4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → DN‍ → DN 18    🔝
 DN 18 - DN 18 Janavasabha: with Janavasabha
    DN 18.1 - Declaring the Rebirths of People From Nādika and Elsewhere
    DN 18.2 - Ānanda’s Suggestion
    DN 18.3 - Janavasabha the Spirit
    DN 18.4 - The Council of the Gods
    DN 18.5 - On Sanaṅkumāra
    DN 18.6 - Developing the Bases of Psychic Power
    DN 18.7 - The Three Openings
    DN 18.8 - remembering Meditation
    DN 18.9 - Seven Prerequisites of undistractible-lucidity

detailed TOC

 DN 18 - DN 18 Janavasabha: with Janavasabha
    DN 18.1 - Declaring the Rebirths of People From Nādika and Elsewhere
    DN 18.2 - Ānanda’s Suggestion
    DN 18.3 - Janavasabha the Spirit
    DN 18.4 - The Council of the Gods
    DN 18.5 - On Sanaṅkumāra
    DN 18.6 - Developing the Bases of Psychic Power
    DN 18.7 - The Three Openings
        DN 18.7.1 - (1) hear Dharma to escape lust, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana
        DN 18.7.2 - (2) hear Dharma to attain 4 jhanas, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana
        DN 18.7.3 - (3) hear Dharma to differentiate kusala from akusala, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana
    DN 18.8 - remembering Meditation
    DN 18.9 - Seven Prerequisites of undistractible-lucidity

18 - DN 18 Janavasabha: with Janavasabha


(derived from B. Sujato 2018/12)
Dīgha Nikāya 18
Long Discourses 18

18.1 - Declaring the Rebirths of People From Nādika and Elsewhere

Janavasabhasutta
With Janavasabha
1. Nātikiyādibyākaraṇa
1. Declaring the Rebirths of People From Nādika and Elsewhere
Evaṃ me sutaṃ—​
So I have heard.
ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā nātike viharati giñjakāvasathe.
At one time the Buddha was staying at Nādika in the brick house.
Tena kho pana samayena bhagavā parito parito janapadesu paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu byākaroti kāsikosalesu vajjimallesu cetivaṃsesu kurupañcālesu majjhasūrasenesu:
Now at that time the Buddha was explaining the rebirths of devotees all over the nations; the Kāsis and Kosalans, Vajjis and Mallas, Cetīs and Vaṁsas, Kurus and Pañcālas, Macchas and Sūrasenas.
“asu amutra upapanno, asu amutra upapanno.
“This one is reborn here, while that one is reborn there.
Paropaññāsa nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
Over fifty devotees in Nādika have passed away having ended the five lower fetters. They’ve been reborn spontaneously, and will be nirvana'd there, not liable to return from that world.
Sādhikā navuti nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino, sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti.
More than ninety devotees in Nādika have passed away having ended three fetters, and weakened greed, hate, and delusion. They’re once-returners, who will come back to this world once only, then make an end of suffering.
Sātirekāni pañcasatāni nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā”ti.
In excess of five hundred devotees in Nādika have passed away having ended three fetters. They’re stream-enterers, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening.”
Assosuṃ kho nātikiyā paricārakā:
When the devotees of Nādika heard about the Buddha’s
“bhagavā kira parito parito janapadesu paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu byākaroti kāsikosalesu vajjimallesu cetivaṃsesu kurupañcālesu majjhasūrasenesu:
‘asu amutra upapanno, asu amutra upapanno.
Paropaññāsa nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
Sādhikā navuti nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti.
Sātirekāni pañcasatāni nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā’”ti.
Tena ca nātikiyā paricārakā attamanā ahesuṃ pamuditā pītisomanassajātā bhagavato pañhaveyyākaraṇaṃ sutvā.
answers to those questions, they were uplifted and overjoyed, full of rapture and happiness.
Assosi kho āyasmā ānando:
Venerable Ānanda heard of the Buddha’s statements and the Nādikans’ happiness.
“bhagavā kira parito parito janapadesu paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu byākaroti kāsikosalesu vajjimallesu cetivaṃsesu kurupañcālesu majjhasūrasenesu:
‘asu amutra upapanno, asu amutra upapanno.
Paropaññāsa nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
Sādhikā navuti nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti.
Sātirekāni pañcasatāni nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā’ti.
Tena ca nātikiyā paricārakā attamanā ahesuṃ pamuditā pītisomanassajātā bhagavato pañhaveyyākaraṇaṃ sutvā”ti.

18.2 - Ānanda’s Suggestion


2. Ānandaparikathā
2. Ānanda’s Suggestion
Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi:
Then Venerable Ānanda thought:
“ime kho panāpi ahesuṃ māgadhakā paricārakā bahū ceva rattaññū ca abbhatītā kālaṅkatā.
“But there were also Magadhan devotees—many, and of long standing too—who have passed away.
Suññā maññe aṅgamagadhā aṅgamāgadhakehi paricārakehi abbhatītehi kālaṅkatehi.
You’d think that Aṅga and Magadha were empty of devotees who have passed away!
Te kho panāpi ahesuṃ buddhe pasannā dhamme pasannā saṃghe pasannā sīlesu paripūrakārino.
But they too had confidence in the Buddha, the teaching, and the Saṅgha, and had fulfilled their ethics.
Te abbhatītā kālaṅkatā bhagavatā abyākatā;
The Buddha hasn’t declared their passing.
tesampissa sādhu veyyākaraṇaṃ, bahujano pasīdeyya, tato gaccheyya sugatiṃ.
It would be good to do so, for many people would gain confidence, and so be reborn in a good place.
Ayaṃ kho panāpi ahosi rājā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro dhammiko dhammarājā hito brāhmaṇagahapatikānaṃ negamānañceva jānapadānañca.
That King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha was a just and principled king who benefited the brahmins and householders of town and country.
Apissudaṃ manussā kittayamānarūpā viharanti:
People still sing his praises:
‘evaṃ no so dhammiko dhammarājā sukhāpetvā kālaṅkato, evaṃ mayaṃ tassa dhammikassa dhammarañño vijite phāsu viharimhā’ti.
‘That just and principled king, who made us so happy, has passed away. Life was good under his dominion.’
So kho panāpi ahosi buddhe pasanno dhamme pasanno saṃghe pasanno sīlesu paripūrakārī.
He too had confidence in the Buddha, the teaching, and the Saṅgha, and had fulfilled his ethics.
Apissudaṃ manussā evamāhaṃsu:
People say:
‘yāva maraṇakālāpi rājā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro bhagavantaṃ kittayamānarūpo kālaṅkato’ti.
‘Until his dying day, King Bimbisāra sang the Buddha’s praises!’
So abbhatīto kālaṅkato bhagavatā abyākato.
The Buddha hasn’t declared his passing.
Tassapissa sādhu veyyākaraṇaṃ bahujano pasīdeyya, tato gaccheyya sugatiṃ.
It would be good to do so, for many people would gain confidence, and so be reborn in a good place.
Bhagavato kho pana sambodhi magadhesu.
Besides, the Buddha was awakened in Magadha;
Yattha kho pana bhagavato sambodhi magadhesu, kathaṃ tatra bhagavā māgadhake paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu na byākareyya.
so why hasn’t he declared the rebirth of the Magadhan devotees?
Bhagavā ce kho pana māgadhake paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu na byākareyya, dīnamanā tenassu māgadhakā paricārakā;
If he fails to do so, they will be dejected.”
yena kho panassu dīnamanā māgadhakā paricārakā kathaṃ te bhagavā na byākareyyā”ti?
Idamāyasmā ānando māgadhake paricārake ārabbha eko raho anuvicintetvā rattiyā paccūsasamayaṃ paccuṭṭhāya yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:
After pondering the fate of the Magadhan devotees alone in private, Ānanda rose at the crack of dawn and went to see the Buddha. He bowed, sat down to one side, and told the Buddha of his concerns, finishing by saying:
“sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante:
‘bhagavā kira parito parito janapadesu paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu byākaroti kāsikosalesu vajjimallesu cetivaṃsesu kurupañcālesu majjhasūrasenesu:
“asu amutra upapanno, asu amutra upapanno.
Paropaññāsa nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
Sādhikā navuti nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino, sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti.
Sātirekāni pañcasatāni nātikiyā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇāti.
Tena ca nātikiyā paricārakā attamanā ahesuṃ pamuditā pītisomanassajātā bhagavato pañhaveyyākaraṇaṃ sutvā”’ti.
Ime kho panāpi, bhante, ahesuṃ māgadhakā paricārakā bahū ceva rattaññū ca abbhatītā kālaṅkatā.
Suññā maññe aṅgamagadhā aṅgamāgadhakehi paricārakehi abbhatītehi kālaṅkatehi.
Te kho panāpi, bhante, ahesuṃ buddhe pasannā dhamme pasannā saṅghe pasannā sīlesu paripūrakārino, te abbhatītā kālaṅkatā bhagavatā abyākatā.
Tesampissa sādhu veyyākaraṇaṃ, bahujano pasīdeyya, tato gaccheyya sugatiṃ.
Ayaṃ kho panāpi, bhante, ahosi rājā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro dhammiko dhammarājā hito brāhmaṇagahapatikānaṃ negamānañceva jānapadānañca.
Apissudaṃ manussā kittayamānarūpā viharanti:
‘evaṃ no so dhammiko dhammarājā sukhāpetvā kālaṅkato.
Evaṃ mayaṃ tassa dhammikassa dhammarañño vijite phāsu viharimhā’ti.
So kho panāpi, bhante, ahosi buddhe pasanno dhamme pasanno saṅghe pasanno sīlesu paripūrakārī.
Apissudaṃ manussā evamāhaṃsu:
‘yāva maraṇakālāpi rājā māgadho seniyo bimbisāro bhagavantaṃ kittayamānarūpo kālaṅkato’ti.
So abbhatīto kālaṅkato bhagavatā abyākato;
tassapissa sādhu veyyākaraṇaṃ, bahujano pasīdeyya, tato gaccheyya sugatiṃ.
Bhagavato kho pana, bhante, sambodhi magadhesu.
Yattha kho pana, bhante, bhagavato sambodhi magadhesu, kathaṃ tatra bhagavā māgadhake paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu na byākareyya?
Bhagavā ce kho pana, bhante, māgadhake paricārake abbhatīte kālaṅkate upapattīsu na byākareyya, dīnamanā tenassu māgadhakā paricārakā;
yena kho panassu dīnamanā māgadhakā paricārakā kathaṃ te bhagavā na byākareyyā”ti.
“Why hasn’t the Buddha declared the rebirth of the Magadhan devotees? If he fails to do so, they will be dejected.”
Idamāyasmā ānando māgadhake paricārake ārabbha bhagavato sammukhā parikathaṃ katvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
Then Ānanda, after making this suggestion regarding the Magadhan devotees, got up from his seat, bowed, and respectfully circled the Buddha, keeping him on his right, before leaving.
Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkante āyasmante ānande pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya nātikaṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
Soon after Ānanda had left, the Buddha robed up in the morning and, taking his bowl and robe, entered Nādika for alms.
Nātike piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto pāde pakkhāletvā giñjakāvasathaṃ pavisitvā māgadhake paricārake ārabbha aṭṭhiṃ katvā manasikatvā sabbaṃ cetasā samannāharitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi:
He wandered for alms in Nādika. After the meal, on his return from alms-round, he washed his feet and entered the brick house. He paid heed, paid attention, and concentrated wholeheartedly on the fate of Magadhan devotees, and sat on the seat spread out, thinking:
“gatiṃ nesaṃ jānissāmi abhisamparāyaṃ, yaṃgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā”ti.
“I shall know their destiny, where they are reborn in the next life.”
Addasā kho bhagavā māgadhake paricārake:
And he saw where they had been reborn.
“yaṃgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā”ti.
Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito giñjakāvasathā nikkhamitvā vihārapacchāyāyaṃ paññatte āsane nisīdi.
Then in the late afternoon, the Buddha came out of retreat. Emerging from the brick house, he sat on the seat spread out in the shade of the porch.
Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:
Then Venerable Ānanda went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him:
“upasantapadisso, bhante, bhagavā bhātiriva bhagavato mukhavaṇṇo vippasannattā indriyānaṃ.
“Sir, you look so serene; your face seems to shine owing to the clarity of your faculties.
Santena nūnajja, bhante, bhagavā vihārena vihāsī”ti?
Have you been abiding in a peaceful meditation today, sir?”
“Yadeva kho me tvaṃ, ānanda, māgadhake paricārake ārabbha sammukhā parikathaṃ katvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkanto, tadevāhaṃ nātike piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto pāde pakkhāletvā giñjakāvasathaṃ pavisitvā māgadhake paricārake ārabbha aṭṭhiṃ katvā manasikatvā sabbaṃ cetasā samannāharitvā paññatte āsane nisīdiṃ:
The Buddha then recounted what had happened since speaking to Ānanda, revealing that he had seen the destiny of the Magadhan devotees. He continued:
‘gatiṃ nesaṃ jānissāmi abhisamparāyaṃ, yaṅgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā’ti.
Addasaṃ kho ahaṃ, ānanda, māgadhake paricārake ‘yaṅgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā’ti.

18.3 - Janavasabha the Spirit


3. Janavasabhayakkha
3. Janavasabha the Spirit
Atha kho, ānanda, antarahito yakkho saddamanussāvesi:
“Then, Ānanda an invisible spirit called out:
‘janavasabho ahaṃ, bhagavā;
‘I am Janavasabha, Blessed One!
janavasabho ahaṃ, sugatā’ti.
I am Janavasabha, Holy One!’
Abhijānāsi no tvaṃ, ānanda, ito pubbe evarūpaṃ nāmadheyyaṃ sutaṃ yadidaṃ janavasabho”ti?
Ānanda, do you recall having previously heard such a name as Janavasabha?”
“Na kho ahaṃ, bhante, abhijānāmi ito pubbe evarūpaṃ nāmadheyyaṃ sutaṃ yadidaṃ janavasabhoti, api ca me, bhante, lomāni haṭṭhāni ‘janavasabho’ti nāmadheyyaṃ sutvā.
“No, sir. But when I heard the word, I got goosebumps!
Tassa mayhaṃ, bhante, etadahosi:
I thought:
‘na hi nūna so orako yakkho bhavissati yadidaṃ evarūpaṃ nāmadheyyaṃ supaññattaṃ yadidaṃ janavasabho’”ti.
‘This must be no ordinary spirit to bear such an exalted name as Janavasabha.’”
“Anantarā kho, ānanda, saddapātubhāvā uḷāravaṇṇo me yakkho sammukhe pāturahosi.
“After making himself heard while invisible, Ānanda, a very beautiful spirit appeared in front of me.
Dutiyakampi saddamanussāvesi:
And for a second time he called out:
‘bimbisāro ahaṃ, bhagavā;
‘I am Bimbisāra, Blessed One!
bimbisāro ahaṃ, sugatāti.
I am Bimbisāra, Holy One!
Idaṃ sattamaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, vessavaṇassa mahārājassa sahabyataṃ upapajjāmi, so tato cuto manussarājā bhavituṃ pahomi.
This is the seventh time I have been reborn in the company of the Great King Vessavaṇa. After passing away from there, I am now able to become a king of non-humans.
Ito satta tato satta,
Seven from here, seven from there—
saṃsārāni catuddasa;
fourteen transmigrations in all.
Nivāsamabhijānāmi,
That’s how many past lives
yattha me vusitaṃ pure.
I can recollect.
Dīgharattaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, avinipāto avinipātaṃ sañjānāmi, āsā ca pana me santiṭṭhati sakadāgāmitāyā’”ti.
For a long time I’ve known that I won’t be reborn in the underworld, but that I still hope to become a once-returner.’
“Acchariyamidaṃ āyasmato janavasabhassa yakkhassa, abbhutamidaṃ āyasmato janavasabhassa yakkhassa.
‘It’s incredible and amazing that you, the venerable spirit Janavasabha, should say:
‘Dīgharattaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, avinipāto avinipātaṃ sañjānāmī’ti ca vadesi, ‘āsā ca pana me santiṭṭhati sakadāgāmitāyā’ti ca vadesi, kutonidānaṃ panāyasmā janavasabho yakkho evarūpaṃ uḷāraṃ visesādhigamaṃ sañjānātī”ti?
“For a long time I’ve been aware that I won’t be reborn in the underworld” and also “But I still hope to become a once-returner.” But from what source do you know that you’ve achieved such a high distinction?’
“‘Na aññatra, bhagavā, tava sāsanā, na aññatra, sugata, tava sāsanā;
‘None other than the Blessed One’s instruction! None other than the Holy One’s instruction!
yadagge ahaṃ, bhante, bhagavati ekantikato abhippasanno, tadagge ahaṃ, bhante, dīgharattaṃ avinipāto avinipātaṃ sañjānāmi, āsā ca pana me santiṭṭhati sakadāgāmitāya.
From the day I had absolute devotion to the Buddha I have known that I won’t be reborn in the underworld, but that I still hope to become a once-returner.
Idhāhaṃ, bhante, vessavaṇena mahārājena pesito virūḷhakassa mahārājassa santike kenacideva karaṇīyena addasaṃ bhagavantaṃ antarāmagge giñjakāvasathaṃ pavisitvā māgadhake paricārake ārabbha aṭṭhiṃ katvā manasikatvā sabbaṃ cetasā samannāharitvā nisinnaṃ:
Just now, sir, I had been sent out by the great king Vessavaṇa to the great king Virūḷhaka’s presence on some business, and on the way I saw the Buddha giving his attention to the fate of the Magadhan devotees.
“gatiṃ nesaṃ jānissāmi abhisamparāyaṃ, yaṃgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā”ti.
Anacchariyaṃ kho panetaṃ, bhante, yaṃ vessavaṇassa mahārājassa tassaṃ parisāyaṃ bhāsato sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ:
But it comes as no surprise that I have heard and learned the fate of the Magadhan devotees in the presence of the great king Vessavaṇa as he was speaking to his assembly.
“yaṃgatikā te bhavanto yaṃabhisamparāyā”ti.
Tassa mayhaṃ, bhante, etadahosi:
It occurred to me:
“bhagavantañca dakkhāmi, idañca bhagavato ārocessāmī”ti.
“I shall see the Buddha and inform him of this.”
Ime kho me, bhante, dvepaccayā bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṃ.
These are the two reasons I’ve come to see the Buddha.

18.4 - The Council of the Gods


4. Devasabhā
4. The Council of the Gods
Purimāni, bhante, divasāni purimatarāni tadahuposathe pannarase vassūpanāyikāya puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā kevalakappā ca devā tāvatiṃsā sudhammāyaṃ sabhāyaṃ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā.
Sir, it was more than a few days ago—on the fifteenth day sabbath on the full moon day at the entry to the rainy season—when all the gods of the Thirty-Three were sitting together in the Hall of Justice.
Mahatī ca dibbaparisā samantato nisinnā honti, cattāro ca mahārājāno catuddisā nisinnā honti.
A large assembly of gods was sitting all around, and the Four Great Kings were there.
Puratthimāya disāya dhataraṭṭho mahārājā pacchimābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā;
The Great King Dhataraá¹­á¹­ha was seated to the east, facing west, in front of his gods.
dakkhiṇāya disāya virūḷhako mahārājā uttarābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā;
The Great King Virūḷhaka was seated to the south, facing north, in front of his gods.
pacchimāya disāya virūpakkho mahārājā puratthābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā;
The Great King Virūpakkha was seated to the west, facing east, in front of his gods.
uttarāya disāya vessavaṇo mahārājā dakkhiṇābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā.
The Great King Vessavaṇa was seated to the north, facing south, in front of his gods.
Yadā, bhante, kevalakappā ca devā tāvatiṃsā sudhammāyaṃ sabhāyaṃ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā, mahatī ca dibbaparisā samantato nisinnā honti, cattāro ca mahārājāno catuddisā nisinnā honti. Idaṃ nesaṃ hoti āsanasmiṃ;
When the gods of the Thirty-Three have a gathering like this, that is how they are seated.
atha pacchā amhākaṃ āsanaṃ hoti.
After that come our seats.
Ye te, bhante, devā bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ caritvā adhunūpapannā tāvatiṃsakāyaṃ, te aññe deve atirocanti vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca.
Sir, those gods who had been recently reborn in the company of the Thirty-Three after leading the spiritual life under the Buddha outshone the other gods in beauty and glory.
Tena sudaṃ, bhante, devā tāvatiṃsā attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā:
The gods of the Thirty-Three were uplifted and overjoyed at that, full of rapture and happiness, saying:
“dibbā vata bho kāyā paripūrenti, hāyanti asurakāyā”ti.
“The heavenly hosts swell, while the demon hosts dwindle!”
Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ sampasādaṃ viditvā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi:
Seeing the joy of those gods, Sakka, lord of gods, celebrated with these verses:
“Modanti vata bho devā,
“The gods rejoice—
tāvatiṃsā sahindakā;
the Thirty-Three with their Lord—
Tathāgataṃ namassantā,
revering the Realized One,
dhammassa ca sudhammataṃ.
and the natural excellence of the teaching;
Nave deve ca passantā,
and seeing the new gods,
vaṇṇavante yasassine;
so beautiful and glorious,
Sugatasmiṃ brahmacariyaṃ,
who have come here after leading
caritvāna idhāgate.
the spiritual life under the Buddha!
Te aññe atirocanti,
They outshine the others
vaṇṇena yasasāyunā;
in beauty, glory, and lifespan.
Sāvakā bhūripaññassa,
Here are the distinguished disciples
visesūpagatā idha.
of he whose wisdom is vast.
Idaṃ disvāna nandanti,
Seeing this, they delight—
tāvatiṃsā sahindakā;
the Thirty-Three with their Lord—
Tathāgataṃ namassantā,
revering the Realized One,
dhammassa ca sudhammatan”ti.
and the natural excellence of the teaching.”
Tena sudaṃ, bhante, devā tāvatiṃsā bhiyyoso mattāya attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā
The gods of the Thirty-Three were even more uplifted and overjoyed at that, saying:
“dibbā vata, bho, kāyā paripūrenti, hāyanti asurakāyā”ti.
“The heavenly hosts swell, while the demon hosts dwindle!”
Atha kho, bhante, yenatthena devā tāvatiṃsā sudhammāyaṃ sabhāyaṃ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā, taṃ atthaṃ cintayitvā taṃ atthaṃ mantayitvā vuttavacanāpi taṃ cattāro mahārājāno tasmiṃ atthe honti. Paccānusiṭṭhavacanāpi taṃ cattāro mahārājāno tasmiṃ atthe honti,
Then the gods of the Thirty-Three, having considered and deliberated about the matter for which they were seated together in the Hall of Justice, advised and instructed the Four Great Kings on the subject.
sakesu sakesu āsanesu ṭhitā avipakkantā.
And each stood at his own seat without departing.
Te vuttavākyā rājāno,
The Kings were instructed,
paṭiggayhānusāsaniṃ;
and heeded good advice.
Vippasannamanā santā,
With clear and peaceful minds,
aṭṭhaṃsu samhi āsaneti.
they stood by their own seats.
Atha kho, bhante, uttarāya disāya uḷāro āloko sañjāyi, obhāso pāturahosi atikkammeva devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ.
Then in the northern quarter a magnificent light arose and radiance appeared, surpassing the glory of the gods.
Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
Then Sakka, lord of gods, addressed the gods of the Thirty-Three:
“yathā kho, mārisā, nimittāni dissanti, uḷāro āloko sañjāyati, obhāso pātubhavati, brahmā pātubhavissati. Brahmuno hetaṃ pubbanimittaṃ pātubhāvāya yadidaṃ āloko sañjāyati obhāso pātubhavatī”ti.
“As indicated by the signs—light arising and radiance appearing—Brahmā will appear. For this is the precursor for the appearance of Brahmā, namely light arising and radiance appearing.”
Yathā nimittā dissanti,
As indicated by the signs,
brahmā pātubhavissati;
Brahmā will appear.
Brahmuno hetaṃ nimittaṃ,
For this is the sign of Brahmā:
obhāso vipulo mahāti.
a light vast and great.

18.5 - On Sanaṅkumāra


5. Sanaṅkumārakathā
5. On Sanaṅkumāra
Atha kho, bhante, devā tāvatiṃsā yathāsakesu āsanesu nisīdiṃsu:
Then the gods of the Thirty-Three sat in their own seats, saying:
“obhāsametaṃ ñassāma, yaṃvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṃ gamissāmā”ti.
“We shall find out what has caused that light, and having realized it we shall go to it.”
Cattāropi mahārājāno yathāsakesu āsanesu nisīdiṃsu:
And the Four Great Kings did likewise.
“obhāsametaṃ ñassāma yaṃvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṃ gamissāmā”ti.
Idaṃ sutvā devā tāvatiṃsā ekaggā samāpajjiṃsu:
Hearing that, the gods of the Thirty-Three agreed in unison:
“obhāsametaṃ ñassāma, yaṃvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṃ gamissāmā”ti.
“We shall find out what has caused that light, and having realized it we shall go to it.”
Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pātubhavati, oḷārikaṃ attabhāvaṃ abhinimminitvā pātubhavati.
When Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the gods of the Thirty-Three, he does so after manifesting in a solid corporeal form.
Yo kho pana, bhante, brahmuno pakativaṇṇo anabhisambhavanīyo so devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ cakkhupathasmiṃ.
For the gods of the Thirty-Three aren’t able to see a Brahmā’s normal appearance.
Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pātubhavati, so aññe deve atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca.
When Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the gods of the Thirty-Three, he outshines the other gods in beauty and glory,
Seyyathāpi, bhante, sovaṇṇo viggaho mānusaṃ viggahaṃ atirocati;
as a golden statue outshines the human form.
evameva kho, bhante, yadā brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pātubhavati, so aññe deve atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca.
Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pātubhavati, na tassaṃ parisāyaṃ koci devo abhivādeti vā paccuṭṭheti vā āsanena vā nimanteti.
When Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the gods of the Thirty-Three, not a single god in that assembly greets him by bowing down or rising up or inviting him to a seat.
Sabbeva tuṇhībhūtā pañjalikā pallaṅkena nisīdanti:
They all sit silently on their couches with their joined palms raised, thinking:
“yassadāni devassa pallaṅkaṃ icchissati brahmā sanaṅkumāro, tassa devassa pallaṅke nisīdissatī”ti.
“Now Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra will sit on the couch of whatever god he chooses.”
Yassa kho pana, bhante, devassa brahmā sanaṅkumāro pallaṅke nisīdati, uḷāraṃ so labhati devo vedapaṭilābhaṃ; uḷāraṃ so labhati devo somanassapaṭilābhaṃ.
And the god on whose couch Brahmā sits is overjoyed and brimming with happiness,
Seyyathāpi, bhante, rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto adhunābhisitto rajjena, uḷāraṃ so labhati vedapaṭilābhaṃ, uḷāraṃ so labhati somanassapaṭilābhaṃ;
like a king on the day of his coronation.
evameva kho, bhante, yassa devassa brahmā sanaṅkumāro pallaṅke nisīdati, uḷāraṃ so labhati devo vedapaṭilābhaṃ, uḷāraṃ so labhati devo somanassapaṭilābhaṃ.
Atha, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro oḷārikaṃ attabhāvaṃ abhinimminitvā kumāravaṇṇī hutvā pañcasikho devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pāturahosi.
Then Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra manifested in a solid corporeal form, taking on the appearance of the youth Pañcasikha, and appeared to the gods of the Thirty-Three.
So vehāsaṃ abbhuggantvā ākāse antalikkhe pallaṅkena nisīdi.
Rising into the air, he sat cross-legged in the sky,
Seyyathāpi, bhante, balavā puriso supaccatthate vā pallaṅke same vā bhūmibhāge pallaṅkena nisīdeyya;
like a strong man might sit cross-legged on a well-appointed couch or on level ground.
evameva kho, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro vehāsaṃ abbhuggantvā ākāse antalikkhe pallaṅkena nisīditvā devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ sampasādaṃ viditvā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi:
Seeing the joy of those gods, Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra celebrated with these verses:
“Modanti vata bho devā,
“The gods rejoice—
tāvatiṃsā sahindakā;
the Thirty-Three with their Lord—
Tathāgataṃ namassantā,
revering the Realized One,
dhammassa ca sudhammataṃ.
and the natural excellence of the teaching;
Nave deve ca passantā,
and seeing the new gods,
vaṇṇavante yasassine;
so beautiful and glorious,
Sugatasmiṃ brahmacariyaṃ,
who have come here after leading
caritvāna idhāgate.
the spiritual life under the Buddha!
Te aññe atirocanti,
They outshine the others
vaṇṇena yasasāyunā;
in beauty, glory, and lifespan.
Sāvakā bhūripaññassa,
Here are the distinguished disciples
visesūpagatā idha.
of he whose wisdom is vast.
Idaṃ disvāna nandanti,
Seeing this, they delight—
tāvatiṃsā sahindakā;
the Thirty-Three with their Lord—
Tathāgataṃ namassantā,
revering the Realized One,
dhammassa ca sudhammatan”ti.
and the natural excellence of the teaching!”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha;
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke.
imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhāsato aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgato saro hoti vissaṭṭho ca viññeyyo ca mañju ca savanīyo ca bindu ca avisārī ca gambhīro ca ninnādī ca.
And while he was speaking on that topic, his voice had eight qualities: it was clear, comprehensible, charming, audible, rounded, undistorted, deep, and resonant.
Yathāparisaṃ kho pana, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro sarena viññāpeti; na cassa bahiddhā parisāya ghoso niccharati.
He makes sure his voice is intelligible as far as the assembly goes, but it doesn’t extend outside the assembly.
Yassa kho pana, bhante, evaṃ aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgato saro hoti, so vuccati “brahmassaro”ti.
When someone has a voice like this, they’re said to have the voice of Brahmā.
Atha kho, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro tettiṃse attabhāve abhinimminitvā devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pallaṅkena nisīditvā deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
Then Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra, having manifested thirty-three corporeal forms, sat down on the couches of each of the gods of the Thirty-Three and addressed them:
“taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāvañca so bhagavā bahujanahitāya paṭipanno bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ.
“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the Buddha has acted for the welfare and happiness of the people, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans?
Ye hi keci, bho, buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gatā dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gatā saṃghaṃ saraṇaṃ gatā sīlesu paripūrakārino te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā appekacce paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti, appekacce nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti, appekacce tusitānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti, appekacce yāmānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti, appekacce tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti, appekacce cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjanti.
For consider those who have gone for refuge to the Buddha, the teaching, and the Saṅgha, and have fulfilled their ethics. When their bodies break up, after death, some are reborn in the company of the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others, some with the Gods Who Love to Create, some with the Joyful Gods, some with the Gods of Yama, some with the Gods of the Thirty-Three, and some with the Gods of the Four Great Kings.
Ye sabbanihīnaṃ kāyaṃ paripūrenti, te gandhabbakāyaṃ paripūrentī”ti.
And at the very least they swell the hosts of the fairies.”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha;
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke.
imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhāsato ghosoyeva devā maññanti:
And while he was speaking on that topic, each of the gods fancied:
“yvāyaṃ mama pallaṅke svāyaṃ ekova bhāsatī”ti.
“The one sitting on my couch is the only one speaking.”
Ekasmiṃ bhāsamānasmiṃ,
When one is speaking,
sabbe bhāsanti nimmitā;
all the forms speak.
Ekasmiṃ tuṇhimāsīne,
When one sits in silence,
sabbe tuṇhī bhavanti te.
they all remain silent.
Tadāsu devā maññanti,
But those gods imagine—
tāvatiṃsā sahindakā;
the Thirty-Three with their Lord—
Yvāyaṃ mama pallaṅkasmiṃ,
that the one on their seat
svāyaṃ ekova bhāsatīti.
is the only one to speak.
Atha kho, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro ekattena attānaṃ upasaṃharati, ekattena attānaṃ upasaṃharitvā sakkassa devānamindassa pallaṅke pallaṅkena nisīditvā deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
The Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra merged into one corporeal form. Then he sat on the couch of Sakka, lord of gods, and addressed the gods of the Thirty-Three:

18.6 - Developing the Bases of Psychic Power


6. Bhāvitaiddhipāda
6. Developing the Bases of Psychic Power
“Taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāva supaññattā cime tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro iddhipādā paññattā iddhipahutāya iddhivisavitāya iddhivikubbanatāya.
“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the four bases of psychic power have been clearly described by the Blessed One—the one who knows and sees, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha—for the multiplication, generation, and transformation of corporeal forms through psychic power?
Katame cattāro?
What four?
Idha bho bhikkhu chandasamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti.
It’s when a mendicant develops the basis of psychic power that has undistractible-lucidity due to enthusiasm, and active effort.
Vīriyasamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti.
They develop the basis of psychic power that has undistractible-lucidity due to energy, and active effort.
Cittasamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti.
They develop the basis of psychic power that has undistractible-lucidity due to mental development, and active effort.
Vīmaṃsāsamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti.
They develop the basis of psychic power that has undistractible-lucidity due to inquiry, and active effort.
Ime kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro iddhipādā paññattā iddhipahutāya iddhivisavitāya iddhivikubbanatāya.
These are the four bases of psychic power that have been clearly described by the Buddha, for the multiplication, generation, and transformation of corporeal forms through psychic power.
Ye hi keci bho atītamaddhānaṃ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhosuṃ, sabbe te imesaṃyeva catunnaṃ iddhipādānaṃ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā.
All the ascetics and brahmins in the past,
Yepi hi keci bho anāgatamaddhānaṃ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhossanti, sabbe te imesaṃyeva catunnaṃ iddhipādānaṃ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā.
future,
Yepi hi keci bho etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhonti, sabbe te imesaṃyeva catunnaṃ iddhipādānaṃ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā.
or present who wield the many kinds of psychic power do so by developing and cultivating these four bases of psychic power.
Passanti no, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, mamapimaṃ evarūpaṃ iddhānubhāvan”ti?
Gentlemen, do you see such psychic might and power in me?”
“Evaṃ, mahābrahme”ti.
“Yes, Great Brahmā.”
“Ahampi kho bho imesaṃyeva catunnañca iddhipādānaṃ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā evaṃ mahiddhiko evaṃmahānubhāvo”ti.
“I too became so mighty and powerful by developing and cultivating these four bases of psychic power.”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha.
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke.
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsitvā deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
And having spoken about that, he addressed the gods of the Thirty-Three:

18.7 - The Three Openings

( Though not explicitly using the labels 4j🌕 , 7sb☀️ , vitakka/thinking, clearly 3 openings use the 7sb sequence of SN 46.3 and DN 2 (where samadhi sambojjhanga = 4 jhanas) )

7. Tividhaokāsādhigama
7. The Three Openings
“Taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāvañcidaṃ tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tayo okāsādhigamā anubuddhā sukhassādhigamāya.
“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the Buddha has understood the three opportunities for achieving happiness?
Katame tayo?
What three?

18.7.1 - (1) hear Dharma to escape lust, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana



Idha bho ekacco saṃsaṭṭho viharati kāmehi saṃsaṭṭho akusalehi dhammehi.
First, take someone who lives mixed up with sensual pleasures and unskillful qualities.
So aparena samayena ariyadhammaṃ suṇāti, yoniso manasi karoti, dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjati.
After some time they hear the noble teaching, properly attend to how it applies to them, and practice accordingly.
So ariyadhammassavanaṃ āgamma yonisomanasikāraṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipattiṃ asaṃsaṭṭho viharati kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭho akusalehi dhammehi.
They live aloof from sensual pleasures and unskillful qualities.
Tassa asaṃsaṭṭhassa kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭhassa akusalehi dhammehi uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
That gives rise to pleasure, and more than pleasure, happiness,
Seyyathāpi, bho, pamudā pāmojjaṃ jāyetha;
like the virtuous-mirth that’s born from experiencing mirth [derived by witnessing Dharmic virtue].
evameva kho, bho, asaṃsaṭṭhassa kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭhassa akusalehi dhammehi uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
Ayaṃ kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena paṭhamo okāsādhigamo anubuddho sukhassādhigamāya.
This is the first opportunity for achieving happiness.

18.7.2 - (2) hear Dharma to attain 4 jhanas, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana

( follow the word ‘passaddhi’ ( 5🌊 ) - the gradual cessation of them is the 4 jhanas in the 6 passadhis of SN 36.11)


Puna caparaṃ, bho, idhekaccassa oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā appaṭippassaddhā honti, oḷārikā vacīsaṅkhārā appaṭippassaddhā honti, oḷārikā cittasaṅkhārā appaṭippassaddhā honti.
Next, take someone whose coarse physical, verbal, and mental processes have not been pacified.
So aparena samayena ariyadhammaṃ suṇāti, yoniso manasi karoti, dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjati.
After some time they hear the teaching of the noble ones, properly attend to how it applies to them, and practice accordingly.
Tassa ariyadhammassavanaṃ āgamma yonisomanasikāraṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipattiṃ oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti, oḷārikā vacīsaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti, oḷārikā cittasaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti.
Their coarse physical, verbal, and mental processes are pacified.
Tassa oḷārikānaṃ kāyasaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā oḷārikānaṃ vacīsaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā oḷārikānaṃ cittasaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
That gives rise to pleasure, and more than pleasure, happiness,
Seyyathāpi, bho, pamudā pāmojjaṃ jāyetha;
like the joy that’s born from gladness.
evameva kho bho oḷārikānaṃ kāyasaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā oḷārikānaṃ vacīsaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā oḷārikānaṃ cittasaṅkhārānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
Ayaṃ kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dutiyo okāsādhigamo anubuddho sukhassādhigamāya.
This is the second opportunity for achieving happiness.

18.7.3 - (3) hear Dharma to differentiate kusala from akusala, uses 7sb to think about Dharma to arouse piti and sukha of first jhana

( This is describing how Dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga 2💭🕵️ works SN 46.2)


Puna caparaṃ, bho, idhekacco ‘idaṃ kusalan’ti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, ‘idaṃ akusalan’ti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti.
Next, take someone who doesn’t truly understand what is skillful and what is unskillful,
‘Idaṃ sāvajjaṃ idaṃ anavajjaṃ, idaṃ sevitabbaṃ idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ hīnaṃ idaṃ paṇītaṃ, idaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgan’ti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti.
what is blameworthy and what is blameless, what should be cultivated and what should not be cultivated, what is inferior and what is superior, and what is on the side of dark and the side of bright.
So aparena samayena ariyadhammaṃ suṇāti, yoniso manasi karoti, dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjati.
After some time they hear the teaching of the noble ones, properly attend to how it applies to them, and practice accordingly.
So ariyadhammassavanaṃ āgamma yonisomanasikāraṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipattiṃ, ‘idaṃ kusalan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘idaṃ akusalan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
They truly understand what is skillful and what is unskillful, and so on.
‘Idaṃ sāvajjaṃ idaṃ anavajjaṃ, idaṃ sevitabbaṃ idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ hīnaṃ idaṃ paṇītaṃ, idaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato avijjā pahīyati, vijjā uppajjati.
Knowing and seeing like this, ignorance is given up and knowledge arises.
Tassa avijjāvirāgā vijjuppādā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
That gives rise to pleasure, and more than pleasure, happiness,
Seyyathāpi, bho, pamudā pāmojjaṃ jāyetha;
like the joy that’s born from gladness.
evameva kho, bho, avijjāvirāgā vijjuppādā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ.
Ayaṃ kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tatiyo okāsādhigamo anubuddho sukhassādhigamāya.
This is the third opportunity for achieving happiness.
Ime kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tayo okāsādhigamā anubuddhā sukhassādhigamāyā”ti.
These are the three opportunities for achieving happiness that have been understood by the Buddha.”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha,
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke.
imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsitvā deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
And having spoken about that, he addressed the gods of the Thirty-Three:

18.8 - remembering Meditation


8. Catusatipaṭṭhāna
8. remembering Meditation
“Taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāva supaññattā cime tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro satipaṭṭhānā paññattā kusalassādhigamāya.
“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the Buddha has clearly described the four kinds of remembering meditation for achieving what is skillful?
Katame cattāro?
What four?
Idha, bho, bhikkhu ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
It’s when a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of the body internally—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
Ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharanto tattha sammā samādhiyati, sammā vippasīdati.
As they meditate in this way, they become rightly undistractify-&-lucidifyd in that, and rightly serene.
So tattha sammā samāhito sammā vippasanno bahiddhā parakāye ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti.
Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s bodies externally.
Ajjhattaṃ vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati … pe …
They meditate observing an aspect of feelings internally …
bahiddhā paravedanāsu ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti.
Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s feelings externally.
Ajjhattaṃ citte cittānupassī viharati … pe …
They meditate observing an aspect of the mind internally …
bahiddhā paracitte ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti.
Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s minds externally.
Ajjhattaṃ dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
They meditate observing an aspect of principles internally—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
Ajjhattaṃ dhammesu dhammānupassī viharanto tattha sammā samādhiyati, sammā vippasīdati.
As they meditate in this way, they become rightly undistractify-&-lucidifyd in that, and rightly serene.
So tattha sammā samāhito sammā vippasanno bahiddhā paradhammesu ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti.
Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s principles externally.
Ime kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro satipaṭṭhānā paññattā kusalassādhigamāyā”ti.
These are the four kinds of remembering meditation that the Buddha has clearly described for achieving what is skillful.”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha.
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke.
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsitvā deve tāvatiṃse āmantesi:
And having spoken about that, he addressed the gods of the Thirty-Three:

18.9 - Seven Prerequisites of undistractible-lucidity


9. Sattasamādhiparikkhāra
9. Seven Prerequisites of undistractible-lucidity
“Taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāva supaññattā cime tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena satta samādhiparikkhārā sammāsamādhissa paribhāvanāya sammāsamādhissa pāripūriyā.
“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the Buddha has clearly described the seven prerequisites of undistractible-lucidity for the development and fulfillment of right undistractible-lucidity?
Katame satta?
What seven?
Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati.
Right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right remembering.
Yā kho, bho, imehi sattahaṅgehi cittassa ekaggatā parikkhatā, ayaṃ vuccati, bho, ariyo sammāsamādhi saupaniso itipi saparikkhāro itipi.
Unification of mind with these seven factors as prerequisites is called noble right undistractible-lucidity ‘with its vital conditions’ and ‘with its prerequisites’.
Sammādiṭṭhissa, bho, sammāsaṅkappo pahoti, sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvācā pahoti, sammāvācassa sammākammanto pahoti. Sammākammantassa sammāājīvo pahoti, sammāājīvassa sammāvāyāmo pahoti, sammāvāyāmassa sammāsati pahoti, sammāsatissa sammāsamādhi pahoti, sammāsamādhissa sammāñāṇaṃ pahoti, sammāñāṇassa sammāvimutti pahoti.
Right view gives rise to right thought. Right thought gives rise to right speech. Right speech gives rise to right action. Right action gives rise to right livelihood. Right livelihood gives rise to right effort. Right effort gives rise to right remembering. Right remembering gives rise to right undistractible-lucidity. Right undistractible-lucidity gives rise to right knowledge. Right knowledge gives rise to right freedom.
Yañhi taṃ, bho, sammā vadamāno vadeyya:
So if anything should be rightly described as
‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi apārutā amatassa dvārā’ti idameva taṃ sammā vadamāno vadeyya.
‘a teaching that’s well explained by the Buddha, realizable in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves; and the doors to the deathless are flung open,’ it’s this.
Svākkhāto hi, bho, bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko, akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi apārutā amatassa dvārā.
For the teaching is well explained by the Buddha—realizable in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves—and the doors of the deathless are flung open.
Ye hi keci, bho, buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgatā, dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgatā, saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgatā, ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgatā, ye cime opapātikā dhammavinītā sātirekāni catuvīsatisatasahassāni māgadhakā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā.
Whoever has experiential confidence in the Buddha, the teaching, and the Saṅgha, and has the ethical conduct loved by the noble ones; and whoever is spontaneously reborn, and is trained in the teaching; in excess of 2,400,000 such Magadhan devotees have passed away having ended three fetters. They’re stream-enterers, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening.
Atthi cevettha sakadāgāmino.
And there are once-returners here, too.
Atthāyaṃ itarā pajā,
And as for other people
puññābhāgāti me mano;
who I think have shared in merit—
Saṅkhātuṃ nopi sakkomi,
I couldn’t even number them,
musāvādassa ottappan”ti.
for fear of speaking falsely.”

(conclusion)


Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro bhāsittha, imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhāsato vessavaṇassa mahārājassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi:
That is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke. And while he was speaking on that topic, this thought came to the great king Vessavaṇa:
“acchariyaṃ vata bho, abbhutaṃ vata bho, evarūpopi nāma uḷāro satthā bhavissati, evarūpaṃ uḷāraṃ dhammakkhānaṃ, evarūpā uḷārā visesādhigamā paññāyissantī”ti.
“It’s incredible, it’s amazing! That there should be such a magnificent Teacher, and such a magnificent exposition of the teaching! And that such achievements of high distinction should be made known!”
Atha, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro vessavaṇassa mahārājassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya vessavaṇaṃ mahārājānaṃ etadavoca:
And then Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra, knowing what the great king Vessavaṇa was thinking, said to him:
“taṃ kiṃ maññati bhavaṃ vessavaṇo mahārājā atītampi addhānaṃ evarūpo uḷāro satthā ahosi, evarūpaṃ uḷāraṃ dhammakkhānaṃ, evarūpā uḷārā visesādhigamā paññāyiṃsu.
“What does Great King Vessavaṇa think? In the past, too, there was such a magnificent Teacher, and such a magnificent exposition of the teaching! And such achievements of high distinction were made known!
Anāgatampi addhānaṃ evarūpo uḷāro satthā bhavissati, evarūpaṃ uḷāraṃ dhammakkhānaṃ, evarūpā uḷārā visesādhigamā paññāyissantī”ti.
In the future, too, there will be such a magnificent Teacher, and such a magnificent exposition of the teaching! And such achievements of high distinction will be made known!”
Imamatthaṃ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ abhāsi, imamatthaṃ vessavaṇo mahārājā brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ bhāsato sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ sayaṃ parisāyaṃ ārocesi’”.
That, sir, is the topic on which Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra spoke to the gods of the Thirty-Three. And the great king Vessavaṇa, having heard and learned it in the presence of Brahmā as he was speaking on that topic, informed his own assembly.’”
Imamatthaṃ janavasabho yakkho vessavaṇassa mahārājassa sayaṃ parisāyaṃ bhāsato sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ bhagavato ārocesi.
And the spirit Janavasabha, having heard and learned it in the presence of the great king Vessavaṇa as he was speaking on that topic to his own assembly, informed the Buddha.
Imamatthaṃ bhagavā janavasabhassa yakkhassa sammukhā sutvā sammukhā paṭiggahetvā sāmañca abhiññāya āyasmato ānandassa ārocesi, imamatthamāyasmā ānando bhagavato sammukhā sutvā sammukhā paṭiggahetvā ārocesi bhikkhūnaṃ bhikkhunīnaṃ upāsakānaṃ upāsikānaṃ.
And the Buddha, having heard and learned it in the presence of the spirit Janavasabha, and also from his own direct knowledge, informed Venerable Ānanda. And Venerable Ānanda, having heard and learned it in the presence of the Buddha, informed the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen.
Tayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitanti.
And that’s how this spiritual life has become successful and prosperous, extensive, popular, widespread, and well proclaimed wherever there are gods and humans.


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