭṭhānāti.
That has the characteristic of neutrality. Its function is to be unconcerned. It is manifested as uninterestedness. Its proximate cause is the fading away of happiness.
Etthāha, nanu cāyamatthato tatramajjhattupekkhāva hoti, sā ca paṭhamadutiyajjhānesupi atthi.
Here it may be said: Is this not simply equanimity as specific neutrality in the meaning? And that exists in the first and second jhānas as well;
Tasmā tatrāpi upekkhako ca viharatīti evamayaṃ vattabbā siyā, sā kasmā na vuttāti.
so this clause, “He dwells in equanimity,” ought to be stated of those also. Why is it not?
Aparibyattakiccato.
—[It may be replied:] Because its function is unevident there
Aparibyattañhi tassā tattha kiccaṃ vitakkādīhi abhibhūtattā.
since it is overshadowed by applied thought and the rest.
Idha panāyaṃ vitakkavicārapītīhi anabhibhūtattā ukkhittasirā viya hutvā paribyattakiccā jātā, tasmā vuttāti.
But it appears here with a quite evident function, with head erect, as it were, because it is not overshadowed by applied thought and sustained thought and happiness. That is why it is stated here.
Niṭṭhitā upekkhako ca viharatīti etassa
“He dwells in equanimity” -
Sabbaso atthavaṇṇanā.
the commentary on the meaning of the clause is thus completed in all its aspects.

4.15.4 gloss: sato ca sampajāno

85.Idāni sato ca sampajānoti ettha saratīti sato.
172. Now, as to mindful and fully aware: here, he remembers (sarati), thus he is mindful (sata).
Sampajānātīti sampajāno.
He has full awareness (sampajānāti), thus he is fully aware (sampajāna).
Puggalena sati ca sampajaññañca vuttaṃ.
This is mindfulness and full awareness stated as personal attributes.
Tattha saraṇalakkhaṇā sati, asammussanarasā, ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā.
Herein, mindfulness has the characteristic of remembering. Its function is not to forget. It is manifested as guarding.
Asammohalakkhaṇaṃ sampajaññaṃ, tīraṇarasaṃ, pavicayapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ.
Full awareness has the characteristic of non-confusion. Its function is to investigate (judge). It is manifested as scrutiny.
Tattha kiñcāpi idaṃ satisampajaññaṃ purimajjhānesupi atthi.
173. Herein, although this mindfulness and this full awareness exist in the earlier jhānas as well—
Muṭṭhasatissa hi asampajānassa upacāramattampi na sampajjati, pageva appanā.
for one who is forgetful and not fully aware does not attain even access, let alone absorption—
Oḷārikattā pana tesaṃ jhānānaṃ bhūmiyaṃ viya purisassa cittassa gati sukhā hoti, abyattaṃ tattha satisampajaññakiccaṃ.
yet, because of the [comparative] grossness of those jhānas, the mind’s going is easy [there], like that of a man on [level] ground, and so the functions of mindfulness and full awareness are not evident in them.
Oḷārikaṅgappahānena pana sukhumattā imassa jhānassa purisassa khuradhārāyaṃ viya satisampajaññakiccapariggahitā eva cittassa gati icchitabbāti idheva vuttaṃ.
But it is only stated here because the subtlety of this jhāna, which is due to the abandoning of the gross factors, requires that the mind’s going always includes the functions of mindfulness and full awareness, like that of a man on a razor’s edge.
Kiñca bhiyyo, yathā dhenupago vaccho dhenuto apanīto arakkhiyamāno punadeva dhenuṃ upagacchati, evamidaṃ tatiyajjhānasukhaṃ pītito apanītaṃ, taṃ satisampajaññārakkhena arakkhiyamānaṃ punadeva pītiṃ upagaccheyya, pītisampayuttameva siyā.
174.What is more, just as a calf that follows a cow returns to the cow when taken away from her if not prevented, so too, when this third jhāna is led away from happiness, it would return to happiness if not prevented by mindfulness and full awareness, and would rejoin happiness.
Sukhe vāpi sattā sārajjanti, idañca atimadhuraṃ sukhaṃ, tato paraṃ sukhābhāvā.
And besides, beings are greedy for bliss-(sukha), and this kind of bliss-(sukha) is exceedingly sweet since there is none greater.
Satisampajaññānubhāvena panettha sukhe asārajjanā hoti, no aññathāti imampi atthavisesaṃ dassetuṃ idamidheva vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
But here there is non-greed for the bliss-(sukha) owing to the influence of the mindfulness and full awareness, not for any other reason. And so it should also be understood that it is stated only here in order to emphasize this meaning too.

4.15.5 gloss: sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedetī: both physical rūpa-kāya body and nāma kāya included

Idāni sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedetīti ettha kiñcāpi tatiyajjhānasamaṅgino sukhapaṭisaṃvedanābhogo natthi.
175. Now, as to the clause he feels bliss-(sukha) with his body: here, although in one actually possessed of the third jhāna there is no concern about feeling bliss-(sukha),
Evaṃ santepi yasmā tassa nāmakāyena sampayuttaṃ sukhaṃ.
nevertheless he would feel the bliss-(sukha) associated with his mental body,
Yaṃ vā taṃ nāmakāyasampayuttaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃsamuṭṭhānenassa yasmā atipaṇītena rūpena rūpakāyo phuṭo, yassa phuṭattā jhānā vuṭṭhitopi sukhaṃ paṭisaṃvedeyya.
and after emerging from the jhāna he would also feel bliss-(sukha) since his material body would have been affected by the exceedingly superior matter originated by that bliss-(sukha) associated with the mental body. 48
Tasmā etamatthaṃ dassento sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedetīti āha.
It is in order to point to this meaning that the words “he feels bliss-(sukha) with his body” are said.
86.Idāni yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti ettha yaṃjhānahetu yaṃjhānakāraṇā taṃ tatiyajjhānasamaṅgipuggalaṃ buddhādayo ariyā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti pakāsenti, pasaṃsantīti adhippāyo.
176. Now, as to the clause, that … on account of which the Noble Ones announce: He dwells in bliss-(sukha) who has equanimity and is mindful: here it is the jhāna, on account of which as cause, on account of which as reason, the Noble Ones, that is to say, the Enlightened Ones, etc., “announce, teach, declare, establish, reveal, expound, explain, clarify” (Vibh 259) that person who possesses the third jhāna—they praise, is what is intended.
Kinti?
Why?
Upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti.
Because “he dwells in bliss-(sukha) who has equanimity and is mindful.
Taṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatīti evamettha yojanā veditabbā.
He enters upon and dwells in that third jhāna” (taṃ … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati) is how the construction should be understood here.
Kasmā pana taṃ te evaṃ pasaṃsantīti?
But why do they praise him thus?
Pasaṃsārahato.
Because he is worthy of praise.
Ayañhi yasmā atimadhurasukhe sukhapāramippattepi tatiyajjhāne upekkhako, na tattha sukhābhisaṅgena ākaḍḍhiyati.
177. For this man is worthy of praise since he has equanimity towards the third jhāna though it possesses exceedingly sweet bliss-(sukha) and has reached the perfection of bliss-(sukha), and he is not drawn towards it by a liking for the bliss-(sukha),
Yathā ca pīti na uppajjati, evaṃ upaṭṭhitasatitāya satimā. Yasmā ca ariyakantaṃ ariyajanasevitameva ca asaṃkiliṭṭhaṃ sukhaṃ nāmakāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, tasmā pasaṃsāraho hoti.
and he is mindful with the mindfulness established in order to prevent the arising of happiness, and he feels with his mental body the undefiled bliss-(sukha) beloved of Noble Ones, cultivated by Noble Ones.
Iti pasaṃsārahato naṃ ariyā te evaṃ pasaṃsāhetubhūte guṇe pakāsento "upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī"ti evaṃ pasaṃsantīti veditabbaṃ.
Because he is worthy of praise in this way, it should be understood, Noble Ones praise him with the words, “He dwells in bliss-(sukha) who has equanimity and is mindful,” thus declaring the special qualities that are worthy of praise.
Tatiyanti gaṇanānupubbatā tatiyaṃ, idaṃ tatiyaṃ samāpajjatītipi tatiyaṃ.
Third: it is the third in the numerical series; and it is third because it is entered upon third.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgata"nti, ettha pītiyā pahānavasena ekaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā.
178. Then it was said, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors (§153): here the abandoning of the one factor should be understood as the abandoning of happiness (pīti).
Sā panesā dutiyajjhānassa vitakkavicārā viya appanākkhaṇeyeva pahīyati.
But that is abandoned only at the moment of absorption, as applied thought and sustained thought are at that of the second jhāna;
Tena nassa sā pahānaṅganti vuccati.
hence it is called its factor of abandoning.
Sukhaṃ cittekaggatāti imesaṃ pana dvinnaṃ uppattivasena duvaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā.
179. The possession of the two factors should be understood as the arising of the two, namely, bliss-(sukha) and unification.
Tasmā yaṃ vibhaṅge "jhānanti upekkhā sati sampajaññaṃ sukhaṃ cittassekaggatā"ti (vibha. 591) vuttaṃ, taṃ saparikkhāraṃ jhānaṃ dassetuṃ pariyāyena vuttaṃ.
So when it is said in the Vibhaṅga, “‘Jhāna’: equanimity, mindfulness, full awareness, bliss-(sukha), unification of mind” (Vibh 260), this is said figuratively in order to show that jhāna with its equipment.
Ṭhapetvā pana upekkhāsatisampajaññāni nippariyāyena upanijjhānalakkhaṇappattānaṃ aṅgānaṃ vasena duvaṅgikamevetaṃ hoti.
But, excepting the equanimity and mindfulness and full awareness, this jhāna has literally only two factors qua factors that have attained to the characteristic of lighting (see §119),
Yathāha – "katamaṃ tasmiṃ samaye duvaṅgikaṃ jhānaṃ hoti, sukhaṃ cittassekaggatā"ti (dha. sa. 163; vibha. 624).
according as it is said, “What is the jhāna of two factors on that occasion? It is bliss-(sukha) and unification of mind” (Vibh 264).
Sesaṃ paṭhamajjhāne vuttanayameva.
The rest is as in the case of the first jhāna.
Catutthajjhānakathā Table view Original pali

4.16 Catutthaj-jhāna-kathā: 4th jhāna discussion

87.Evamadhigate pana tasmiṃpi vuttanayeneva pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā hutvā paguṇatatiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannapītipaccatthikā, 'yadeva tattha sukhamiti cetaso ābhogo, etenetaṃ oḷārikaṃ akkhāyatī'ti (dī. ni. 1.96) evaṃ vuttassa sukhassa oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ santato manasikatvā tatiyajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya catutthādhigamāya yogo kātabbo.
180. Once this has been obtained in this way, and once he has mastery in the five ways already described, then on emerging from the now familiar third jhāna, he can regard the flaws in it thus: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of happiness; ‘Whatever there is in it of mental concern about bliss-(sukha) proclaims its grossness’ (D I 37; see Ch. IX, n. 20), and its factors are weakened by the grossness of the bliss-(sukha) so expressed. ” He can bring the fourth jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the third jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the fourth.
Athassa yadā tatiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato cetasikasomanassasaṅkhātaṃ sukhaṃ oḷārikato upaṭṭhāti, upekkhāvedanā ceva cittekaggatā ca santato upaṭṭhāti, tadāssa oḷārikaṅgappahānāya santaaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto "idāni catutthaṃ jhānaṃ uppajjissatī"ti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati.
181. When he has emerged from the third jhāna, the bliss-(sukha), in other words, the mental joy, appears gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness, while the equanimity as feeling and the unification of mind appear peaceful. Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factor and obtaining the peaceful factors, [knowing] “now the fourth jhāna will arise,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the life-continuum.
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni uppajjanti, yesaṃ avasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ catutthajjhānikaṃ, sesāni vuttappakārāneva kāmāvacarāni.
After that either four or five impulsions impel on that same object, [165] the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere belonging to the fourth jhāna. The rest are of the kinds already stated (§74).
Ayaṃ pana viseso, yasmā sukhavedanā adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya āsevanapaccayena paccayo na hoti, catutthajjhāne ca adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya uppajjitabbaṃ, tasmā tāni upekkhāvedanāsampayuttāni honti.
182. But there is this difference: bliss-(sukha)ful (pleasant) feeling is not a condition, as repetition condition, for neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, and [the preliminary work] must be aroused in the case of the fourth jhāna with neither- painful-nor-pleasant feeling; consequently these [consciousnesses of the preliminary work] are associated with neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling,
Upekkhāsampayuttattāyeva cettha pītipi parihāyatīti.
and here happiness vanishes simply owing to their association with equanimity.
Ettāvatā cesa sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati (dī. ni. 1.232; dha. sa. 165).
[THE FOURTH JHĀNA] 183. And at this point, “With the abandoning of pleasure and pain and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief he enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and has purity of mindfulness due to equanimity” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ.
and so he has attained the fourth jhāna, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics, and is of the earth kasiṇa.
88.Tattha sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānāti kāyikasukhassa ca kāyikadukkhassa ca pahānā.
184. Herein, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain: with the abandoning of bodily pleasure and bodily pain.
Pubbevāti tañca kho pubbeva, na catutthajjhānakkhaṇe.
With the previous: which took place before, not in the moment of the fourth jhāna.
Somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāti cetasikasukhassa ca cetasikadukkhassa cāti imesampi dvinnaṃ pubbeva atthaṅgamā, pahānā icceva vuttaṃ hoti.
Disappearance of joy and grief: with the previous disappearance of the two, that is, mental bliss-(sukha) (pleasure) and mental pain; with the abandoning, is what is meant.
Kadā pana nesaṃ pahānaṃ hotīti.
185. But when does the abandoning of these take place?
Catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ upacārakkhaṇe.
At the moment of access of the four jhānas.
Somanassañhi catutthajjhānassa upacārakkhaṇeyeva pahīyati.
For [mental] joy is only abandoned at the moment of the fourth-jhāna access,
Dukkhadomanassasukhāni paṭhamadutiyatatiyajjhānānaṃ upacārakkhaṇesu.
while [bodily] pain, [mental] grief, and [bodily] bliss-(sukha) (pleasure) are abandoned respectively at the moments of access of the first, second, and third jhānas.
Evametesaṃ pahānakkamena avuttānampi indriyavibhaṅge pana indriyānaṃ uddesakkameneva idhāpi vuttānaṃ sukhadukkhasomanassadomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ veditabbaṃ.
So although the order in which they are abandoned is not actually mentioned, nevertheless the abandoning of the pleasure, pain, joy, and grief, is stated here according to the order in which the faculties are summarized in the Indriya Vibhaṅga (Vibh 122).
Yadi panetāni tassa tassa jhānassa upacārakkhaṇeyeva pahīyanti, atha kasmā "kattha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati, idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehipi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
186. But if these are only abandoned at the moments of access of the several jhānas, why is their cessation said to. take place in the jhāna itself in the following passage: “And where does the arisen pain faculty cease without remainder? Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things, a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna, which is … born of seclusion.
Ettha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati.
It is here that the arisen pain faculty ceases without remainder …
Kattha cuppannaṃ domanassindriyaṃ sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati, idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā - pe - catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, ettha cuppannaṃ somanassindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 5.510) evaṃ jhānesveva nirodho vuttoti?
Where does the arisen grief faculty [cease without remainder? … in the second jhāna] … Where does the arisen pleasure faculty [cease without remainder? … in the third jhāna] … Where does the arisen joy faculty cease without remainder? Here, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain [and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief] a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which … has mindfulness purified by equanimity. It is here that the arisen joy faculty ceases without remainder” (S V 213–15). It is said in that way there referring to reinforced cessation.
Atisayanirodhattā.
Atisayanirodho hi nesaṃ paṭhamajjhānādīsu, na nirodhoyeva.
For in the first jhāna, etc., it is their reinforced cessation, not just their cessation, that takes place.
Nirodhoyeva pana upacārakkhaṇe, nātisayanirodho.
At the moment of access it is just their cessation, not their reinforced cessation, that takes place.
Tathā hi nānāvajjane paṭhamajjhānupacāre niruddhassāpi dukkhindriyassa ḍaṃsamakasādisamphassena vā visamāsanupatāpena vā siyā uppatti, na tveva antoappanāyaṃ.
187. For accordingly, during the first jhāna access, which has multiple adverting, there could be rearising of the [bodily] pain faculty49 due to contact with gadflies, flies, etc. or the discomfort of an uneven seat, though that pain faculty had already ceased, but not so during absorption.
Upacāre vā niruddhampetaṃ na suṭṭhu niruddhaṃ hoti, paṭipakkhena avihatattā.
Or else, though it has ceased during access, it has not absolutely ceased there since it is not quite beaten out by opposition.
Antoappanāyaṃ pana pītipharaṇena sabbo kāyo sukhokkanto hoti, sukhokkantakāyassa ca suṭṭhu niruddhaṃ hoti dukkhindriyaṃ, paṭipakkhena vihatattā.
But during absorption the whole body is showered with bliss-(sukha) owing to pervasion by happiness. And the pain faculty has absolutely ceased in one whose body is showered with bliss-(sukha), since it is beaten out then by opposition.
Nānāvajjaneyeva ca dutiyajjhānupacāre pahīnassa domanassindriyassa yasmā etaṃ vitakkavicārapaccayepi kāyakilamathe cittupaghāte ca sati uppajjati.
188.And during the second-jhāna access too, which has multiple advertings, there could be rearising of the [mental] grief faculty, although it had already ceased there, because it arises when there is bodily weariness and mental vexation, which have applied thought and sustained thought as their condition,
Vitakkavicārābhāve ca neva uppajjati.
but it does not arise when applied and sustained thought are absent.
Yattha pana uppajjati, tattha vitakkavicārabhāve, appahīnā eva ca dutiyajjhānupacāre vitakkavicārāti tatthassa siyā uppatti, na tveva dutiyajjhāne, pahīnapaccayattā.
When it arises, it does so in the presence of applied and sustained thought, and they are not abandoned in the second-jhāna access; but this is not so in the second jhāna itself because its conditions are abandoned there.
Tathā tatiyajjhānupacāre pahīnassāpi sukhindriyassa pītisamuṭṭhānapaṇītarūpaphuṭakāyassa siyā uppatti, na tveva tatiyajjhāne.
189. Likewise in the third-jhāna access there could be rearising of the abandoned [bodily] pleasure faculty in one whose body was pervaded by the superior materiality originated by the [consciousness associated with the] happiness. But not so in the third jhāna itself.
Tatiyajjhāne hi sukhassa paccayabhūtā pīti sabbaso niruddhāti.
For in the third jhāna the happiness that is a condition for the [bodily] bliss-(sukha) (pleasure) has ceased entirely.
Tathā catutthajjhānupacāre pahīnassāpi somanassindriyassa āsannattā appanāppattāya upekkhāya abhāvena sammā anatikkantattā ca siyā uppatti, na tveva catutthajjhāne.
Likewise in the fourth-jhāna access there could be re-arising of the abandoned [mental] joy faculty because of its nearness and because it has not been properly surmounted owing to the absence of equanimity brought to absorption strength. But not so in the fourth jhāna itself.
Tasmā eva ca etthuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhatīti tattha tattha aparisesaggahaṇaṃ katanti.
And that is why in each case (§186) the words “without remainder” are included thus: “It is here that the arisen pain faculty ceases without remainder. ”
Etthāha "athevaṃ tassa tassa jhānassupacāre pahīnāpi etā vedanā idha kasmā samāhaṭā"ti?
190. Here it may be asked: Then if these kinds of feeling are abandoned in the access in this way, why are they brought in here?
Sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ.
It is done so that they can be readily grasped.
Yā hi ayaṃ adukkhamasukhanti ettha adukkhamasukhā vedanā vuttā, sā sukhumā duviññeyyā na sakkā sukhena gahetuṃ, tasmā yathā nāma duṭṭhassa yathā vā tathā vā upasaṅkamitvā gahetuṃ asakkuṇeyyassa goṇassa sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ gopo ekasmiṃ vaje sabbā gāvo samāharati, athekekaṃ nīharanto paṭipāṭiyā āgataṃ "ayaṃ so gaṇhatha na"nti tampi gāhayati, evameva bhagavā sukhaggahaṇatthaṃ sabbā etā samāhari.
For the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling described here by the words “which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure” is subtle, hard to recognize and not readily grasped. So just as, when a cattle-herd50 wants to catch a refractory ox that cannot be caught at all by approaching it, he collects all the cattle into one pen [167] and lets them out one by one, and then [he says] “That is it; catch it,” and so it gets caught as well, so too the Blessed One has collected all these [five kinds of feeling] together so that they can be grasped readily;
Evañhi samāhaṭā etā dassetvā yaṃ neva sukhaṃ na dukkhaṃ na somanassaṃ na domanassaṃ, ayaṃ adukkhamasukhā vedanāti sakkā hoti esā gāhayituṃ.
for when they are shown collected together in this way, then what is not [bodily] pleasure (bliss-(sukha)) or [bodily] pain or [mental] joy or [mental] grief can still be grasped in this way: “This is neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. ”
Apica adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā paccayadassanatthañcāpi etā vuttāti veditabbā.
191. Besides, this may be understood as said in order to show the condition for the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind-deliverance.
Dukkhappahānādayo hi tassā paccayā.
For the abandoning of [bodily] pain, etc., are conditions for that,
Yathāha – "cattāro kho, āvuso, paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā.
according as it is said: “There are four conditions, friend, for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind- deliverance.
Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā - pe - catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
Here, friend, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief a bhikkhu enters upon and dwells in the fourth jhāna … equanimity.
Ime khvāvuso, cattāro paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti (ma. ni. 1.458).
These are the four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant mind-deliverance” (M I 296).
Yathā vā aññattha pahīnāpi sakkāyadiṭṭhiādayo tatiyamaggassa vaṇṇabhaṇanatthaṃ tattha pahīnāti vuttā, evaṃ vaṇṇabhaṇanatthampetassa jhānassetā idha vuttātipi veditabbā.
192. Or alternatively, just as, although mistaken view of individuality, etc., have already been abandoned in the earlier paths, they are nevertheless mentioned as abandoned in the description of the third path for the purpose of recommending it (cf. §155), so too these kinds of feeling can be understood as mentioned here for the purpose of recommending this jhāna.
Paccayaghātena vā ettha rāgadosānamatidūrabhāvaṃ dassetumpetā vuttāti veditabbā.
Or alternatively, they can be understood as mentioned for the purpose of showing that greed and hate are very far away owing to the removal of their conditions;
Etāsu hi sukhaṃ somanassassa paccayo, somanassaṃ rāgassa.
for of these, pleasure (bliss-(sukha)) is a condition for joy, and joy for greed;
Dukkhaṃ domanassassa paccayo, domanassaṃ dosassa.
pain is a condition for grief and grief for hate.
Sukhādighātena cassa sappaccayā rāgadosā hatāti atidūre hontīti.
So with the removal of pleasure (bliss-(sukha)), etc., greed and hate are very far away since they are removed along with their conditions.
Adukkhamasukhanti dukkhābhāvena adukkhaṃ.
193. Which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure: no pain owing to absence of pain;
Sukhābhāvena asukhaṃ.
no pleasure owing to absence of pleasure (bliss-(sukha)).
Etenettha dukkhasukhapaṭipakkhabhūtaṃ tatiyavedanaṃ dīpeti, na dukkhasukhābhāvamattaṃ.
By this he indicates the third kind of feeling that is in opposition both to pain and to pleasure, not the mere absence of pain and pleasure.
Tatiyavedanā nāma adukkhamasukhā, upekkhātipi vuccati.
This third kind of feeling named neither-pain-nor-pleasure is also called “equanimity.”
Sā iṭṭhāniṭṭhaviparītānubhavanalakkhaṇā, majjhattarasā, avibhūtapaccupaṭṭhānā, sukhadukkhanirodhapadaṭṭhānāti veditabbā.
It has the characteristic of experiencing what is contrary to both the desirable and the undesirable. Its function is neutral. Its manifestation is unevident. Its proximate cause should be understood as the cessation of pleasure (bliss-(sukha)).
89.Upekkhāsatipārisuddhinti upekkhāya janitasatiyā pārisuddhiṃ.
194. And has purity of mindfulness due to equanimity: has purity of mindfulness brought about by equanimity.
Imasmiñhi jhāne suparisuddhā sati, yā ca tassā satiyā pārisuddhi, sā upekkhāya katā, na aññena.
For the mindfulness in this jhāna is quite purified, and its purification is effected by equanimity, not by anything else.
Tasmā etaṃ "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti vuccati.
That is why it is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Vibhaṅgepi vuttaṃ "ayaṃ sati imāya upekkhāya visadā hoti parisuddhā pariyodātā.
Also it is said in the Vibhaṅga: “This mindfulness is cleared, purified, clarified, by equanimity;
Tena vuccati upekkhāsatipārisuddhī"ti (vibha. 597).
hence it is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity” (Vibh 261).
Yāya ca upekkhāya ettha satiyā pārisuddhi hoti, sā atthato tatramajjhattatātiveditabbā.
And the equanimity due to which there comes to be this purity of mindfulness should be understood as specific neutrality in meaning.
Na kevalañcettha tāya satiyeva parisuddhā, apica kho sabbepi sampayuttadhammā, satisīsena pana desanā vuttā.
And not only mindfulness is purified by it here, but also all associated states. However, the teaching is given under the heading of mindfulness.
Tattha kiñcāpi ayaṃ upekkhā heṭṭhāpi tīsu jhānesu vijjati.
195.Herein, this equanimity exists in the three lower jhānas too;
Yathā pana divā sūriyappabhābhibhavā sommabhāvena ca attano upakārakattena vā sabhāgāya rattiyā alābhā divā vijjamānāpi candalekhā aparisuddhā hoti apariyodātā, evamayampi tatramajjhattupekkhācandalekhā vitakkādipaccanīkadhammatejābhibhavā sabhāgāya ca upekkhāvedanārattiyā appaṭilābhā vijjamānāpi paṭhamādijjhānabhedesu aparisuddhā hoti.
but just as, although a crescent moon exists by day but is not purified or clear since it is outshone by the sun’s radiance in the daytime or since it is deprived of the night, which is its ally owing to gentleness and owing to helpfulness to it, so too, this crescent moon of equanimity consisting in specific neutrality exists in the first jhāna, etc., but it is not purified since it is outshone by the glare of the opposing states consisting in applied thought, etc., and since it is deprived of the night of equanimity-as-feeling for its ally;
Tassā ca aparisuddhāya divā aparisuddhacandalekhāya pabhā viya sahajātāpi satiādayo aparisuddhāva honti.
and because it is not purified, the conascent mindfulness and other states are not purified either, like the unpurified crescent moon’s radiance by day.
Tasmā tesu ekampi "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti na vuttaṃ.
That is why no one among these [first three jhānas] is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Idha pana vitakkādipaccanīkadhammatejābhibhavābhāvā sabhāgāya ca upekkhāvedanārattiyā paṭilābhā ayaṃ tatramajjhattupekkhācandalekhā ativiya parisuddhā.
But here this crescent moon consisting in specific neutrality is utterly pure because it is not outshone by the glare of the opposing states consisting in applied thought, etc., and because it has the night of equanimity-as-feeling for its ally.
Tassā parisuddhattā parisuddhacandalekhāya pabhā viya sahajātāpi satiādayo parisuddhā honti pariyodātā.
And since it is purified, the conascent mindfulness and other states are purified and clear also, like the purified crescent moon’s radiance.
Tasmā idameva "upekkhāsatipārisuddhi"nti vuttanti veditabbaṃ.
That, it should be understood, is why only this jhāna is said to have purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
Catutthanti gaṇanānupubbatā catutthaṃ.
196.Fourth: it is fourth in numerical series;
Idaṃ catutthaṃ samāpajjatītipi catutthaṃ.
and it is fourth because it is entered upon fourth.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "ekaṅgavippahīnaṃ duvaṅgasamannāgata"nti, tattha somanassassa pahānavasena ekaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā.
197. Then it was said, which abandons one factor, possesses two factors (§183); here the abandoning of the one factor should be understood as the abandoning of joy.
Tañca pana somanassaṃ ekavīthiyaṃ purimajavanesuyeva pahīyati.
But that joy is actually abandoned in the first impulsions of the same cognitive series (cf. §185).
Tenassa taṃ pahānaṅganti vuccati.
Hence it is called its factor of abandoning.
Upekkhāvedanā cittassekaggatāti imesaṃ pana dvinnaṃ uppattivasena duvaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā.
The possession of the two factors should be understood as the arising of the two, namely, equanimity as feeling and unification of mind.
Sesaṃ paṭhamajjhāne vuttanayameva.
The rest is as stated in the case of the first jhāna.
Esa tāva catukkajjhāne nayo.
This, in the first place, is according to the fourfold reckoning of jhāna.
Pañcakajjhānakathā Table view Original pali

4.17 Pañcakaj-jhāna-kathā: five fold jhāna discussion

90.Pañcakajjhānaṃ pana nibbattentena paguṇapaṭhamajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannanīvaraṇapaccatthikā, vitakkassa oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā dutiyajjhānaṃ santato manasikaritvā paṭhamajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya dutiyādhigamāya yogo kātabbo.
198. When, however, he is developing fivefold jhāna, then, on emerging from the now familiar first jhāna, he can regard the flaws in it in this way: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of the hindrances, and its factors are weakened by the grossness of applied thought. ” [169] He can bring the second jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the first jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the second.
Athassa yadā paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato vitakkamattaṃ oḷārikato upaṭṭhāti, vicārādayo santato.
199. Now, he emerges from the first jhāna mindfully and fully aware; and only applied thought appears gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors, while the sustained thought, etc., appear peaceful.
Tadāssa oḷārikaṅgappahānāya santaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto vuttanayeneva dutiyajjhānaṃ uppajjati.
Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factor and obtaining the peaceful factors, the second jhāna arises in him in the way already described.
Tassa vitakkamattameva pahānaṅgaṃ.
Its factor of abandoning is applied thought only.
Vicārādīni cattāri samannāgataṅgāni.
The four beginning with sustained thought are the factors that it possesses.
Sesaṃ vuttappakārameva.
The rest is as already stated.
Evamadhigate pana tasmimpi vuttanayeneva pañcahākārehi ciṇṇavasinā hutvā paguṇadutiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannavitakkapaccatthikā, vicārassa oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ santato manasikaritvā dutiyajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya tatiyādhigamāya yogo kātabbo.
200. When this has been obtained in this way, and once he has mastery in the five ways already described, then on emerging from the now familiar second jhāna he can regard the flaws in it in this way: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of applied thought, and its factors are weakened by the grossness of sustained thought. ” He can bring the third jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the second jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the third.
Athassa yadā dutiyajjhānato vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato vicāramattaṃ oḷārikato upaṭṭhāti, pītiādīni santato.
201. Now, he emerges from the second jhāna mindfully and fully aware; only sustained thought appears gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors, while happiness, etc., appear peaceful.
Tadāssa oḷārikaṅgappahānāya santaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto vuttanayeneva tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ uppajjati.
Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factor and obtaining the peaceful factors, the third jhāna arises in him in the way already described.
Tassa vicāramattameva pahānaṅgaṃ catukkanayassa dutiyajjhāne viya pītiādīni tīṇi samannāgataṅgāni.
Its factor of abandoning is sustained thought only. The three beginning with happiness, as in the second jhāna in the fourfold reckoning, are the factors that it possesses.
Sesaṃ vuttappakārameva.
The rest is as already stated.
Iti yaṃ catukkanaye dutiyaṃ, taṃ dvidhā bhinditvā pañcakanaye dutiyañceva tatiyañca hoti.
202. So that which is the second in the fourfold reckoning becomes the second and third in the fivefold reckoning by being divided into two.
Yāni ca tattha tatiyacatutthāni, tāni ca catutthapañcamāni honti.
And those which are the third and fourth in the former reckoning become the fourth and fifth in this reckoning.
Paṭhamaṃ paṭhamamevāti.
The first remains the first in each case.
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge
in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Samādhibhāvanādhikāre
in the Treatise on the Development of Concen- tration
Pathavīkasiṇaniddeso nāma
called “The Description of the Earth Kasiṇa”
Catuttho paricchedo.
The fourth chapter

5 - Chapter 5: The remaining kasinas


5. The remaining kasiṇas Original pali
Comments
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
Āpokasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.1 Āpokasiṇakathā

91.Idāni pathavīkasiṇānantare āpokasiṇe vitthārakathā hoti.
1.Now, the water kasiṇa comes next after the earth kasiṇa (III.105).
Yatheva hi pathavīkasiṇaṃ, evaṃ āpokasiṇampi bhāvetukāmena sukhanisinnena āpasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ, kate vā akate vāti sabbaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ.
Here is the detailed explanation. One who wants to develop the water kasiṇa should, as in the case of the earth kasiṇa, seat himself comfortably and apprehend the sign in water that “is either made up or not made up,” etc.; and so all the rest should be repeated in detail (IV.22).
Yathā ca idha, evaṃ sabbattha.
And as in this case, so with all those that follow [in this chapter].
Ito parañhi ettakampi avatvā visesamattameva vakkhāma.
We shall in fact not repeat even this much and shall only point out what is different.
Idhāpi pubbekatādhikārassa puññavato akate āpasmiṃ pokkharaṇiyā vā taḷāke vā loṇiyaṃ vā samudde vā nimittaṃ uppajjati cūḷasivattherassa viya.
2.Here too, when someone has had practice in previous [lives], the sign arises for him in water that is not made up, such as a pool, a lake, a lagoon, or the ocean as in the case of the Elder Cūḷa-Sīva.
Tassa kirāyasmato lābhasakkāraṃ pahāya vivittavāsaṃ vasissāmīti mahātitthe nāvamārūhitvā jambudīpaṃ gacchato antarā mahāsamuddaṃ olokayato tappaṭibhāgaṃ kasiṇanimittaṃ udapādi.
The venerable one, it seems, thought to abandon gain and honour and live a secluded life. He boarded a ship at Mahātittha (Mannar) and sailed to Jambudīpa (India). As he gazed at the ocean meanwhile, the kasiṇa sign, the counterpart of that ocean, arose in him.
Comm. NT: 1. Kuṇḍika—“a four-footed water pot”: not in PED. All comments (1)
Akatādhikārena cattāro kasiṇadose pariharantena nīlapītalohitodātavaṇṇānamaññataravaṇṇaṃ āpaṃ agahetvā yaṃ pana bhūmiṃ asampattameva ākāse suddhavatthena gahitaṃ udakaṃ, aññaṃ vā tathārūpaṃ vippasannaṃ anāvilaṃ, tena pattaṃ vā kuṇḍikaṃ vā samatittikaṃ pūretvā vihārapaccante vuttappakāre paṭicchanne okāse ṭhapetvā sukhanisinnena na vaṇṇo paccavekkhitabbo.
3. Someone with no such previous practice should guard against the four faults of a kasiṇa (IV.24) and not apprehend the water as one of the colours, blue, yellow, red or white. He should fill a bowl or a four-footed water pot1 to the brim with water uncontaminated by soil, taken in the open through a clean cloth [strainer], or with any other clear unturbid water. He should put it in a screened place on the outskirts of the monastery as already described and seat himself comfortably. He should neither review its colour
Na lakkhaṇaṃ manasi kātabbaṃ.
nor bring its characteristic to mind.
Comm. NT: 2. English cannot really furnish five words for water. All comments (1)
Nissayasavaṇṇameva katvā ussadavasena paṇṇattidhamme cittaṃ ṭhapetvā ambu, udakaṃ, vāri, salilantiādīsu āponāmesu pākaṭanāmavaseneva "āpo āpo"ti bhāvetabbaṃ.
Apprehending the colour as belonging to its physical support, he should set his mind on the [name] concept as the most outstanding mental datum, and using any among the [various] names for water (āpo) such as “rain” (ambu), “liquid” (udaka), “dew” (vāri), “fluid” (salila),2 he should develop [the kasiṇa] by using [preferably] the obvious “water, water.”
Tassevaṃ bhāvayato anukkamena vuttanayeneva nimittadvayaṃ uppajjati.
4.As he develops it in this way, the two signs eventually arise in him in the way already described.
Idha pana uggahanimittaṃ calamānaṃ viya upaṭṭhāti, sace pheṇapupphuḷakamissaṃ udakaṃ hoti, tādisameva upaṭṭhāti, kasiṇadoso paññāyati.
Here, however, the learning sign has the appearance of moving. If the water has bubbles of froth mixed with it, the learning sign has the same appearance, and it is evident as a fault in the kasiṇa.
Paṭibhāganimittaṃ pana nipparipphandaṃ ākāse ṭhapitamaṇitālavaṇṭaṃ viya maṇimayādāsamaṇḍalamiva ca hutvā upaṭṭhāti.
But the counterpart sign appears inactive, like a crystal fan set in space, like the disk of a looking- glass made of crystal.
So tassa saha upaṭṭhāneneva upacārajjhānaṃ, vuttanayeneva catukkapañcakajjhānāni ca pāpuṇātīti.
With the appearance of that sign he reaches access jhāna and the jhāna tetrad and pentad in the way already described.
Āpokasiṇaṃ.
Tejokasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.2 Tejokasiṇakathā

92.Tejokasiṇaṃ bhāvetukāmenāpi tejasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ.
5.Anyone who wants to develop the fire kasiṇa should apprehend the sign in fire.
Tattha katādhikārassa puññavato akate nimittaṃ gaṇhantassa dīpasikhāya vā uddhane vā pattapacanaṭṭhāne vā davadāhe vā yattha katthaci aggijālaṃ olokentassa nimittaṃ uppajjati cittaguttattherassa viya.
Herein, when someone with merit, having had previous practice, is apprehending the sign, it arises in him in any sort of fire, not made up, as he looks at the fiery combustion in a lamp’s flame or in a furnace or in a place for baking bowls or in a forest conflagration, as in the Elder Cittagutta’s case.
Tassa hāyasmato dhammassavanadivase uposathāgāraṃ paviṭṭhassa dīpasikhaṃ olokentasseva nimittaṃ uppajji.
The sign arose in that elder as he was looking at a lamp’s flame while he was in the Uposatha house on the day of preaching the Dhamma.
Itarena pana kātabbaṃ.
6.Anyone else should make one up.
Tatridaṃ karaṇavidhānaṃ, siniddhāni sāradārūni phāletvā sukkhāpetvā ghaṭikaṃ ghaṭikaṃ katvā patirūpaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ vā maṇḍapaṃ vā gantvā pattapacanākārena rāsiṃ katvā ālimpetvā kaṭasārake vā camme vā paṭe vā vidatthicaturaṅgulappamāṇaṃ chiddaṃ kātabbaṃ.
Here are the directions for making it. He should split up some damp heartwood, dry it, and break it up into short lengths. He should go to a suitable tree root or to a shed and there make a pile in the way done for baking bowls, and have it lit. He should make a hole a span and four fingers wide in a rush mat or a piece of leather or a cloth,
Taṃ purato ṭhapetvā vuttanayeneva nisīditvā heṭṭhā tiṇakaṭṭhaṃ vā upari dhūmasikhaṃ vā amanasikaritvā vemajjhe ghanajālāya nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ, nīlanti vā pītanti vātiādivasena vaṇṇo na paccavekkhitabbo, uṇhattavasena lakkhaṇaṃ na manasi kātabbaṃ.
and after hanging it in front of the fire, he should sit down in the way already described. Instead of giving attention to the grass and sticks below or the smoke above, he should apprehend the sign in the dense combustion in the middle. 7.He should not review the colour as blue or yellow, etc., or give attention to its characteristic as heat, etc.,
Nissayasavaṇṇameva katvā ussadavasena paṇṇattidhamme cittaṃ ṭhapetvā pāvako, kaṇhavattanī, jātavedo, hutāsanotiādīsu aggināmesu pākaṭanāmavaseneva "tejo tejo"ti bhāvetabbaṃ.
but taking the colour as belonging to its physical support, and setting his mind on the [name] concept as the most outstanding mental datum, and using any among the names for fire (tejo) such as “the Bright One” (pāvaka), “the Leaver of the Black Trail” (kaṇhavattani), “the Knower of Creatures” (jātaveda), “the Altar of Sacrifice” (hutāsana), etc., he should develop [the kasiṇa] by using [preferably] the obvious “fire, fire.”
Tassevaṃ bhāvayato anukkamena vuttanayeneva nimittadvayaṃ uppajjati.
8.As he develops it in this way the two signs eventually arise in him as already described.
Tattha uggahanimittaṃ jālaṃ chijjitvā chijjitvā patanasadisaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti.
Herein, the learning sign appears like [the fire to keep] sinking down as the flame keeps detaching itself.
Akate gaṇhantassa pana kasiṇadoso paññāyati, alātakhaṇḍaṃ vā aṅgārapiṇḍo vā chārikā vā dhūmo vā upaṭṭhāti.
But when someone apprehends it in a kasiṇa that is not made up, any fault in the kasiṇa is evident [in the learning sign], and any firebrand, or pile of embers or ashes, or smoke appears in it.
Paṭibhāganimittaṃ niccalaṃ ākāse ṭhapitarattakambalakkhaṇḍaṃ viya suvaṇṇatālavaṇṭaṃ viya kañcanatthambho viya ca upaṭṭhāti.
The counterpart sign appears motionless like a piece of red cloth set in space, like a gold fan, like a gold column.
So tassa saha upaṭṭhāneneva upacārajjhānaṃ, vuttanayeneva catukkapañcakajjhānāni ca pāpuṇātīti.
With its appearance he reaches access jhāna and the jhāna tetrad and pentad in the way already described.
Tejokasiṇaṃ.
Vāyokasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.3 Vāyokasiṇakathā

93.Vāyokasiṇaṃ bhāvetukāmenāpi vāyusmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ.
9.Anyone who wants to develop the air kasiṇa should apprehend the sign in air.
Tañca kho diṭṭhavasena vā phuṭṭhavasena vā.
And that is done either by sight or by touch.
Vuttañhetaṃ aṭṭhakathāsu "vāyokasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto vāyusmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti, ucchaggaṃ vā eritaṃ sameritaṃ upalakkheti, veḷaggaṃ vā - pe - rukkhaggaṃ vā kesaggaṃ vā eritaṃ sameritaṃ upalakkheti, kāyasmiṃ vā phuṭṭhaṃ upalakkhetī"ti.
For this is said in the Commentaries: “One who is learning the air kasiṇa apprehends the sign in air. He notices the tops of [growing] sugarcane moving to and fro; or he notices the tops of bamboos, or the tops of trees, or the ends of the hair, moving to and fro; or he notices the touch of it on the body.”
Tasmā samasīsaṭṭhitaṃ ghanapattaṃ ucchuṃ vā veḷuṃ vā rukkhaṃ vā caturaṅgulappamāṇaṃ ghanakesassa purisassa sīsaṃ vā vātena pahariyamānaṃ disvā "ayaṃ vāto etasmiṃ ṭhāne paharatī"ti satiṃ ṭhapetvā, yaṃ vā panassa vātapānantarikāya vā bhittichiddena vā pavisitvā vāto kāyappadesaṃ paharati, tattha satiṃ ṭhapetvā vātamālutaanilādīsu vāyunāmesu pākaṭanāmavaseneva "vāto vāto"ti bhāvetabbaṃ.
10.So when he sees sugarcanes with dense foliage standing with tops level or bamboos or trees, or else hair four fingers long on a man’s head, being struck by the wind, he should establish mindfulness in this way: “This wind is striking on this place.” Or he can establish mindfulness where the wind strikes a part of his body after entering by a window opening or by a crack in a wall, and using any among the names for wind (vāta) beginning with “wind” (vāta), “breeze” (māluta), “blowing” (anila), he should develop [the kasiṇa] by using [preferably] the obvious “air, air.”
Idha uggahanimittavaḍḍhanato otāritamattassa pāyāsassa usumavaṭṭisadisaṃ calaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti.
11.Here the learning sign appears to move like the swirl of hot [steam] on rice gruel just withdrawn from an oven.
Paṭibhāganimittaṃ sannisinnaṃ hoti niccalaṃ.
The counterpart sign is quiet and motionless.
Sesaṃ vuttanayeneva veditabbanti.
The rest should be understood in the way already described.
Vāyokasiṇaṃ.
Nīlakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.4 Nīlakasiṇakathā

94.Tadanantaraṃ pana nīlakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto nīlakasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti pupphasmiṃ vā vatthasmiṃ vā vaṇṇadhātuyā vāti vacanato katādhikārassa puññavato tāva tathārūpaṃ mālāgacchaṃ vā pūjāṭhānesu pupphasantharaṃ vā nīlavatthamaṇīnaṃ vā aññataraṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati.
12.Next it is said [in the Commentaries]: “One who is learning the blue kasiṇa apprehends the sign in blue, whether in a flower or in a cloth or in a colour element.”3 Firstly, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees a bush with blue flowers, or such flowers spread out on a place of offering, or any blue cloth or gem.
Itarena nīluppalagirikaṇṇikādīni pupphāni gahetvā yathā kesaraṃ vā vaṇṭaṃ vā na paññāyati, evaṃ caṅgoṭakaṃ vā karaṇḍapaṭalaṃ vā pattehiyeva samatittikaṃ pūretvā santharitabbaṃ.
13. But anyone else should take flowers such as blue lotuses, girikaṇṇikā (morning glory) flowers, etc., and spread them out to fill a tray or a flat basket completely so that no stamen or stalk shows or with only their petals. Or he can fill it with blue cloth bunched up together;
Nīlavaṇṇena vā vatthena bhaṇḍikaṃ bandhitvā pūretabbaṃ.
or he can fasten the cloth over the rim of the tray
Mukhavaṭṭiyaṃ vā assa bheritalamiva bandhitabbaṃ.
or basket like the covering of a drum.
Kaṃsanīlapalāsanīlaañjananīlānaṃ vā aññatarena dhātunā pathavīkasiṇe vuttanayena saṃhārimaṃ vā bhittiyaṃyeva vā kasiṇamaṇḍalaṃ katvā visabhāgavaṇṇena paricchinditabbaṃ.
Or he can make a kasiṇa disk, either portable as described under the earth kasiṇa or on a wall, with one of the colour elements such as bronze-green, leaf-green, añjana-ointment black, surrounding it with a different colour.
Tato pathavīkasiṇe vuttanayena "nīlaṃ nīla"nti manasikāro pavattetabbo.
After that, he should bring it to mind as “blue, blue” in the way already described under the earth kasiṇa.
Idhāpi uggahanimitte kasiṇadoso paññāyati, kesaradaṇḍakapattantarikādīni upaṭṭhahanti.
14. And here too any fault in the kasiṇa is evident in the learning sign; the stamens and stalks and the gaps between the petals, etc., are apparent.
Paṭibhāganimittaṃ kasiṇamaṇḍalato muñcitvā ākāse maṇitālavaṇṭasadisaṃ upaṭṭhāti.
The counterpart sign appears like a crystal fan in space, free from the kasiṇa disk.
Sesaṃ vuttanayeneva veditabbanti.
The rest should be understood as already described.
Nīlakasiṇaṃ.
Pītakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.5 Pītakasiṇakathā

95.Pītakasiṇepi eseva nayo.
15.Likewise with the yellow kasiṇa;
Vuttañhetaṃ pītakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto pītakasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti pupphasmiṃ vā vatthasmiṃ vā vaṇṇadhātuyā vāti.
for this is said: “One who is learning the yellow kasiṇa apprehends the sign in yellow, either in a flower or in a cloth or in a colour element.”
Tasmā idhāpi katādhikārassa puññavato tathārūpaṃ mālāgacchaṃ vā pupphasantharaṃ vā pītavatthadhātūnaṃ vā aññataraṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati cittaguttattherassa viya.
Therefore here too, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees a flowering bush or flowers spread out, or yellow cloth or colour element, as in the case of the Elder Cittagutta.
Comm. NT: 4. Pattaṅga: not in PED. Āsana—“altar”: not in this sense in PED. All comments (1)
Tassa kirāyasmato cittalapabbate pattaṅgapupphehi kataṃ āsanapūjaṃ passato saha dassaneneva āsanappamāṇaṃ nimittaṃ udapādi.
That venerable one, it seems, saw an offering being made on the flower altar, with pattaṅga flowers4 at Cittalapabbata, and as soon as he saw it the sign arose in him the size of the flower altar.
Itarena kaṇikārapupphādinā vā pītavatthena vā dhātunā vā nīlakasiṇe vuttanayeneva kasiṇaṃ katvā "pītakaṃ pītaka"nti manasikāro pavattetabbo.
16.Anyone else should make a kasiṇa, in the way described for the blue kasiṇa, with kaṇikāra flowers, etc., or with yellow cloth or with a colour element. He should bring it to mind as “yellow, yellow.”
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
The rest is as before.
Pītakasiṇaṃ.
Lohitakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.6 Lohitakasiṇakathā

96.Lohitakasiṇepi eseva nayo.
17.Likewise with the red kasiṇa;
Vuttañhetaṃ lohitakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto lohitakasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti pupphasmiṃ vā vatthasmiṃ vā vaṇṇadhātuyā vāti.
for this is said: “One who is learning the red kasiṇa apprehends the sign in red, either in a flower or in a cloth or in a colour element.”
Tasmā idhāpi katādhikārassa puññavato tathārūpaṃ bandhujīvakādimālāgacchaṃ vā pupphasantharaṃ vā lohitakavatthamaṇidhātūnaṃ vā aññataraṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati.
Therefore here too, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees a bandhujīvaka (hibiscus) bush, etc., in flower, or such flowers spread out, or a red cloth or gem or colour element.
Itarena jayasumanabandhujīvakarattakoraṇḍakādipupphehi vā rattavatthena vā dhātunā vā nīlakasiṇe vuttanayeneva kasiṇaṃ katvā "lohitakaṃ lohitaka"nti manasikāro pavattetabbo.
18.But anyone else should make a kasiṇa, in the way already described for the blue kasiṇa, with jayasumana flowers or bandhujīvaka or red koraṇḍaka flowers, etc., or with red cloth or with a colour element.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
He should bring it to mind as “red, red.” The rest is as before.
Lohitakasiṇaṃ.
Odātakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.7 Odātakasiṇakathā

97.Odātakasiṇepi odātakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto odātasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti pupphasmiṃ vā vatthasmiṃ vā vaṇṇadhātuyā vāti vacanato katādhikārassa tāva puññavato tathārūpaṃ mālāgacchaṃ vā vassikasumanādipupphasantharaṃ vā kumudapadumarāsiṃ vā odātavatthadhātūnaṃ vā aññataraṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati, tipumaṇḍalarajatamaṇḍalacandamaṇḍalesupi uppajjatiyeva.
19. Of the white kasiṇa it is said: “One who is learning the white kasiṇa apprehends the sign in white, either in a flower or in a cloth or in a colour element.” So firstly, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees a flowering bush of such a kind or vassikasumana (jasmine) flowers, etc., spread out, or a heap of white lotuses or lilies, white cloth or colour element; and it also arises in a tin disk, a silver disk, and the moon’s disk.
Itarena vuttappakārehi odātapupphehi vā odātavatthena vā dhātunā vā nīlakasiṇe vuttanayeneva kasiṇaṃ katvā "odātaṃ odāta"nti manasikāro pavattetabbo.
20. Anyone else should make a kasiṇa, in the way already described for the blue kasiṇa, with the white flowers already mentioned, or with cloth or colour element. He should bring it to mind as “white, white.”
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
The rest is as before.
Odātakasiṇaṃ.
Ālokakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.8 Ālokakasiṇakathā

98.Ālokakasiṇe pana ālokakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto ālokasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti bhittichidde vā tāḷacchidde vā vātapānantarikāya vāti vacanato katādhikārassa tāva puññavato yaṃ bhittichiddādīnaṃ aññatarena sūriyāloko vā candāloko vā pavisitvā bhittiyaṃ vā bhūmiyaṃ vā maṇḍalaṃ samuṭṭhāpeti, ghanapaṇṇarukkhasākhantarena vā ghanasākhāmaṇḍapantarena vā nikkhamitvā bhūmiyameva maṇḍalaṃ samuṭṭhāpeti, taṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati.
21. Of the light kasiṇa it is said: “One who is learning the light kasiṇa apprehends the sign in light in a hole in a wall, or in a keyhole, or in a window opening.” So firstly, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees the circle thrown on a wall or a floor by sunlight or moonlight entering through a hole in a wall, etc., or when he sees a circle thrown on the ground by sunlight or moonlight coming through a gap in the branches of a dense-leaved tree or through a gap in a hut made of closely packed branches.
Itarenāpi tadeva vuttappakāramobhāsamaṇḍalaṃ "obhāso obhāso"ti vā "āloko āloko"ti vā bhāvetabbaṃ.
22.Anyone else should use that same kind of circle of luminosity just described, developing it as “luminosity, luminosity” or “light, light.”
Tathā asakkontena ghaṭe dīpaṃ jāletvā ghaṭamukhaṃ pidahitvā ghaṭe chiddaṃ katvā bhittimukhaṃ ṭhapetabbaṃ.
If he cannot do so, he can light a lamp inside a pot, close the pot’s mouth, make a hole in it and place it with the hole facing a wall.
Tena chiddena dīpāloko nikkhamitvā bhittiyaṃ maṇḍalaṃ karoti, taṃ āloko ālokoti bhāvetabbaṃ.
The lamplight coming out of the hole throws a circle on the wall. He should develop that as “light, light.”
Idamitarehi ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti.
This lasts longer than the other kinds.
Idha uggahanimittaṃ bhittiyaṃ vā bhūmiyaṃ vā uṭṭhitamaṇḍalasadisameva hoti.
23.Here the learning sign is like the circle thrown on the wall or the ground.
Paṭibhāganimittaṃ ghanavippasannaālokapuñjasadisaṃ.
The counterpart sign is like a compact bright cluster of lights.
Sesaṃ tādisamevāti.
The rest is as before.
Ālokakasiṇaṃ.
Paricchinnākāsakasiṇakathā Table view Original pali

5.9 Paricchinnākāsakasiṇakathā

99.Paricchinnākāsakasiṇepi ākāsakasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto ākāsasmiṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti bhittichidde vā tāḷacchidde vā vātapānantarikāya vāti vacanato katādhikārassa tāva puññavato bhittichiddādīsu aññataraṃ disvāva nimittaṃ uppajjati.
24. Of the limited-space kasiṇa it is said: “One who is learning the space kasiṇa apprehends the sign in a hole in a wall, or in a keyhole, or in a window opening.” So firstly, when someone has merit, having had previous practice, the sign arises in him when he sees any [such gap as a] hole in a wall.
Itarena succhannamaṇḍape vā cammakaṭasārakādīnaṃ vā aññatarasmiṃ vidatthicaturaṅgulappamāṇaṃ chiddaṃ katvā tadeva vā bhittichiddādibhedaṃ chiddaṃ "ākāso ākāso"ti bhāvetabbaṃ.
25.Anyone else should make a hole a span and four fingers broad in a well- thatched hut, or in a piece of leather, or in a rush mat, and so on. He should develop one of these, or a hole such as a hole in a wall, as “space, space.”
Idha uggahanimittaṃ saddhiṃ bhittipariyantādīhi chiddasadisameva hoti, vaḍḍhiyamānampi na vaḍḍhati.
26.Here the learning sign resembles the hole together with the wall, etc., that surrounds it. Attempts to extend it fail.
Paṭibhāganimittamākāsamaṇḍalameva hutvā upaṭṭhāti, vaḍḍhiyamānañca vaḍḍhati.
The counterpart sign appears only as a circle of space. Attempts to extend it succeed.
Comm. NT: 5. In the Suttas the first eight kasiṇas are the same as those given here, and they are the only ones mentioned in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī (§160–2... All comments (1)
Sesaṃ pathavīkasiṇe vuttanayeneva veditabbanti.
The rest should be understood as described under the earth kasiṇa.5
Paricchinnākāsakasiṇaṃ.
Iti kasiṇāni dasabalo,
27. He with Ten Powers, ten kasiṇas,
Dasa yāni avoca sabbadhammadaso;
Tells. who all things did see, each of which can be
Rūpāvacaramhi catukkapañcakajjhānahetūni.
The cause of fourfold and of fivefold jhāna, The fine-material sphere’s own master key.
Evaṃ tāni ca tesañca,
To tackle each and
Bhāvanānayamimaṃ viditvāna;
how they are developed, Now, knowing their descriptions and the way
Tesveva ayaṃ bhiyyo,
with its special part to play.
Pakiṇṇakakathāpi viññeyyā.
Study, each. There are some further points that will repay
Pakiṇṇakakathā Table view Original pali

5.10 Pakiṇṇakakathā

100.Imesu hi pathavīkasiṇavasena ekopi hutvā bahudhā hotītiādibhāvo, ākāse vā udake vā pathaviṃ nimminitvā padasā gamanaṃ, ṭhānanisajjādikappanaṃ vā, parittaappamāṇanayena abhibhāyatanapaṭilābhoti evamādīni ijjhanti.
28.Of these, the earth kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as the state described as “Having been one, he becomes many” (D I 78), etc., and stepping or standing or sitting on space or on water by creating earth, and the acquisition of the bases of mastery (M II 13) by the limited and measureless method.
Āpokasiṇavasena pathaviyaṃ ummujjananimmujjanaṃ, udakavuṭṭhisamuppādanaṃ, nadīsamuddādinimmānaṃ, pathavīpabbatapāsādādīnaṃ kampananti evamādīni ijjhanti.
29.The water kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as diving in and out of the earth (D I 78), causing rain, storms, creating rivers and seas, making the earth and rocks and palaces quake (M I 253).
Tejokasiṇavasena dhūmāyanā, pajjalanā, aṅgāravuṭṭhisamuppādanaṃ, tejasā tejopariyādānaṃ, yadeva so icchati tassa ḍahanasamatthatā, dibbena cakkhunā rūpadassanatthāya ālokakaraṇaṃ, parinibbānasamaye tejodhātuyā sarīrajjhāpananti evamādīni ijjhanti.
30.The fire kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as smoking, flaming, causing showers of sparks, countering fire with fire, ability to burn only what one wants to burn (S IV 290), causing light for the purpose of seeing visible objects with the divine eye, burning up the body by means of the fire element at the time of attaining Nibbāna (M-a IV 196).
Vāyokasiṇavasena vāyugatigamanaṃ, vātavuṭṭhisamuppādananti evamādīni ijjhanti.
31.The air kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as going with the speed of the wind, causing wind storms.
Nīlakasiṇavasena nīlarūpanimmānaṃ, andhakārakaraṇaṃ, suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇanayena abhibhāyatanapaṭilābho, subhavimokkhādhigamoti evamādīni ijjhanti.
32.The blue kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as creating black forms, causing darkness, acquisition of the bases of mastery by the method of fairness and ugliness, and attainment of the liberation by the beautiful (see M II 12)
Pītakasiṇavasena pītakarūpanimmānaṃ, suvaṇṇanti adhimuccanā, vuttanayeneva abhibhāyatanapaṭilābho, subhavimokkhādhigamo cāti evamādīni ijjhanti.
33. The yellow kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as creating yellow forms, resolving that something shall be gold (S I 116), acquisition of the bases of mastery in the way stated, and attainment of the liberation by the beautiful.
Lohitakasiṇavasena lohitakarūpanimmānaṃ, vuttanayeneva abhibhāyatanapaṭilābho, subhavimokkhādhigamoti evamādīni ijjhanti.
34.The red kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as creating red forms, acquisition of the bases of mastery in the way stated, and attainment of the liberation by the beautiful.
Odātakasiṇavasenaodātarūpanimmānaṃ, thinamiddhassa dūrabhāvakaraṇaṃ, andhakāravidhamanaṃ, dibbena cakkhunā rūpadassanatthāya ālokakaraṇanti evamādīni ijjhanti.
35. The white kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as creating white forms, banishing stiffness and torpor, dispelling darkness, causing light for the purpose of seeing visible objects with the divine eye.
Ālokakasiṇavasena sappabhārūpanimmānaṃ, thinamiddhassa dūrabhāvakaraṇaṃ, andhakāravidhamanaṃ, dibbena cakkhunā rūpadassanatthaṃ ālokakaraṇanti evamādīni ijjhanti.
36.The light kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as creating luminous forms, banishing stiffness and torpor, dispelling darkness, causing light for the purpose of seeing visible objects with the divine eye.
Ākāsakasiṇavasena paṭicchannānaṃ vivaṭakaraṇaṃ, antopathavīpabbatādīsupi ākāsaṃ nimminitvā iriyāpathakappanaṃ, tirokuḍḍādīsu asajjamānagamananti evamādīni ijjhanti.
37. The space kasiṇa is the basis for such powers as revealing the hidden, maintaining postures inside the earth and rocks by creating space inside them, travelling unobstructed through walls, and so on.
Sabbāneva uddhaṃ adho tiriyaṃ advayaṃ appamāṇanti imaṃ pabhedaṃ labhanti.
38. The classification “above, below, around, exclusive, measureless” applies to all kasiṇas;
Vuttañhetaṃ "pathavīkasiṇameko sañjānāti.
for this is said: “He perceives the earth kasiṇa
Uddhamadhotiriyaṃ advayamappamāṇa"ntiādi.
above, below, around, exclusive, measureless” (M II 14), and so on.
Tattha uddhanti uparigaganatalābhimukhaṃ.
39. Herein, above is upwards towards the sky’s level.
Adhoti heṭṭhābhūmitalābhimukhaṃ.
Below is downwards towards the earth’s level.
Tiriyanti khettamaṇḍalamiva samantā paricchinditaṃ.
Around is marked off all around like the perimeter of a field.
Ekacco hi uddhameva kasiṇaṃ vaḍḍheti, ekacco adho, ekacco samantato.
For one extends a kasiṇa upwards only, another downwards, another all round;
Tena tena vā kāraṇena evaṃ pasāreti.
or for some reason another projects it thus
Ālokamiva dibbacakkhunā rūpadassanakāmo.
as one who wants to see visible objects with the divine eye projects light.
Tena vuttaṃ uddhamadhotiriyanti.
Hence “above, below, around” is said.
Advayanti idaṃ pana ekassa aññabhāvānupagamanatthaṃ vuttaṃ.
The word exclusive, however, shows that anyone such state has nothing to do with any other.
Yathā hi udakaṃ paviṭṭhassa sabbadisāsu udakameva hoti, na aññaṃ, evameva pathavīkasiṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇameva hoti, natthi tassa añño kasiṇasambhedoti.
Just as there is water and nothing else in all directions for one who is actually in water, so too, the earth kasiṇa is the earth kasiṇa only; it has nothing in common with any other kasiṇa.
Eseva nayo sabbattha.
Similarly in each instance.
Appamāṇanti idaṃ tassa pharaṇaappamāṇavasena vuttaṃ.
Measureless means measureless intentness.
Tañhi cetasā pharanto sakalameva pharati.
He is intent upon the entirety with his mind,
Na ayamassa ādi idaṃ majjhanti pamāṇaṃ gaṇhātīti.
taking no measurements in this way: “This is its beginning, this is its middle.”
101.Ye ca te sattā kammāvaraṇena vā samannāgatā kilesāvaraṇena vā samannāgatā vipākāvaraṇena vā samannāgatā asaddhā acchandikā duppaññā abhabbā niyāmaṃ okkamituṃ kusalesu dhammesu sammattanti vuttā, tesamekassāpekakasiṇepi bhāvanā na ijjhati.
40. No kasiṇa can be developed by any living being described as follows: “Beings hindered by kamma, by defilement or by kamma-result, who lack faith, zeal and understanding, will be incapable of entering into the certainty of rightness in profitable states” (Vibh 341).
Comm. NT: 6. The five kinds of bad kamma with immediate effect on rebirth are, in that order of priority: matricide, parricide, arahanticide, intentio... All comments (1)
Tattha kammāvaraṇena samannāgatāti ānantariyakammasamaṅgino.
41.Herein, the words hindered by kamma refer to those who possess bad kamma entailing immediate effect [on rebirth].6
Comm. NT: 7. The no-cause view, moral-inefficacy-of-action view, the nihilistic view that there is no such thing as giving, and so on (see DN 2). All comments (1)
Kilesāvaraṇena samannāgatāti niyatamicchādiṭṭhikā ceva ubhatobyañjanakapaṇḍakā ca.
By defilement: who have fixed wrong view7 or are hermaphrodites or eunuchs.
Vipākāvaraṇena samannāgatāti ahetukadvihetukapaṭisandhikā.
By kamma-result: who have had a rebirth- linking with no [profitable] root-cause or with only two [profitable] root-causes.
Asaddhāti buddhādīsu saddhāvirahitā.
Lack faith: are destitute of faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
Acchandikāti apaccanīkapaṭipadāyaṃ chandavirahitā.
Zeal: are destitute of zeal for the unopposed way.
Duppaññāti lokiyalokuttarasammādiṭṭhiyā virahitā.
Understanding: are destitute of mundane and supramundane right view.
Abhabbāniyāmaṃ okkamituṃ kusalesu dhammesu sammattanti kusalesu dhammesu niyāmasaṅkhātaṃ sammattasaṅkhātañca ariyamaggaṃ okkamituṃ abhabbāti attho.
Will be incapable of entering into the certainty of rightness in profitable states means that they are incapable of entering into the noble path called “certainty” and “rightness in profitable states.”
Na kevalañca kasiṇeyeva, aññesupi kammaṭṭhānesu etesamekassapi bhāvanā na ijjhati.
42.And this does not apply only to kasiṇas; for none of them will succeed in developing any meditation subject at all.
Tasmā vigatavipākāvaraṇenapi kulaputtena kammāvaraṇañca kilesāvaraṇañca ārakā parivajjetvā saddhammassavanasappurisūpanissayādīhi saddhañca chandañca paññañca vaḍḍhetvā kammaṭṭhānānuyoge yogo karaṇīyoti.
So the task of devotion to a meditation subject must be undertaken by a clansman who has no hindrance by kamma- result, who shuns hindrance by kamma and by defilement, and who fosters faith, zeal and understanding by listening to the Dhamma, frequenting good men, and so on.
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge
in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
Samādhibhāvanādhikāre
in the Treatise on the Development of Concentration
Sesakasiṇaniddeso nāma
called “The Description of the Remaining Kasiṇas”
Pañcamo paricchedo.
The fifth chapter

6 - Chapter 6: Foulness as a meditation subject


6. Foulness as a meditation subject Original pali
Pali
Nyanamoli thera - english
Uddhumātakādipadatthavaṇṇanā Table view Original pali

6.1 Uddhumātakādipadatthavaṇṇanā

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102.Kasiṇānantaramuddiṭṭhesu pana uddhumātakaṃ, vinīlakaṃ, vipubbakaṃ, vicchiddakaṃ, vikkhāyitakaṃ, vikkhittakaṃ, hatavikkhittakaṃ, lohitakaṃ, puḷavakaṃ, aṭṭhikanti dasasu aviññāṇakāsubhesu bhastā viya vāyunā uddhaṃ jīvitapariyādānā yathānukkamaṃ samuggatena sūnabhāvena uddhumātattā uddhumātaṃ, uddhumātameva uddhumātakaṃ.
1. Now, ten kinds of foulness, [as corpses] without consciousness, were listed next after the kasiṇas thus: the bloated, the livid, the festering, the cut up, the gnawed, the scattered, the hacked and scattered, the bleeding, the worm infested, a skeleton (III.105). The bloated: it is bloated (uddhumāta) because bloated by gradual dilation and swelling after (uddhaṃ) the close of life, as a bellows is with wind. What is bloated (uddhumāta) is the same as “the bloated” (uddhumātaka).
Paṭikkūlattā vā kucchitaṃ uddhumātanti uddhumātakaṃ.
Or alternatively, what is bloated (uddhumāta) is vile (kucchita) because of repulsiveness, thus it is “the bloated” (uddhumātaka).
Tathārūpassa chavasarīrassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for a corpse in that particular state.
Vinīlaṃ vuccati viparibhinnanīlavaṇṇaṃ, vinīlameva vinīlakaṃ.
2. The livid: what has patchy discolouration is called livid (vinīla). What is livid is the same as “the livid” (vinīlaka).
Paṭikkūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vinīlanti vinīlakaṃ.
Or alternatively, what is livid (vinīla) is vile (kucchita) because of repulsiveness, thus it is “the livid” (vinīlaka).1
Maṃsussadaṭṭhānesu rattavaṇṇassa pubbasannicayaṭṭhānesu setavaṇṇassa yebhuyyena ca nīlavaṇṇassa nīlaṭṭhāne nīlasāṭakapārutasseva chavasarīrassetamadhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for a corpse that is reddish-coloured in places where flesh is prominent, whitish-coloured in places where pus has collected, but mostly blue-black (nīla), as if draped with blue-black cloth in the blue-black places.
Paribhinnaṭṭhānesu vissandamānaṃ pubbaṃ vipubbaṃ, vipubbameva vipubbakaṃ.
3.The festering: what is trickling with pus in broken places is festering (vipubba). What is festering is the same as “the festering” (vipubbaka).
Paṭikkūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vipubbanti vipubbakaṃ.
Or alternatively, what is festering (vipubba) is vile (kucchita) because of repulsiveness, thus it is “the festering” (vipubbaka).
Tathārūpassa chavasarīrassetamadhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for a corpse in that particular state.
Vicchiddaṃ vuccati dvidhā chindanena apadhāritaṃ, vicchiddameva vicchiddakaṃ.
4.The cut up: what has been opened up2 by cutting it in two is called cut up (vicchidda). What is cut up is the same as “the cut up” (vicchiddaka).
Paṭikkūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vicchiddanti vicchiddakaṃ.
Or alternatively, what is cut up (vicchidda) is vile (kucchita) because of repulsiveness, thus it is “the cut up” (vicchiddaka).
Vemajjhe chinnassa chavasarīrassetamadhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for a corpse cut in the middle.
Ito ca etto ca vividhākārena soṇasiṅgālādīhi khāditanti vikkhāyitaṃ, vikkhāyitameva vikkhāyitakaṃ.
5.The gnawed: what has been chewed here and there in various ways by dogs, jackals, etc., is what is gnawed (vikkhāyita). What is gnawed is the same as “the gnawed” (vikkhāyitaka).
Paṭikkūlattā vā kucchitaṃ vikkhāyitanti vikkhāyitakaṃ.
Or alternatively, what is gnawed (vikkhāyita) is vile (kucchita) because of repulsiveness, thus it is “the gnawed” (vikkhāyitaka).
Tathārūpassa chavasarīrassetamadhivacanaṃ.
This is a term for a corpse in that particular state.
Vividhaṃ khittaṃ vikkhittaṃ, vikkhittameva vikkhittakaṃ.
6.The scattered: what is strewed about (vividhaṃ khittaṃ) is scattered (vikkhittaṃ). What is scattered is the same as “the scattered” (vikkhittaka).