4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → KN‍ → Pe    🔝

Pe 1 - Ariya-sacca-p-pakāsana-paṭhama-bhūmi: noble truth explanation, first ground
Pe 2 - Sāsana-paṭṭhāna-dutiya-bhūmi: [Buddha’s] Dispensation pattern, second ground
Pe 3 - Suttā-(a)dhiṭṭhāna-tatiya-bhūmi: Thread’s terms-of-expression, third ground
Pe 4 - Sutta-vicaya-catuttha-bhūmi: thread investigation, fourth ground
Pe 5 - Pañcama-bhūmi: fifth ground (16 modes of conveying)
Pe 6 - Sutta-t-thasamuccaya-bhūmi: thread compendium of meaning
Pe 7 - Hārasampāta-bhūmi: 16 modes of conveying in combined treatment
Pe 8 - Sutta-vebhaṅgiyaṃ: moulding of the guidelines

detailed TOC

 Pe 1 - Ariya-sacca-p-pakāsana-paṭhama-bhūmi: noble truth explanation, first ground
Pe 2 - Sāsana-paṭṭhāna-dutiya-bhūmi: [Buddha’s] Dispensation pattern, second ground
Pe 3 - Suttā-(a)dhiṭṭhāna-tatiya-bhūmi: Thread’s terms-of-expression, third ground
Pe 4 - Sutta-vicaya-catuttha-bhūmi: thread investigation, fourth ground
Pe 5 - Pañcama-bhūmi: fifth ground (16 modes of conveying)
Pe 6 - Sutta-t-thasamuccaya-bhūmi: thread compendium of meaning
Pe 7 - Hārasampāta-bhūmi: 16 modes of conveying in combined treatment
    Pe 7.1 - (first jhāna j1🌘 )
        Pe 7.1.1 - (rich section on V&V💭 , vitakka & vicara: 3 right thoughts are 2💭 )
        Pe 7.1.2 - (V&V example: vitakka sees person, vicara scrutinizes their sila)
        Pe 7.1.3 - (appana is not a frozen trance)
        Pe 7.1.4 - (V&V winged bird simile)
        Pe 7.1.5 - (V&V relationship to right/wrong resolves)
        Pe 7.1.6 - (V&V example: oral tradition of reciting vocally first requires V&V to contain thinking and evaluation)
        Pe 7.1.7 - (vicara needs to finish the job vitakka started)
        Pe 7.1.8 - (example: vitakka’s comprehension more superficial, vicara explores/dives deep into meaning)
        Pe 7.1.9 - (example (related to right effort), vitakka sets task, vicara finishes)
        Pe 7.1.10 - (first jhāna: what parts mental, physical)
    Pe 7.2 - (second jhāna j2🌗 )
    Pe 7.3 - (third jhāna j3🌖 )
    Pe 7.4 - (fourth jhāna j4🌕 )
    Pe 7.5 – (3 kinds of temperament)
Pe 8 - Sutta-vebhaṅgiyaṃ: moulding of the guidelines
Khuddaka-nikāya
.
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Peṭako-padesa-pāḷi : Pitaka disclosure

Derived from https://tipitaka.theravada.su/toc/translations/7736
B. Nanamoli English, CST pali
some passages modified by frankk‍

1 - Ariya-sacca-p-pakāsana-paṭhama-bhūmi: noble truth explanation, first ground

Namo sammāsambuddhānaṃ paramatthadassīnaṃ
1. Homage to the Fully Enlightened Ones, who see the ultimate meaning (aim),
Sīlādiguṇapāramippattānaṃ.
who have reached perfection in the qualities beginning with virtue.
1.Duve hetū duve paccayā sāvakassa sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya – parato ca ghoso saccānusandhi, ajjhattañca yoniso manasikāro.
2. There are two causes, two conditions, for the arising of a hearer's right view : they are another's utterance sequential upon truth, and reasoned attention in oneself (cf. A. i, 87).
Tattha katamo parato ghoso?
3. Herein, what is another's utterance?
Yā parato desanā ovādo anusāsanī saccakathā saccānulomo.
It is any teaching, advice, instruction, talk about truth, in conformity with truth, from another.
Cattāri saccāni – dukkhaṃ samudayo nirodho maggo.
The Truths are four : they are Suffering, Origin, Cessation, and the Path.
Imesaṃ catunnaṃ saccānaṃ yā desanā sandassanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkiriyā [uttānikiriyā (ka.)] pakāsanā – ayaṃ vuccati saccānulomo ghosoti.
Any teaching, showing, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, displaying (cf. M. iii, 248) these four Truths is called another's utterance in conformity with truth.
2.Tattha katamo ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro?
4. Herein, what is reasoned attention in oneself?
Ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro nāma yo yathādesite dhamme bahiddhā ārammaṇaṃ anabhinīharitvā yoniso manasikāro – ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.
What is called reasoned attention in oneself is any reasoned attention given to the True Idea as taught, without adducing 1 any external object ; this is called reasoned attention.
Taṃākāro yoniso dvāro vidhi upāyo.
That mood, when reasoned, is a door- way, a directive, a means (?).2
Yathā puriso sukkhe kaṭṭhe vigatasnehe sukkhāya uttarāraṇiyā thale abhimanthamānaṃ bhabbo jotissa adhigamāya.
Just as a man is capable of arriving at kindling when on dry ground he rubs a dry 3 sapless log with a dry upper fire-stick
Taṃ kissa hetu.
4. Why is that?
Yoniso aggissa adhigamāya.
Because of his arriving at fire with reasoning-
Evamevassa yamidaṃ dukkhasamudayanirodhamaggānaṃ aviparītadhammadesanaṃ manasikaroti – ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.
so too when he gives attention 6 to this teaching of the undistorted True Idea of Suffering, Origin, Cessation, and Path, this is called reasoned attention,
Yathā tisso upamā pubbe assutā ca assutapubbā ca paṭibhanti.
[occurring spontaneously] as the three similes [in the Maha-Saccaka Sutta] occurred [to the Bodhisatta] not having been previously heard, previously unheard, [by him].
Yo hi koci kāmesu avītarāgoti - pe - duve upamā ayoniso kātabbā pacchimesu vuttaṃ.
Now the [first] two [of the three] similes [beginning] "Whoever is not without lust for sensual desires" 6 must be treated as [applying to] unreasoned attention, but in the last 7 it is well 7 stated [for application to reasoned attention].
Tattha yo ca parato ghoso yo ca ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro – ime dve paccayā.
5. Herein, another's utterance and reasoned attention in oneself: these are the two conditions.
Parato ghosena yā uppajjati paññā – ayaṃ vuccati sutamayī paññā.
Understanding that arises owing to another's utterance is called understanding consisting in what is heard ;
Yā ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikārena uppajjati paññā – ayaṃ vuccati cintāmayī paññāti.
understanding that arises owing to reasoned attention in oneself is called understanding consisting in cogitation :
Imā dve paññā veditabbā.
these are the two kinds of understanding recognizable.
Purimakā ca dve paccayā.
And the two conditions [mentioned] first:
Ime dve hetū dve paccayā sāvakassa sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya.
these are the "two causes, two conditions,1 for the arising of a hearer's right view" (§ 2).
3.Tattha parato ghosassa saccānusandhissa desitassa atthaṃ avijānanto atthappaṭisaṃvedī bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
6. Herein, that one who does not cognize the meaning (aim) of another's utterance when taught sequential upon truth will be one who experiences the meaning (aim : see M. i, 37, 320): no such instance is found.
Na ca atthappaṭisaṃvedī yoniso manasikarissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
And that one who does not experience the meaning (aim) will give reasoned attention: no such instance is found.
Parato ghosassa saccānusandhissa desitassa atthaṃ vijānanto atthappaṭisaṃvedī bhavissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
But that one who cognizes the meaning of another's utterance when taught sequential upon truth will be one who experiences the meaning : such an instance is found.
Atthappaṭisaṃvedī ca yoniso manasikarissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
And that one who experiences the meaning will give reasoned attention : such an instance is found.
Esa hetu etaṃ ārammaṇaṃ eso upāyo sāvakassa niyyānassa, natthañño.
This is the cause, this is the object, this is the means, for the hearer's outlet, there is no other.
Soyaṃ na ca suttassa atthavijānanāya saha yutto nāpi ghosānuyogena parato ghosassa atthaṃ avijānantena sakkā uttarimanussadhammaṃ alamariyañāṇadassanaṃ adhigantuṃ, tasmā nibbāyitukāmena sutamayena atthā pariyesitabbā.
7. [If] this [hearing] is not conjoined with cognizing the Thread's meaning (aim), then by following only the sound of the utterance without cognizing the meaning of another's utterance no one can arrive at any more-than-human idea worthy of a Noble One's knowing and seeing. Therefore meanings must be sought by one desirous of attaining extinction [of lust, hate, and delusion].
Tattha pariyesanāya ayaṃ anupubbī bhavati soḷasa hārā, pañca nayā, aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.
[The Guide in the Search] 8. Herein, the consecutive order of the search is this : Sixteen Modes of Conveying, five Guide-Lines, and eighteen Root-Terms.
Tatthāyaṃ
Here is a mnemonic verse :
Soḷasahārā nettī, pañcanayā sāsanassa pariyeṭṭhi;
Sixteen Conveyings [as] a guide.1 Five Guide-Lines for the Dispensation's Search,
Aṭṭhārasamūlapadā, kaccāyanagottaniddiṭṭhā.
and eighteen Root-Terms [too], Kaccayanagotta demonstrated.2
4.Tattha katame soḷasahārā?
9. Herein, what are the sixteen Modes of Conveying?
Desanā vicayo yutti padaṭṭhānaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ catubyūho āvaṭṭo vibhatti parivattano vevacano paññatti otaraṇo sodhano adhiṭṭhāno parikkhāro samāropano – ime soḷasa hārā.
They are: 1. a Teaching, 2. an Investigation, 3. a Construing, 4. Footings, 5. Characteristics, 6. a Fourfold Array, 7. a Conversion, 8. an Analysis, 9. a Reversal, 10. Synonyros, 11. Descriptions, 12. Ways of Entry, 13. a Clearing up, 14. Terms of Expression, 15. Requisite, 16. Co-ordination. These are the sixteen Modes of Conveying.
Tattha uddānagāthā
Here is a mnemonic verse:
Desanā vicayo yutti, padaṭṭhāno ca lakkhaṇo [padaṭṭhānañca lakkhaṇaṃ (pī.)] ;
As Teaching, as Investigation, Construing, Footings, Characteristics,
Catubyūho ca āvaṭṭo, vibhatti parivattano.
Fourfold Array, and then Conversion, Analysis, Reversal too,
Vevacano ca paññatti, otaraṇo ca sodhano;
As Synonyms, and as Descriptions, As Ways of Entry, Clearing up,
Adhiṭṭhāno parikkhāro, samāropano soḷaso – [soḷasa hārā (pī. ka.)] ;
Expression, Requisites-fifteen- Co-ordination : sixteen Conveyings.1
5.Tattha katame pañca nayā?
10. Herein, what are the five Guide-Lines?
Nandiyāvaṭṭo tipukkhalo sīhavikkīḷito disālocano aṅkusoti.
They are: i. the Conversion of Relishing, ii. the Trefoil, iii. the Play of Lions, iv. the Plotting of Directions, v.the Hook.
Tattha uddānagāthā
Here is a mnemonic verse :
Paṭhamo nandiyāvaṭṭo, dutiyo ca tipukkhalo;
Reversal of Relishing comes first, 1 In second place the Trefoil follows, The
Sīhavikkīḷito nāma, tatiyo hoti so nayo.
Lions' Play is the name they give To the third Guide-Line,
Disālocanamāhaṃsu, catuttho nayalañjako;
and they named The fourth of Guide-Line formulas The Plotting of Directions,
Pañcamo aṅkuso nāma [pañcamaṃ aṅkusaṃ āhu (pī. ka.)], sabbe pañca nayā gatā.
then The Hook is what they call the fifth : That is how all five Guide-Lines go.
6.Tattha katamāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni?
11. Herein, what are the eighteen Root-Terms?
Avijjā taṇhā lobho doso moho subhasaññā sukhasaññā niccasaññā attasaññā samatho vipassanā alobho adoso amoho asubhasaññā dukkhasaññā aniccasaññā anattasaññā, imāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.
They are: Ignorance; Craving, Greed, Hate, Delusion; Perception of Beauty, Perception of Pleasure, Perception of Permanence, Perception of Self ; Quiet, Insight; Non-Greed, Non-Hate, Non-Delusion; Perception of Ugliness, Perception of Pain, Perception of Impermanence, Perception of Not-Self. These are the eighteen Root-Terms.
Tattha nava padāni akusalāni yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati.
Herein, nine terms are unprofitable, wherein all unprofit is collated (cf.§§ 468 ff., 1104 f., and 1113);
Nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati.
and nine terms are profitable, wherein all profit is collated (cf.§§ 490 ff., 1104 f., and 1113).
Katamāni nava padāni akusalāni yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati?
What are the nine unprofitable terms, wherein all unprofit is collated?
Avijjā yāva attasaññā, imāni nava padāni akusalāni, yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati.
Ignorance ... down to Perception of Self: these are the nine unprofitable terms, wherein all unprofit is collated.
Katamāni nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati?
What are the nine profitable terms, wherein all profit is collated?
Samatho yāva anattasaññā, imāni nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati.
Quiet ... down to Perception of Not-Self: these are the nine profitable terms, wherein all profit is collated.
Imāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.
These are the eighteen Root-Terms.
Tattha imā uddānagāthā
Here is a mnemonic verse :
Taṇhā ca avijjā lobho, doso tatheva moho ca;
The nine terms, Craving, Ignorance, And Greed, Hate, and Delusion too,
Cattāro ca vipallāsā, kilesabhūmi nava padāni.
And with as well Perversions four, Do constitute defilement's plane.
Ye ca satipaṭṭhānā samatho, vipassanā kusalamūlaṃ;
The nine terms, Mindfulness-Foundations, And Quiet and Insight, and the Roots Of Profit :
Etaṃ sabbaṃ kusalaṃ, indriyabhūmi navapadāni.
all this profit [here] Does constitute the faculties' plane.
Sabbaṃ kusalaṃ navahi padehi yujjati, navahi ceva akusalaṃ;
All profit by nine terms construed, And all unprofit too by nine :
Ekake nava mūlapadāni, ubhayato aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.
With nine Root-Terms for each of these, Both [sides thus total] eighteen terms.1
Imesaṃ aṭṭhārasannaṃ mūlapadānaṃ yāni nava padāni akusalāni, ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo; yāni nava padāni kusalāni, ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā.
12. Of these eighteen Root-Terms, the nine unprofitable terms are the Origin of Suffering, while the profitable terms are the Way Leading to Cessation of Suffering.
Iti samudayassa dukkhaṃ phalaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya nirodhaṃ phalaṃ.
And accordingly, the fruit of the Origin is Suffering, while the fruit of the Way Leading to Cessation of Suffering is Cessation.
Imāni cattāri ariyasaccāni bhagavatā bārāṇasiyaṃ desitāni.
These are the four noble Truths, which were taught by the Blessed One at Benares.
7.Tattha dukkhassa ariyasaccassa aparimāṇāni akkharāni padāni byañjanāni ākārāni niruttiyo niddesā desitā etassevatthassa saṅkāsanāya pakāsanāya vivaraṇāya vibhajanāya uttānīkammatāya paññāpanāyāti yā evaṃ sabbesaṃ saccānaṃ.
13. Herein, while the letters, the terms, the phrases, the moods, the language, and the demonstrations, of the Noble Truth of Suffering, are of ungauged measure (see A. ii, 182), they are taught nevertheless by an explaining, displaying, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, and describing, of that very meaning. And so of all the Truths.1
Iti ekamekaṃ saccaṃ aparimāṇehi akkharapadabyañjanaākāraniruttiniddesehi pariyesitabbaṃ, tañca byañjanaṃ atthaputhuttena pana attheva byañjanaputhuttena.
14. Accordingly each one of the Truths must be searched as to its letters, terms, phrases, moods, language, and demonstrations, of ungauged measure : the phrasing for variety of meaning, and also the meaning for variety of phrasing.
Yo hi koci samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā evaṃ vadeyya "ahaṃ idaṃ dukkhaṃ paccakkhāya aññaṃ dukkhaṃ paññapessāmī"ti tassa taṃ vācāvatthukamevassa pucchito ca na sampāyissati.
For ( were any monk or divine to say thus "Having rejected this Suffering, I shall describe another Suffering, that would have but his words for basis, and were he questioned, he could never substantiate it) (cf. S. v, 428).
Evaṃ saccāni.
Such are the Truths.
Yañca rattiṃ bhagavā abhisambuddho, yañca rattiṃ anupādāya parinibbuto, etthantare yaṃ kiñci bhagavatā bhāsitaṃ suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthā udānaṃ itivuttakaṃ jātakaṃ abbhutadhammaṃ vedallaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ.
15. And whatever Thread, Song, Prose-Exposition, Verse, Exclamation, Saying, Birth-Story, Marvellous-Idea, or Question-and-Answer, was uttered by the Blessed One between the night of his finding full enlightenment and the night of his attaining complete extinction is all the Wheel (Blessing) of the True Idea set rolling (made to occur) [by him] (cf. A. ii, 24).
Na kiñci buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ dhammadesanāya dhammacakkato bahiddhā, tassa sabbaṃ suttaṃ ariyadhammesu pariyesitabbaṃ.
Nor is there anything whatever of the teaching of the Enlightened Ones, the Blessed Ones, that is outside the Wheel (Blessing) of the True Idea. The whole of that Thread must be sought among the Noble Ideas.
Tattha pariggaṇhanāya ālokasabhāni cattāri ariyasaccāni thāvarāni imāni.
Herein, in the discerning [of the four Truths] there is the pentad 1 ending with "light" These four Noble Truths in detail 2 are as follows.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhaṃ?
[II. THE DISPLAY OF THE NOBLE TRUTHS 1. Schedule and Definitions i. the 4 Truths-Unshared] 16. [A] Herein, what is Suffering?
Jāti jarā byādhi maraṇaṃ saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
It is ( (1) Birth... (2) ageing ... (3) sickness ... (4) death ... ... (13) in short, the five categories for assuming are suffering) (S. v, 428; D. ii, 305).1
Tatthāyaṃ lakkhaṇaniddeso, pātubhāvalakkhaṇā jāti, paripākalakkhaṇā jarā, dukkhadukkhatālakkhaṇo byādhi, cutilakkhaṇaṃ maraṇaṃ, piyavippayogavipariṇāmaparitāpanalakkhaṇo soko, lālappanalakkhaṇo paridevo, kāyasampīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, cittasampīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ domanassaṃ, kilesaparidahanalakkhaṇo upāyāso, amanāpasamodhānalakkhaṇo appiyasampayogo, manāpavinābhāvalakkhaṇo piyavippayogo, adhippāyavivattanalakkhaṇo alābho, apariññālakkhaṇā pañcupādānakkhandhā, paripākacutilakkhaṇaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ, pātubhāvacutilakkhaṇaṃ cutopapatti, paṭisandhinibbattanalakkhaṇo samudayo, samudayaparijahanalakkhaṇo nirodho, anusayasamucchedalakkhaṇo maggo.
[a. Suffering's specific Characteristics-Unshared] 17. [A] Herein is a demonstration of its [specific] characteristics : (1) Birth has the characteristic of causing to be manifest (cf. § 469), (2) ageing the characteristic of overripening (cf. §§ 368-9), (3) sickness the characteristic of painfulness as pain (see § 64), (4) death the characteristic of decease, (5) sorrow the characteristic of change in and dissociation from the loved (cf. § 469), (6) lamentation the characteristic of constant crying out (cf.§ 469), (7) pain the characteristic of oppressing the body (§ 469), (8) grief the characteristic of oppressing cognizance(§ 469), (9) despair the characteristic of burning by defilement (cf. § 469), (10) association with the loathed the characteristic of meeting the disagreeable, (11) dissociation from the loved the characteristic of losing the agreeable, (12) not gaining [one's wish] the characteristic of frustration of purport, (13) the five categories for assuming have the characteristic of non-diagnosis (see §§ 22-34 for details). [b. Suffering's specific Characteristics-Shared] (14) Ageing-and-death has the characteristic of overripening and decease, (15) decease-and-reappearance has the characteristic of decease and manifestation 1 (see§§ 35-6 for details). [i. cont. 3 Remaining Truths, etc.-Unshared] 18. [B] Origin has the characteristic of making relinking occur 1 (see § 39 for details). [C] Cessation has the characteristic of abandoning origin 2 (see § 40 for details). [D] Path has the characteristic of severing underlying tendencies (see § 41 for details).
Byādhilakkhaṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, sañjānanalakkhaṇo samudayo, niyyānikalakkhaṇo maggo, santilakkhaṇo nirodho.
[ 4 Truths-Shared] 19. [ABCD] Suffering has the characteristic of sickness, Origin the characteristic of generating,1 Path the characteristic of being the outlet, and Cessation the characteristic of peace (see§ 42 for details).
Appaṭisandhibhāvanirodhalakkhaṇā anupādisesā nibbānadhātu, dukkhañca samudayo ca, dukkhañca nirodho ca, dukkhañca maggo ca, samudayo ca dukkhañca, samudayo ca nirodho ca, samudayo ca maggo ca, nirodho ca samudayo ca, nirodho ca dukkhañca, nirodho ca maggo ca, maggo ca nirodho ca, maggo ca samudayo ca, maggo ca dukkhañca.
20. And the extinction element witliout trace left has the characteristic of cessation consisting in non-relinking (see§ 43 for details). [ii. Miscellaneous Truths-Shared] 21. [AB] Suffering and Origin, [AC] Suffering and Cessation, [AD] Suffering and Path, [ABC] Suffering and Origin and Cessation, [ABD] Suffering and Origin and Path, [ADC] Suffering and Path and Cessation, [BC] Origin and Cessation, [BD] Origin and Path, [BCD] Origin and Cessation and Path, [CD] Cessation and Path (see§§ 49-58 for details).1
8.Tatthimāni suttāni.
Herein, the Threads are as follows.
"Yamekarattiṃ [jātaka 1 vīsatinipāte ayogharajātake] paṭhamaṃ, gabbhe vasati māṇavo;
[ 2. Illustrative Quotations i. the 4 Truths-Unshared [A] Suffering-Specific Characteristics(§ 16) a. Unshared] 22. (1) [As verse example:] ( Right from the first day a man Has been conceived inside a womb
Abbhuṭṭhitova so yāti, sa gacchaṃ na nivattatī"ti.
He cannot but go ever on, Nor going can he once turn back) (Ja.iv, 494),
Aṭṭhimā, ānanda, dānupapattiyo ekuttarike suttaṃ – ayaṃ jāti.
[and as prose example:] the Thread in the Ekuttarika, namely ( Ananda, there are these [eight] kinds of reappearance in taking [a new existence]) (A. iv, 239). This is birth.
Tattha katamā jarā?
23. (2) Herein, what is ageing?
Acaritvā [dha. pa. 155] brahmacariyaṃ, aladdhā yobbane dhanaṃ;
( Not having ever led a life divine Or riches gained in youth, pond) (Dh.
Jiṇṇakoñcāva jhāyanti, khīṇamaccheva pallale.
they meditate As do old lapwings 1 that have quite used up The [stock of]fishes [living] in their 155),
Pañca pubbanimittāni devesu – ayaṃ jarā.
[and] the Five Forewarning Signs [of death] among the gods (Iti. 76). This is ageing.
Tattha katamo byādhi?
24. (3) Herein, what is sickness?
Sāmaṃ tena kuto rāja, tuvampi jarāyanti vedesi;
(And therefore whence, o King, thyself Dost even thou feel " This is ageing"?
Khattiya kammassa phalo, loko na hi kammaṃ panayati.
o Warrior Noble, 'tis fruit of action, Because this world escapes not action ) (
Tayo gilānā – ayaṃ byādhi.
[and] (There are three kinds of sick) (cf. A. i, 120). This is sickness.
Tattha katamaṃ maraṇaṃ?
25. (4) Herein, what is death?
Yathāpi [dīghanikāye adholikhitagāthā] kumbhakārassa, kataṃ mattikabhājanaṃ;
Just as the pots of clay the potter makes,
Khuddakañca mahantañca, yaṃ pakkaṃ yañca āmakaṃ;
Though they be small or big or baked or raw,
Sabbaṃ bhedanapariyantaṃ, evaṃ maccāna jīvitaṃ.
All end in breakage : such is mortals' life) (D. ii, 120 ; cf. Sn.577),
Mamāyite passatha phandamāne [haññamāne (pī) passa su. ni. 783], maccheva appodake khīṇasote;
( See how they are stricken in the thing they love, like fishes in the puddles of a failing stream.
Etampi disvā amamo careyya, bhavesu āsattimakubbamāno.
Seeing this, let him wander without craving aught, And countenance no longing for existences) (Sn.777),
Udakappanasuttaṃ – idaṃ maraṇaṃ.
[and] the Udakappana Sutta (iti. 113-4).1 This is death.
Tattha katamo soko?
26. (5) Herein, what is sorrow?
Idha socati pecca socati, pāpakārī ubhayattha socati;
(He sorrows here, sorrows hereafter, In both wise sorrows the evil-doer ;
So socati so vihaññati, disvā kammakiliṭṭhamattano [kammakiliṭṭhaṃ atthano (pī.) passa dha. pa. 15].
He sorrows and he mourns to see What he with his own acts defiled) (Dh.15),
Tīṇi duccaritāni – ayaṃ soko.
[and] the three kinds of misconduct (iti. 54).1 This is sorrow.
Tattha katamo paridevo?
27. (6) Herein, what is lamentation?
Kāmesu [su. ni. 780] giddhā pasutā pamūḷhā, avadāniyā te visame niviṭṭhā;
( Those who in sensual desires have many a want, Are roger, rash and mean, dwell in unrighreousness;
Dukkhūpanītā paridevayanti, kiṃsu bhavissāma ito cutāse.
With suffering's intrusion on them, they lament : " Whatever will become of us after we die?") (Sn.774),
Tisso vipattiyo – ayaṃ paridevo.
[and] the three failures (A. i, 268). This is lamentation.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhaṃ?
28. (7) Herein, what is pain?
Sataṃ āsi ayosaṅkū [ayosaṅku (pī. ka.) passa theragā. 1197], sabbe paccattavedanā;
( Stakes of steel even a hundred, Each one suffered separately ) (M.i, 337),
Jalitā jātavedāva, accisaṅghasamākulā.
(Each one as 'twere burning, blazing, Spluttering with a mass 1 of flame ) ( ),
Mahā vata so pariḷāho [paridāgho (pī. ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 5.1113] saṃyuttake suttaṃ saccasaṃyuttesu – idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
[and] the Thread in the Sacca-Samyutta among the Samyuttas, namely (Great indeed is thatfever) 2 (S.v, 451). This is pain.
Tattha katamaṃ domanassaṃ?
29. (8) Herein, what is grief?
Saṅkappehi pareto [parato (ka.) passa su. ni. 824] so, kapaṇo viya jhāyati;
( At the mercy of his thoughts He meditates as does a miser ;
Sutvā paresaṃ nigghosaṃ, maṅku hoti tathāvidho.
When he hears how others blame him, Such a man will be abashed ) (Sn.818), [and]
Dveme tapanīyā dhammā – idaṃ domanassaṃ.
( There are these two ideas that cause regret) (Iti.30). This is grief.
Tattha katamo upāyāso?
30. (9) Herein, what is despair?
Kammārānaṃ yathā ukkā, anto ḍayhati no bahi;
( Just as a goldsmith's furnace burns Only within and not without) (cf. Ja. vi, 189, 437, 442),
Evaṃ ḍayhati me hadayaṃ, sutvā nibbattamambujaṃ.
( So too my heart is all afire, Hearing the Lotus has been born) ( ),
Tayo aggī – ayaṃ upāyāso.
[and] the three fires (iti.92). This is despair.
Tattha katamo appiyasampayogo?
31. (10) Herein, what is association with the loathed?
Ayasāva [dha. pa. 240] malaṃ samuṭṭhitaṃ, tatuṭṭhāya tameva khādati;
( As the rust-stain that grows out of the iron Devours the iron wherefrom it takes its growth,
Evaṃ atidhonacārinaṃ, sāni kammāni nayanti duggatiṃ.
So are led habitual transgressors By their own acts to a bad destination ) (§ 170 ; Dh. 240),
Dveme tathāgataṃ abbhācikkhanti, ekuttarike suttaṃ dukesu – ayaṃ appiyasampayogo.
[and] the Thread in the Twos of the Ekuttarika: (There are these two who misrepresent a Perfect One) (A.i, 59 f.).1 This is association with the loathed.
Tattha katamo piyavippayogo?
32. (11) Herein, what is dissociation from the loved?
Supinena yathāpi saṅgataṃ, paṭibuddho puriso na passati;
( Just as a man on waking sees no more Someone that he had met during a dream,
Evampi piyāyitaṃ [mamāyitaṃ (pī. ka.) passa su. ni. 813] janaṃ, petaṃ kālaṅkataṃ [kālakataṃ (pī.)] na passati.
So too no more the person loved he sees, Who passes onward when his time is up ) (Sn. 807),
Te devā cavanadhammaṃ viditvā tīhi vācāhi anusāsanti.
[and] (Those gods, knowing the True Idea, are instructed by means of the three statements) (Iti.76 ; § 23).
Ayaṃ piyavippayogo.
This is dissociation from the loved.
Yampicchaṃ na labhati, tisso māradhītaro;
33. (12) Not to get one's wish? [and] Mara's three daughters (S.i, 124).1
Tassa ce kāmayānassa [kāmayamānassa (ka.) passa su. ni. 773], chandajātassa jantuno;
( Desire-borne and wilful,
Te kāmā parihāyanti, sallaviddhova ruppati.
if his desires elude him, He becomes as deformed as if pierced by a barb) (Sn. 767),1
Saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
34. (13) In short, the five categories for assuming are suffering.
Cakkhu sotañca ghānañca, jivhā kāyo tato manaṃ;
( The eye, the ear, also the nose, The tongue, the body, and the mind) (Iti.28-9),1
Ete lokāmisā ghorā, yattha sattā puthujjanā.
(And these are the dread world-stuff [here], Whereto cling ordinary men ) ( ),
Pañcime bhikkhave khandhā – idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these five categories) (S. iii, 160 f.). This is suffering.
Tattha katamā jarā ca maraṇañca?
[b. Characteristics Shared] 35. (14) What is ageing-and-death?
Appaṃ vata jīvitaṃ idaṃ, oraṃ vassasatāpi mīyate [mīyati (su. ni. 810)] ;
( Short is this life indeed, one dies Within a century of years ;
Atha vāpi akicchaṃ jīvitaṃ, atha kho so jarasāpi mīyate.
Or even if life flows untroubled, Still of old age one dies at last) (cf. Sn.804),
Saṃyuttake pasenadisaṃyuttake suttaṃ ayyikā me kālaṅkatā – ayaṃ jarā ca maraṇañca.
[and] the Pasenadi Samyutta Thread in the Samyutta: (My lady is dead ) (S. i, 97). This is ageing-and-death.
Tattha katamā cuti ca upapatti ca?
36. (15) Herein, what is decease-and-reappearance?
"Sabbe sattā marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ;
( All creatures will [most surely] die Because the end of life is death.
Yathākammaṃ gamissanti, attakammaphalūpagā"ti [puññapāpaphalūpagāti (saṃ. ni. 1.133)]. –
According to their acts they go Reaping the fruit of their own acts ) (cf. S.i, 97).1
Ayaṃ cuti ca upapatti ca.
This is decease-and-reappearance.
Imehi suttehi ekasadisehi ca aññehi navavidhaṃ suttaṃ taṃ anupaviṭṭhehi lakkhaṇato dukkhaṃ ñatvā sādhāraṇañca asādhāraṇañca dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ niddisitabbaṃ.
37. [A] The Noble Truth of Suffering can be demonstrated as shared (§§ 35-6) and as unshared (§§ 22-34), knowing suffering as to [its specific] characteristics, [doing so] by means of these Threads and by means of others contained in the ninefold Thread 1 that are similar to each 2 [respectively].
Gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇehi vā byākaraṇaṃ – idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
38. Verse should be assessed by verses, prose-exposition should be assessed by prose-expositions (cf. §§ 13-15). This is Suffering (see§§ 16-17).
9.Tattha katamo dukkhasamudayo?
[i. cont.-the Remaining Truths, etc, Unshared] 39. [B] Herein, what is the Origin of Suffering (§ 18)?
Kāmesu sattā kāmasaṅgasattā [kāmapasaṅgasattā (pī.) passa udā. 63], saṃyojane vajjamapassamānā;
(Clung to desires, clung with sensual clinging,1 Seeing nothing blameworthy in fetters, .
Na hi jātu saṃyojanasaṅgasattā, oghaṃ tareyyuṃ vipulaṃ mahantaṃ.
Assuredly those clung with fetter-clinging 1 Will never cross the vast abounding flood ) ( Ud 75),
Cattāro āsavā suttaṃ – ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo.
[and] a Thread dealing with the four taints (D. ii, 81). This is the Origin of Suffering.
Tattha katamo dukkhanirodho?
40. [C] Herein, what is Cessation of Suffering?
Yamhi na māyā vasatī na māno,
( In whom deceit dwells not nor yet conceit,
Yo vītalobho amamo nirāso,
Greedless, unneeding, and unhankering,
Panuṇṇakodho [panunnakodho (pī.) passa udā. 26] abhinibbutatto;
With anger quenched, extinguished in himself,
So brāhmaṇo so samaṇo sa bhikkhu.
He is a divine, he is a monk, a bhikkhu) (cf.Ud.29),
Dvemā vimuttiyo, rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti; avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti – ayaṃ nirodho.
[and] (There are these two kinds of deliverance: heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance) (A.i, 61). This is Cessation.
Tattha katamo maggo?
41. [D] Herein, what is the Path (§ 18)?
Eseva maggo natthañño, dassanassa visuddhiyā;
(This is the only path, no other, For the purification of seeing) (Dh.274),
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, mārassetaṃ pamohanaṃ.
The Noble Eight-Factored Path; 1 (It is the bewilderment of Mara) (Dh.274),
Sattime, bhikkhave, bojjhaṅgā – ayaṃ maggo.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, tliere are these seven enlightenment factors) (S. v, 77). This is the Path.
Tattha katamāni cattāri ariyasaccāni?
42. [ABCD] Herein, what are the four Noble Truths(§ 19)? 1
"Ye dhammā [mahāva. 60] hetuppabhavā, tesaṃ hetuṃ tathāgato āha;
( Ideas that draw their being from a cause, Their cause a Perfect One has told
Tesañca yo nirodho, evaṃvādī mahāsamaṇo"ti.
And their cessation too: Such is tlie Great Monk's doctrine) (Vin. i, 40).
Hetuppabhavā dhammā dukkhaṃ, hetusamudayo, yaṃ bhagavato vacanaṃ.
[Now here] the "ideas that draw their being from a cause" are [A] Suffering, the cause is [B] Origin, the Blessed One's statement
Ayaṃ dhammo yo nirodho, ye hi keci saṃyojaniyesu dhammesu assadānupassino viharanti.
[D] the Path, 2 [and] that [statement is also] [C] Cessation. [And] ( Whoever they are that abide contemplating gratification in ideas provocative of fetters,
Kilesā taṇhā pavaḍḍhati, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ - pe - evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
their craving as defilement increases ; with craving as condition assuming ; ... that is how there is an arising to this whole category of suffering... ) (A. i, 50-1).
Tattha yaṃ saṃyojanaṃ – ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, any fetter is [B] Origin ;
Ye saṃyojaniyā dhammā ye ca sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti – idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
any ideas provocative of fetters, and any sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief and despair are [A] Suffering;
Yā saṃyojaniyesu dhammesu ādīnavānupassanā – ayaṃ maggo.
any contemplation of ( disappointment ) in ideas provocative of fetters is [DJ the Path;
Parimuccati jātiyā jarāya byādhīhi maraṇehi sokehi paridevehi yāva upāyāsehi – idaṃ nibbānaṃ.
that (lie is freed from birth,from ageing,from sickness, from deaths, from sorrows, from lamentations, ... down to ... from despairs) (A. i, 51) is [C] Extinction.
Imāni cattāri saccāni.
These are the four Truths.
Tattha katamā anupādisesā nibbānadhātu?
43. Herein, what is the Extinction Element Without Trace Left (§ 20)?
Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi, taṃ hi vā natthi yena naṃ paññapeyya;
1 ( Of one who has gone out there is no equal ; 2 That whereby one might word him there is not :
Sabbasaṅgānaṃ samūhatattā vidū, sitā vādasatassu [vādasatassa (pī. ka.)] sabbe.
With all ideas' obliteratedness Obliterated too are ways of wording) 3 (cf. Sn. 1076),
Saṃyuttake godhikasaṃyuttaṃ.
[and] the Godhika Samyutta (S. i, 120) in the Samyutta.
Imāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni.
These are the unshared Threads (see§§ 16-20).4
Yahiṃ yahiṃ saccāni niddiṭṭhāni, tahiṃ tahiṃ saccalakkhaṇato otāretvā [ohāretvā (pī. ka.)] aparimāṇehi byañjanehi so attho pariyesitabbo.
44. Wherever the Truths are demonstrated, there the meaning can, by finding the way of entry 1 from the Truth-characteristic, be sought from the phrases of ungauged measure,
Tattha atthānuparivatti byañjanena puna byañjanānuparivatti atthena tassa ekamekassa aparimāṇāni byañjanāni imehi suttehi yathānikkhittehi cattāri ariyasaccāni niddisitabbāni.
[doing so] by means of phrasing that has parallel occurrence with (conforms to) the meaning and again by means of meaning that has parallel occurrence with (conforms to) the phrasing there: while the phrasings of each [Truth] are of ungauged measure, the four Noble Truths can nevertheless be demonstrated by Threads according as they are presented (see§§ 13-14 and 187).
Pañcanikāye anupaviṭṭhāhi gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇena byākaraṇaṃ.
45. Verse should be assessed by verses included in the Five Collections 1 and prose-exposition by prose-expositions (cf. § 38).
Imāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni.
46. These are the Unshared Threads.
Tesaṃ imā uddānagāthā
(12] Here is a mnemonic verse for them :
Yamekarattiṃ paṭhamaṃ, aṭṭha dānūpapattiyo;
47. Right from the first day a man, Eight reappearances by taking (§ 22) ;
Pañca pubbanimittāni, khīṇamacchaṃva pallalaṃ.
The five kinds of forewarning signs, The fishes in their pond used up (§ 23);
Sāmaṃ tena kuto rāja, tayo devā gilānakā;
(1) And therefore whence, o King, thyself,1 There are three kinds of ailing gods(§ 24);
Yathāpi kumbhakārassa, yathā nadidakappanaṃ.
Just as the pots of clay the potter, Just as the Nadikappana 2 Sutta (§ 25) ;
Idha socati pecca socati, tīṇi duccaritāni ca;
(2) He sorrows here, sorrows hereafter, And there are three kinds of misconduct (§ 26) ;
Kāmesu giddhā pasutā, yāva tisso vipattiyo.
Those who want many sense-desires, And the three kinds of failure, too(§ 27);
Sataṃ āsi [satamāyu (sī.), satadhātu (pī.)] ayosaṅkū, pariḷāho mahattaro;
(3) Stakes of steel even a hundred, 3 And then the fever vast to cross (§ 28) ;
Saṅkappehi pareto so, tattha tapaniyehi ca.
And at the mercy of his thoughts, And likewise those that cause regret (§ 29);
Kammārānaṃ yathā ukkā, tayo aggī pakāsitā;
(4) Just as the goldsmith's furnace burns, And the three fires that are displayed 4 (§ 30);
Ayato malamuppannaṃ, abbhakkhānaṃ tathāgate.
The rust-stain that grows out of iron, Misrepresenting Perfect Ones (§ 31);
Tividhaṃ devānusāsanti, supinena saṅgamo yathā;
(5) Gods are instructed in three ways, And like a meeting in a dream(§ 32);
Tisso ceva māradhītā, sallaviddhova ruppati.
And mara's daughters three as well, Pierced by a barb he is deformed(§ 33) ;
Cakkhu sotañca ghānañca, pañcakkhandhā pakāsitā;
(6) The eye, the ear, the nose besides, Five categories are displayed(§ 34) ;
Appaṃ vata jīvitaṃ idaṃ, ayyikā me mahallikā.
Short is this life indeed one dies, My lady Mallika 5 has died (§ 35);
Sabbe sattā marissanti, upapatti cuticayaṃ;
(7) All creatures will [ most surely] die, Which is decease-and-reappearance (§ 36);
Kāmesu sattā pasutā, āsavehi catūhi ca.
They muchly cling to sense-desires, And then with the four taints as well (§ 39) ;
Yamhi na māyā vasati, dvemā cetovimuttiyo;
(8) In whom deceit dwells not at all, And two sorts of deliverance (§ 40) ;
Eseva maggo natthañño, bojjhaṅgā ca sudesitā.
This is the only path no other, Enlightenment factors well taught (§ 41) ;
Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi, godhiko parinibbuto;
(9) Ideas whose being has a cause, And those who fetters contemplate (§ 42) ; 6
Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā, saṃyojanānupassino.
Of one gone out there is no equal, Godhika has attained extinction (§ 43).6
Imā dasa tesaṃ uddānagāthā.
(10) These are the ten mnemonic verses for them.
10.Tatthimāni sādhāraṇāni suttāni yesu suttesu sādhāraṇāni saccāni desitāni anulomampi paṭilomampi vomissakampi.
[ii. Miscellaneous Truths-Shared (see§ 21)] 48. Herein, there are [also] these shared Threads, in which Threads Truths shared forwards and backwards and in mixed fashion are taught.
Tattha ayaṃ ādi.
49. [AB] Herein, the beginning is this (see§ 21) :
Avijjāya nivuto loko, [ajitāti bhagavā]
( By ignorance is the world shut in,
Vivicchā pamādā nappakāsati;
'Tis undisplayed through miswishing and neglect,
Jappābhilepanaṃ [jappānulepanaṃ (ka.) passa su. ni. 1039] brūmi, dukkhamassa mahabbhayaṃ.
And hankering smears it, I say; Suffering is its greatest fear) (Sn. 1033).
Tattha yā avijjā ca vivicchā ca, ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, the "ignorance" and " miswishing " are [B] Origin,
Yaṃ mahabbhayaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
the "greatest fear" is [A] Suffering.
Imāni dve saccāni – dukkhañca samudayo ca.
These are the two Truths of Suffering and Origin.
"Saṃyojanaṃ saṃyojaniyā ca dhammā"ti saṃyuttake cittasaṃyuttakesu byākaraṇaṃ.
[And] the prose-exposition in the Citta-Samyutta in the Samyutta, namely (Fetter and ideas provocative of fetters ) (S.iv, 281).
Tattha yaṃ saṃyojanaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, the " fetter " is [B] Origin
Ye saṃyojaniyā dhammā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
and the " ideas provocative of fetters " are [A] Suffering..
Imāni dve saccāni – dukkhañca samudayo ca.
These are the two Truths of Suffering and Origin.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca nirodho ca?
50. [AC] Herein, what is Suffering and Cessation?
Ucchinnabhavataṇhassa, netticchinnassa [santacittassa (su. ni. 751)] bhikkhuno;
( When a bhikkhu' s craving for being is severed and his guide-leash cut,
Vikkhīṇo jātisaṃsāro, natthi dāni punabbhavo.
Exhausted is his round of births, His being now is unrenewed) (cf.Iti.94; Ud.46; Sn.746).
Yaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Herein, the cognizance is [A] Suffering ;
Yo bhavataṇhāya upacchedo, ayaṃ dukkhanirodho.
the severance of craving for being is [C] Cessation,
Vikkhīṇo jātisaṃsāro, natthi dāni punabbhavoti niddeso.
of which [the words] "Exhausted is his round of births, His being now is unrenewed " are the demonstration.
Imāni dve saccāni – dukkhañca nirodho ca.
These are the two Truths of Suffering and Cessation.
Dvemā, bhikkhave, vimuttiyo; rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti, avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, there are these two kinds of deliverance: heartdeliverance due to fading of lust and understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance) (§ 40).
Yaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
The cognizance [here] is [A] Suffering,
Yā vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho.
and the deliverance is [C] Cessation.1
Imāni dve saccāni – dukkhañca nirodho ca.
These are the two Truths of Suffering and Cessation.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca?
51. [AD] Herein, what is Suffering and Path?
Kumbhūpamaṃ [dha. pa. 40] kāyamimaṃ viditvā, nagarūpamaṃ cittamidaṃ ṭhapetvā;
( Seeing the body [as frail] as 'twere a jar, 1 Fortifying the heart as 'twere the town,
Yodhetha māraṃ paññāvudhena, jitañca rakkhe anivesano siyā.
Fight Mara with the sword of understanding ; While holding what is won, be unattached) (Dh.40).
Tattha yañca kumbhūpamo kāyo yañca nagarūpamaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Herein, the body in the figure of a " jar " 1 and the heart in the figure of" the town" are [A] Suffering.
Yaṃ paññāvudhena māraṃ yodhethāti ayaṃ maggo.
The [injunction] to "fight Mara with the sword of understanding " is [D] the Path.
Imāni dve saccāni.
These are two Truths.
Yaṃ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṃ, taṃ pajahitabbaṃ.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, what is not yours should be abandoned) (M.i, 140).
Yā saṃyojanā, ayaṃ maggo.
The abandoning 2 is [D] the Path,
Ye te dhammā anattaniyā pahātabbā, rūpaṃ yāva viññāṇaṃ, idaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca.
and the ideas pertaining to self that are to be abandoned, namely " form " down to " consciousness", [are [A] Suffering]. 8 This is Suffering and the Path.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca samudayo ca nirodho ca?
52. [ABC] Herein, what is Suffering and Origin and Oessation?
Ye keci sokā paridevitā vā, dukkhā ca [dukkhañca (pī. ka.) passa udā. 70] lokasmimanekarūpā;
( Whatever sorrows, lamentations, pain Of many kinds, are found here in the world :
Piyaṃ paṭiccappabhavanti ete, piye asante na bhavanti ete.
That they exist is owed to something dear ; With naught held dear they never come to be) (Ud.92).
Ye sokaparidevā, yaṃ ca anekarūpaṃ dukkhaṃ, yaṃ pemato bhavati, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
The " sorrows, lamentations and pain of many kinds " owed to love are [A] Suffering.
Yaṃ pemaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo.
The love is [B] Origin.
Yo tattha chandarāgavinayo piyassa akiriyā, ayaṃ nirodho.
The outguiding of will and lust therefore and their nullification is [C] Cessation.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni.
These are three Truths.
Timbaruko paribbājako pacceti "sayaṃkataṃ paraṃkata"nti.
[And] (The Wanderer Timbaruka) 1 (S. ii, 22) has recourse 1 to [the two extremes, namely that pleasure and pain are] (made by oneself) [or] (made by another) (S.ii, 22);
Yathesā vīmaṃsā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
what this inquiry is about is [A] Suffering.
Yā ete dve ante anupagamma majjhimā paṭipadā avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā yāva jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ, idampi dukkhañca samudayo ca.
[And the reply, namely] (Without adopting these two extremes, there is a middle way: With ignarance as condition, determinations; ...down to ... with birth as condition, ageing-and-death) (S.ii, 23): this is [A] Suffering too and it is [B] Origin ;
Viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ phasso vedanā bhavo jāti jarāmaraṇaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
for the " consciousness, name-and-form, six bases, contact, feeling, being, birth, and ageing-and-death" there are [A] Suffering,
Avijjā saṅkhārā taṇhā upādānaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo.
while the " ignorance, determinations, craving, and assuming " there are [B] Origin :
Iti idaṃ sayaṃkataṃ vīmaṃseyyāti [vīmaṃsīyati (pī. ka.)] yañca paṭiccasamuppāde dukkhaṃ, idaṃ eso samudayo niddiṭṭho.
so this is the " made by oneself" that is being inquired about,2 and [so] what in Dependent Arising is not 3 [A] Suffering is demonstrated as [B] Origin.
Avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho ca yāva ca jarāmaraṇanirodhoti ayaṃ nirodho.
( With cessation of ignarance, cessation of determinations ; ... down to ... cessation of ageing-and-death) (cf.S.ii, 23) is [C] Cessation.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni dukkhañca samudayo ca nirodho ca.
These are the three Truths of Suffering, Origin, and Cessation.
11.Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca samudayo ca maggo ca?
53. [ABD] Herein, what is Suffering and Origin and Path?
"Yo dukkhamaddakkhi [saṃ. ni. 1.157] yatonidānaṃ, kāmesu so jantu kathaṃ nameyya;
( How could a man to sense-desires stoop Who has seen pain and tliat wherefrom it sources?
Kāmā hi loke saṅgāti ñatvā, tesaṃ satīmā vinayāya sikkhe"ti.
Who knows they make for needing in the world Should mindful train in guiding them away) (cf.S.i, 117).
Yo dukkhamaddakkhi, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
"Who has seen pain": this is [A] Suffering.
Yato bhavati, ayaṃ samudayo.
That wherefrom it comes to be is [B] Origin.
Sandiṭṭhaṃ yato bhavati yāva tassa vinayāya sikkhā, ayaṃ maggo.
The seeing whence it comes to be down to " should train in guiding it away " is [D] is the Path.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni.
This is three Truths.
Ekādasaṅguttaresu gopālakopamasuttaṃ.
[And] the Thread in the Cattle-Herd Simile, in the Elevens of the Anguttara (A. v, 347).
Tattha yāva rūpasaññuttā yañca saḷāyatanaṃ yathā vaṇaṃ paṭicchādeti yañca titthaṃ yathā ca labhati dhammūpasañhitaṃ uḷāraṃ pītipāmojjaṃ catubbidhaṃ ca attabhāvato ca vatthu, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Herein, any 1 state of a "perceiver of form" (A. v, 351, 1. 8), and the "sixfold base" (A. v, 351, 1. 24), and how he" covers up wounds" (A. v, 352, I. 3), and the" watering-place " (A. v, 352, l. 16), and how he attains the "rare happiness and gladness associated with the True Idea " (A. v, 352, 1. 18), and the " fourfold basis of selfhood " (A. v, 352, 1. 27 = 4 Foundations of Mindfulness): these are [A] Suffering.
Yāva āsāṭikaṃ hāretā [sāṭetā (sī. pī.) passa aṅguttaranikāye] hoti, ayaṃ samudayo.
In so far as he is [not] a " picker-out of grubs " (A. v, 351, 1. 22), this is [B] Origin.
Rūpasaññuttā āsāṭakaharaṇaṃ [āsāṭikasāṭanā (pī.)] vaṇapaṭicchādanaṃ vīthiññutā gocarakusalañca, ayaṃ maggo.
The state of a " perceiver of form ", the " picking out of grubs ", the "covering up of wounds", the" knowledge of the road" (A. v, 352, I. 25), and the "skill in pastures" (A. v, 352, l. 29) : these are [D] the Path.
Avasesā dhammā atthi hetū atthi paccayā atthi nissayā sāvasesadohitā anekapūjā ca kalyāṇamittatappaccayā dhammā vīthiññutā ca hetu, imāni tīṇi saccāni.
The remaining ideas are presence-causes, presence-condition, presence-supports, since the state of a "milker who leaves some [for the calf]" (A. v, 353, I. 1) and the" extra offerings" (A. v, 353, l. 12) are ideas that are conditions for good-friendship, while the "knowledge of the road [as the eight-factored path]" is the cause [for attaining extinction]. This is three Truths.
Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca nirodho ca?
54. [ADC] Herein, what is Suffering and Path 1 and Cessation?
Sati kāyagatā upaṭṭhitā, chasu phassāyatanesu saṃvuto [saṃvaro (pī. ka.) passa udā. 25] ;
(Mindfulness-turned-to-the-body being established, A bhikkhu, when restrained in the six bases For contact,
Satataṃ bhikkhu samāhito, jaññā [jāneyya (pī. ka.)] nibbānamattano.
and when always concentrated, Can come to know extinction in himself) (Ud.28).
Tattha yā ca kāyagatā sati yañca saḷāyatanaṃ yattha sabbañcetaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Herein, there is the mindfulness occupied with the body, and the sixfold base wherein 2 All (see S.iv, 17) are [A] Suffering.
Yā ca kāyagatā sati yo ca sīlasaṃvaro yo ca samādhi yattha yā sati, ayaṃ paññākkhandho.
The mindfulness-occupied-with-the-body and the restraint-consisting-in- virtue and the concentration there whereon the mindfulness is [established] :
Sabbampi sīlakkhandho samādhikkhandho, ayaṃ maggo.
these are the understanding category ; and that and the virtue category and the concentration category are [D] the Path.
Evaṃvihārinā ñātabbaṃ nibbānaṃ.
The extinction knowable by one who abides
Ayaṃ nirodho, imāni tīṇi saccāni.
thus is [C] Cessation. This is three Truths.
Sīle patiṭṭhāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā samatho ca vipassanā ca.
[And] ( Two ideas slwulii be kept in being by one established in virtue : they are quiet and insight) (cf. A. i, 100).
Tattha yaṃ cittasahajātā dhammā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Herein, the ideas conascent with cognizance are [A] Suffering.
Yo ca samatho yā ca vipassanā, ayaṃ maggo.
The quiet and the insight are [D] the Path.
Rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti, avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti, ayaṃ nirodho.
The heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance are [C] Cessation.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni.
This is three Truths.
Tattha katamo samudayo ca nirodho ca?
55. [BC] Herein, what is Origin and Cessation?
Āsā ca pīhā abhinandanā ca, anekadhātūsu sarā patiṭṭhitā;
( Yearning, longing, expectant-relishing, Enticements on the several elements based,
Aññāṇamūlappabhavā pajappitā, sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikā.
Hankering, 1 whose being is rooted in unknowing: To all that with its root I put an end) (cf.S. i, 181).
Aññāṇamūlappabhavāti purimakehi samudayo.
" Whose being is rooted in unknowing " with what precedes it is [B] Origin.
Sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikāti nirodho.
" To all that with its root I put an end " is [C] Cessation.
Imāni dve saccāni.
This is two Truths.
Catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
[And] It is through not diseovering, not penetrating, four ideas) (A. iv, 105) can be quoted in detail
Ariyassa sīlassa samādhino paññāya vimuttiyā.
with respect to the Noble Ones' virtue, concentration, understanding, and deliverance.
Tattha yo imesaṃ catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, the non-discovery, non-penetration, of these four ideas is [B] Origin.
Paṭivedho bhavanettiyā, ayaṃ nirodho.
The penetration of the guide-to-being is [C] Cessation.
Ayaṃ samudayo ca nirodho ca.
Tattha katamo samudayo ca maggo ca?
56. [BD] Herein, what is Origin and Path?
Yāni [su. ni. 1041] sotāni lokasmiṃ, [ajitāti bhagavā]
( Whatever streams are in the world,
Sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;
They are shut off by mindfulness ;
Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhīyare.
The streams' restraint I tell, whereby They can be sealed, is understanding) (Sn. 1035).
Yāni sotānīti ayaṃ samudayo.
Whatever streams " is [B] Origin.
Yā ca paññā yā ca sati nivāraṇaṃ pidhānañca, ayaṃ maggo.
The understanding and the mindfulness as shutting off and sealing are [D] the Path.
Imāni dve saccāni.
This is two Truths.
Sañcetaniyaṃ suttaṃ daḷhanemiyānākāro chahi māsehi niddiṭṭho.
[And] The Sancetaniya Sutta :1 Dalhanemi (Firm-hub) the wheel- right demonstrated by the six months [for making one pair of chariot wheels in] (see A. i, 110 ff.).
Tattha yaṃ kāyaṃ kāyakammaṃ savaṅkaṃ sadosaṃ sakasāvaṃ yā savaṅkatā sadosatā sakasāvatā, ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, the bodily action with crookedness, with flaws, with faults, the having crookedness, having flaws, having faults (A.i, 112-13), are [B] Origin;
Evaṃ vacīkammaṃ manokammaṃ avaṅkaṃ adosaṃ akasāvaṃ, yā avaṅkatā adosatā akasāvatā, ayaṃ maggo.
and likewise with the verbal action and mental action (A. i, 112-13). Then there is the uncrooked, flawless, faultless ; the uncrookedness, the flawlessness, the faultlessness, are [D] the Path.
Evaṃ vacīkammaṃ manokammaṃ.
Imāni dve saccāni samudayo ca maggo ca.
These are the two Truths of Origin and Path..
Tattha katamo samudayo ca nirodho ca maggo ca?
57. [BCD] Herein, what is Origin and Cessation and Path?
"Nissitassa calitaṃ, anissitassa calitaṃ natthi, calite asati passaddhi, passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti, natiyā asati [asatiyā (pī.) passa udā. 74] āgatigati na hoti, āgatigatiyā asati cutūpapāto na hoti, cutūpapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena.
( The supported is liable to dislodgement. The unsupported is not liable to dislodgement. When there is no liability to dislodgement, there is tranquillity. When there is tranquillity, there is no bent-for-naming. When there is no bent-for-naming, there is no-coming-and-going. When there is no coming-and-going, there is no decease-and-reappearance. When there is no decease-and-reappearance, there is no here or beyond or in-between.
Esevanto dukkhassā"ti.
This is the end of suffering) (Ud.81).1
Tattha dve nissayā, ayaṃ samudayo.
Herein, the two kinds of " support " [namely craving and ignorance] are [B] Origin.
Yo ca anissayo, yā ca anati, ayaṃ maggo.
The no-support and no-bent-for-naming 2 are [D] the Path.
Yā āgatigati na hoti cutūpapāto ca yo esevanto dukkhassāti, ayaṃ nirodho.
The no-coming-and-going, no-decease-and- reappearance, and " this is the end of suffering ", are [C] Cessation.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni.
These are three Truths.
Anupaṭṭhitakāyagatā sati - pe - yaṃ vimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo.
[And] ( When there is non-remorse ... etc .... down to ... [the stipulate for] knowing and seeing of deliverance) [is lacking] (A. v, 313), this is [B] Origin. namely (
Ekārasaupanissayā vimuttiyo yāva upanissayaupasampadā upaṭṭhitakāyagatāsatissa viharati.
The eleven general supports for the deliverances with lack of stipulate.
Sīlasaṃvaro sosāniyo hoti, yañca vimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ, ayaṃ maggo.
And then the provision of the stipulate, namely ( When there is non-remorse, then for him who is provided with non-remorse ... knowing and seeing of deliverance is provided with the stipulate) then this [stipulate] is [D] the Path,8
Yā ca vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho.
and any deliverance is [C] Cessation.
Imāni tīṇi saccāni.
These are the three Truths
Samudayo ca nirodho ca maggo ca.
of Origin, Cessation, and Path.
12.Tattha katamo nirodho ca maggo ca?
58. [CD] Herein, what is Cessation and Path?
Sayaṃ katena saccena, tena attanā abhinibbānagato vitiṇṇakaṅkho;
( By the truth of his own making, Gone of himself by that to extinction, crossed beyond doubt,
Vibhavañca ñatvā lokasmiṃ, tāva khīṇapunabbhavo sa bhikkhu.
Knowing non-being in the world meanwhile, With renewal of being exhausted: such is a bhikkhu) (cf.Sn.514).
Yaṃ saccena, ayaṃ maggo.
"By the truth" is [D] the Path.
Yaṃ khīṇapunabbhavo, ayaṃ nirodho.
"With renewal of being exhausted" is [C] Cessation.
Imāni dve saccāni.
These are two Truths.
Pañca vimuttāyatanāni satthā vā dhammaṃ desesi aññataro vā viññū sabrahmacārīti vitthārena kātabbā.
[And] ( Five bases for deliverance ... Either the Master taught the True Idea or some learned companion in the divine life) (A. iii, 21) can be quoted in detail.
Tassa atthappaṭisaṃvedissa pāmojjaṃ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, yāva nibbindanto virajjati, ayaṃ maggo.
( When gladness is produced in him who experiences the meaning and happiness is produced in him who is gladdened, ... down to ... becoming dispassionate, his lust fades away) : this [D] is the Path.
Yā vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho.
The ( deliverance) is [C] Cessation.
Evaṃ pañca vimuttāyatanāni vitthārena.
So the [rest of the] five Bases for Deliverance in detail.
Imāni dve saccāni nirodho ca maggo ca.
These are the two Truths of Cessation and Path.
Imāni sādhāraṇāni suttāni.
These are the shared Threads(§§ 21, 48).
Imehi sādhāraṇehi suttehi yathānikkhittehi paṭivedhato ca lakkhaṇato ca otāretvā aññāni suttāni niddisitabbāni aparihāyantena.
59. After finding the way of entry as to the penetration [of them] and as to the characteristic (of each] by means of these shared Threads according as they are presented [in the Threads cited], other Threads can be demonstrated provided one does not misapply [them].
Gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇehi byākaraṇaṃ.
60. Verse should be assessed by verses, prose-exposition by prose- expositions (cf. §§ 38, 45 ).
Ime ca sādhāraṇā dasa parivaḍḍhakā eko ca catukko niddeso sādhāraṇo.
61. And these shared [Threads given above, namely the 6 dyads and 4 triads (§§ 49-58)] are ten [of the possible twelve] augmentations.1
Ayañca pakiṇṇakaniddeso.
This is the miscellaneous demonstration.2
Ekaṃ pañca cha ca savekadeso sabbaṃ.
Then there are also (a) the one shared tetrad-demonstration (§ 42), and (b) the one [standing for] an all[-inclusive demonstration (§ 43)], as one part [representing any of] the five [mentioned above, namely the 4 triads and 1 tetrad] with the six [dyads] too.
Ime dve parivajjanā purimakā ca dasa.
These two augmentations(?) 2 and the previous ten
Ime dvādasa parivaḍḍhakā saccāni.
[make up] the twelve Truth-augmentations.
Ettāvatā sabbaṃ suttaṃ natthi, taṃ byākaraṇaṃ vā gāthā viya.
62. Up to this point, however, there has been [actually] no all[-inclusive] Thread [quoted].
Imehi dvādasahi parivaḍḍhakehi na otarituṃ appamattena pariyesitvā niddisitabbā.
By one who is diligent that either prose-exposition or 1 verse can after searching be demonstrated 2 without using the way of entry by these twelve augmentations.
Tatthāyaṃ saṅkhepo.
Here is a brief [demonstration].
Sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ sattahi padehi samosaraṇaṃ gacchati.
63. [A] All Suffering meets together under seven terms.
Katarehi sattahi?
What seven?
Appiyasampayogo ca piyavippayogo ca, imehi dvīhi padehi sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ niddisitabbaṃ.
All Suffering can be demonstrated by the following terms : (1) association with the loathed (§ 31) and (2) dissociation from the loved (§ 32) ;
Tassa dve nissayā – kāyo ca cittañca.
for that the two supports are the body and cognizance,
Tena vuccati "kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ cetasikañce"ti, natthi taṃ dukkhaṃ na kāyikaṃ vā na cetasikaṃ, sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ dvīhi dukkhehi niddisitabbaṃ kāyikena ca cetasikena ca.
hence it is called (3) (bodily suffering and (4) mental [suffering]) (see M.i, 302), and there is no suffering (pain) that is neither bodily nor mental ; [so] all suffering can be demonstrated by the two terms"' bodily" and" mental".
Tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitaṃ dukkhadukkhatāya saṅkhāradukkhatāya vipariṇāmadukkhatāya.
It is also comprised by (5) painfulness as pain, (6) painfulness in determinations, and (7) painfulness in change (D.iii, 216);
Iti taṃ sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitaṃ.
so this suffering is all comprised also by these three terms.
Iti idañca dukkhaṃ tividhaṃ.
Accordingly this threefold suffering,
Duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikañca cetasikañca.
and the twofold suffering as bodily and mental,
Duvidhaṃ appiyasampayogo ca piyavippayogo ca.
and the twofold suffering as association-with-the-loathed and dissociation-from-the-loved
Idaṃ sattavidhaṃ dukkhaṃ.
[make up] the sevenfold suffering.
Tattha tividho samudayo acatuttho apañcamo.
64. [B] Herein [all] Origin is threefold, without fourth, without fifth.
Katamo tividho?
How threefold?
Taṇhā ca diṭṭhi ca kammaṃ.
Craving, view,1 and action.
Tattha taṇhā ca bhavasamudayo kammaṃ.
65. Herein, while craving is the origin of being,1 it is action
Tathā [tattha (pī.)] nibbattassa hīnapaṇītatā [hīnapaṇītatāya (pī.)], ayaṃ samudayo.
that is the origin of the inferiority or superiority of one thus generated.
Iti yāpi bhavagatīsu hīnatā ca paṇītatā ca, yāpi tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitā, yopi dvīhi mūlehi samudānīto avijjāya nivutassa bhavataṇhāsaṃyuttassa saviññāṇako kāyo, sopi tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahito.
So any inferiority and superiority in the [various] kinds of being [existence] and destinations is 2 comprised by the three kinds of painfulness (§ 63), and also the body with its consciousness [belonging] to one shut in by ignorance and fettered by craving for being (see§ 1041), which body having been procured owing to the two roots [craving and ignorance], is comprised by the three painfulnesses too.
Tathā vipallāsato diṭṭhibhavagantabbā.
66. Likewise, view can be arrived at from perversion.
Sā sattavidhā niddisitabbā.
That can be demonstrated as sevenfold ;
Eko vipallāso tīṇi niddisīyati, cattāri vipallāsavatthūni.
the single perverting is demonstrated as [occurring through] the three [Things perverted] and having four objects of perversion (§§ 479 ff.).
Tattha katamo eko vipallāso?
Herein, what is the single perverting?
Yo viparītaggāho paṭikkhepena, otaraṇaṃ yathā "anicce nicca"miti viparītaṃ gaṇhāti.
It is distorted apprehension, way of entry by rejection [of the fact], such that it apprehends distortedly that there is permanence in the impermanent,
Evaṃ cattāro vipallāsā.
and so [with the rest of] the four perversions.
Ayameko vipallāsīyati saññā cittaṃ diṭṭhi.
While this [perverting] is one, what is perverted is perception, cognizance, and view.
Katamāni cattāri vipallāsavatthūni ?
What are the four objects of perversion?
Kāyo vedanā cittaṃ dhammā.
They are the body, feeling, cognizance, and ideas.
Evaṃ vipallāsagatassa akusalañca pavaḍḍheti.
67. When someone goes by the perversions thus his unprofitable [cognizance] increases.
Tattha saññāvipallāso dosaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti.
Herein, the perversion of perception increases the unprofitable root hate,
Cittavipallāso lobhaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti.
the perversion of cognizance increases the unprofitable root greed,
Diṭṭhivipallāso mohaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti.
and the perversion of view increases the unprofitable root delusion.
Tattha dosassa akusalamūlassa tīṇi micchattāni phalaṃ – micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo; lobhassa akusalamūlassa tīṇi micchattāni phalaṃ – micchāsaṅkappo micchāvāyāmo micchāsamādhi; mohassa akusalamūlassa dve micchattāni phalaṃ – micchādiṭṭhi ca micchāsati ca.
68. Herein, the fruit of the unprofitable root hate is the three wrongnesses, namely wrong speech, wrong action, and wrong livelihood ; the fruit of the unprofitable root greed is the three wrongnesses, namely wrong intention, wrong effort, and wrong concentration ; the fruit of the unprofitable root delusion is the two wrongnesses, namely wrong view and wrong mindfulness.
Evaṃ akusalaṃ sahetu sappaccayaṃ vipallāsā ca paccayo, akusalamūlāni sahetū eteyeva paṭipakkhena anūnā anadhikā dvīhi paccayehi niddisitabbā.
69. Thus this unprofitable [cognizance] has cause and has condition : the perversions are the condition and the unprofitable roots are the cause.1 70. And these same [perversion and root] in their opposite, neither less nor more, can be demonstrated as the two conditions (see also § 2?)
Nirodhe ca magge ca vipallāsamupādāya parato [parito (pī.)] paṭipakkhena catasso.
in the case of [C] Cessation and in the case of [D] the Path; [but the conditions are] four 1 as well by assuming perversion in the opposite.
Tatthimā uddānagāthā
71. Here is a mnemonic verse :
Avijjāya nivuto loko, cittaṃ saṃyojanampi;
By ignorance is the world shut in, And fetters [in] the Citta [Thread] (§ 49);
Sā pacchinnabhavataṇhā, dvemā ceva vimuttiyo.
His craving for being has been severed, There are these two deliverances(§ 50);
Kumbhūpamaṃ kāyamimaṃ, yaṃ na tumhākaṃ taṃ pajaha [jahā (pī. ka.)] ;
(1) The body as a fragile pot, What is not yours should be abandoned(§ 51);
Ye keci sokaparidevā, timbaruko ca sayaṃkataṃ.
Whatever sorrows, lamentations, Timbaruka 1 and one's own making(§ 52);
Dukkhaṃ diṭṭhi ca uppannaṃ, yañca gopālakopamaṃ;
(2) Sight of suffering arisen, Then the Cow-Herd Simile(§ 53);
Sati kāyagatā māhu, samatho ca vipassanā.
With body-mindfulness, he said, And quiet and insight then as well(§ 54);
Āsā pihā ca abhinandanā ca, catunnamananubodhanā;
(3) Hankering, longing, expectant-relish, With non-discovery of four(§ 55);
Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, daḷhaṃ nemiyānākāro.
Whatever streams are in the world, And Dalhanemi the wheelwright(§ 56);
Yaṃ nissitassa calitaṃ, anupaṭṭhitakāyagatāsati;
(4) Dislodgeable is one supported, And when there is no non-remorse 2 (§ 57)
Sayaṃ katena saccena, vimuttāyatanehi ca.
By the truth of his own making, And bases for deliverance (§ 58).(5)
Peṭakopadese mahākaccāyanena bhāsite paṭhamabhūmi ariyasaccappakāsanā nātaṃ jīvatā bhagavatā mādisena samuddanena tathāgatenāti.
In the Pitaka-Disclosure pronounced by Maha-Kaccayana this is the first chapter called "The Display of the Noble Truths".

2 - Sāsana-paṭṭhāna-dutiya-bhūmi: [Buddha’s] Dispensation pattern, second ground

13.Tattha katamaṃ sāsanappaṭṭhānaṃ?
72. Herein, what is the Pattern of the Dispensation?1
Saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ, vāsanā bhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ, nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ, asekkhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ, saṃkilesabhāgiyañca vāsanābhāgiyañca, saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca, saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca asekkhabhāgiyañca, vāsanābhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca.
[1st Grouping] 1. Type of Thread dealing with Corruption(§ 73), 2. Morality (§ 74), 3. Penetration (§ 75), 4. the Adept(§ 76), 5. Corruption and Morality (§ 77), 6. Corruption and Penetration (§ 78), 7. Corruption, Penetration, and Adept (§ 79), 8. Morality and Penetration(§ 80).3
Āṇatti, phalaṃ, upāyo, āṇatti ca phalañca, phalañca upāyo ca, āṇatti ca phalañca upāyo ca.
[2nd Grouping] 9. Injunction (§ 152), 10. Fruit (§ 153), 11. Means (§ 154), 12. Injunction and Fruit (§ 155), [13. Injunction and Means (missing),] 3 14. Fruit and Means (§ 156), 15. Injunction, Fruit, and Means (§ 157),
Assādo, ādīnavo, nissaraṇaṃ, assādo ca ādīnavo ca, assādo ca nissaraṇañca, ādīnavo ca nissaraṇañca, assādo ca ādīnavo ca nissaraṇañca.
16. Gratification (§ 158), 17. Disappointment(§ 159), 18. Escape (§ 160), 19. Gratification and Disappointment (§ 161), 20. Gratification and Escape (§ 162), 21. Disappointment and Escape (§ 163), 22. Gratification, Disappointment, and Escape (§ 164).
Lokikaṃ, lokuttaraṃ, lokikañca lokuttarañca.
[3rd Grouping] 23. Belonging to Worlds (§ 165), 24. Dissociated from Worlds(§ 166), 25. Belonging to Worlds and Dissociated from Worlds(§ 167);
Kammaṃ, vipāko, kammañca vipāko ca.
26. Action (§ 168), 27. Ripening (§ 169), 28. Action and Ripening (§ 170) ;
Niddiṭṭhaṃ, aniddiṭṭhaṃ, niddiṭṭhañca aniddiṭṭhañca.
29. Demonstrated (§ 171), 30. Undemonstrated (§ 172), 31. Demonstrated and Undemonstrated (§ 173) ;
Ñāṇaṃ, ñeyyaṃ, ñāṇañca ñeyyañca.
32. Knowledge(§ 174), 33. the Knowable (§ 175), 34. Knowledge and the Knowable (§ 176) ;
Dassanaṃ, bhāvanā, dassanañca bhāvanā ca.
35. Seeing (§ 177), 36. Keeping in Being (§ 178), 37. Seeing and Keeping in Being (§ 179) ;
Vipākakammaṃ, na vipākakammaṃ, nevavipākanavipākakammaṃ.
38. Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening (§ 180), 4 39. Not Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening(§ 181), 40. Neither Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening Nor Not Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening (§ 182) ;
Sakavacanaṃ, paravacanaṃ, sakavacanañca paravacanañca.
41. Our Own Statement (§ 183), 42. Someone Else's Statement (§ 184), 43. Our Own Statement and Someone Else's Statement (§ 185) ;
Sattādhiṭṭhānaṃ, dhammādhiṭṭhānaṃ, sattādhiṭṭhānañca dhammādhiṭṭhānañca.
44. Expressed in Terms of Creatures (§ 186), 45. Expressed in Terms of Ideas (§ 187), 46. Expressed in Terms of Creatures and in Terms of Ideas(§ 188) ;
Thavo, sakavacanādhiṭṭhānaṃ, paravacanādhiṭṭhānaṃ, sakavacanādhiṭṭhānañca paravacanādhiṭṭhānañca.
47. Eulogy (§ 189) ; 51. Expressed in Terms of Our Own Statement, 52. Expressed in Terms of Someone Else's Statement, 53. Expressed in Terms of Our Own Statement and in Terms of Someone Else's Statement;
Kiriyaṃ, phalaṃ, kiriyañca phalañca.
54. the To-be-done, 55. the Fruit, 56. the To-be-done and the Fruit ;
Anuññātaṃ, paṭikkhittaṃ, anuññātañca paṭikkhittañca.
48. the Agreed (§ 190), 49. the Refused (§ 191), 50. the Agreed and Refused (§ 192).
Imāni cha paṭikkhittāni.
These six [that is, nos.51-56] are refused (do not count).6
14.Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ?
[II.ILLUSTRATIVE QUOTATIONS 1st Grouping] 73. 1. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Corruption?
Kāmandhā jālasañchannā, taṇhāchadanachāditā;
( Caught in the net of sensual murk And blocked ay craving's bondage,
Pamattabandhunā baddhā, macchāva kumināmukhe;
Fenced in ay fences of negect, Like fishes in a funnel-trap,
Jarāmaraṇamanventi, vaccho khīrapakova [khīrūpakova (ka.) passa udā. 64] mātaraṃ.
They follow after ageing-and death Just as a sucking-calf its mother) (Ud.76),
Pañcime, bhikkhave, nīvaraṇā.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these five hindrances) (S.v, 60; cf.A.iii, 63).
Tattha katamaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ?
74. 2: Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Morality ?
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā;
(Ideas are heralded ay mind, Mind heads them and they are mind-made.
Manasā ce pasannena, bhāsati vā karoti vā;
If someone with a placid mind Is wont to speak or act,
Tato naṃ sukhamanveti, chāyāva anapāyinī.
then bliss Sure follows after him, as does His shadow keep him company) (Dh.2),
Saṃyuttake suttaṃ.
[and] the Thread in the Samyutta
Mahānāmassa sakkassa idaṃ bhagavā sakyānaṃ kapilavatthumhi nagare nayavitthārena saddhāsīlaparibhāvitaṃ suttaṃ bhāvaññena paribhāvitaṃ taṃ nāma pacchime kāle.
[in which] the Blessed One [taught] to Mahanama the Sakyan in the Sakyans' city of Kapilavatthu with guiding-detail (?) [how] that [cognizance of his at the time of his death] at the last moment would be fortified by faith and virtue and fortified by learning, generosity, and understanding 1 (S. v, 371).
Tattha katamaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ?
75. 3. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Penetration?
Uddhaṃ adho [udā. 61] sabbadhi vippamutto, ayaṃ ahasmīti anānupassī;
(Above, below, in every way without lust,1 And seeing not at all that " I am this " ;
Evaṃ vimutto udatāri oghaṃ, atiṇṇapubbaṃ apunabbhavāya.
Thus liberated, he has crossed the flood Not crossed before, for non-renewal of being) (Ud.74),
Sīlāni nu kho bhavanti kimatthiyāni ānando pucchati satthāraṃ.
[and] Ananda asks the Master ( " The kinds of virtue, what is their aim? " ) (A. v, 2 ; 310).
Tattha katamaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ?
76. 4. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with the Adept?
"Yassa selūpamaṃ cittaṃ, ṭhitaṃ nānupakampati;
(Whose cognizance is steady as a rock And never can be made to shudder
Virattaṃ rajanīyesu, kopaneyye [kopanīye (ka.) passa udā. 34] na kuppati;
is free from lust for lust-provoking things, Untroubled too by troubling things;
Yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ, kuto taṃ dukkhamessatī"ti.
Whose cognizance is kept in being like this, How shall suffering come to him? ) (Ud. 41),
Sāriputto nāma bhagavā theraññataro so maṃ āsajja appaṭinissajja cārikaṃ pakkamati, sāriputtassa byākaraṇaṃ kātabbaṃ.
[and] Sariputta and the Blessed One: [how] a certain elder said ( He has insulted me and is going wandering without having apologized) and Sariputta's exposition can be quoted, namely
Yassa nūna bhagavā kāyagatā sati abhāvitā assa abahulīkatā vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
( Blessed One, surely it is he whose mindfulness of the body is not kept in being, not made much of, ... ) (A. iv, 373-8).
15.Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyañca vāsanābhāgiyañca?
77. 5. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Corruption and Dealing with Morality?
Channamativassati [udā. 45], vivaṭaṃ nātivassati;
( Rain soddens what is covered up, But what is open it soddens not.
Tasmā channaṃ vivaretha, evaṃ taṃ nātivassati.
So open out what is covered up That rain may never sodden you) (Ud.56):
Channamativassatīti saṃkileso.
" Rain soddens what is covered up " is corruption.
Vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti vāsanā.
" But what is open it soddens not" is morality.
Tamo tamaparāyanoti vitthārena.
[And] ( Dark with a dark supreme value, ... ) (A. ii, 85 ; S. i, 93) :
Tattha yo ca tamo yo ca tamaparāyano, ayaṃ saṃkileso.
Herein, " dark " and " with a dark supreme value " are corruption ;
Yo ca joti yo ca jotiparāyano, ayaṃ vāsanā.
" bright " and " with a bright supreme value " are morality.
Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca suttaṃ?
78. 6. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Corruption and Dealing with Penetration?
Na taṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrā, yadāyasaṃ dārujapabbajañca [dārujaṃ pabbajañca (pī.) dha. pa. 345; saṃ. ni. 1.121] ;
< The steadfast will never call that a strong bond Made of iron or consisting of wood or of thongs, 1
Sārattarattā maṇikuṇḍalesu, puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā.
But greed flushed with lusting for jewels and gems And concern for a wife and for children as well, ... ) (S.i, 77) :
Na taṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrā, yadā puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā, ayaṃ saṃkileso.
" The steadfast will never call that a strong bond" ... down to ... " And concern for a wife and for children as well " is corruption ;
Etampi chetvā paribbajanti dhīrā anapekkhino sabbakāme pahāyāti, ayaṃ nibbedho.
(But that too they sever and wander [in freedom] Unconcerned and all sensual desires foregone ) (S. i, 77) is penetration.
Yaṃ cetayitaṃ pakappitaṃ yā ca nāmarūpassa avakkanti hoti.
[And] ( What is chosen) and (what is asserted) (cf. S.ii, 65 f.) and ( name-and form's finding a footing) (S.ii, 101 f.):
Imehi catūhi padehi saṃkileso.
With these four (?)2 terms, corruption;
Pacchimakehi catūhi nibbedho.
with the four (?) 2 [in the negative paragraph], penetration.
Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca asekkhabhāgiyañca suttaṃ?
79. 7. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Corruption, Dealing with Penetration, and Dealing with the Adept?
Ayaṃ loko santāpajāto, phassapareto rogaṃ [rodaṃ (pī.) passa udā. 30] vadati attato;
[Verse example:] This1 world is born to anguish and subject to painful contact, It is sickness that it calls self; 2
Yena yena hi maññanti, tato taṃ hoti aññathā.
For however it conceives [it], 'Tis ever otherwise than that.
Aññathābhāvī bhavasatto loko, bhavapareto bhavamevābhinandati;
Maintaining its being other than that, The world clings to being, expectantly relishing only being,
Yadabhinandati taṃ bhayaṃ, yassa bhāyati taṃ dukkhaṃ;
[But] what it relishes brings fear, And what it fears is pain.
Bhavavippahānāya kho panidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ vussati.
Now this divine life under the Blessed One 3 is lived in order to abandon being.
Ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā bhavena bhavassa vippamokkhamāhaṃsu, sabbete "avippamuttā bhavasmā"ti vadāmi.
Whoever 4 have declared escape from being [to come about] through [love of] non-being, none of them, I say, escape from being.
Ye vā pana keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā vibhavena bhavassa nissaraṇamāhaṃsu, sabbete "anissaṭā bhavasmā"ti vadāmi.
Whoever 4 have declared liberation from being [to come about] through [love of some kind of] being, 5 none of them, I say, are liberated from being.
Upadhiṃ hi paṭicca dukkhamidaṃ sambhoti, sabbupādānakkhayā natthi dukkhassa sambhavo, lokamimaṃ passa, puthū avijjāya paretā bhūtā bhūtaratā bhavā aparimuttā.
It is by depending on the essentials of existence 5 that this suffering has actual being : with exhaustion of assuming in all ways suffering has no actual being. See this wide world subjected to ignorance, Which is, which delights to be, never freed from being :
Ye hi keci bhavā sabbadhi sabbatthatāya sabbete bhavā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti.
[Yet] whatever the kinds of being that occur in any way, anywhere, All these are determinations, impermanent, pain[-haunted], inseparable from the idea of change.
"Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ, sammappaññāya passato;
So when a man thus sees With right understanding how it is,
Bhavataṇhā pahīyati, vibhavaṃ nābhinandati;
Craving for being is abandoned, He no more expectantly relishes non-being.6
Sabbaso taṇhānaṃ khayā, asesavirāganirodho nibbānaṃ.
[That is the utter exhaustion of all craving, That is the remainderless fading, cessation, that is extinction.]
"Tassa nibbutassa bhikkhuno, anupādā punabbhavo na hoti;
That bhikkhu being quenched through not assuming, His being comes no more to a renewal,
Abhibhūto māro vijitasaṅgāmo, upeccagā sabbabhavāni tādī"ti.
Transcended is Death's being, the battle won, One such as this outstrips all [modes of] being (cf. Ud.32-3).
Ayaṃ loko santāpajāto yāva dukkhanti yaṃ taṇhā saṃkileso.
[Now as to the words] 7 "This world is born to anguish ... down to ... [And what it fears is] pain" is corruption by craving 8 (see § 82).
Yaṃ punaggahaṇaṃ ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā bhavena bhavassa vimokkhamāhaṃsu, sabbete "avimuttā bhavasmā"ti vadāmi.
[The passage] "Whoever have declared escape from being [to come about] through [love of] non-being, none of them, I say, escapes from being.
Ye vā pana keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā vibhavena bhavassa nissaraṇamāhaṃsu "anissaṭā bhavasmā"ti vadāmi.
Whoever have declared liberation from being [to come about] through [love of some kind of being], none of them I say, is liberated from being " is corruption by view (see § 82).
Ayaṃ diṭṭhisaṃkileso, taṃ diṭṭhisaṃkileso ca taṇhāsaṃkileso ca, ubhayametaṃ saṃkileso.
That corruption by view and corruption by craving are both corruption.9
Yaṃ punaggahaṇaṃ bhavavippahānāya brahmacariyaṃ vussati, yāva sabbaso upādānakkhayā sambhavā, idaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ.
Then to go back again, [the words] "Now this divine life under the Blessed One is lived in order to abandon 10 being ... down to ... With exhaustion of assuming in all ways [suffering] has no actual being" 11 are penetration.
Tassa nibbutassa bhikkhuno yāva upaccagā sabbabhavāni tādīti idaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ.
[The words] "That bhikkhu being quenched ... down to ... One such as this outstrips 12 all [modes of] being " deal with the Adept.
Cattāro puggalā anusotagāmī saṃkileso ṭhitatto ca paṭisotagāmī ca nibbedho.
[Prose example :] (Four kinds of persons) (A.ii, 5}, (i) " One who goes with the stream " is corruption, (ii} " One who has steadied himself" and (iii) " One who goes against the stream" are penetration,
Thale tiṭṭhatīti asekkhabhūmi.
and (iv) " One who ... stands of firm ground " is the Adept' a plane.
16.Tattha katamaṃ vāsanābhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca suttaṃ?
80. 8. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dealing with Morality and Dealing with Penetration?
"Dadato [udā. 75; dī. ni. 2.197] puññaṃ pavaḍḍhati, saṃyamato veraṃ na cīyati;
(Merit will grow for one who gives, No risk is stored for one restrained,
Kusalo ca jahāti pāpakaṃ, rāgadosamohakkhayā sanibbuto"ti.
One who is skilled abandons evil, With exhaustion of lust, hate, delusion, He attains complete extinction) (Ud.85).
"Dadato puññaṃ pavaḍḍhati, saṃyamato veraṃ na cīyatī"ti vāsanā.
[Here]" Merit will grow for one who gives, No risk is stored for one restrained" is morality.
"Kusalo ca jahāti pāpakaṃ, rāgadosamohakkhayā sanibbuto"ti nibbedho.
"One who is skilled abandons evil, With exhaustion of lust, hate, delusion, He attains complete extinction " is penetration.
Sotānugatesu dhammesu vacasā paricitesu manasānupekkhitesu diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhesu pañcānisaṃsā pāṭikaṅkhā.
[And] Five rewards can be expected when ideas that have entered the ear are consolidated by word of mouth, looked over by the mind, and well penetrated by [right] view: 1
Idhekaccassa bahussutā dhammā honti dhātā apamuṭṭhā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā, so yuñjanto ghaṭento vāyamanto diṭṭheva dhamme visesaṃ pappoti.
(i) Here someone has heard many ideas, remembered and not forgotten them, consolidated them by word of mouth, looked over them with the mind, penetrated them well by right] view, then when he devotes himself, strives and makes efforts, he reaches distinction here and now;
No ce diṭṭheva dhamme visesaṃ pappoti, gilāno pappoti.
(ii) and if he reaches no distinction here and now, he reaches it when ill;
No ce gilāno pappoti, maraṇakālasamaye pappoti.
(iii) and if he reaches none when ill, he reaches it on the occasion of his time of dying;
No ce maraṇakālasamaye pappoti, devabhūto pāpuṇāti.
(iv) and if he reaches none on the occasion of his time of dying, he reaches it when a god ;
No ce devabhūto pāpuṇāti, tena dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇāti.
(v) and if he reaches none when a god, then through lust for the True Idea he reaches Hermit Enlightenment) (cf.A.ii, 185).
Tatthāyaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme pāpuṇāti, ayaṃ nibbedho.
Herein, "he reaches ... here and now" is penetration.
Yaṃ samparāye paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇāti, ayaṃ vāsanā.
That he "reaches Hermit Enlightenment" in a future existence is morality.
Imāni soḷasa suttāni sabbasāsanaṃ atiggaṇhanto tiṭṭhanti.
81. These [are eight of the] sixteen types of Thread 1 completely encompassing 2 all the Dispensation:
Imehi soḷasahi suttehi navavidho suttanto vibhatto bhavati.
the ninefold Thread is analysed into these sixteen Thread-types.
So ca paññavato no duppaññassa, yuttassa no ayuttassa, akammassa vihārissa pakatiyā loke saṃkileso carati.
And this ninefold Thread is for one with understanding, not for one without understanding, for one devoted, not for one undevoted.3 [Discussion 1. Corruption-3 kinds] 82. Normally in the world corruption haunts [even] one who abides without action.1
So saṃkileso tividho – taṇhāsaṃkileso diṭṭhisaṃkileso duccaritasaṃkileso.
That corruption is threefold as (i) corruption by craving, (ii) corruption by view, and (iii) corruption by misconduct.
Tato saṃkilesato uṭṭhahanto saṃkileso dhammesu patiṭṭhahati, lokiyesu patiṭṭhahatīti.
[Now] when he comes to stand out above (iii) that [last-named type of] corruption, then corruption establishes itself in the ideas [that he heard, and] it establishes itself in ideas belonging to the worlds,
Tatthākusalo diṭṭhato sace taṃ sīlañca diṭṭhiñca parāmasati, tassa so taṇhāsaṃkileso hoti.
since he is unskilled 2 as to what is seen there. If he misapprehends that virtue [owed to his climbing out of corruption by misconduct] and that view, then he has (i) corruption by craving.3
Sace panassa evaṃ hoti "imināhaṃ sīlena vā vatena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissaṃ [bhavissāmi (pī.)] devaññataro vā"ti yassa hoti micchādiṭṭhi, etassa micchādiṭṭhisaṃkileso bhavati.
But if it occurs to him thus (By means of this virtue or duty ... or divine life I shall be some god or other) (A. iv, 562; M. i, 101 ; S. iv, 180), then he has wrong view, and that is (ii) his corruption by wrong view.
Sace pana sīle patiṭṭhito aparāmaṭṭhassa hi sīlavataṃ hoti, tassa taṃ sīlavato yoniso gahitaṃ avippaṭisāraṃ janeti yāva vimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ, tañca tassa diṭṭheva dhamme kālaṅkatassa vā tamhiyeva vā pana aparāpariyāyena vā, aññesu khandhesu evaṃ sutaṃ "sucaritaṃ vāsanāya saṃvattatī"ti vāsanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ vuccati.
[2. Morality] 83. But if he is established in virtue and his 1 virtue-and-duty 2 is not misapprehended,1 then he being virtuous,3 that [virtue-and- duty] of his,3 being taken in a reasoned manner, 4 generates ( non-remorse 5 ... down to ... knowing and seeing of deliverance ) (§ 75, 2nd quotation). And that good conduct thus 6 conduces to his morality, [that is, to his moral progress] either here and now or on the occasion of his completing his time, 6 or in other categories 7 in some future existence. That is why this is called the type of Thread Dealing with Morality.
Tattha sīlesu ṭhitassa vinīvaraṇaṃ cittaṃ, taṃ tato sakkāyadiṭṭhippahānāya bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti.
[3. Penetration] 84. Herein, [when,] being steadied in the virtues, his cognizance is without hindrances,1 [then] the Blessed One teaches him that True Idea for the abandoning of the embodiment-view.
So accantaniṭṭhaṃ nibbānaṃ pāpuṇāti; yadi vā sāsanantare, accantaṃ nibbānaṃ pāpuṇāti, yadi vā ekāsane cha abhiññe.
85. [finally] he reaches the supreme goal, 1 extinction: he reaches the supreme extinction either with intervals between sessions,2 or else in a single session [he reaches all] the six Acquaintanceships.3
Tattha dve puggalā ariyadhamme pāpuṇanti saddhānusārī ca dhammānusārī ca.
86. Herein, those persons who [first] reach [extinction] in the Noble Ones' True Idea are of two kinds : the Follower by Faith and the Follower by Ideas (see M.i, 479; S. iii, 225 ; also§ 141 below).
Tattha dhammānusārī ugghaṭitaññū, saddhānusārī neyyo.
Herein, the Follower by Ideas is ( one who gains knowledge from a condensed statement ) while the Follower by Faith is ( guidable ) (A. ii, 135; Pug. 41).
Tattha ugghaṭitaññū duvidho – koci tikkhindriyo koci mudindriyo.
Herein, one who gains knowledge from a condensed statement is of two kinds: one may have keen faculties and another blunt faculties (see A. ii, 149; also§ 141).
Tattha neyyopi duvidho – koci tikkhindriyo koci mudindriyo.
And herein, one who is guidable is of two kinds: one may have keen faculties and another blunt faculties.
Tattha yo ca ugghaṭitaññū mudindriyo, yo ca neyyo tikkhindriyo, ime puggalā asamindriyā honti.
87. Herein, the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a-condensed-state- ment with blunt faculties and the guidable-type with keen faculties [when classed as above under the two types] are unequal 1 in their faculties;
Tattha ime puggalā samindriyā parihāyanti ca ugghaṭitaññuto, vipañcitaññū neyyato, ime majjhimā bhūmigatā vipañcitaññū hoti.
[but when] they are subtracted [respectively] from the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a-condensed-statement and from the guidable-type, they, [being then regardable as] equal in their faculties, [constitute a third type, namely] the ( one who gains knowledge from an expanded statement) (A.ii, 135; Pug.41).
Ime tayo puggalā.
These are thus the three person-types,
17.Tattha catutthā pana pañcamā ugghaṭitaññū vipañcitaññū neyyo ca, tattha ugghaṭitaññū puggalo indriyāni paṭilabhitvā dassanabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito sotāpattiphalañca pāpuṇāti, ekabījī hoti paṭhamo sotāpanno.
without fourth and without fifth : 2 the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a-condensed-statement, the type-gaining-knowledge-from-an-expanded-statement, and the guidable-type (cf. §§ 719, 1078)... 88. Herein, the person of the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a- condensed-statement, [whether] the faculties he obtains [are blunt or keen], when, being ~teadied..on the plane of seeing,1 he reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry, he is a Single-Seed, the first type of Stream-Enterer (A. i, 233; Pug. 16).
Tattha vipañcitaññū puggalo indriyāni paṭilabhitvā dassanabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito sotāpattiphalañca pāpuṇāti, kolaṃkolo ca hoti dutiyo sotāpanno.
Herein, the person of the type-gaining-knowledge-from-an- expanded-statement, [whether] the faculties he obtains [are blunt or keen], when, being steadied on the plane of seeing, he reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry, he is a Clan-to-Clan, the second type of Stream-Enterer (A. i, 233; Pug. 16).
Tattha neyyo puggalo indriyāni paṭilabhitvā dassanabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito sotāpattiphalañca pāpuṇāti, sattakkhattuparamo ca hoti, ayaṃ tatiyo sotāpanno.
Herein, the person of the guidable-type, [whether] the faculties he obtains [are blunt or keen], when, being steadied on the plane of seeing, he reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry, he is a Seven-times-at- Most, the third type of Stream-Enterer (A. i, 233; Pug. 16).
Ime tayo puggalā indriyavemattatāya sotāpattiphale ṭhitā.
[Now] these three types of persons are steadied in the fruit of Stream-Entry with diversity in their faculties,
Ugghaṭitaññū ekabījī hoti, vipañcitaññū kolaṃkolo hoti, neyyo sattakkhattuparamo hoti.
[and it is with diversity of faculties in each case] that the type-gaining-knowledge-from-an- condensed-statement is a Single-Germ, the type-gaining-knowledge- from-an-expanded-statement is a Clan-to-Clan and the guidable-type is a Seven-at-Most.2
Idaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ.
This is the type of Thread Dealing with Penetration.
Sace pana taduttari vāyamati, accantaniṭṭhaṃ nibbānaṃ pāpuṇāti.
[ 4. The Adept] 89. Now it is if someone makes efforts additional to that that he reaches the supreme goal, 1 extinction.
Tattha ugghaṭitaññū puggalo yo tikkhindriyo, te dve puggalā honti – anāgāmiphalaṃ pāpuṇitvā antarāparinibbāyī ca upahaccaparinibbāyī ca.
90. Herein, the keen-facultied person of the type-gaini11g-knowledge- from-a-condensed-statement becomes two person-types on reaching the Non-Return Fruit: there is he-who-attains-extinction-early [in hia next existence] and he-who-attains-extinction-late [there].
Tattha vipañcitaññū puggalo yo tikkhindriyo, te dve puggalā honti – anāgāmiphalaṃ pāpuṇanti asaṅkhāraparinibbāyī ca sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī ca.
Herein, the keen-facultied person of the type-gaining-knowledge- from-an-expanded-statement becomes two person-types on reaching the Non-Return Fruit: there is he-who-attains-extinction-without- prompting-determinations and he-who-attains-extinction-with- prompting-determinations.
Tattha neyyo anāgāmiphalaṃ pāpuṇanto uddhaṃsoto akaniṭṭhagāmī hoti, ugghaṭitaññū ca vipañcitaññū ca, indriyanānattena ugghaṭitaññū puggalo tikkhindriyo antarāparinibbāyī hoti, ugghaṭitaññū mudindriyo uddhaṃsoto akaniṭṭhagāmī hoti.
Herein, the person of guidable-type, on reaching the Non-Return Fruit, is an Up-Streamer-Bound-For-The-Not-Junior-Gods (cf. S. v, 201). 91. [But] by taking account of difference in their faculties [in the cases of] the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a-condensed-statement and the type-gaining-knowledge-from-an-expanded-statement:
Ugghaṭitaññū ca vipañcitaññū ca indriyanānattena ugghaṭitaññū puggalo tikkhindriyo sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti, tikkhindriyo antarāparinibbāyī hoti, ugghaṭitaññū mudindriyo upahaccaparinibbāyī hoti.
[then] the keen-facultied person of the type-gaining-knowledge- from-a-condensed-statement is one-who-attains-extinction-early, while the blunt-facultied one of the type-gaining-knowledge-from-a- condensed-statement is one-who-attains-extinction-late; 1
Vipañcitaññū tikkhindriyo asaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti, vipañcitaññū mudindriyo sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti, neyyo upahaccaparinibbāyī hoti, vipañcitaññū tikkhindriyo asaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti.
[then] the keen-facultied one of the type-gaining-knowledge-from- an-expanded-statement is one-who-attains-extinction -without- prompting-determinations,
Vipañcitaññū mudindriyo sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī hoti, neyyo uddhaṃsoto akaniṭṭhagāmī hoti.
while the blunt-facultied one of the type-gaining-knowledge-from-an-expanded-statement is one-who- attains-extinction-with-prompting-determinations. The guidable- type 1 is the Up-Streamer-Bound-For-The-Not-Junior-Gods.
Iti pañca anāgāmino, chaṭṭho sakadāgāmī, tayo ca sotāpannāti ime nava sekkhā.
92. So the five kinds of Non-Returner, the Once-Returner as sixth, and the three kinds of Stream-Enterer (§ 88), make up nine kinds of Initiate.1
Tattha ugghaṭitaññū puggalo tikkhindriyo arahattaṃ pāpuṇanto dve puggalā honti ubhatobhāgavimutto paññāvimutto ca.
93. Herein, the keen-facultied person of the type-gaining-knowledge- from-a-condensed-statement becomes two person-types on reaching Arahantship: the Both-Ways-Liberated and the Liberated-By- Understanding (Pug.14).1
Tattha ugghaṭitaññū puggalo mudindriyo arahattaṃ pāpuṇanto dve puggalā honti, ṭhitakappī [ṭhitakappi (pī. ka.) passa pu. pa. 17] ca paṭivedhanabhāvo puggalo ca tikkhindriyo so arahattaṃ pāpuṇanto dve puggalā honti cetanābhabbo ca rakkhaṇābhabbo ca.
Herein, the blunt-facultied person of the type-gaining-knowledge- from-a-condensed-statement becomes two person-types on reaching Arahantship: the Aeon-Delayer (cf.Pug.13) and the Essence-Of- Penetration ( ).1 Herein, the keen-facultied person of the type-gaining- knowledge-from-an-expanded-statement becomes two person-types on reaching Arahantship: the Able-By-Choice and the Able-By- Guarding (cf.Pug.12).2
Tattha vipañcitaññū mudindriyo arahattaṃ pāpuṇanto dve puggalā honti, sace ceteti na parinibbāyī, no ce ceteti parinibbāyīti.
Herein, the blunt-facultied person of the type-gaining-knowledge- from-an-expanded-statement becomes two person-types on reaching Arahantship: the No-Extinction-Attainer-If-He-Chooses-Extinction-
Sace anurakkhati na parinibbāyī, no ce anurakkhati parinibbāyīti.
Attainer-If-He-Does-Not-Choose and the No-Extinction- Attainer-If-He-Guards-Extinction-Attainer-If-He-Does-Not-Guard ( ).3
Tattha neyyo puggalo bhāvanānuyogamanuyutto parihānadhammo hoti kammaniyato vā samasīsi vā, ime nava arahanto idaṃ catubbidhaṃ suttaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ.
Herein, the person of guidable-type who is not 4 devoted to the pursuit of development is One-Liable-To-Fall-Away, 5 or else owing to his being One-Certain-In-Action ( ) 6 he becomes a Level-Head (Pug.13). 94. These are nine types of Arahants. 95. This is the fourfold Thread, namely that Dealing with Corruption (§ 82), ... that Dealing with the Adept(§§ 89-94).
Imesu puggalesu tathāgatassa dasavidhaṃ balaṃ pavattati.
[The 10 Powers of a Perfect One] 96. Now a Perfect One has a tenfold Power 1 that occurs with regard to these person-types.
18.Katamaṃ dasavidhaṃ?
How tenfold?
Idha buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ appavattite dhammacakke mahesakkhā devaputtā yācanāya abhiyātā [atiyātā (pī. ka.)] honti "desetu sugato dhamma"nti.
Here when the Enlightened Ones, the Blessed Ones, have not yet set rolling the Wheel of the True Idea (see§ 15), gods' sons of great influence issue forth (? ) 2 to implore them thus (Let the Sublime One teach the True Idea) (M. i, 168; D. ii, 36-7).
So anuttarena buddhacakkhunā volokento addasāsi sattānaṃ tayo rāsīnaṃ sammattaniyato micchattaniyato aniyato.
And he 3 [the newly Enlightened One], on surveying the world with the unsurpassed Enlightened One's eye, sees three classes of creatures : the certain-of-rightness, the certain-of-wrongness, and the not-certain.4
Tattha sammattaniyato rāsi micchāsatiṃ āpajjeyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, asatthuko parinibbāyeyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, samāpattiṃ āpajjeyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
[ 1. Knowledge of Instance and Non-Instance] 97. Herein, that the certain-of-rightness class might enter into wrong mindfulness (? ) : 1 no such instance is found. That it might attain extinction 2 without a teacher : no such instance is found. That it might enter upon an attainment [of concentration]: 3 such an instance is found.
Tattha micchattaniyato rāsi ariyasamāpattiṃ paṭipajjissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, anariyamicchāpaṭipattiṃ paṭipajjissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
98. Herein, that the certain-of-wrongness class will practise noble right practice : 1 no such instance is found. That it will practise ignoble wrong practice : such an instance is found.
Tattha aniyato rāsi sammāpaṭipajjamānaṃ sammattaniyatarāsiṃ gamissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati, micchāpaṭipajjamāno sammattaniyatarāsiṃ gamissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
Herein, (1) that the not-certain class, when rightly practising,2 will go to the certain-of-rightness class : 3 such an instance is found. (2) That, when wrongly practising, it will go to the certain-of- rightness class : 3 no such instance is found.
Sammāpaṭipajjamānaṃ sammattaniyatarāsiṃ gamissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati, micchāpaṭipajjamānaṃ micchattaniyatarāsiṃ gamissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
(3) That, when rightly practising, it will go to the certain-of-wrongness class : no such instance is found. 4 (4) That, when wrongly practising, it will go to the certain-of-wrongness class : - such an instance is found.
Ime tayo anuttarena buddhacakkhunā volokentassa sammāsambuddhassa me sato ime dhammā anabhisambuddhāti ettavatā maṃ koci sahadhammena paṭicodissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, vītarāgassa te paṭijānato akhīṇāsavatāya sahadhammena koci paṭicodissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
99. (a) That anyone will in accordance with a True Idea accuse me thus " You, 1 a Fully Enlightened One, who are surveying these three [classes] with the unsurpassed Enlightened Ones' eye, have not discovered these ideas" : 2 no such instance is found (cf. A. i, 186). 100. (b) That anyone will in accordance with a True Idea accuse me,1 claiming [as I do] to be without lust, of having taints still unexhausted: 2 no such instance is found (cf. A. i, 186).
Yato pana imassa aniyatassa rāsissa dhammadesanā, sā na dissati takkarassa sammādukkhakkhayāyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, tathā ovadito yaṃ pana me aniyatarāsi sāvako pubbenāparaṃ visesaṃ na sacchikarissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
101. (c) That after the teaching of the True Idea to this not-certain class it will not be seen [to conduce] to the complete exhaustion of suffering in him who gives it effect : 1 no such instance is found (cf. A. i, 187). 102. (d) That a hearer of mine belonging to the not-certain class, being thus 1 advised, will not verify any progressive distinction : no such instance is found.
19.Yaṃ kho muni nānappakārassa nānāniruttiyo devanāgayakkhānaṃ dameti dhamme vavatthānena vatvā kāraṇato aññaṃ pāraṃ gamissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
103. (ii) That whoever of the many kinds of gods, naga-serpents or spirits with their many languages 1 a Stilled One tames 1 [in those languages] will go to a further shore other than the further shore 1 stated 1 by the definition of ideas [in the language of the texts] : no such instance is found:
Dhammapaṭisambhidā.
The Discrimination of Ideas.1
Yato panimā niruttito satta satta niruttiyo nābhisambhuneyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
104. (iii) That [a Stilled One] should not master those languages uttered by creatures as [their] language: 1 no such instance is found:
Niruttipaṭisambhidā.
The Discrimination of Language (cf.§ 356).
Nirutti kho pana abhisamaggaratānaṃ sāvakānaṃ tamatthamaviññāpayeti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
105. (i) That [such] language [so used by him] should not intimate that meaning to those hearers who delight in the path that is not uneven (unrighteous) : 1 no such instance is found :
Atthapaṭisambhidā.
The Discrimination of Meanings.
Mahesakkhā devaputtā upasaṅkamitvā pañhe pucchiṃsu.
106. (iv) That when influential gods' sons approach and ask [a Stilled One] questions,
Kāyikena vā mānasikena vā paripīḷitassa hatthakuṇīti vā pāde vā khañje dandhassa [dantassa (pī. ka.)] so attho na paribhājiyatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
the meaning might not be perspicuous 1 to him because of his being bodily or mentally oppressed or because of his being embarrassed through palsy of a hand or lameness of a foot : 2 no such instance is found :
Paṭibhānapaṭisambhidā.
The Discrimination of Perspicuity.
Yamhi taṃ tesaṃ hoti tamhi asantaṃ bhavatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
107. That wherein 1 quieting (?) 2 of these is, therein 3 non- quieting (?) of these is: no such instance is found.
Yaṃ hi nāsaṃ tesaṃ na bhavati, tamhi nāsaṃ tesaṃ bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
That wherein 4 destruction of these is not, therein 5 destruction of these will be : no such instance is found.
Evaṃ samudayassa nirodhāya dasa akusalakammapathā.
[And as] for Origin, so for Cessation.6 108. The ten unprofitable [and profitable] courses of action.1
Māro vā indo vā brahmā vā tathāgato vā cakkavattī vā so vata nāma mātugāmo bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso assa rājā cakkavattī sakko devānamindo bhavissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.
109. That womankind will be Mara or [Sakka] Ruler [of Gods] or a High Divinity or a Perfect One or a Wheel-Turner [Monarch]; no such instance is found. That a male may be a Wheel-Turner or Sakka Ruler of Gods : such an instance is found.1
Itissa evarūpaṃ balaṃ evarūpaṃ ñāṇaṃ, idaṃ vuccati ṭhānāṭṭhānañāṇaṃ paṭhamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ taṃ niddisitabbaṃ.
110. So such power, such knowledge, as this is called the Knowledge of Instance and No-Instance, the first Power of a Perfect One.
Tīhi rāsīhi catūhi vesārajjehi catūhi paṭisambhidāhi paṭiccasamuppādassa pavattiyaṃ nivattiyaṃ bhāgiyañca.
111. That can be demonstrated by the three classes (§§ 97-8), the four Intrepidities (§§ 99-102),1 the four Discriminations (§§ 103-6), Dependent Arising in [its] occurrence and standstill (§ 107),
Kusalaṃ kusalavipākesu ca upapajjati yañca itthipurisānaṃ.
and what happens in unprofitable and profitable ripening (§ 108), and for the female and the male on reappearance 2 (§ 109).
Idaṃ paṭhamaṃ balaṃ tathāgato evaṃ jānāti.
A Perfect One knows this Power thus.
Yesaṃ pana sammattaniyato rāsi, nāyaṃ sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā, nibbānagāminīyevāyaṃ paṭipadā.
[2. Knowleilge of the Way that Leads Anywhere] 112. Now as to the certain-of-rightness class [out] of [those three classes] which [were mentioned above (§§ 97-8)], this is not 1 the Way that Leads Anywhere, this is the way that leads only to extinction.
Tattha siyā micchattaniyato rāsi, esāpi na sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā.
Likewise also 2 the certain-of-wrongness class, which is not the Way that Leads Anywhere, this is only the way leading to origin of embodiment.
Sakkāyasamudayagāminīyevāyaṃ paṭipadā hotu, ayaṃ tattha tattha paṭipattiyā ṭhito gacchati nibbānaṃ, gacchati apāyaṃ, gacchati devamanussassa.
It is this [not-certain class, which], when steadied in a way [going] here or there, goes 3 to extinction, goes 3 to the state of unease, and goes 3 to the divine and human states,
Yaṃ yaṃ vā paṭipadaṃ paṭipajjeyya sabbattha gaccheyya, ayaṃ sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā.
or may go anywhere according to whatever way it may practise: this is the Way that Leads Anywhere.
Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ, idaṃ vuccati sabbatthagāminī paṭipadāñāṇaṃ dutiyaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
113. Knowledge of how it is herein, is called Knowledge of the Way that Leads Anywhere, the second Power of a Perfect One.
Sā kho panāyaṃ sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā nānādhimuttā keci kāmesu keci dukkarakāriyaṃ keci attakilamathānuyogamanuyuttā keci saṃsārena suddhiṃ paccenti keci anajjābhāvanāti.
1 [3. Knowledge of Difference of Belief] 114. Now this Way that Leads Anywhere [is followed by those] of differing beliefs: some [believe] in sensual desires (cf. M. i, 130), and some in performance of difficult feats, some are devoted to self- torment (cf. M.i, 92 f.), some rely on [belief in] purity through the roundabout [of rebirths] (cf. M. i, 81 f.), some [believe in] ineffectuality 1 [of action (? )].
Tena tena caritena vinibandhānaṃ sattānaṃ yaṃ ñāṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nānāgataṃ lokassa anekādhimuttagataṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
115. Knowledge of how creatures come to be bound down 1 by [the habit of] this or that kind of temperament understands how the world's varied field of beliefs 2 comes to be.
Idaṃ tatiyaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
116. This is the third Power of a Perfect One.1
Tattha sattānaṃ adhimuttā bhavanti āsevanti bhāventi bahulīkaronti.
[4. Knowledge of the Different Elements] 117. Herein, when creatures are of such a belief, 1 that [belief of theirs] they repeat, keep in being and make much of
Tesaṃ kammupasayānaṃ tadādhimuttānaṃ.
when they repeat(?) it 2 [thus], believing in it,
Sā ceva dhātu saṃvahati.
that element sustains them.
Katarā panesā dhātu nekkhammadhātu baladhātu kāci sampatti kāci micchattañca dhātu adhimuttā bhavanti.
What is that 1 It is the sensual-desire element,3 the renunciation element, the ill-will element,3 the non-ill-will element, the cruelty element 3 and the non-cruelty element that are believed in.
Aññatarā uttari na samanupassanti.
Any other element beyond [namely the undetermined element beyond the determined element (see M.iii, 63)] they do not see ;
Te tadevaṭṭhānaṃ mayā jarāmaraṇassa abhinivissa voharanti "idameva saccaṃ moghamañña"nti.
< obstinately misapprehending 4 and insisting upon that alone, they assert "Only this is the true, the other is wrong" ) (D.ii, 282),
Yathā bhagavā sakkassa devānamindassa bhāsitaṃ.
as was said by the Blessed One to Sakka Ruler of Gods.
Yaṃ tattha yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇaṃ.
118. Knowledge of how it is herein,
Idaṃ vuccati catutthaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
is called the fourth Power of a Perfect One.
Tattha yaṃyeva dhātu [yaṃ yadeva dhātuṃ (ka.)] seṭṭhanti taṃ taṃ kāyena ca vācāya ca ārambhanti cetasiko.
1 [5.Knowledge of Ripening of Action] 119. Herein, whatever element 1 [they believe] best, that they instigate through the body and through speech.
Ārambho cetanā kammaṃ kāyikā vācasikā ārambho cetasikattā kammantaraṃ tathāgato evaṃ pajānāti "iminā sattena evaṃ dhātukena evarūpaṃ kammaṃ kataṃ, taṃ atītamaddhānaṃ iminā hetunā tassa evarūpo vipāko vipaccati etarahi vipaccissati vā anāgatamaddhāna"nti.
The instigation is mental [choice] while the choice-as-action is is bodily and verbal. 2 Because of the mentalness of the instigation 3 a Perfect One understands the action-sequence thus " By this creature, who has such elements, such action was done, that being in the past period ; with this as cause, such ripening of it is ripening now or will ripen in the future period ".
Evaṃ paccuppannamaddhānaṃ pajānāti "ayaṃ puggalo evaṃdhātuko idaṃ kammaṃ karoti".
He understands the presently arisen period thus " This person, who has such elements, is doing this action
Taṇhāya ca diṭṭhiyā ca iminā hetunā na tassa vipāko diṭṭheyeva dhamme nibbattissati, upapajje vā"ti aparamhi vā pariyāye evaṃ pajānāti "ayaṃ puggalo evarūpaṃ kammaṃ karissati anāgatamaddhānaṃ, iminā hetunā tassa evarūpo vipāko nibbattissati, iminā hetunā yāni cattāri kammaṭṭhānāni idaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ paccuppannasukhaṃ āyatiṃ ca sukhavipākaṃ" - pe - iti ayaṃ atītānāgatapaccuppannānaṃ kammasamādānānaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso vipākavemattataṃ pajānāti uccāvacā hīnapaṇītatā, idaṃ vuccati kammavipākañāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
through craving and view; with this as cause, its ripening will be generated not only here and now but also either on the next reappearance or in some future state". He understands [the future period] thus " This person will do such action ; with this as cause such ripening of it will be generated". There are 4 (four undertakings 5 of action: (i) this kind of undertaking 5 of action has presently arisen pleasure and ripens as pleasure in the future ; (ii) ... etc. ... ) (cf. M. i, 305). 120. So he understands this past, future, and presently arisen undertaking of action as to cause and as to instance, and the variety in its ripening, and the highness and lowness, the inferiority and superiority [of creatures]. This is called the Knowledge of Ripening of Action, the fifth Power of a Perfect One.1
Tathā sattā yaṃ vā kammasamādānaṃ samādiyantā tattha evaṃ pajānāti imassa puggalassa kammādhimuttassa rāgacaritassa nekkhammadhātūnaṃ pāripūriṃ gacchanti, tassa rāgānugate suññamānassa paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ saṃkilissati, sace puna uttari vāyāmato jhānavodānagate mānase visesabhāgiyaṃ paṭipadaṃ anuyuñjiyati.
[6. Knowledge of Corruption, etc., in the cases of the Meditations, etc.] 121. Herein,1 whatever undertaking of action creatures are undertaking,2 therein he understands thus "When a person is a believer in [efficacy of] action and of lusting temperament, his cognizance(? ) 3 comes to fulfilment by means of the renunciation element. When he is occupied 4 with the field of lust, his first meditation 5 is corrupted ; but if he again makes further efforts, then he is purs11ing the way dealing with distinction [but doing so] on the mental level whose field of cleansing is the [first] meditation; for his meditation 6 is [then still] only of the kind dealing with loss.6
Tassa hi jhānabhāgiyaṃyeva paṭhamajjhāne ṭhitassa dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ vodānaṃ gacchati, tatiyañca jhānaṃ samāpajjitukāmassa somanassindriyaṃ cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati, tassa sā pīti avisesabhāgiyaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ ādissa tiṭṭhati.
Once steadied in the first meditation, then the second meditation comes to be his cleansing. And then, when he desires to enter upon the third meditation, the joy faculty invades his cognizance and remains steady. That happiness 7 of his remains steady indicating the third meditation but not as dealing with distinction.
Sace tassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
If he understands how the escape is in its case,
Tathāgatassa catutthajjhānaṃ vodānaṃ gacchatiyeva, catutthassa jhānassa hānabhāgiyā dhammā, te ca dhammā yattha pajāyanti yehi catutthajjhānaṃ vodānaṃ dissati.
then in the same way the fourth 8 meditation comes to be the cleansing too. [Now] there are the ideas [namely] the factors of the third meditation (see § 566) that deal with the loss of the fourth meditation, 9 and where these ideas are produced it is by [the surmounting of] them that the fourth meditation is indicated 10 as the cleansing.
Evaṃ ajjhāsayasamāpattiyā yā catasso samāpattiyo tīṇi vimokkhamukhāni aṭṭha vimokkhajhānānīti cattāri jhānāni vimokkhāti.
Similarly the Formless(? ) Attainments,11 the four Concentrations (? ), 12 the three Gateways to Liberation, and the eight Liberations. (i) Meditations: 11 the four Meditations.
Aṭṭha ca vimokkhā tīṇi ca vimokkhamukhāni.
(ii) Liberations: the eight liberations (M.ii, 12-13) and the three Gateways to Liberation (Ps.ii, 48).
Samādhīti cattāro samādhī – chandasamādhi vīriyasamādhi cittasamādhi vīmaṃsāsamādhīti.
(iii) Concentration: the four kinds of concentration (§ 595), namely concentration through will, concentration through energy, concentration through cognizance, and concentration through inquiry .
Samāpattiyo catasso ajjhāsayasamāpattiyo iti imesaṃ jhānānaṃ vimokkhasamāpattīti evarūpo saṃkileso rāgacaritassa puggalassa.
12 (iv) Attainments: the four Formless(?) Attainments.11 So when a person is of lusting temperament, such is the corruption of his meditations, liberations, [concentrations,] and attainments.13
Evaṃ dosacaritassa.
Likewise for one of hating temperament a
Mohacaritassa.
nd for one of deluded temperament.
Rāgacaritassa puggalassa evarūpaṃ vodānaṃ iti yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ asādhāraṇaṃ sabbasattehi.
And when a person is of lusting temperament, such is his cleansing.14 122. So knowledge of how it is herein, which is not shared [by disciples],1
Idaṃ vuccati chaṭṭhaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
is called the sixth Power of a Perfect One.
Tattha tathāgato evaṃ pajānāti lokikā dhammā lokuttarā dhammā bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ indriyaṃ nāmaṃ labhanti.
[7. Knowledge of the Disposition of Creatures' Faculties] 123. Herein, a Perfect One understands thus " Ideas belonging to worlds and ideas dissociated from worlds acquire the name ' faculty ' when dealing with keeping-in-being in dependence upon the plane of [respective] predominance.
Ādhipateyyabhūmiṃ upādāya balaṃ nāmaṃ labhanti thāmagataṃ mano manindriyaṃ taṃ upādāya.
They acquire the name 'power' in dependence upon the mind-faculty as confirmed mind-faculty (cf. Ps.i, 17) ;
Vīriyaṃ nāmaṃ labhanti ārambhadhātuṃ upādāya.
they acquire the name ' energy' in dependence upon the element of instigation (see S.v, 66) ",
Itissa deva evarūpaṃ ñāṇaṃ imehi ca dhammehi ime puggalā samannāgatātipi dhammadesanaṃ akāsi.
so such being his 1 knowledge, he also made the teaching of the True Idea thus " These persons are possessed of these ideas,
Ākārato ca vokārato ca āsayajjhāsayassa adhimuttisamannāgatānaṃ.
according to the mood and according to the constituent of the leaning and inclination in the beliefs they possess ".
Idaṃ vuccati parasattānaṃ parapuggalānaṃ indriyabalavīriyavemattataṃ ñāṇaṃ sattamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
124. This is called Knowledge of Variety in the Faculties, Powers, and Energy, of other creatures, other persons, the seventh Power of a Perfect One.
Tattha ca tathāgato lokādīsu ca bhūmīsu saṃyojanānañca sekkhānaṃ dvīhi balehi gatiṃ pajānāti, pubbenivāsānussatiyā atīte saṃsāre etarahi ca paccuppanne dibbacakkhunā cutūpapātaṃ iti imāni dve balāni dibbacakkhuto abhinīhitāni.
[8. The Recollection of Past Life, 9. The Heavenly Eye] 125. Herein, by means of two powers a Perfect One understands the destination, in the planes and the worlds, etc., of those who have fetters and of those who are Initiates, [understanding it] in the past roundabout by means of the Recollection of Past Life [and understanding their] decease and reappearance now in this presently arisen [ro11ndabout] by means of the Heavenly Eye. Thus these two powers are directed 1 to the Heavenly Eye:
So atītamaddhānaṃ dibbassa cakkhuno gocaro so etarahi sati gocaro iti attano ca paresaṃ ca pubbenivāsañāṇaṃ anekavidhaṃ nānappakārakaṃ paccuppannamaddhānaṃ dibbena cakkhunā imāni dve tathāgatabalāni, aṭṭhamaṃ pubbenivāso, navamaṃ dibbacakkhu.
that which 2 was the Heavenly Eye's province in the past period becomes Mindfulness's province now. 126. So there is knowledge of his own past life in various ways and different aspects, and of others in the present period by means of the Heavenly Eye. These are two Powers of a Perfect One : Past Life the eighth and the Heavenly Eye the ninth.
Puna caparaṃ tathāgato ariyapuggalānaṃ jhānaṃ vodānaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ pajānāti ayaṃ puggalo iminā maggena imāya paṭipadāya āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sacchikatvā upasampajja viharatīti iti attano ca āsavānaṃ khayaṃ ñāṇaṃ diṭṭhekaṭṭhānaṃ catubhūmimupādāya yāva navannaṃ arahantānaṃ āsavakkhayo odhiso sekkhānaṃ anodhiso arahantānaṃ.
[10. Knowledge of Exhaustion of Taints] 127. Again, a Perfect One understands the meditation of noble persons to be a cleansing and dealing with penetration thus " This person, having by means of this Path, by means of this Way, here and now verified and entered upon the heart-deliverance and understanding-deliverance that are taintless through exhaustion of taints, abides [therein]". Such is the knowledge about the exhaustion of [his] own taints and the appropriate four-plane [knowledge] of those coefficient with view 1 [exhausted by the Stream-Enterer] down to [that of those exhausted on the plane] of the nine kinds of Arahants (§ 94), the exhaustion of taints [occurring] limitedly 2 for Initiates and unlimitedly for Arahants.
Tattha cetovimutti dvīhi āsavehi anāsavā kāmāsavena ca bhavāsavena ca, paññāvimutti dvīhi āsavehi anāsavā diṭṭhāsavena ca avijjāsavena ca, imāsaṃ dvinnaṃ vimuttīnaṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇaṃ, idaṃ vuccati āsavakkhaye ñāṇaṃ.
Herein, heart-deliverance is taintless with respect to two taints, namely the taint of sensual desire and the taint of being, while understanding- deliverance is taintless with respect to two taints, namely the taint of views and the taint of ignorance. 128. The knowledge of these two deliverances, 1 how they come to be, is called Knowledge of Exhaustion of Taints,
Dasamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.
the tenth Power of a Perfect One.
20.Imesu dasasu balesu ṭhito tathāgato pañcavidhaṃ sāsanaṃ deseti saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ dassanabhāgiyaṃ bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ.
[The 4 Types of Thread as 5 Types] 129. Steadied in these ten Powers, a Perfect One teaches the Dispensation in five types [of teaching] thus: (1) that dealing with corruption, (2) that dealing with morality, (3a) that dealing with seeing, (3b) that dealing with keeping in being,1 and (4) that dealing with the Adept.
Tattha yo taṇhāsaṃkileso, imassa alobho nissaraṇaṃ.
[ 1. Corruption] 130. Herein, non-greed is the escape from corruption by craving (§ 82),
Yo diṭṭhisaṃkileso, imassa amoho nissaraṇaṃ.
non-delusion is the escape from corruption by view (§ 82),
Yo duccaritasaṃkileso, imassa tīṇi kusalāni nissaraṇaṃ.
and the three profitable [roots together] are the escape from corruption by misconduct (§ 82).
Kiṃ nidānaṃ?
Why?
Tīṇi imāni [tīṇi hi imāni (pī.)] manoduccaritāni – abhijjhā byāpādo micchādiṭṭhi.
Because there are these three kinds of mental misconduct, namely (i) covetousness, (ii) ill will, and (iii) wrong view.
Tattha abhijjhā manoduccaritaṃ kāyakammaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, adinnādānaṃ sabbañca tadupanibbaddhaṃ vācākammaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, musāvādañca sabbavitathaṃ sabbaṃ vācamabhāvaṃ sabbamakkhaṃ palāsaṃ abhijjhā akusalamūlanti, sucarite sucaritaṃ musāvādā adinnādānā abhijjhāya cetanā, tattha byāpādo manoduccaritaṃ kāyakammaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, pāṇātipātaṃ sabbañca metaṃ ākaḍḍhanaṃ parikaḍḍhanaṃ nibbaddhaṃ rocanaṃ vācākammaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, pisuṇavācaṃ pharusavācaṃ micchādiṭṭhi manoduccaritañca abhijjhaṃ byāpādaṃ micchādiṭṭhiṃ payojeti, tassa yo koci micchādiṭṭhi cāgo rāgajo vā dosajo vā sabbaso micchādiṭṭhi sambhūto iminā kāraṇena micchādiṭṭhiṃ upaṭṭhapeti, kāmesumicchācāraṃ vacīkammaṃ upaṭṭhapeti samphappalāpaṃ.
131. Herein, (i) covetousness as mental misconduct assists the bodily action consisting in taking-what-is-not-given, and it aids all the speech-action anchored thereto, namely false speech-all speech that denies reality and what is, all contempt and domineering-and [it aids] covetousness as a root of unprofit. In the case of the [corresponding] good conduct, the good conduct is the choice of abstention 1 from the false speech, from the taking-what-is-not-given, and from the covetousness. 132. Herein, (ii) ill will as mental misconduct aids the bodily action consisting in killing-breathing-things, and it aids all that verbal action consisting in refuting by "dragging to and dragging fro and jolting up" (cf. M. i, 228),1 [and] malicious speech [and] harsh speech. 133. (iii) Wrong view as mental misconduct gives purpose to (? ) wrong view, covetol1sness and ill will, and in one who has any wrong view at all, his misconduct (? ),1 whether born of lust or born of hate, is all given being by wrong view. It is for this reason that wrong view 2 aids misconduct in sensual desires. The speech-action it aids is gossip.
Imāni tīṇi duccaritāni akusalamūlāni.
134. These are the three kinds of misconduct. As to the unprofitable roots :
Yā abhijjhā, so lobho.
the covetousness is greed,
Yo byāpādo, so doso.
the ill will is hate,
Yā micchādiṭṭhi, so moho.
and the wrong view is delusion.
Tāni aṭṭha micchattāni upaṭṭhapenti.
These aid the eight Wrongnesses.
Tesu gahitesu tīsu akusalamūlesu dasavidhaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pāripūriṃ gacchati, tassa tividhassa duccaritasaṃkilesassa vāsanābhāgiyañca suttaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
It is when these three unprofitable roots are curbed that the tenfold profitable 1 comes to fulfilment. From that threefold corruption by misconduct(§§ 130-4) the type of Thread Dealing with Morality is the escape.
Tattha yo bahusito niddeso yathā lobho doso mohopi, tattha asituṃ ettha lobho ussado tena kāraṇena tesu vā dhammesu lobho paññapiyati.
135. Herein, 1 this demonstration is based on the plurality 2 [of covetousness, ill will, and wrong view ; and] it is in order for the greed, hate, and delusion also to correspond(? ); that greed has prominence (pride of place) here for that reason; or else greed [has it because it] is [normally so] described among those [three] ideas [considered as roots].
Tatthāyaṃ moho akusalaṃ moho ayaṃ avijjā, sā catubbidhā rūpe abhiniviṭṭhā, rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, avijjāgato rūpavantaṃ attānaṃ, attani vā rūpaṃ, rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ.
[2. Morality] 136. Herein, the unprofitable root delusion is ignorance. That has insisted on form in four ways : one who goes by ignorance ( sees form as self, or self possessing form, or form in self, or self in form ) (M. i, 300).
Tattha katamaṃ padaṃ sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā ucchedaṃ vadati "taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīra"nti natthikadiṭṭhi adhiccasamuppannadiṭṭhi ca añño ca karoti, añño paṭisaṃvediyati.
137. Herein, the first 1 term in [each of the four conjectures in] the embodiment-view belongs 2 with annihilationism [in the following ways:] (The soul is what the physical frame is) (M. i, 484), the no-existence [of giving, etc.] view (see M. i, 402), the fortuitous- arising view (D. i, 28), and [the view that] ( one acts, another experiences [the action's ripening]) (S. ii, 20).
Pacchimasaṭṭhikappānaṃ tīṇi padāni sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā sassataṃ bhajanti "aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīra"nti akiriyañca taṃ dukkhamicchato ahetukā ca patanti anajjhābhāvo ca kammānaṃ sabbañca mānayi [mānati (pī.)].
The last three terms of the self-conjectures 3 in the Embodiment-View (see § 136) belong with eternalism [in the following way:] (The soul is one, the physical frame another) (M. i, 484), and the no-causists (see M. iii, 78) fall [under this head] because of the likelihood that the doctrine of no-ought-to-be-done will being suffering (see § 82), and also the ineffectuality of actions, 4 [so (1)] is included (1).5
Tattha "idameva saccaṃ moghamañña"nti saṃsārena suddhi ājīvakā chaḷāsīti paññapenti.
138. Herein, the live-out-the-soul-ists 1 describe eighty-six (1) kinds of purification 2 through the roundabout (cf. M. i, 81) [misapprehending it thus:] (Only this is true, the other is wrong) (§ 117).
Yathārūpe sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā catuvatthukā, evaṃ pañcasu khandhesu vīsativatthukā sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā sassataṃ bhajati.
139. Herein, just as the embodiment-view has four grounds in form (§ 136),1 so it has twenty grounds in [all] the five categories.
Aññājīvakā ca sassatavādike ca sīlabbataṃ bhajanti parāmasanti iminā bhavissāmi devo vā devaññataro vā, ayaṃ sīlabbataparāmāso.
The soul-is-another-ists belong 2 with the eternalness of the embodiment- view and belong with the holders of the eternalist doctrine. They misapprehend virtue and duty thus: (By means of this ... I shall be some god or other) (§ 82). This is misapprehension of virtue and duty.
Tattha sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā so rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, "taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīra"miti taṃ kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati nābhippasīdati pubbante aparante pubbantāparante - pe - iti vāsanābhāgiyesu ṭhitassa ayaṃ upakkileso.
140. Herein, in the embodiment-view (he sees form as self)(§ 136), and he doubts, is uncertain, disbelieves, is not confident, about whether ( the soul is what the physical frame is ) (§ 137) in the future period and in the past period (see M. i, 8) : this is imperfection in one steadied in [matters only] dealing with morality.
21.Tattha saddhindriyena sabbaṃ vicikicchitaṃ pajahati, paññindriyena udayabbayaṃ passati, samādhindriyena cittaṃ ekodi karoti vīriyindriyena ārabhati.
[3a. Seeing] 141. Herein, he abandons all uncertainty by means of the faith faculty. He sees rise and subsidence by means of the understanding faculty. He gives cognizance singleness by means of the concentration faculty. He instigates by means of the energy faculty.
So imehi pañcahi indriyehi saddhānusārī aveccappasāde nirato anantariyaṃ samādhiṃ uppādeti.
By means of these five 1 faculties, as a follower by Faith (see § 86) he arouses the straight-resulting concentration (see Sn. 226), since he is certain 2 in the confidence that is due to undergoing (see M.i, 37 ; 320) ;
Indriyehi suddhehi dhammānusārī appaccayatāya anantariyaṃ samādhiṃ uppādeti.
and by means of these faculties when purified, as a Follower by Ideas (see § 86), he arouses the straight-resulting concentration owed to independence of others 3 (cf. M.i, 234),
So "idaṃ dukkha"nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
(he understands how it is that "This is Suffering", ... ), [and so with the other three] Truths 4 (M. i, 183).
Saccāni idaṃ dassanabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ.
This is the type of Thread Dealing with Seeing.
Tassa pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ tīṇi saṃyojanāni dassanapahātabbāni sabbena sabbaṃ pahīnāni dve puggalakatāni.
[3b. Keeping-in-Being] 142. Herein,1 of the five hither-side fetters (see D. iii, 234), three fetters (see M. i, 34) are abandonable by Seeing (see M. i, 7) ; [while the other] two [are] altogether abandoned 2 when done by two person-types.
Tattha tīṇi akusalamūlāni bhāvanāpahātabbāni uparikkhittāni cha bhave nibbattenti.
143. Herein, the three roots of unprofit abandonable by Keeping- in-Being, discarded [in the progressively] higher [stages], still generate six kinds of being.1
Tattha tesu abhijjhāya ca byāpādesu tanukatesu cha bhavā parikkhayā mariyādaṃ gacchanti, dve bhavā avasiṭṭhā.
144. Herein, when among these [three roots] covetousness and ill will have been attenuated,1 and six kinds of being have come to grips 2 with exhaustion, while two kinds of being 3 still remain.
Tassa abhijjhā ca byāpādo ca sabbena sabbaṃ parikkhīṇā honti.
When this covetousness and ill will are altogether exhausted
Eko bhavo avasiá¹­á¹­ho hoti.
and only one kind of being remains, 4
So ca mānavasena nibbatteti.
that being is generated by conceit.5
Kiñcāpi ettha aññepi cattāro kilesā rūparāgo bhavarāgo avijjā uddhaccaṃ ketusmimānabhūtā nappaṭibalā asmimānaṃ vinivattetuṃ, sabbepi te asmimānassa pahānaṃ ārabhate.
145. Now although here [in the Arahant Path, which is the last stage of the Initiate] there are also the other four [further-side fetters besides conceit], namely the defilements of lust-for-form, lust-for-being, ignorance, and agitation, since these are given their being by conceit as positionality,1 all [these seven kinds of Initiate] have no power to stop the conceit "I am", [and so] one should instigate the abandoning of the conceit " I am ".
Khīṇesu na ca tesu idamuttaridassanabhūmiyaṃ pañcasu sekkhapuggalesu tīsu ca paṭippannakesu dvīsu ca phalaṭṭhesu bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ.
But he whose taints are exhausted 2 [by his reaching the Arahant's Fruit] is beyond this. [ 4. The Adept] 146. While the [type of Thread] Dealing with Seeing 1 [has regard] to five kinds of Initiate persons, 2 and the type of Thread Dealing with Keeping-in-Being [has regard] to three who are practising the way and two who stand in the fruit, 3
Taduttari asekkhabhāgiyasuttaṃ, katthaci bhūmi nipīḷiyati.
beyond these there is the type of Thread Dealing with the Adept, which has regard to(?) the plane of Him Who Has Done, 4
Idañca pañcamaṃ suttaṃ.
and this is the fifth type of Thread.
Tiṇṇaṃ puggalānaṃ desitaṃ puthujjanassa sekkhassa asekkhassa saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ.
[The Ninefold Thread - General] 147. This Thread 1 [in general] is taught of three types of persons: of the ordinary man, of the Initiate, and of the Adept. That Dealing with Corruption and that Dealing with Morality
Puthujjanassa dassanabhāgiyaṃ.
[are taught] of the ordinary man, that Dealing with Seeing
Bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ pañcannaṃ sekkhānaṃ.
and that Dealing with Keeping-in-Being of the five kinds of Initiates(§ 146),
Yaṃ paṭhamaniddiṭṭhaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ sabbesaṃ arahantānaṃ.
and that Dealing with the Adept demonstrated last 2 (§ 146) of all Arahants.
Sā pana pañcavidhā sattavīsaākāre [sattavīsaṃ ākāre (pī.)] pariyesitabbaṃ.
148. Now 1 this [Thread shown above as] fivefold (§§ 130-146) can be sought in the twenty-seven moods (§ 72, nos.22-45 and 47-9),
Etesu tassa gatīnaṃ tato uttari.
its range being among those and not 1 beyond them.
Tañca kho saṅkhepena paññāsāya ākārehi sampatati, ye paññāsa ākārā sāsane niddiṭṭhā, te saṅkhipiyantā dasahi ākārehi patanti.
Again with abbreviation : that [Thread] falls into fifty 1 moods, which fifty moods demonstrated in the Dispensation, when abbreviated, fall into ten 1 moods, which,
Ye ariyasaccaṃ nikkhepena ṭhite saṅkhipiyattā aṭṭhasu ākāresu patanti.
while remaining in the presentation of the Noble Truths, fall into eight 1 moods, that is,
Catūsu ca sādhāraṇesu suttesu yā hārasampātassa bhūmi, te saṅkhipiyantā pañcasu suttesu patanti.
into the four [unshared and four] shared,2 which are the plane of the Modes of Conveying in Combined Treatment (Ch.VII).3 These when abbreviated fall into the five types of Threads,
Saṃkilesabhāgiye vāsanābhāgiye bhāvanābhāgiye nibbedhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca.
into that Dealing with Corruption, that Dealing with Morality, that Dealing with Seeing, 4 that Dealing with Keeping-in-Being, 4 and that Dealing with the Adept(§§ 130-146).
Te saṅkhipiyantā catūsu suttesu patanti.
These when abbreviated fall into the four types of Threads,
Saṃkilesabhāgiye vāsanābhāgiye nibbedhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca.
into that Dealing with Corruption, that Dealing with Morality, that Dealing with Penetration, and that Dealing with the Adept (§ 72, nos.1-4).
Te saṅkhipiyamānā tīsu suttesu patanti, puthujjanabhāgiye sekkhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca.
These when abbreviated fall into three types of Threads, into that Dealing with the Ordinary Man, that Dealing with the Initiate, and that Dealing with the Adept (cf.§ 147).
Te saṅkhipiyantā dvīsu suttesu patanti nibbedhabhāgiye ca pubbayogabhāgiye ca.
These when abbreviated fall into two types of Threads, into that Dealing with Penetration and that Dealing with Previous Devotion (§ 149),
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā dve atthavase sampassamānā tathāgatā arahanto sammāsambuddhā dhammaṃ desenti suttaṃ geyyaṃ - pe - satthā pubbayogasamannāgate appakasirena maññamānā vasiyanti pubbayogā ca bhavissanti santānaṃ maññamānādharāya.
according as it was said by the Blessed One : (It is with two aims in view that Perfect Ones, arahants and fully enlightened, teach the True Idea, that is, Thread, song,... etc.... The Teachers [do so] conceiving that tlwse possessed of previous devotion will easily attain mastery and conceiving that the previous devotion will [conduce] to creatures' remembering) ( ).5
Tattha paññāvemattataṃ attano samanupassamānena aṭṭhavidhe suttasaṅkhepe, yattha yattha sakkoti, tattha tattha yojetabbaṃ.
149. Herein, bearing in mind the idiosyncrasies of one's own understanding 1 in regard to the eightfold Thread-abbreviation,2 the construing can be done here and there wherever one is able,
Tattha tattha yojetvā suttassa attho niddisitabbo.
and after so construing [the phrasing] here and there, the Thread's meaning can then be demonstrated.
Na hi sati vedanā mano dhāretvā sakkā yena kenaci suttassa attho yathābhūtaṃ niddisituṃ.
150. No one can demonstrate how the Thread's meaning is without having lent an ear (1).1
Tattha purimakānaṃ suttānaṃ imā uddānagāthā
151. Here is a mnemonic verse for the first Threads :
Kāmandhā jālasañchannā, pañca nīvaraṇāni ca;
Caught in the net of sensual murk, And five in-shutting hindrances (§ 73) ;
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, mahānāmo ca sākiyo.
Ideas are heralded by mind, And then the Sakyan Mahanama (§ 74);
Uddhaṃ adho vippamutto, yañca sīlakimatthiyā;
Above, below, quite without lust, What is the various virtues' aim(§ 75);
Yassa selūpamaṃ cittaṃ, upatissa pucchādikā.
Whose cognizance is like a rock, The Upatissa Question
Yassa kāyagatāsati, channaṃ tamoparāyaṇo;
beginning "Whose mindfulness of body [is not]" (§ 76) ; Covered, dark dark-supreme-value (§ 77) ;
Na taṃ daḷhaṃ cetasikaṃ, ayaṃ lokotiādikaṃ.
That is not strong, and what is chosen 1 (§ 78) And " This world " and all the rest,
Cattāro ceva puggalā, dadato puññaṃ pavaḍḍhitaṃ;
And the four kinds of persons too (§ 79) ; Merit will grow for one who gives,
Sotānugatadhammesu, imā tesaṃ uddānagāthā.
And ideas entered by the ear (§ 80) : These are their mnemonic verse.
22.Tattha katamā āṇatti?
[2nd Grouping] 152. 9. Herein, what is Injunction?
Sace bhāyatha [udā. 44] dukkhassa, sace vo dukkhamappiyaṃ;
( Now if thou art afraid 1 of pain And pain thou findest disagreeable,
Mākattha pāpakaṃ kammaṃ, āvi vā yadi vā raho.
Then do no sort of evil act In public or in secrecy) (S. i, 209),
"Atīte, rādha, rūpe anapekkho hohī"ti vitthārena kātabbā.
[and] ( Radha, do not look back ... to past form ... ) ( cf. Netti 30) 2 can be quoted in detail.*//* 3
"Sīlavantena, ānanda, puggalena sadā karaṇīyā kintime avippaṭisāro assā"ti.
Ayaṃ vuccati āṇatti.
This is called Injunction.
Tattha katamaṃ phalaṃ?
3 153. 10. Herein, what is Fruit?
Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṃ, chattaṃ mahantaṃ yatha vassakāle;
( The True Ideal guards him that walks therein, As does a big umbrella, in time of rain ;
Esānisaṃso dhamme suciṇṇe, na duggatiṃ gacchati dhammacārī.
The Ideal's reward wlien walked in right is this: Who walks therein has no bad destination) (Ja.iv, 54), 1
Idaṃ phalaṃ.
This is Fruit.
Tattha katamo upāyo?
154. 11. Herein, what is Means?
"Sabbe dhammā [dha. pa. 279] anattā"ti, yadā paññāya passati;
([And then besides] not-self are all ideas": And so when he sees thus with understanding,
Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā.
He then dispassion finds in suffering ; This path it is that leads to purification ) (Dh.279),
"Sattahaṅgehi samannāgato kho, bhikkhu, api himavantaṃ pabbatarājānaṃ cāleyya, ko pana vādo chavaṃ avijjaṃ sattakesu" veyyākaraṇaṃ kātabbaṃ.
[and] the prose-exposition in the Sevens, namely (When a bhikkhu possesses seven factors, then even were Himalaya King of Mountains to move... what need to speak of mere -ignorance? ) (cf. A. iii, 311).
Ayaṃ upāyo.
This is Means.
Tattha katamā āṇatti ca phalañca?
155. 12. Herein, what is Injunction and Fruit? 1
Sace bhāyatha dukkhassa, sace vo dukkhamappiyaṃ;
( Now if thou art afraid of pain And pain thou findest disagreeable,
Mākattha pāpakaṃ kammaṃ, āvi vā yadi vā raho.
Then do no sort of evil act In public or in secrecy (§ 152).
Sace hi pāpakaṃ kammaṃ, karotha vā karissatha;
For if thou doest 2 and wilt do 2 An evil act [no matter what],
Na vo dukkhā pamokkhātthi, upaccāpi palāyataṃ [palāyato (pī.)].
Thou wilt no safety find from pain, Even by flight to future states ) (S.i, 209).
Purimikāya gāthāya āṇatti pacchimikāya phalaṃ.
The Injunction is in the first verse and the Fruit in the second.
Sīle patiṭṭhāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā yā ca cittabhāvanā yā ca paññābhāvanā yā ca āṇatti rāgavirāgā ca phalaṃ.
[And] (Two ideas should be kept in being by one established well in virtue ... ) (§ 54). The keeping of cognizance in being and the keeping of understanding in being are the Injunction and the 3 fading of lust is the Fruit.4
Tattha katamaṃ phalañca upāyo ca?
156. 14. Herein, what is Fruit and Means?
Sīle patiṭṭhāya [saṃ. ni. 1.23] naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayaṃ;
( When a wise man, established well in Virtue, Keeps Cognizance in being and Understanding,
Ātāpī nipako bhikkhu, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭaṃ.
Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious He succeeds in disentangling this tangle) (S.i, 13).
Purimikāya aḍḍhagāthāya upāyo, pacchimikāya aḍḍhagāthāya phalaṃ.
The Means is the first half-verse and the Fruit is the second half-verse.
Nandiyo [nandiko (pī. ka.)] sakko isivutthapuririkāmaekarakkhe [isivutta… (pī.)] suttaṃ mūlato upādāya yāva chasu dhammesu.
[And] Nandiya 1 the Sakyan desirous of abiding in the town dwelt in [for the Rains] by the Seer 2 : the Thread in the Elevens 3 (1) from the start dow11 to in regard to the Six Ideas
Uttari pañcasu dhammesu yācayogo [yo ca yogo (pī.)] karaṇīyo, ayaṃ upāyo.
and further in regard to the Five Ideas (A.v, 334-7). That which is the task to be done is the Means;
Asahagatassa kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ muccatīti.
that 4 his cognizance is liberated from the taint of sensual desire,
Sabbāsu chasu tīsu.
and from all taints (1) in the good destinations (1) 5 is the Fruit.5
Ayaṃ upāyo ca phalañca.
This is Fruit and Means.5
Tattha katamā āṇatti ca phalañca upāyo ca?
157. 15. Herein, what is Injunction and Fruit and Means?
Suññato lokaṃ avekkhassu, mogharāja sadā sato;
( Look upon the world as void, Mogharaja, constantly mindful;
Attānudiṭṭhiṃ uhacca [ūhacca (su. ni. 1125)], evaṃ maccutaro siyā.
With self-view thus eliminated You may outstrip Mortality) (Sn. 1119).
"Suññato lokaṃ avekkhassu, mogharājā"ti āṇatti.
"Look upon the world as void, Mogharaja " is the Injunction.
"Sadā sato"ti upāyo.
"Constantly mindful" is the Means.
"Attānudiṭṭhiṃ uhacca, evaṃ maccutaro siyā"ti phalaṃ.
"With self-view thus eliminated, You may outstrip Mortality" is the Fruit.
Samādhiṃ, bhikkhave, bhāvetha, samāhito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu rūpaṃ aniccanti pajānāti.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, keep concentration in being. Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu when concentrated understands form as impermanent.
Evaṃ passaṃ ariyasāvako parimuccati jātiyāpi - pe - upāyāsehipi idha tīṇipi".
Seeing thus, a noble hearer is liberated from birth ... etc. ... and despair ) (cf. S. iii, 13). Here also the three.1
23.Tattha katamo assādo?
158. 16. Herein, what is Gratification?
Kāmaṃ kāmayamānassa, tassa cetaṃ samijjhati.
( When a mortal desires, if his desire is fulfilled, ... ) (Sn.766),
Ayaṃ assādo.
"Dhammacariyā samacariyā kusalacariyā hetūhi, brāhmaṇa, evamidhekacce sattā kāyassa bhedā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti".
[and] (It is with True Ideal conduct, with righteous conduct, with profitable conduct, as the causes that one is divine. Thus it is that here some creatures on the dissolution of the body, ... reappear in a good destination, in the heavenly world) (cf. M. i, 285-6).
Ayaṃ assādo.
This is Gratification.
Tattha katamo ādīnavo?
159. 17. Herein, what is Disappointment?
Kāmesu ve haññate sabbā mucceva – ayaṃ ādīnavo.
< ... If his desires elude him, He becomes as deformed as if pierced by a barb)(§ 33), 1
Pasenadisaṃyuttake sutte pabbatopamā – ayaṃ ādīnavo.
[and] the Simile of the Mountain in the Pasenadi Samyutta (S.i, 100-102). This is Disappointment.
Tattha katamaṃ nissaraṇaṃ?
160. 18. Herein, what is Escape?
Yo kāme parivajjeti, sappasseva padā siro;
(He that shuns desires, as a snake's head with his foot,
Somaṃ visattikaṃ loke, sato samativattati.
And is mindful, evades this attachment to the world ) (Sn.768),
Saṃyuttake suttaṃ pāricchattako paṇḍupalāso sannipalāso – idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
[and] the Thread in the Samyutta: the Paricckattaka [tree (?)] with the bleached foliage, with the spear(? ) 1 foliage (cf. S. v, 238? ). This is Escape.
Tattha katamo assādo ca ādīnavo ca?
161. 19. Herein, what is Gratification and Disappointment?
Yāni [jā. 1.2.144 dukanipāte] karoti puriso, tāni attani passati;
( Whatever actions a man does, 'Tis those that he se,es in himself) ( ) ;
Kalyāṇakārī kalyāṇaṃ, pāpakārī ca pāpakaṃ.
(And good is for the doer of good And evil for the evil-doer ) (S.i, 227).61
Tattha yaṃ pāpakārī paccanubhoti ayaṃ assādo.
Herein, what the evil-doer experiences is [Disappointment, while what the doer of good experiences is] 1 Gratification.
Lābhālābhaaṭṭhakesu byākaraṇaṃ, tattha alābho ayaso nindā dukkhaṃ, ayaṃ ādīnavo.
[And] the prose-exposition in the Octads on ( Gain and non-gain, ) etc. (D.iii, 260). Herein, the non-gain, non-fame, censure, and pain, there are the Disappointment,
Lābho yaso sukhaṃ pasaṃsā, ayaṃ assādo.
while the gain, fame, praise, and pleasure, these are the Gratification.
Tattha katamaṃ assādo ca nissaraṇañca?
162. 20. Herein, what is Gratification and Escape?
"Sukho vipāko puññānaṃ, adhippāyo ca ijjhati;
( Merit's ripening is pleasant And brings success to one's intent,
Khippañca paramaṃ santiṃ, nibbānamadhigacchatī"ti.
And so one soon can reach the peace Supreme that is extinction ) ( ).
Yo ca vipāko puññānaṃ yā ca adhippāyassa ijjhanā, ayaṃ assādo.
The " merit's ripening " and the " success to one's intent " are the Gratification,
Yaṃ khippañca paramaṃ santiṃ nibbānamadhigacchati, idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
while that one can " soon reach the peace supreme that is extinction " is the Escape.
Bāttiṃsāya ceva mahāpurisalakkhaṇehi samannāgatassa mahāpurisassa dveyeva gatiyo honti, sace agāraṃ ajjhāvasati, rājā hoti cakkavattī yāva abhivijinitvā ajjhāvasati ayaṃ assādo.
[And] ( For a great man possessed of the thirty-two characteristics of a great man there are only two destinations ... ) (D.ii, 19). [From] "If he lives on in the household life, he becomes a Wheel- Turning Monarch ... " down to " ... he lives on after con- quering ... " is Gratification.
Sace agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati sabbena oghena [osadhena (pī. ka.)] nissaraṇaṃ ayaṃ assādo ca nissaraṇañca.
"If he goes forth from the household life into homelessness" is the Escape from all gratification (? ). 1 This is Gratification and Escape.
Tattha katamo ādīnavo ca nissaraṇañca?
163. 21. Herein, what is Disappointment and Escape?
Ādānassa [ādinnassa (ka.)] bhayaṃ ñatvā, jātimaraṇasambhavaṃ;
( Knowing fear of that assuming 1 Which gives birth and death their being,
Anādātuṃ nibbattati, jātimaraṇasaṅkhayā.
He generates no more assuming 2 With birth's and death's complete exhaustion) (cf. Sn.741).
Purimikāya aḍḍhagāthāya jātimaraṇasambhavo ādīnavo.
In the first half-verse the actual being of birth and death is the Disappointment.
Anādātuṃ nibbattati jātimaraṇasaṅkhayāti nissaraṇaṃ.
That he " generates no more assuming With birth's and death's complete exhaustion" is the Escape.
Kicchaṃ vatāyaṃ loko āpanno yamidaṃ jāyate ca mīyate ca.
[And] ( This world has surely happened upon woe since it is born and ...
Yāva kudassunāmassa dukkhassa anto bhavissati parato vāti ettha yā uparikkhā, ayaṃ ādīnavo.
dies ... down to ... how will there be an end to this suffering?) (S. ii, 104 ff.) or beyond. Here the scrutiny (S. ii, 104) is the Disappointment.
Yo gedhaṃ ñatvā abhinikkhamati yāva purāṇakāya rājadhāniyā, idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
From " he goes forth knowing wants " down to the " ancient city, a royal capital" (S.ii, 105) is the Escape.
Ayaṃ ādīnavo ca nissaraṇañca.
This is Disappointment and Escape.3
Tattha katamo assādo ca ādīnavo ca nissaraṇañca?
164. 22. Herein, what is Gratification and Disappointment and Escape?
Kāmā hi citrā vividhā [madhurā (theragā. 787)] manoramā, virūparūpehi mathenti cittaṃ;
(For pleasing sense-desires, many and varied, In many a different way constrain the heart; ...
Tasmā ahaṃ [theragā. 787] pabbajitomhi rāja, apaṇṇakaṃ sāmaññameva seyyo.
So I went forth to homelessness, o King, ... Best is the Monk's State Incontrovertible) (M.ii, 74).
Yaṃ "kāmā hi citrā vividhā manoramā"ti ayaṃ assādo.
As to [the words] "for pleasing sense-desires, many and varied", this is Gratification.
Yaṃ "virūparūpehi mathenti citta"nti ayaṃ ādīnavo.
As to "in many a different way constrain the heart", this is the Disappointment.
Yaṃ ahaṃ agārasmā pabbajitomhi rāja apaṇṇakaṃ sāmaññameva seyyoti idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
As to "So I went forth to homelessness, 0 King, ... Best is the Monk's State Incontro- vertible ", this is the Escape.
Balavaṃ bālopamasuttaṃ yaṃ āsāya vā vedanīyaṃ kammaṃ gāhati, tathā cepi yaṃ yaṃ pāpakammaṃ anubhoti, tattha dukkhavedanīyena kammena abhāvitakāyena ca yāva parittacetaso ca ādīnavaṃ dasseti sukhavedanīyena kammena assādeti.
[And] the Thread with the Simile of the Salt-Crystal 1 (A. i, 248-9) : according as 2 each action one does 3 is experienceable, so is its ripening 3 experienceable.3 Herein, by action experienceable as pain, he shows Disappointment [with the words] "By one who has not kept the body in being" down to "petty-hearted" 4 (see A. i, 248-9). By action experienceable as pleasure he shows Gratification, 5
Yaṃ purāsadiso hoti.
which is like the preceding [clause].
Bhāvitacitto bhāvitakāyo bhāvitapañño mahānāmo aparittacetaso, idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.
As to" One who has kept cognizance in being, kept the body in being, and kept understanding in being, is great in himself, 6 not petty-hearted " (A.i, 248-9), this is Escape.
24.Tattha katamaṃ lokikaṃ suttaṃ?
[3rd Grouping] 165. 23. Herein, what is the type of Thread Belonging to Worlds?
Na hi pāpaṃ kataṃ kammaṃ, sajjukhīraṃva muccati;
( For evil action when performed, Like new milk, does not turn [at once] ;
Ḍahantaṃ bālamanveti, bhasmacchannova [bhasmāchannova (ka.) passa dha. pa. 71] pāvako.
It follows like a lurking spark The fool, burning him later on) (Dh.71),
Cattāri agatigamanāni, idaṃ lokikaṃ suttaṃ.
[and] the four (Goings on a Bad Way) (A.ii, 18). This is the type of Thread Belonging to Worlds ...
Tattha katamaṃ lokuttaraṃ suttaṃ?
166. 24. Herein, what is the type of Thread Dissociated From Worlds?
"Yassindriyāni samathaṅgatāni [samathaṃ gatāni (pī.) passa dha. pa. 94], assā yathā sārathinā sudantā;
( Whose faculties are well and truly quieted, Like horses by a charioteer well trained,
Pahīnamānassa anāsavassa, devāpi tassa pihayanti tādino"ti.
With [all] conceit in him abandoned, taintless, Then even to the gods he will be dear) (Dh.94),
"Ariyaṃ vo, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhiṃ desessāmī"ti idaṃ lokuttaraṃ suttaṃ.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, I shall teach you the Noble Superior Right 1 Concentration) (M.iii, 71). This is the type of Thread Dissociated From Worlds.
Tattha katamaṃ lokikaṃ lokuttarañca suttaṃ?
167. 25. Herein, what is the type of Thread Belonging To Worlds and Dissociated From Worlds?
Sattiyā viya omaṭṭho, dayhamānova matthake;
Kāmarāgappahānāya, sato bhikkhu paribbaje.
A mindful bhikkhu sets about Abandoning lust for sense desires ) (S.i, 53).
"Sattiyā viya omaṭṭho, dayhamānova matthake"ti lokikaṃ;
"As pierced by a down-falling spear, As though he had his head on fire" belongs to worlds.
"Kāmarāgappahānāya, sato bhikkhu paribbaje"ti lokuttaraṃ;
"A mindful bhikkhu sets about Abandoning lust for sense desires " is dissociated from worlds.1
Kabaḷīkāre āhāre atthi chandoti lokikaṃ.
[And] ( Bkikkkus, if there is will for physical nutriment) (cf. S.ii, 101)
Natthi chandoti lokuttaraṃ suttaṃ.
belongs to worlds, while (If there is no will [for it] ) is dissociated from worlds.
Tattha katamaṃ kammaṃ?
168. 26. Herein, what is Action?
Yo pāṇamatipāteti, musāvādañca bhāsati;
(Someone who kills a breathing thing, Who spooks false speech,
Loke adinnaṃ ādiyati [ādiyi (ka.) passa a. ni. 5.174], paradārañca gacchati.
who in the world Takes [to himself] what is not given, Who goes too with another's wife,
Surāmerayapānañca, yo naro anuyuñjati;
Who has the habit to indulge In drinking spirituous liquor) (Dh.246-7),
Appahāya pañca verāni, dussīlo iti vuccati.
( Unless he these five risks 1 abandons, He is proclaimed unvirtuous) ( ),
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, duccaritāni.
[and] ( Bkikkhus, there are these three kinds of misconduct) (§ 26).
Idaṃ kammaṃ.
This is Action.
Tattha katamo vipāko?
169. 27. Herein, what is Ripening?
Saṭṭhivassasahassāni, yathārūpī vipaccagā.
(Full sixty thousand years gone by) (Ja.iii, 47) (In ripening in suck a form) ( ),
"Diṭṭhā mayā, bhikkhave [saṃ. ni. 4.135], cha phassāyatanikā nāma nirayā.
[and] ( Bhikkkus, there are [the hells] with the six bases for contact" bkikkhus, whatever are [the hells] with the six bases providing contact are all) (cf.S.iv, 126).1
Diṭṭhā mayā, bhikkhave, cha phassāyatanikā nāma saggā".
Ayaṃ vipāko.
This is Ripening.
Tattha katamaṃ kammañca vipāko ca?
170. 28. Herein, what is Action and Ripening?1
Ayasāva malaṃ samuṭṭhitaṃ, tatuṭṭhāya tameva khādati;
( As the rust-stain that grows out of the iron Devours the iron wherefrom it takes its growth,
Evaṃ atidhonacārinaṃ, sāni kammāni nayanti duggatiṃ.
So too are led habitual transgressors By their own acts to evil destinations) (§ 31).
Ayasāva malaṃ samuṭṭhitaṃ, yāva sāni kammānīti idaṃ kammaṃ.
[Here from] " As the rust-stain that grows out of the iron " down to " by their own acts " is Action.
Nayanti duggatinti vipāko.
" Aie led ... to evil destinations " is Ripening.
Catūsu sammāpaṭipajjamāno mātari pitari tathāgate tathāgatasāvake yā sammāpaṭipatti, idaṃ kammaṃ.
[And] ( When one practises the way rightly with regard to four, namely mother, father, a Perfect One, and a Perfect One's disciple) (A.ii, 4) : the practice of the way rightly is Action,
Yaṃ devesu upapajjati, ayaṃ vipāko.
while that [thereby] he reappears among gods is Ripening.
Idaṃ kammañca vipāko ca.
This is Action and Ripening.
25.Tattha katamaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ suttaṃ?
171. 29. Herein, what is the Demonstrated type of Thread?
Nelaṅgo setapacchādo, ekāro vattatī [vattate (ka.) udā. 65] ratho;
( With faultless parts and a white awning The chariot turns on a single spoke ;
Anīghaṃ passa āyantaṃ, chinnasotaṃ abandhanaṃ;
See how it moves quite undisturbed : The stream is cleft, there are no bonds) {S.iv, 291),
Yaṃ vā cittaṃ samaṇesu, cittāgahapati dissati.
and the meaning 1 [thereof] that the householder Citta demonstrated to the monks (S.iv, 292):
Evaṃ imāya gāthāya niddiṭṭho attho.
this is how the meaning of this verse was demonstrated.
Gopālakopame ekādasa padāni.
[And] the eleven terms in the Cattle-Herd Simile (§ 53):
Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu rūpaññū hoti.
(That is how a bhikkhu perceives form ...
Yā ca atirekapūjāya pūjetā hotīti.
down to ... 2 [how he] makes extra offerings ) (§ 53),
Imāni ekādasa padāni yathābhāsitāni niddiṭṭho attho.
these eleven terms, as stated, are the meaning demonstrated of the simile.
Tattha katamo aniddiá¹­á¹­ho attho?
172. 30. Herein, what is an Undemonstrated meaning?
Sukho viveko tuá¹­á¹­hassa, sutadhammassa passato;
( Seclusion is bliss for one content, And who has heard the truth, who sees.
Abyāpajjaṃ [abyāpajjhaṃ (pī. ka.) passa udā. 11] sukhaṃ loke, pāṇabhūtesu saṃyamoti.
Non-afflction is bliss in the world, Restraint towards [all] breathing things.
Sukhā virāgatā loke, kāmānaṃ samatikkamo;
Fading of lust is bliss in the world Surmounting sensual desires.
Asmimānassa yo vinayo, etaṃ ve paramaṃ sukhanti.
Outguiding the Conceit" I am", That indeed is the bliss supreme) (Ud.10) :
Idaṃ aniddiṭṭhaṃ.
This is Undemonstrated.
Aṭṭha mahāpurisavitakkā.
[And] the (Eight Thoughts of a Great Man) (A.iv, 229):
Idaṃ aniddiṭṭhaṃ.
this is Undemonstrated.
Tattha katamaṃ niddiṭṭhañca aniddiṭṭhañca?
173. 31. Herein, what is Demonstrated and Undemonstrated?
Pasannanetto [su. ni. 555] sumukho, brahā uju patāpavā;
( With clear eyes, with countenance bright, Majestic, erect as a flame, In the
Majjhe samaṇasaṅghassa, ādiccova virocasi.
midst of this body of monks Thou shinest like unto the sun ) (Sn.550).
Pasannanetto yāva ādiccova virocasīti niddiṭṭho.
[From] "With clear eyes" down to "Thou shinest like unto the sun " is Demonstrated.
Pasannanetto yo bhagavā kathañca pana pasannanettatā, kathaṃ sumukhatā, kathaṃ brahakāyatā, kathaṃ ujukatā, kathaṃ patāpavatā, kathaṃ virocatāti aniddiṭṭho.
That he with the clear eyes is the Blessed One, and how he has clear eyes, how he has a fine face, how he has a divine body, how he is erect as a flame, 1 and how he shines, is Undemonstrated.
Pheṇapiṇḍopamaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ yathā pheṇapiṇḍo evaṃ rūpaṃ yathā pubbuḷo evaṃ vedanā māyā viññāṇaṃ pañcakkhandhā pañcahi upamāhi niddiṭṭhā.
[And] the prose-exposition of the Lump-of-Froth Simile (S. iii, 140 f.): By " as a lump of froth is, so is form ; as a bubble is, so is feeling ; ... down to ... consciousness" the five categories are Demonstrated with the five similes.
Kena kāraṇena pheṇapiṇḍopamaṃ rūpaṃ sabbañca cakkhuviññeyyaṃ yaṃ vā catūhi āyatanehi?
But the reason why 2 form is similar to a lump of froth, and whether it is all [the kind that is] cognizable by the eye [only] or [also] that cognizable by the [other] four bases, [namely ear, nose, tongue, and body] .
Kathaṃ vedanā pubbuḷūpamā?
and how feeling is similar to a bubble,
Katarā ca sā vedanā sukhā dukkhā adukkhamasukhā?
and which kind of feeling it is, whether pleasant, painful, or neither- painful-nor-pleasant:
Evamesā aniddiṭṭhā.
this is Undemonstrated
Evaṃ niddiṭṭhañca aniddiṭṭhañca.
That is how it is Demonstrated and Undemonstrated.
26.Tattha katamaṃ ñāṇaṃ?
174. 32. Herein, what is Knowledge?
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasmiṃ, yāyaṃ nibbedhagāminī;
( Best in the world is understanding, The kind that deals with penetration, 1
Yāya [yāyaṃ (ka.) passa itivu. 41] sammā pajānāti, jātimaraṇasaṅkhayaṃ.
The kind that rightly understa1ids The exhaustion of birth and death) (cf.iti.35),
Tīṇimāni indriyāni anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ aññindriyaṃ aññātāvindriyaṃ, idaṃ ñāṇaṃ.
[and] (There these three faculties, the I-shall-come-to-know-finally- tlie-as-yet-not-finally-known faculty, the act-of-final-knowing faculty, and the final-knower faculty) (S. v, 204). This is Knowledge.
Tattha katamaṃ neyyaṃ?
175. 33. Herein, what is the Knowable?
Kāmesu [udā. 63] sattā kāmasaṅgasattā, saṃyojane vajjamapassamānā;
( Clung to desires, clung with sensual clinging, Seeing nothing blameworthy in fetters,
Na hi jātu saṃyojanasaṅgasattā, oghaṃ tareyyuṃ vipulaṃ mahantaṃ.
Assuredly those clung with fetter-clinging Will never cross the vast abounding flood) (Ud.75),
Catūhi aṅgehi samannāgatā kāyassa bhedā devesu uppajjanti.
[and] (Possessed of four factors, on the dissolution of the body, ... they reappear among the gods ),
Udāne kāpiyaṃ suttaṃ apaṇṇakapasādanīyaṃ – idaṃ neyyaṃ.
namely the Kapiya (1) Thread in the Udana on the Incontrovertible Confidence ( ).This is the Knowable.
Tattha katamaṃ ñāṇañca neyyañca?
176. 34. Herein, what is Knowledge and the Knowable?
Sabbe dhammā anattāti, yadā paññāya passati;
( [And then besides] not-self are all ideas : And so when he sees thus with understanding,
Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā.
He then dispassion finds in suffering: This path it is that leads to purification) (§ 154).
Yadā passatīti ñāṇaṃ.
"When he sees" is Knowledge.
Yo sabbadhamme anattākārena upaṭṭhapeti idaṃ neyyaṃ.
When he establishes all ideas in the mood of not-self, this is the Knowable.
Cattāri ariyasaccāni, tattha tīṇi neyyāni maggasaccaṃ sīlakkhandho ca paññākkhandho ca, idaṃ ñāṇañca neyyañca.
[And] the (four Noble Truths) (S. v, 425). Herein, three are the Knowable, while, as to the Path Truth, the Virtue Category and Understanding Category are Knowledge.
27.Tattha katamaṃ dassanaṃ?
177. 35. Herein, what is Seeiing?1
Eseva maggo [dha. pa. 274 dhammapade] natthañño, dassanassa visuddhiyā;
(This is the only path, no other, For the purification of seeing,
Etañhi tumhe paṭipajjatha, mārassetaṃ pamohanaṃ.
So do you practise the way therein : This is bewilderment of Mara) (cf.§ 41),
Catūhi aṅgehi samannāgato ariyasāvako attanāva [attanāyeva (ka.) saṃ. ni. 5.1003] attānaṃ byākareyya "khīṇanirayomhi yāva sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo"ti.
[and] ( When a noble hearer is possessed of...four factors ... , he could ... declare himself to himself thus : " I have exhausted [risk of birth in] the hells... down to ... I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer inseparable from the idea of perdition, certain [of rightness], bound for enlightenment) (A. v, 182).
Idaṃ dassanaṃ.
This is Seeing.
Tattha katamā bhāvanā?
178. 36. Herein, what is Keeping-in-Being?
Yassindriyāni subhāvitāni, ajjhattaṃ bahiddhā ca sabbaloke;
( Whose faculties are well maintained in being As to himself, without, and to all the world) (Sn.516)
So puggalo mati ca rūpasaññī, sumohagatā na jānāti [kiṃsu mohagatānu jānāti (ka.)].
( Being a person of wit, 1 perceptive of form, How then shall the deluded come to know him?) ( ),
Cattāri dhammapadāni – anabhijjhā abyāpādo sammāsati sammāsamādhi.
[and] (Four traces of the True Idea: non-covetousness ... non-ill- will ... right mindfulness ... right concentration ... ) (A.ii, 29).
Ayaṃ bhāvanā.
This is Keeping-in-Being.
Tattha katamaṃ dassanañca bhāvanā ca?
179. 37. Herein, what is Seeing and Keeping-in-Being?
Vacasā manasātha kammunā ca, aviruddho sammā viditvā [viditvāna (ka.) su. ni. 367] dhammaṃ;
(He that opposes none in word or mind Or [bodily] act, who knows the True Idea,
Nibbānapadābhipatthayāno, sammā so loke paribbajeyya.
Aspiring to the state [that brings] extinction: 'Tis he can wander rightly in the world) (Sn.365),
Sotāpattiphalaṃ sacchikātukāmena katame dhammā manasikātabbā, bhagavā āha pañcupādānakkhandhā.
[and] (How many ideas must be given attention by one who desires to verify the fruit of Stream-Entry?) the Blessed One said ( The Five Categories for assumption ) ( ).
Idaṃ dassanañca bhāvanā ca.
This is Seeing and Keeping-in-Being.
28.Tattha katame vipākadhammadhammā?
180. 38. Herein, what is Ideas Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening?
Yāni karoti purisoti vitthāro.
( Whatever actions a man does ... > (§ 161), [and]
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, sucaritāni.
( Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of good conduct) (Iti.55).
Ime vipākadhammadhammā.
This is Ideas Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening.
Tattha katame navipākadhammadhammā?
181. 39. Herein, what is Ideas Not Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening?
Rūpaṃ vedayitaṃ saññā, viññāṇaṃ yā ceva cetanā;
( Form, and the felt, and then perception, And consciousness, and choice besides:
Nesohamasmi na meso attā, iti diṭṭho virajjati.
" This is not I, nor this my self", When he sees thus his lust fades out) ( ),1 [and]
Pañcime, bhikkhave, khandhā – ime navipākadhammadhammā.
( Bhikkhus, there are these five categories) (cf. S.iii, 47). This is Ideas Not Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening.
Tattha katamo nevavipāko navipākadhammadhammo?
182. 40. Herein, what is the Idea neither Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening nor Not Inseparable from the Idea of Ripening?
"Ye evaṃ paṭipajjanti, nayaṃ buddhena desitaṃ;
( Those who shall practise in this way The guide-line by the Buddha taught
Te dukkhassantaṃ karissanti, satthusāsanakārakā"ti.
Will make an end of suffering And carry out the Master's message) ( ).
Iti yā ca sammāpaṭipatti yo ca nirodho, ubhayametaṃ nevavipāko navipākadhammo.
So the right 1 practice and cessation are both the Idea-neither inseparable-from-the-idea-of-ripening-nor-not-inseparable-from-the idea-of-ripening.
Brahmacariyaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi, brahmacariyaphalāni ca brahmacariyañca ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo brahmacariyaphalāni sotāpattiphalaṃ yāva arahattaṃ.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a divine life and the fruits of a divine life) ( ). [Here] 2 the divine life is the Noble Eight-factored Path, while the fruits of the divine life are the fruit of Stream-Entry down to that of Arahantship.
29.Tattha katamaṃ sakavacanaṃ?
183. 41. Herein, what is Our Own Statement?
Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā;
( No doing any kind of evil, Perfecting profitable skill,
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.
And purifying one's own heart: This is the Buddha's dispensation) (Dh.183),
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, vimokkhamukhāni.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three Gateways to Liberation) 1 ( ).
Idaṃ sakavacanaṃ.
This is Our Own Statement.
Tattha katamaṃ paravacanaṃ?
184. 42. Herein, what is Someone Else's Statement?
Natthi puttasamaṃ pemaṃ, natthi goṇasamitaṃ dhanaṃ;
(There is no loved one equal to one's child, There are no riches equal to one's cattle,
Natthi sūriyasamā ābhā, samuddaparamā sarā.
No radiance is equal to the sun, The sea is sure the greatest of the waters) (S.i, 6),
Hetunā mārisā kosiyā subhāsitena saṅgāmavijayo sopi nāma, bhikkhave, sakko devānamindo sakaṃ phalaṃ paribhuñjamānoti vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
[and] ( Kosiya, good sir, let there be 1 victory in battle by what is well spoken) (cf.S.i, 22, line 25) [with) (In fact, bhikkhus, this Sakka Ruler of Gods, making use of his own merit's fruit ... ) (cf. S. i, 22, line 13) can be quoted in detail.
Idaṃ paravacanaṃ.
This is Someone Else's Statement.
Tattha katamaṃ sakavacanañca paravacanañca?
185. 43. Herein, what is Our Own Statement and Someone Else's Statement?
"Yaṃ pattaṃ yañca pattabbaṃ, ubhayametaṃ rajānukiṇṇaṃ;
( What is [already] reached and is [still] to be reached are both contaminated with dirt [in him who trains as one [still] sick] ...
Ye evaṃvādino natthi, tesaṃ kāmesu doso"ti.
For those with such a doctrine ... there is no harm in sense-desires ) (Ud.71).
Idaṃ paravacanaṃ.
This is Someone Else's Statement.
Ye ca kho te ubho ante anupagamma vaṭṭaṃ tesaṃ natthi paññāpanāya.
[Then]
Idaṃ sakavacanaṃ.
This is Our Own Statement.
"Nandati puttehi puttimā, gomā gohi [bhogiko bhogehi (pī.) saṃ. ni. 1.12] tatheva nandati;
[And] < A man with children finds relish through his children, And a property-owner likewise through his property.
Upadhī hi narassa nandanā, na hi so nandati yo nirūpadhī"ti – paravacanaṃ.
Tliese essentials of existence are a man's relish ; Who has them not will never relish find) (cf. Sn.33), which is Someone Else's Statement,
"Socati puttehi puttimā, gomā gohi tatheva socati;
while ( A man with children finds sorrow through his children, And a callle-owner likewise through his cattle.
Upadhī hi narassa socanā, na hi so socati yo nirūpadhī"ti – sakavacanaṃ.
These essentials of existence are a man's sorrow ; Who has them not shall never sorrow find) (Sn. 34) is Our Own Statement.
Idaṃ sakavacanaṃ paravacanañca.
This is Our Own Statement and Another's Statement.
30.Tattha katamaṃ sattādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
186. 44. Herein, what is Expressed in Terms of Creatures?
Ye keci bhūtā bhavissanti ye vāpi, sabbe gamissanti pahāya dehaṃ;
Taṃ sabbajāniṃ kusalo viditvā, dhamme [ātāpiyo (udā. 42)] ṭhito brahmacariyaṃ careyya.
A skilled man knowing all that loss Would lead the True Ideal Life Divine) (cf.Ud. 48),
Tayome, bhikkhave, satthāro, tathāgato arahaṃ sekkho paṭipado.
[and] < Bhikkhus, tliere are three kinds of teachers: an accomplished Perfect One, an Initiate, and one practising the way ) ( ).
Idaṃ sattādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is Expressed in Terms of Creatures.
Tattha katamaṃ dhammādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
187. 45. Herein, what is Expressed in Terms of Ideas?
Yañca kāmasukhaṃ [udā. 12] loke, yañcidaṃ diviyaṃ sukhaṃ;
< What sensual bliss is in the world Or what the bliss in heaven [then],
Taṇhakkhayasukhassete, kalaṃ nāgghanti soḷasiṃ.
All is not worth a sixteenth part Of bliss come with exhausted craving) (Ud.11),
Sattime, bhikkhave, bojjhaṅgā, idaṃ dhammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these seven enlightenment factors) (§ 41).
Tattha katamaṃ sattādhiṭṭhānañca dhammādhiṭṭhānañca?
188. 46. Herein, what is Expressed in Terms of Creatures and Expressed in Terms of Ideas?
Duddasamantaṃ saccaṃ duddaso paṭivedho bālehi, jānato passato natthi nandīti vadāmi.
( Unbiassed Truth is hard to see, Penetration hard for fools to see, For one who knows, for him that sees, There is no relishing, I say) (cf. Ud.80).1
Duddasamantaṃ saccaṃ duddaso paṭivedho bālehīti dhammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
" Unbiassed Truth is hard to see, Penetration hard for fools to see " is Expressed in Terms of Ideas,
Jānato passato natthi nandīti sattādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
while " For one who knows, for him that sees, there is no relishing, I say" is Expressed in Terms of Creatures.
Dārukkhandhopamaṃ gaṅgāya tīriyā orimañca tīraṃ pārimañca tīraṃ thale vā [thaleva ca (ka.) saṃyuttanikāye] na ca ussīdanaṃ, majjhe ca na saṃsīdanaṃ manussaggāho ca amanussaggāho ca antopūtibhāvo ca, idaṃ dhammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[And] the Simile of the Balk of Timber on the Banks of the Ganges (S. iv, 179-180): the" near bank", the" further bank", the being " thrown up on dry land ", the " foundering in the middle ", the being " seized by non-human beings ", and the "becoming rotten with" (S. iv, 179) are Expressed in Terms of Ideas.
Evaṃ pana bhikkhu nibbānaninno bhavissati nibbānaparāyaṇoti sattādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[The phrase] " Thus a bhikkhu will be inclined to extinction " (S. iv, 179) is Expressed in Terms of Creatures.
Idaṃ sattādhiṭṭhānañca dhammādhiṭṭhānañca.
This is Expressed in Terms of Creatures and Expressed in Terms of Ideas.2
Tattha katamo thavo?
189. 47. Herein, what is Eulogy?
Maggānaṭṭhaṅgiko seṭṭho, saccānaṃ caturo padā;
( The Eightfold Path is the best of paths, The four States are the best of truths,
Virāgo seṭṭho dhammānaṃ, dvipadānañca cakkhumā.
Fading of Lust the best Ideal, And One with Vision the best of bipeds) (Dh.273),
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, aggāni – buddho sattānaṃ, virāgo dhammānaṃ, saṅgho gaṇānaṃ.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three foremost things ...) (cf. Iti. 87-8): of creatures, an Enlightened One; of ideas, the Fading of Lust ; of societies, the Community.
Ayaṃ thavo.
This is Eulogy.
31.Tattha katamaṃ anuññātaṃ?
190. 48. Herein, what is the Agreed?
Kāyena [dha. pa. 361] saṃvaro sādhu, sādhu vācāya saṃvaro;
( Good is bodily restraint, Good too is restraint of speech,
Manasā saṃvaro sādhu, sādhu sabbattha saṃvuto;
Good as well restraint of mind : Everywhere restraint is good.
Sabbattha saṃvuto bhikkhu, sabbadukkhā pamuccati.
Everywhere restrained, a bhikkhu Is released from every pain) (Dh. 361).
Idaṃ bhagavatā anuññātaṃ.
This is agreed by the Blessed One.
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, karaṇīyāni – kāyasucaritaṃ vacīsucaritaṃ manosucaritaṃ.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three [things] to be done... Bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, mental good conduct ) ( ).
Idaṃ anuññātaṃ.
This is the Agreed.
Tattha katamaṃ paṭikkhittaṃ?
191. 49. Herein, what is the Refused?
Natthi puttasamaṃ pemaṃ.
( There is no loved one equal to one's child, ... > (§ 184)
Vitthāro idaṃ paṭikkhittaṃ.
in detail. This is the Refused.
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, akaraṇīyāni sayaṃ abhiññāya desitāni.
[And] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three [things] not to be done, which are taught [by me] after acquaintance [with them].
Katamāni tīṇi?
What [three]?
Kāyaduccaritaṃ vacīduccaritaṃ manoduccaritaṃ.
Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct ) ( ).
Idaṃ paṭikkhittaṃ.
This is the Refused.
Tattha katamaṃ anuññātañca paṭikkhittañca?
192. 50. Herein, what is the Agreed and Refused?
Kāyena kusalaṃ kare, assa kāyena saṃvuto;
( Let him do 1 profit by the body ; His body being then restrained,
Kāyaduccaritaṃ hitvā, kāyasucaritaṃ care.
Leaving misconduct by the body, Let him pursue good bodily conduct ) ( ).
Dvīhi paṭhamapadehi catutthena ca padena anujānāti.
With the first two lines and with the fourth he agrees,
Kāyaduccaritaṃ hitvāti tatiyena padena paṭikkhittanti.
while with the third line-( Leaving misconduct by the body )-he refuses.
Mahāvibhaṅgo aciratapānādo.
[And] the four persons (?) in the Great Analysis [of Action] 2 (M.Sutta 136).
Tatthimā uddānagāthā
193. Herein, these are the mnemonic verses :
Sace bhāyasi dukkhassa, mābhinandi anāgataṃ;
Now if thou art afraid of pain (§ 152a), And have no relish for the future(§ 152b);
Vassakāle yathā chattaṃ, kusalāni kamatthake.
Like an umbrella in time of rain(§ 153a), What purpose has the profitable 1 1 (§ 153b);
Sabbe dhammā anattāti, samāgataṃ vicālaye;
(1) And then not-self are all ideas (§ 154), It would not move a man possessing 2 (§ 154);
Na vo dukkhā pamokkhātthi, samatho ca vipassanā.
Thou wilt no safety find from pain (§ 155), And also quiet and insight too (§ 155) ;
Kāmacchandaṃ upādāya, yo so vitakkehi khajjati;
(2) Owing to lust for sense-desires He is devoured by his thoughts 3 (§ 156b ),
Subhāvitatte bojjhaṅge, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭaṃ.
Enlightenment Factors kept in being, He the tangle disentangles (§ 156a) ;
Suññato lokaṃ avekkhassu, samādhibhāvi bhāvase;
(3) Then look upon the world as void (§ 157), And keep in being concentration 4 (§ 157) ;
Kāmaṃ kāmayamānassa, dhammacariyāya sugatiṃ.
If his desires when desiring (§ 158), Good destination from true conduct 5 (§ 158);
Haññate sabbā mucceva, nippoṭhento catuddisā;
(4) Deformed as if pierced by a barb 6 (§ 159), Crushing from all the four directions (§ 159) ;
Yo kāme parivajjeti, pārichattopameva ca.
And also he that shuns desires (§ 160), The Paricchattaka Simile(§ 160);
Yāni karoti puriso, lokadhammā pakāsitā;
(5) Whatever actions a man does(§ 161), The worldly eight ideas displayed (§ 161) ;
Sukho vipāko puññānaṃ, tatiyaṃ aññaṃ na vijjati.
And merit's ripening is pleasant (§ 162), No third alternative exists (§ 162);
Ādānassa bhayaṃ ñatvā, jāyate jīyatepi ca;
Knowing the fear from that ass11ming (§ 163), That is it born and that it dies (§ 163) ;
Kāmā hi citrā vividhā, atha loṇasallopamaṃ.
Sense-desires are many and varied(§ 164), The Simile of the Salt-Crystal 7 (§ 164);
Na hi pāpaṃ kataṃ kammaṃ, agatīhi ca gacchati;
For evil actions when performed (§ 165), And he that goes by the bad ways(§ 165);
Yassindriyāni samathaṅgatāni, tatheva pañcañāṇiko.
Whose faculties are truly quieted (§ 166), And the Noble (?)concentration (?) 8 (§ 166b) ;
Sattiyā viya omaṭṭho, viññāṇañca patiṭṭhitā;
(8) As pierced by a down-falling spear(§ 167), When consciousness has a steadying-point 9 (§ 167);
Yo pāṇamatipāteti, tīṇi duccaritāni ca.
Someone who kills a breathing thing(§ 168), And then misconduct of three kinds(§ 168);
Saṭṭhivassasahassāni, khaṇaṃ laddhāna dullabhaṃ;
(9) Full sixty thousand years gone by(§ 169), And difficult to find the moment 10 (§ 169b);
Ayasāva malaṃ samuṭṭhitaṃ, catūsu paṭipattisu.
And as the stain upon the iron (§ 170), And in the four Right Practices (§ 170) ;
Nelaṅgo setapacchādo, atha gopālakopamaṃ;
(10) With faultless parts and a white awning (§ 171 }, The Simile of the Cattle-Owner(§ 171);
Sukho viveko tuṭṭhassa, vitakkā ca sudesitā.
Seclusion bliss for the contented (§ 172), And when the [eight] thoughts are well taught(§ 172);
Pheṇapiṇḍopamaṃ rūpaṃ, brahā uju patāpavā;
(11) The Simile of the Lump of Froth (§ l 73b) 11 With clear eyes and bright countenance(§ 173a); 11
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasmiṃ, anaññā tīṇi indriyāni.
Best in the world is understanding (§ 17 4 }, Three faculties with none besides(§ 174);
Kāmesu sattā kāmasaṅgasattā, atha vaṇṇo rahassavā;
(12) Such creatures clung to sense-desires (§ 175), Uncontroverted confidence 12 (§ 175b);
Sabbe dhammā anattāti, ariyasaccañca desitaṃ.
[Besides,] not-self are all ideas (§ 176), The Noble Truth as it is taught (§ 176) ;
Eseva maggo natthañño, sotāpannoti byākare;
(13) This is the only path, no other (§ 177), Declares himself Stream-Enterer(§ 177),
Yassindriyāni subhāvitāni, atha dhammapadehi ca.
Whose faculties are kept in being(§ 178), And traces of the True Idea(§ 178);
Vacasā manasā ceva, pañcakkhandhā aniccato;
(14) [Opposing none] in words or mind(§ 179), Impermanent five categories (§ 179) ;
Yāni karoti puriso, tīṇi sucaritāni ca.
Whatever actions a man does(§ 180), There are three kinds of conduct good (§ 180) ;
Rūpaṃ vedayitaṃ saññā, pañcakkhandhā pakāsitā;
(15) Form and feeling and perception 13 (§ 181), Five categories are displayed (§ 181) ;
Yo evaṃ paṭipajjati, brahmā ceva phalāni ca.
He that shall practise in this way (§ 182), And then the fruits of life divine (§ 182) ;
Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, vimokkhā taṃ hi desitā;
(16) No doing any kind of evil (§ 183), Gateways to Liberation taught 14 (§ 183b) ;
Natthi puttasamaṃ pemaṃ, devānaṃ asurāna ca.
There is no loved one like one's child(§ 184), The gods and the asura demons(§ 184);
Yaṃ pattaṃ yañca pattabbaṃ, nandati socati niccaṃ;
(17) The already reached, the not yet reached (§ 185), Relish and sorrow everlasting (§ 185) ;
Ye keci bhūtā bhavissanti, satthāro ca pakāsitā.
Whatever beings are and will be (§ 186), What kinds of teachers are displayed(§ 186);
Yañca kāmasukhaṃ loke, bojjhaṅgā ca sudesitā;
(18) Out guiding sensual bliss in the world 15 (§ 187a), Seven enlightenment factors taught (§ 187b) ;
Maggānaṭṭhaṅgiko seṭṭho, tayo ca aggapattiyo.
(19) The Eightfold is the best of paths (§ 189), And then the three foremost described (§ 189) ;
Kāyena saṃvaro sādhu, karaṇīyañca desitaṃ;
And good is bodily restraint (§ 190), And what is to be done as taught (§ 190) ;
Natthi attasamaṃ pemaṃ, ariyā tīṇi ca desitā.
(20) There is no loved one like one's child (§ 191), And what should not be done as taught(§ 191);
Kāyena kusalaṃ abhirato, vinayañca kāmasukhaṃ loke;
Let him do profit by the body (192a), [The Great Analysis of Action] 17 (§ 192b).
Bojjhaṅgā ca sudesitā, duddasaṃ anataṃ ceva parāparaṃ ca;
Unbiassed Truth is hard to see 16 (§ 188), [The Balk-of-Timber Simile] 16 (§ 188b);
Peṭakopadese sāsanappaṭṭhānaṃ nāma dutiyabhūmi samattā.
(21) In the Pitaka-Disclosure the second chapter called the " Pattern of the Dispensation " is completed.

3 - Suttā-(a)dhiṭṭhāna-tatiya-bhūmi: Thread’s terms-of-expression, third ground

32.Tattha katamaṃ suttādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
194. Herein, what are the Thread's Terms of Expression?
Lobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ dosādhiṭṭhānaṃ mohādhiṭṭhānaṃ alobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ adosādhiṭṭhānaṃ amohādhiṭṭhānaṃ kāyakammādhiṭṭhānaṃ vācākammādhiṭṭhānaṃ manokammādhiṭṭhānaṃ saddhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ vīriyindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ satindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ samādhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ paññindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
1 [They are:] 1. Expression in terms of greed, 2 2. hate, 3. delusion; 4. non-greed, 5. non-hate, 6. non-delusion, 7. bodily action, 8. verbal action, 9. mental action, 10. the faith faculty, 11. energy faculty, 12. mindfulness faculty, 13. concentration faculty, 14. understanding faculty.
Tattha katamaṃ lobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
195. 1. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of greed?1
Vitakkamathitassa [vitakkanimmathitassa (ka.) dha. pa. 349] jantuno, tibbarāgassa subhānupassino;
( With a man engrossed in thoughts, And strong in lust, and beauty seeing,
Bhiyyo taṇhā pavaḍḍhati, esa kho gāḷhaṃ karoti bandhanaṃ.
Then grows his craving more and more The while he makes his bondage firm) 2 (Dh.349).
Vitakkamathitassāti kāmarāgo.
196. "With a man engrossed in thoughts" is lust for sensual desires.
Subhānupassinoti kāmarāgavatthu.
" And beauty seeing " is the object of the lust for sensual desires.
Bhiyyo taṇhā pavaḍḍhatīti kāmataṇhā.
" Then grows his craving more and more " is craving for sensual desires.
Esa gāḷhaṃ karoti bandhananti rāgaṃ, iti yo yo dhammo mūlanikkhitto, so yevettha dhammo uggāvahitabbo [uggāpayitabbo (pī. ka.)].
" The while he makes his bondage firm " is lust. In this way whatever the idea presented as the Root,1 that idea alone should be taken up here ; 2
Na bhagavā ekaṃ dhammaṃ ārabbha aññaṃ dhammaṃ deseti.
for the Blessed One does not teach an idea other than the idea he is instigated by.
Yassa vitakketi kāmavitakko tameva vitakkaṃ kāmavitakkena niddisīyati.
[Of] someone who thinks sensual-desire thinking, he demonstrates that same thinking by sensual-desire thinking.
Tibbarāgassāti tasseva vitakkassa vatthuṃ niddisati.
By " strong in lust " he demonstrates that same thinking's object.
Subhānupassino bhiyyo taṇhā pavaḍḍhatīti tameva rāgaṃ kāmataṇhāti niddisati.
By" and beauty seeing, Then grows his craving more and more" he demonstrates that same lust as craving for sensual desires.
Esa gāḷhaṃ karoti bandhananti tameva taṇhāsaṃyojanaṃ niddisati.
By " The while he makes his bondage firm" he demonstrates that same [lust] as the fetter of craving.
Evaṃ gāthāsu anuminitabbaṃ.
197. That is how it should be assessed in the case of verses,
Evaṃ saveyyākaraṇesu.
and likewise in the case of prose-expositions (see § 38).
Tattha bhagavā ekaṃ dhammaṃ tividhaṃ niddisati, nissandato hetuto phalato.
198. Herein, the Blessed One demonstrates a single idea in three ways: as to Outcome, as to Cause, and as to Fruit (see § 375).
Dadaṃ piyo [passa saṃyuttanikāye] hoti bhajanti naṃ bahū, kittiñca pappoti yaso ca vaḍḍhati;
(For example:] (When giving, a man is dear and many frequent him,1 The name he gets is goad, his fame increases,
Amaṅkubhūto parisaṃ vigāhati, visārado hoti naro amaccharī.
He enters an assembly undismayed ; A man intrepid, without avarice) (A.iii, 40).
Dadanti yaṃ yaṃ dānaṃ, idaṃ dānamayikaṃ puññakriyaṃ.
199. "When giving" any gift, which is the [ground for] making merit consisting in giving,
Tattha hetu.
this is the Cause herein (cf.§ 402).
Yaṃ cetaṃ.
And that
Bhajanti naṃ bahū, kittinti yo ca kalyāṇo kittisaddo loke abbhuggacchati, yaṃ bahukassa janassa piyo bhavati manāpo ca.
"many frequent him ",1 and that--[with the words] "good name " 1-a good name spreads abroad in the world, and that he is dear and agreeable to many people,
Yañca avippaṭisārī kālaṅkaroti ayaṃ nissando.
and that he dies without remorse : 2 this is the Outcome.
Yaṃ kāyassa bhedā devesu upapajjatīti idaṃ phalaṃ.
That, on the dissolution of the body he reappears among the gods, is the Fruit.
Idaṃ lobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of greed.4
33.Tattha katamaṃ dosādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
200. 2. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of hate?1
Yo pāṇamatipāteti, musāvādañca bhāsati;
(Someone who kills a breathing thing, Who speaks false speech,
Loke adinnaṃ ādiyati, paradārañca gacchati;
who in the world Takes [to himself] what is not given, Who goes too with another's wife,
Surāmerayapānañca, yo naro anuyuñjati [abhigijjhati (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 5.174].
Who has the habit to indulge In drinking spirituous liquor)(§ 168),
Appahāya pañca verāni, dussīlo iti vuccati;
(Unless he these five risks abandons, he is proclaimed unvirtuous) (§ 168),
Kāyassa bhedā duppañño, nirayaṃ sopapajjati.
( And on the body's dissolution The stupid man appears in hell ) ( ).
Yo pāṇamatipātetīti duṭṭho pāṇamatipāteti.
201. " Someone who kills a breathing thing " : one who is affected by hate kills a breathing thing.
Musāvādañca bhāsatīti dosopaghātāya musāvādañca bhāsati.
" Who speaks false speech" : also one who speaks false speech owing to vexation by hate.
Surāmerayapānañca, yo naro anuyuñjatīti doso nidānaṃ.
" Who has the habit to indulge In drinking spirituous liquor " : there is a source for hate,
Yo ca surāmerayapānaṃ anuyuñjati yathāparadāravihārī [yathāpamuditavihārī (ka.)] amittā janayanti.
and he who indulges 1 in drinking spirituous liquor finds, like him who goes with another's wife, 2 that enemies spring up.3
Pañca verāni appahāyāti pañcannaṃ bhikkhāpadānaṃ samatikkamanaṃ sabbesaṃ dosajānaṃ sā paṇṇatti, teneva dosajanitena kammena dussīlo iti vuccati sopi dhammo hetunā niddisitabbo, nissandena phalena ca.
"Unless he these five risks abandons" [refers to] the transgression 4 of the five training precepts ; and this is a description of them when they are all hate-born.3 202. And this idea too can be demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome, and as to fruit(§ 198-9).
Tīṇi bālassa bālalakkhaṇāni – dubbhāsitabhāsī [dubbhāsitabhāsitā (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 3.3] ca hoti, duccintitacintī ca dukkaṭakammakārī ca.
203. ( There are three fool's characteristics of a fool... He is a speaker of the ill-spoken, 1 a cogitator of the ill-cogitated, a doer of the ill-done ) (M. iii, 163).
Tattha yaṃ kāyena ca vācāya ca parakkamati, idamassa dukkaṭakammakārī.
204. Herein, that he is aggressive by body or by speech, this is his state of a "doer of the ill done ".1
Tāyaṃ yathā ca musāvādaṃ bhāsati yathā pubbaniddiṭṭhaṃ, idamassa dubbhāsitā.
And likewise the false speech he speaks as already demonstrated is his state of a "speaker of the ill-spoken ".
Yañca saṅkappeti manoduccaritaṃ byāpādaṃ, idamassa duccintitacintitā.
And that he intends the mental misconduct consisting in ill-will, this is his 2 state of a " cogitator of the ill-cogitated ".
Yaṃ so imehi tīhi bālalakkhaṇehi samannāgato tīṇi tajjāni dukkhāni domanassāni anubhavati, so ca hoti sabhaggato vā parisaggato vā tajjaṃ kathaṃ kathanti.
Since he is possessed of these fool's characteristics, he exists with the three types of pain and grief [correspondingly] born therefrom. And when he has gone to a meeting or gone to an assembly he talks the type of talk born therefrom.3
Yadā bhavati so ca pāṇātipātādidasaakusalakammapathā, so tatonidānaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedetīti.
And when this tenfold course of unprofitable action 4 beginning with killing breathing things comes into being, with that as source he experiences pain and grief.
Puna caparaṃ yadā passati coraṃ rājāparādhikaṃ raññā gahitaṃ jīvitā voropetaṃ, tassevaṃ bhavati sace mamampi rājā jāneyya mamampi rājā gāhāpetvā jīvitā voropeyyāti, so tatonidānaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti.
Furthermore, when he sees a felon who has offended the king 5 arrested by the king and put to death, then it occurs to him " If the king knew 6 about me, he might have me put to death too " (cf. M. iii, 163--4), and with that as source he experiences pain and grief.
Puna caparaṃ bālo yadā bhavati āsanā samārūḷho yāva yā me gati bhavissati ito pecca paraṃ maraṇāti so tatonidānaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti iti bālalakkhaṇaṃ hetu.
Furthermore ( when a fool is on his chair ... down to ... that will be my destination) (cf. M. iii, 164-5), with that as source he experiences pain and grief.7 205. Accordingly, the fool's characteristic is the cause;
Tīṇi tajjāni dukkhāni nissando.
the three [corresponding] kinds of pain born therefrom are the outcome,
Kāyassa bhedā nirayesu upapajjati, idaṃ phalaṃ.
and that on the dissolution of the body he reappears in hell is the fruit (cf.§ 198-9).
Idaṃ dosādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of hate.1
34.Tattha katamaṃ mohādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
206. 3. Herein, what is that expressed, in terms of delusion?
Satañceva sahassānaṃ, kappānaṃ saṃsarissati;
( Were one to go the round [of births] As much as a hundred, thousand aeons
Athavā pi tato bhiyyo, gabbhā gabbhaṃ gamissatha.
Or even more than that [besides], Travelling on from womb to womb
Anupādāya buddhavacanaṃ, saṅkhāre attato upādāya;
Never accepting the Buddhas' word, Accepting determinations as self,
Dukkhassantaṃ karissanti, ṭhānametaṃ na vijjati.
That one shall make an end of pain, Is [utterly] impossible) ( ).
Yo yaṃ anamataggasaṃsāraṃ samāpanno jāyate ca mīyate ca, ayaṃ avijjāhetukā.
207. He who is pursuing the roundabout [of births] which has no recognizable end (see S. ii, 178) (is born and dies ) (D.ii, 30) has ignorance for his cause.1
Yānipi ca saṅkhārānaṃ payojanāni, tānipi avijjāpaccayāni, yaṃ adassanaṃ buddhavacanassa, ayaṃ avijjāsutteyeva niddiṭṭhaṃ.
And the purposes of determinative-acts have ignorance for their condition. That the unseeing of the Buddhas' word is ignorance is demonstrated in the Thread too.2
Yo ca saṅkhāre attato harati pañcakkhandhe pañca diṭṭhiyo upagacchati.
And in so far as he who is ignorant treats 3 determinations as self (§ 206) [and] allows the five views 4 in regard to the five categories thus
"Etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā"ti idaṃ suttaṃ avijjāya nikkhittaṃ, avijjāya nikkhipitaṃ.
( This is mine, this is I, this is my self) (M. iii, 19), this Thread is consequently presented under ignorance.
Evaṃ satthā sutte nayena [sutanayena (pī.)] dhammena niddisati.
[Now] the Master 5 presents it thus in the Thread under ignorance.
Asādhāraṇena taṃyeva tattha niddisitabbaṃ.
[And so] there must only be demonstrated there the unshared idea by which he demonstrates it,
Na aññaṃ.
not any other (see § 196).5
Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā "idaṃ dukkha"nti nappajānanti cattāri saccāni vitthārena, yaṃ tattha appajānanā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ, ayaṃ hetu.
208. ( Bhikkhus, whatever 1 monks or divines do not understand ... " This is suffering " ... ) [and] the [rest of the] four Truths in detail (Iti.104-5). [Now] the non-understanding herein is suffering: this is the outcome (?).2
Appajānanto vividhe saṅkhāre abhisaṅkharoti, ayaṃ nissando.
When not understanding, he determines 2 the various kinds of determinations: this is the cause (1).2
Yañca diṭṭhigatāni parāmasati "idameva saccaṃ moghamañña"nti ayaṃ nissando.
In so far as he misapprehends the type of views thus ( Only this is the true, the other is wrong ) (§ 117), this too is the outcome.
Yaṃ punabbhavaṃ nibbatteti, idaṃ phalaṃ.
The renewal of being that he generates is the fruit.
Ayampi dhammo saniddiá¹­á¹­ho hetuto ca phalato ca nissandato ca.
And [so] this idea too is demonstrated as to cause, as to fruit, and as to outcome.
Ettha pana keci dhammā sādhāraṇā bhavanti.
But here [in the case of these three] some ideas [that is, fruit and outcome, may appear] shared in common,
Hetu khalu āditoyeva sutte nikkhipissanti.
[and then] only 3 the cause, as a beginning, will be presented in a Thread.
Yathā kiṃ bhave cattārimāni, bhikkhave, agatigamanāni.
How would that be 1 [For example,] ( Bhikkhus, there are these four goings on a bad way ) (A.ii, 18; § 165).
Tattha yañca chandāgatiṃ gacchati yañca bhayāgatiṃ gacchati, ayaṃ lobho akusalamūlaṃ.
Herein, when someone goes a bad way through will and goes a bad way through fear, this is the unprofitable root greed ;
Yaṃ dosā, ayaṃ dosoyeva.
when he does so through hate, this is simply hate ;
Yaṃ mohā, ayaṃ mohoyeva.
and when he does so through delusion, this is simply delusion.
Evaṃ imāni tīṇi akusalamūlāni āditoyeva upaparikkhitabbāni.
Thus these three unprofitable roots should be regarded as only a beginning, [that is, as cause.]
Yattha ekaṃ niddisitabbaṃ, tattha ekaṃ niddisīyati.
'Where one is demonstrable, there 4 he demonstrates one, 4
Tathā dve yathā tīṇi, na hi ādīhi anikkhitte hetu vā nissando vā phalaṃ vā niddisitabbaṃ.
likewise two, likewise 5 three ; for when not presented as a beginning, 6 no cause or outcome or fruit can be demonstrated.
Ayañcettha gāthā –
And the verse here is this :
Chandā dosā bhayā mohā, yo dhammaṃ ativattati;
( When a man strays from the True Idea Through will, hate, fear, or else delusion,
Nihīyati [nihīyate (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 4.17] tassa yaso, kāḷapakkheva candimā.
He finds his good fame wanes away As in its dark half does the moon) (A.ii, 18; § 165).
Kattha chandā ca ayaṃ lobho yathā niddiṭṭhaṃ pubbe.
Herein, will and fear 7 are greed, as demonstrated above.
Idaṃ mohādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of delusion.8
35.Tattha katamaṃ alobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
209. 4. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of non-greed ?
"Asubhānupassiṃ [asubhānupassī (pī.) passa dha. pa. 8] viharantaṃ, indriyesu susaṃvutaṃ;
( Who contemplating ugliness Abides, with faculties restrained,
Bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṃ, saddhaṃ āraddhavīriyaṃ;
Knowing the right amount in eating,1 Faithful, and energetic too,
Taṃ ve nappasahati māro, vāto selaṃva pabbata"nti.
Him Mara sure no more can shake Than can the wind a rocky peak ) (Dh.8).
Tattha yā asubhāya upaparikkhā, ayaṃ kāmesu ādīnavadassanena pariccāgo.
210. Herein, the scrutiny of ugliness is the giving up [of gratification through perception of beauty] by seeing the disappointment in sensual desires.
Indriyesu susaṃvuto tasseva alobhassa pāripūriyaṃ mama āyatanasocitaṃ anupādāya.
That he has restrained his faculties is the fulfilment 1 of that same non-greed by not assuming any grieving for [those sensual desires] regarded as" mine ".1
Bhojanamhi ca mattaññunti rasataṇhāpahānaṃ.
"Knowing the right amount in eating" 2 is the abandoning of craving for tastes.
Iti ayaṃ alobho asubhānupassitāya vatthuto dhārayati, so alobho hetu.
211. So [when] this non-greed is remembered as the basis for the state of a contemplator of ugliness, that non-greed is a cause.
Indriyesu guttadvāratāya gocarato dhārayati, bhojanemattaññutāya parato dhārayati, ayaṃ nissando.
When remembered as the province of guardedness in the faculty- doors, and when remembered besides as that of the state of knowing the right amount in eating, then this is the outcome.
Taṃ ve nappasahati māro, vāto selaṃ va pabbatanti, idaṃ phalaṃ.
That " Him Miira sure no more can shake Than can the wind a rocky peak" is the fruit.
Iti yoyeva dhammo ādimhi nikkhitto, soyeva majjhe ceva avasāne ca.
So it is the same idea presented in the beginning that is also in the middle and the end (cf. §§ 196, 208).
Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi asamuppannassa kāmacchandassa anuppādāya uppannassa vā pahānāya, yathayidaṃ [yadidaṃ (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 1.17] asubhanimittaṃ.
212. ( Bhikkhus,for the non-arising of unarisen will for sensual desires, for the abandoning of arisen will for se,nsual desires, I see no idea other than the sign of ugliness.
Tattha asubhanimittaṃ manasikarontassa anuppanno ceva kāmacchando na uppajjati, uppanno ca kāmacchando pahīyati.
Herein, in one wlio gives the sign of ugliness attention the unarisen will for sensual desires 1 does not arise, and the arisen is abandoned ) (cf. A. i, 4).
Idaṃ alobhassa vatthu.
The basis for non-greed is this (above).
Yaṃ puna anuppanno kāmarāgo pariyādiyati rūparāgaṃ arūparāgaṃ, iti phalaṃ.
But [in so far] as it is [only] unarisen lust for sensual desires that is gripped [in this way], the fruit has [both] lust for form and lust for the formless.
Iti ayampi ca dhammo niddiá¹­á¹­ho hetuto ca nissandato ca phalato ca.
So this idea too has been demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome, and as to fruit.
Idaṃ alobhādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of non-greed.2
Tattha katamaṃ adosādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
213. 5. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of non-hate?
Ekampi ce pāṇamaduṭṭhacitto, mettāyati kusalo [kusalī (ka.) passa itivu. 27] tena hoti;
( Should a man with no hate 1 in liis heart kindly-love One breathing thing only, by that he is skilled;
Sabbe ca pāṇe manasānukampaṃ [anukampamāno (pī.)], pahūtamariyo pakaroti puññaṃ.
But when he feels pity for all breathing things, He has infinite scope in the merit he makes) (cf. A.iv, 151).
Ekampi ce pāṇamaduṭṭhacitto mettāyatīti ayaṃ adoso.
214. "Should a man with no hate 1 in his heart kindly-love One breathing thing only" : this non-hate
Nigghātena assādo, kusalo tena hotīti tena kusalena dhammena saṃyutto dhammapaññattiṃ gacchati.
is gratification through counteraction.2 " By that he is skilled " : it is owing to his being associated with that skilful (profitable) idea that he comes under the description in terms of ideas,3
Kusaloti yathā paññāya pañño paṇḍiccena paṇḍito.
namely" skilled", just as it is owing to understanding [that he is so described] as "having understanding" and owing to wisdom [that he is so described] as" wise".
Pahūtamariyo pakaroti puññanti tassāyeva vipāko ayaṃ lokiyassa, na hi lokuttarassa.
" He has infinite scope in the merit he makes " : the ripening of that is [ripening] only of [the kind of action] belonging to the worlds, not of that dissociated from worlds.
Tattha yā mettāyanā, ayaṃ hetu.
215. Herein, the kindly-loving is the cause,
Yaṃ kusalo bhavati ayaṃ nissando.
that he is skilled is the outcome.
Yāva abyāpajjo bhūmiyaṃ bahupuññaṃ pasavati, idaṃ phalaṃ.
The great merit he produces, [extending] as far as the plane of non-ill-will 1 [does], is the fruit.
Iti adoso niddiá¹­á¹­ho hetuto ca nissandato ca phalato ca.
So in the case of non-hate, too, 2 it has been demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome, and as to fruit.
Ekādasānisaṃsā mettāya cetovimuttiyā.
216. (There are eleven benefits ... from the heart-deliverance of loving-kindness ) (A.. v, 342).
Tattha yā mettācetovimutti, ayaṃ ariyadhammesu rāgavirāgā cetovimutti, lokikāya bhūmikā hetu, yaṃ sukhaṃ āyatiṃ manāpo hoti manussānaṃ, ime ekādasa dhammā nissando.
217. Herein, the " heart-deliverance of lovingkindness ",1 which in the ideas of the Noble Ones is the (heart-deliverance due to fading of lust) (cf. A.. i, 61), is the cause on the plane belonging to the worlds. That he ( sleeps 2 blissfully ... is agreeable to human beings ... ) (A.. v, 342), these eleven ideas are the outcome.
Yañca akatāvī brahmakāye upapajjati.
And that he arises in the body of [the Retinue -of] High Divinity as One Who Has Not Yet Done 3
Idaṃ phalaṃ.
is the fruit.
Idaṃ adosādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of non-hate.'
36.Tattha katamaṃ amohādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
218. 6. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of non-delusion?
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasmiṃ, yāyaṃ nibbedhagāminī [nibbedhabhāginī (pī. ka.) passa itivu. 41] ;
Yāya sammā pajānāti, jātimaraṇasaṅkhayaṃ.
The kind that rightly understands 1 The exhaustion of birth and death ) (§ 17 4).
Paññā hi seṭṭhāti vatthuṃ.
219. " Best ... is understanding" is the basis 1 [for non-delusion].
Nibbedhagāminīti nibbānagāminiyaṃ yathābhūtaṃ paṭivijjhati.
" The kind that deals with penetration " is the kind that deals with extinction, since 2 it penetrates how things are.
Sammā pajānāti, jātimaraṇasaṅkhayanti amoho.
" The kind that rightly understands The exhaustion of birth and death " is non-delusion.
Paññāti hetu.
220. The understanding is the cause.
Yaṃ pajānāti ayaṃ nissando.
That he understands is the outcome.
Yo jātimaraṇasaṅkhayo, idaṃ phalaṃ.
The exhaustion of birth and death is the fruit.
Iti amoho niddiṭṭho hetunā ca nissandena ca phalena ca.
So non- delusion has been demonstrated by cause, by outcome, and by fruit.
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave [itivu. 62 tikanipāte], indriyāni anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ aññindriyaṃ aññātāvindriyaṃ.
221. ( Bhikkhus, there are these three faculties: the I-shall-come-to- know-finally-the-as-yet-not-finally-known faculty, the act-of-final-knowing facuUy, and the final-knower faculty) (§ 174).
Tattha katamaṃ anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anabhisametassa dukkhassa ariyasaccassa abhisamayāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati, vīriyaṃ ārabhati, cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati.
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu arouses will for the actualizing of the as yet unactualized Noble Truth of Suffering, and he makes efforts, instigates energy, exerts his cognizance, and endeavours, ... ) ( )
Evaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ kātabbaṃ.
and so it should be quoted for the [rest of the] four Truths.
Tattha katamaṃ aññindriyaṃ?
(Herein, what is the act-of-final-knowing faculty?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu "idaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasacca"nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yā ca maggo, idaṃ aññindriyaṃ.
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands how it is that " This is Suffering "... down to 1 the Path ... This is act-of-final-knowing faculty ) ( ),
Āsavakkhayā anāsavo hoti, idaṃ vuccati aññātāvindriyaṃ.
and that he is taintless ( with exhaustion of taints, this is called the final-knower faculty ) ( ).
Tathāyaṃ paññā, ayaṃ hetu.
222. Likewise [here as in § 220] the understanding is the cause.
Yaṃ chandaṃ janeti vāyamati, yā pajānāti, ayaṃ nissando.
That he arouses will and makes efforts, and that 1 he understands, is the outcome.
Yena sabbaso āsavānaṃ khayā hetu, yaṃ khaye ñāṇamuppajjati, anuppāde ñāṇañca, ayaṃ nissando.
That whereby there is entire exhaustion 2 of taints is the cause. That knowledge of exhaustion arises, and also knowledge of non-arising, is the outcome.
Yaṃ arahattaṃ, idaṃ phalaṃ.
The Arahantship is the fruit.
Tattha khīṇā me jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyanti, idaṃ khaye ñāṇaṃ.
Herein, the words" Birth is exhausted for me, the divine life has been lived out, done is what was to be done" 3 [refer to] knowledge of exhaustion
Nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāmīti idaṃ anuppāde ñāṇaṃ.
[and the words] "there is no more of this beyond" 3 [refer to] knowledge of non-arising.
Iti imāni indriyāni amoho niddiṭṭho hetunā ca nissandena ca phalena ca.
These are the three faculties. So non-delusion [too] has been demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome and as to fruit. This is expressed in termns of non-delusion.4
Imāni asādhāraṇāni niddiṭṭhāni.
223. These have been demonstrated by unshared quotations (see § 195, heading).
Tattha katamāni kusalamūlāni sādhāraṇāni?
224. 4-6. Herein, what [are those where the] profitable roots are shared?
Kusalañca vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi kusalamūlañceva.
( Bhikkhus, I shall teach you the profitable and the root of the profitable) ( ).
Tattha katamaṃ kusalamūlaṃ?
225. Herein, what is the root of the profitable?
Alobho adoso amoho.
It is non-greed, non-hate, and non-delusion.
Tattha katamaṃ kusalaṃ?
226. Herein, what is the profitable?
Aṭṭha sammattāni sammādiṭṭhi yāva sammāsamādhi.
It is the eight rightnesses : right view, ... down to ... right concentration.
Tattha yāni kusalamūlāni, ayaṃ hetu.
227. Herein, the three roots of the profitable are the cause,
Yañca alobho tīṇi kammāni samuṭṭhāpeti saṅkappaṃ vāyāmaṃ samādhiñca, ayaṃ alobhassa nissando.
and that non-greed moulds the three kinds of action, namely the right intention, right effort, and right concentration, this is the outcome of the non-greed.
Tattha yo adoso, ayaṃ hetu.
Herein, the non-hate is the cause,
Yaṃ tayo dhamme paṭṭhapeti sammāvācaṃ sammākammantaṃ sammāājīvañca, ayaṃ nissando.
and that it founds right speech, right action, and right livelihood, this is its outcome.
Tattha yo amoho hetu, yaṃ dve dhamme upaṭṭhapeti aviparītadassanampi ca anabhilāpanaṃ, ayaṃ nissando.
Herein, the non-delusion is the cause, and that it establishes two ideas, namely the undistorted seeing [in right view] and the direct-addressing 1 [in right mindfulness], this is its outcome.
Imassa brahmacariyassa yaṃ phalaṃ, tā dve vimuttiyo rāgavirāgā cetovimutti avijjā virāgā ca paññāvimutti, idaṃ phalaṃ.
The fruit of this divine life is the two kinds of deliverance, namely the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and the understanding- deliverance due to fading of ignorance. This is the fruit.
Iti imāni tīṇi kusalamūlāni niddiṭṭhāni hetuto ca nissandato ca phalato ca.
228. So these three roots of the profitable have been demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome, and as to fruit.
Evaṃ sādhāraṇāni kusalāni paṭivijjhitabbāni.
This is how the kinds of the profitable can be penetrated as shared in common
Yattha duve yattha tīṇi.
[both] where there are two [so shared] and where there are three.
Ayañcettha gāthā.
229. Now here is a [relevant] verse:
"Tulamatulañca sambhavaṃ, bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji muni;
( The Stilled One dropped the being-determinant That gives existence measured and unmeasured,
Ajjhattarato samāhito, abhindi kavacamivattasambhava"nti.
And happy in himself and concentrated, Self-existence he sundered like a mail-coat) (S.v, 263).
Tulamatulañca sambhavanti tulasaṅkhataṃ atulasaṅkhataṃ.
230. As to " That gives existence measured and unmeasured ", the measured is the determined and the unmeasured is the undetermined.1
Tattha ye saṅkhatā tulaṃ, te dve dhammā assādo ca ādīnavo ca tulitā bhavanti.
Herein, there are two ideas which, as "measured", are determined, namely gratification and disappointment, and they are measured as follows : " In the case of sensual desires
Ettako kāmesu assādo.
the gratification is this much,
Ettako ādīnavo imassa, idaṃ nissaraṇanti iti nibbānaṃ pajānāti.
the disappointment is this much ", and he understands extinction thus " in the case of this the escape is this ".
Dvīhi kāraṇehi atulaṃ na ca sakkā tulayituṃ.
The unmeasured cannot be measured for two reasons :
Ettakaṃ etaṃ netaṃ paramatthīti tena atulaṃ.
it is not measured as follows " This is just so much, there is not more of it past this point ",
Atha pāpuṇā ratanaṃ karitvā acchariyabhāvena atulaṃ.
and then it is not measured in its wonderfulness by making some jewel reach it (?).2
Tattha kusalassa ca abhisambhavā jānanā passanā, ayaṃ amoho.
231. Herein, the act-of-knowing and act-of-seeing that give existence to the profitable 1 are non-delusion.
Yaṃ tattha ñātā osiraṇā bhavasaṅkhārānaṃ, ayaṃ alobho.
The rejection 2 of the being- determinants known therein is non-greed.
Yaṃ ajjhattarato samāhitoti vikkhepapaṭisaṃharaṇā, ayaṃ adoso.
[The words] "happy in himself and concentrated", which deny distraction, [signify] non-hate.
Iti imāni tīṇi kusalamūlāni.
So these are the three roots of the profitable.
Tulamatulasambhavanti ayaṃ amoho.
232. " That gives existence measured and unmeasured " : this is non-delusion:
Yo bhavasaṅkhārānaṃ samosaraṇaṃ lobho sammāsamādhīnaṃ assādo, ayaṃ hetu.
the greed for the being-determinants' meeting together,1 which is the gratification due to right concentration (see D. ii, ), is the cause.
Yaṃ ajjhattarato avijjaṇḍakosaṃ sambhedo, ayaṃ nissando.
The breaking, happy in oneself, of the eggshell of ignorance (see M. i, 104) is the outcome.
Sā pavatti imāni tīṇi niddiṭṭhāni kusalamūlāni hetuto ca nissandato ca phalato ca.
That is occurrence (? ). 2 233. These three roots of the profitable have now been demonstrated as to cause, as to outcome, and as to fruit.
Ettāvatā esā pavatti ca nivatti ca akusalamūlehi pavattati, kusalamūlehi nivattatīti imehi ca tīhi sabbaṃ akusalamūlaṃ samosaraṇaṃ gacchati.
234. 1-6. Up to this point this is both occurrence and stopping.1 It occurs by means of the roots of unprofit and it stops 2 by means of the roots of profit, thus all the unprofitable meets together with these three [roots of profit].
So dhamme vā vacanato niddiṭṭho taṇhāti vā kodhoti vā asampajaññanti vā anusayoti vā makkhoti vā paḷāsoti vā assatīti vā issāti vā macchariyanti vā aññāṇanti vā, tehi ye ca vatthūhi niddisitabbaṃ.
For any 3 [defilement] verbally demonstrated in the True Idea, too, as [say] "craving", or as anger, or as " unawareness " or " underlying tendency ", as " contempt " or " domineering " as " unmindfulness " as " envy " or " avarice " ' ' ' as " unknowing ", 4 can be demonstrated 5 by those [three] basic examples too, 5
Yassimāni dve vacanāni dhammapadāni niddiṭṭhāni na so atthi kilesā, yo imesu navasu padesu samodhānaṃ samosaraṇaṃ gacchati.
of which [defilement in general] these two-term 6 Traces of the True Idea are demonstrated. [In fact] there is no defilement that comes to be combined and to meet together in these nine terms, 7
Ayaṃ kileso, na ca lobho, na ca doso, na ca moho.
which defilement is not greed and not hate and not delusion.
Yathā akusalamūlāni, evaṃ kusalāni paṭikkhepena niddisitabbāni.
235. And the roots of unprofit like the roots of profit can be demonstrated in the opposite sense.1
Idaṃ amohādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
37.Tattha katamaṃ kāyakammādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
236. 7. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of bodily action?
Kāyena kusalaṃ kare, assa kāyena saṃvuto;
( Let him do 1 profit by the body, His body being then restrained;
Kāyaduccaritaṃ hitvā, kāyena sucaritaṃ care.
Leaving misconduct by the body, Let him pursue good bodily conduct) (§ 192).
Tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, sucaritāni [itivu. 69 sucaritasutte].
[and] (There are these three kinds of good [bodily] conduct:
Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī, idaṃ kāyakammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
abstention from killing breathing things, ... from taking what is not given, abstention from misconduct in sensual desires ) 2 ( ). This is expressed in terms of bodily action.
Tattha katamaṃ vācākammādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
237. 8. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of verbal action?
Subhāsitaṃ [su. ni. 452 suttanipāte] uttamamāhu santo, dhammaṃ bhaṇe nādhammaṃ taṃ dutiyaṃ;
( The just say that what is well spoken is best ; And speak what is right and not wrong for the second;
Piyaṃ bhaṇe nāppiyaṃ taṃ tatiyaṃ, saccaṃ bhaṇe nālikaṃ taṃ catutthaṃ.
And speak what is kind, not unkind, for the third,· And speak what is trite and not false for the fourth) (Sn.450),
Cattārimāni ca vacīsucaritāni idaṃ vācākammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[and] (There are these four kinds of good verbal conduct:... ) (A. ii, 141). This is expressed in terms of verbal action.
Tattha katamaṃ manokammādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
238. 9. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of mental action?
Manena kusalaṃ kammaṃ, manasā saṃvuto bhave;
([Let there be] mental acts of profit, Let him be [well] restrained in mind,
Manoduccaritaṃ hitvā, manasā sucaritaṃ care.
Mental misconduct abandoning, Pursuing good conduct in the mind ) ( ),
Tīṇimāni manosucaritāni, anabhijjhā, abyāpādo, sammādiṭṭhi, idaṃ manokammādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of good mental conduct: non-covetousness, non-ill-will, and right view) ( ). This is expressed in terms of mental action.
Imāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni.
These are unshared Threads.
Tattha katamāni sādhāraṇāni suttāni?
239. 7-9. Herein what are Shared Threads?
Vācānurakkhī manasā susaṃvuto, kāyena ca nākusalaṃ kayirā [akusalaṃ na kayirā (pī. ka.) passa dha. pa. 281] ;
( Who guards his speech, is well restrained in mind, Does no unprofit through the body's means,
Ete tayo kammapathe visodhaye, ārādhaye maggamisippaveditaṃ.
Who purifies this triple course of action Will win the path the Seers have divulged) (Dh.281),
Tisso imā, bhikkhave, pārisuddhiyo – kāyakammapārisuddhi, vācākammapārisuddhi, manokammapārisuddhi.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three purities : purity of bodily action, purity of verbal action, purity of mental action.
Tattha katamā kāyakammapārisuddhi?
Herein, what is purity of bodily action?
Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī.
It is abstention from killing breathing things, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from misconduct in sensual desires.
Tattha katamā vacīkammapārisuddhi?
Herein, what is purity of verbal action?
Musāvādā veramaṇī - pe - samphappalāpā veramaṇī.
It is abstention from false speech, ... abstention from gossip.
Tattha katamā manokammapārisuddhi?
Herein, what is purity of mental action?
Anabhijjhā abyāpādo sammādiṭṭhi.
It is non-covetousness, non-ill-will, right view ) ( ).
Idaṃ sādhāraṇasuttaṃ.
This is the shared type of Thread.
Iti sādhāraṇāni ca suttāni asādhāraṇāni ca suttāni paṭivijjhitabbāni.
240. That is how shared Threads and unshared Threads can be penetrated.
Paṭivijjhitvā vācāya kāyena ca suttassa attho niddisitabbo.
After penetrating [them thus], the Thread's meaning can be demonstrated as to speech and as to body.1
38.Tattha katamaṃ saddhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
241. 10. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of the faith faculty?
Yassa saddhā [saṃ. ni. 1.260; theragā. 507 aṭṭhakanipāte ca passitabbaṃ] tathāgate, acalā suppatiṭṭhitā;
( Who in a Perfect, One has faith Immovable and well established,
Sīlañca yassa kalyāṇaṃ, ariyakantaṃ pasaṃsitaṃ.
Whose own good virtue is the kind Desired and praised by Noble Ones,
Saṅghe pasādo yassatthi, ujubhūtañca dassanaṃ;
With confidence in the Community, Whose seeing has been straightened too;
Adaliddoti taṃ āhu, amoghaṃ tassa jīvitaṃ.
He is not one they call a pauper, His life has not been [lived] in vain) (A.iii, 54),
Saddhā ve nandikā ārādhiko, no tassa saddhoti;
[and] all of ( Nandiya, one who has faith 1 wins through, not one who is faithless) (A.v, 335 ; see§ 156),
Sabbaṃ siyāti bhagavantaṃ, tathārūpo dhammasampasādo.
[and] (Might there be such confidence in (?) 2 the Blessed One ... ) ( ).
Idaṃ saddhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of the faith faculty.3
Tattha katamaṃ vīriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
242. 11. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of the energy faculty?
Ārambhatha [ārabhatha (pī.) passa saṃ. ni. 1.185] nikkamatha, yuñjatha buddhasāsane;
( Instigate yourselves, launch out, devote [Yourselves] in the Enlightened One's Dispensation ,
Dhunātha maccuno senaṃ, naḷāgāraṃva kuñjaro.
Scatter the armies of Mortality As does an elephant a hut of reeds ) (8. i, 157),
Cattārome, bhikkhave, sammappadhānā, idaṃ vīriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[and] ( Bkikkhus, there are these four right endeavours) (S.v, 244). This is expressed in terms of the energy faculty.
Tattha katamaṃ satindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
243. 12. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of the mindfulness faculty?
Satīmato sadā bhaddaṃ, bhaddamatthu satīmato;
( The mindful man has always 1 luck, Let there be luck for the mindful man.
Satīmato sadā [suve (saṃ. ni. 1.238)] seyyo, satīmā sukhamedhati.
One mindful always 1 comes off better, One mindful easily succeeds) (cf. S.i, 208),
Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā vitthārena kātabbā, idaṃ satindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[and] (Four Foundations of Mindfulness) (S. v, 141) can be quoted in detail. This is expressed in terms of the mindfulness faculty.
Tattha katamaṃ samādhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
244. 13. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of the concentration faculty?
Ākaṅkhato te naradammasārathi, devā manussā manasā vicintitaṃ;
( Leader of men to be tamed, When you intend No gods or men or even all
Sabbena jaññā kasiṇāpi pāṇino, santaṃ samādhiṃ araṇaṃ nisevato.
The whole [array Of] breathing things can know what is Thought in your mind, Using the quiet concentration Without conflict) ( ),
Tayome, bhikkhave, samādhī – savitakko savicāro, avitakko vicāramatto, avitakko avicāro.
[and] (72] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of concentration: with thinking and with exploring, without thinking and with only exploring, without thinking and without exploring) (D.iii, 219; cf.S. iv, 360).
Idaṃ samādhindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
This is expressed in terms of the concentration faculty.
Tattha katamaṃ paññindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ?
245. 14. Herein, what is that expressed in terms of the understanding faculty?
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasminti vitthārena.
(Best in the world is understanding, ... ) (§ 17 4), in detail,
Tisso imā, bhikkhave, paññā – sutamayī, cintāmayī, bhāvanāmayī, idaṃ paññindriyādhiṭṭhānaṃ suttaṃ, imāni indriyādhiṭṭhānāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni.
[and] ( Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of understanding: that consisting in what is heard, that consisting in cogitation, and that consisting in keeping-in-being) (cf.D. iii, 219). This is the type of Thread expressed in terms of the understanding faculty.
39.Tattha katamāni sādhāraṇāni indriyādhiṭṭhānāni suttāni?
Avītarāgo [a. ni. 6.54] kāmesu, yassa pañcindriyā mudū;
246. ( One not without lust for sense desires And whose five faculties are blunt,1
Saddhā sati ca vīriyaṃ, samatho ca vipassanā;
Tādisaṃ bhikkhumāsajja, pubbeva upahaññati.
Copy not such as him, o bhikkhu ; 2 For he is still attached thereto) 3 (cf.A.iii, 373),
Pañcimāni indriyāni.
[and] (There are these five faculties) (cf.S.v, 197-8),
Saddhindriyādiindriyaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ.
namely the faith-faculty, etc., see the Indriya [Samyutta, and]
Tīsu aveccappasāde vitthārena suttaṃ kātabbaṃ.
quote the Thread in detail about the three kinds of confidence due to undergoing.
Imāni sādhāraṇāni indriyādhiṭṭhānāni suttāni.
These are Threads expressed in terms of the faculties shared.
Yaṃ yassa sambandhaṃ kusalassa vā akusalassa vā tena tena adhiṭṭhānena taṃ suttaṃ niddisitabbaṃ, natthañño dhammo niddisitabbo.
247. Whichever [the faculty may be (? )], whether its context 1 is that of profit or unprofit, the Thread [in question (? )] should be demonstrated by those terms of expression, no other idea than that should be demonstrated.
Tattha sādhāraṇaṃ kusalaṃ nāpi kusalaṃ akusalaṃ yathā sādhāraṇāni ca kusalamūlāni sādhāraṇāni ca akusalamūlāni uppannaṃ kāmavitakkaṃ pajahati - pe - cattāro sammappadhānā kusalaṃ akusalañca.
248. Herein, the shared is [only] the profitable, there is no profitable- unprofitable, as there are shared profitable roots and shared unprofitable roots (§ 234), namely ( He abandons arisen sensual-desire-thinking ... ) (A. v, 348; cf. §§ 53, 271), and the right endeavours (§ 242) 1 are [in (?)] profitable and unprofitable [contexts (?)].2
Tatthimā uddānagāthā
249. Here is a mnemonic verse :
Vitakko hi mamatthiko [pamatthiko (pī.)], dadaṃ piyo naro iti;
When a man is engrossed in thoughts(§ 195), Also, when giving, a man is dear(§ 198),
Yo pāṇamatipāteti, tīṇi tassa bālalakkhaṇaṃ.
Someone who kills a breathing thing (§ 200), Three characteristics of a fool (§ 203),
Satañceva sahassānaṃ, ye ca samaṇabrāhmaṇā;
As much as a hundred thousand aeons (§ 206), Also whatever monks or divines (§ 208),
Chandā dosā bhayā mohā, catūhi agatīhi ca.
Through will, hate, fear, or else delusion When going on the four bad ways (§ 208),
Asubhānupassiṃ viharantaṃ, nimittesu asubhā ca;
Who contemplating ugliness (§ 209), And ugliness in signs as well (§ 212),
Ekampi ce piyaṃ pāṇaṃ, mittā sace subhāsitā.
Should a man love a single creature (§ 213), Lovingkindness if kept in being(§ 216), 1
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasmiṃ, anuññā tīṇi indriyāni;
Best in the world is understanding (§ 217), Three faculties there are, no less (§ 224),
Kusalākusalamūlāni ca, tulamatulañca sambhavaṃ.
The root of profit and unprofit (§ 224), Gives being, measured and unmeasured (§ 229).
Kāyena kusalaṃ kare, tīṇi sucaritāni ca;
When doing profit by the body (§ 236), And then the three bodily misconducts(§ 236);
Subhāsitaṃ uttamamāhu, santo vacīsucaritāni ca.
The just call best what is well spoken(§ 237), Good kinds of verbal conduct, too (§ 237) ;
Kāyena ca kusalaṃ kayirā, manoduccaritāni ca;
By mind 2 let there be profit done (§ 238), Good kinds of mental conduct, 3 too (§ 238) ;
Kāyānurakkhī ca sadā, tisso ca pārisuddhiyo.
And then who always guards his speech 4 (§ 239), And the three kinds of Purity(§ 239).
Yassa saddhā tathāgate, samuppāde ca desito;
Who in a Perfect One has faith(§ 241), And what is taught in coarising (§ 241) ;
Ārambhatha nikkamatha, yā ca sammappadhānatā.
And instigate yourselves, launch out (§ 242), And then the state of right endeavour (§ 242) ;
Satīmato sadā bhaddaṃ, satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā;
The mindful man has always 5 luck(§ 243), Makes mindfulness-foundations be (§ 243) ;
Ākaṅkhato ca anaññāṇaṃ, ye ca tīṇi samādhayo.
He has no knowledge though he wishes(§ 244), And the three kinds of concentration (§ 244) ;
Paññā hi seṭṭhā lokasmiṃ, tisso paññā pakāsitā;
Best in the world is understanding (§ 245), Three understandings are displayed(§ 245);
Avītarāgo kāmesu, tatheva pañcindriyā.
Not without lust for sense-desires(§ 246), And so too the five 6 faculties (§ 246).
Iti therassa mahākaccāyanassa
So in the Elder Maha-Kaccayana
Jambuvanavāsino peṭakopadese
the Rose-Apple-Wood dweller's Pitaka-Disclosure
Tatiyabhūmi suttādhiṭṭhānaṃ nāma.
the third chapter called the "Thread's Terms of Expression".

4 - Sutta-vicaya-catuttha-bhūmi: thread investigation, fourth ground

40.Tattha katamo suttavicayo?
250. Herein, what is Investigation of Threads?
Tattha kusalehi dhammehi akusalehi dhammehi pubbāparaso sādhukaṃ upaparikkhiyati.
[A Thread] is thoroughly scrutinized as to the profitable and unprofitable ideas there according to consecutivity thus :
Kiṃnu kho idaṃ suttaṃ ārabhi - pe - tehi suttehi saha adhisannaṭṭhehi yujjati udāhu na yujjatīti?
" How then, did he instigate this Thread [in its beginning (cf.§§ 196, 211 end, and 247)] ... etc.1 ...? Is it construable with those Threads that are fully agreed upon, 2 or is it not so construable?"
Yathā bhagavā kilese ādimhi tattha deseti.
251. According as the Blessed one teaches defilement there in the beginning (see § 211),1
Kiṃ desitaṃ?
Tesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ udāhu no desitanti upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
it should be scrutinized as follows: "How then, is the abandoning of those defilements taught there [too] or is it not taught?" 2
Yadi na desitaṃ bhagavati tesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ kusalā dhammā pariyesitabbā yattha te akusalā pahānaṃ gacchanti.
If it is not taught, then the profitable ideas [which bring about the] abandoning of those [defilements] must be sought in the [kind of divine life lived under the] Blessed One (?).
Sace samannehamāno na labhati.
252. If, in searching,1 one does not find where those unprofitable ideas come to [their] abandonment,
Tattha akusalā dhammā apakaḍḍhitabbā vīmaṃsitabbā, saṃkilesabhāgiyasuttaṃ, yadi kilesā apakaḍḍhiyantā.
then those unprofitable ideas must be reserved 2 [and] inquired into [further, taking the type of Thread in this case to be] that Dealing with Corruption [where no profit is explicitly taught].
Ye vā na denti tattha upaparikkhitabbā ariyamaggadhammā tāsu bhūmīsu kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti, udāhu na gacchantīti.
253. If, when the defilements or any one of them-are thus reserved, they [still] do not give the construing,1 [then] the ideas belonging to the noble paths must be scrutinized as follows : "Do these [particular] defilements come to abandonment in these [particular] planes, [namely those of Seeing and Keeping-in-Being] or do they not 1 "
Yattakā pana kilesā desitā.
Now a certain [specific] number of defilements may be taught, [e.g., the ten fetters,]
Na tattakā ariyadhammā desitā.
without any correspondingly equal number of noble ideas being taught, [e.g., the four paths.]
Yattha kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti, tattha ye kilesā ariyadhammānaṃ paṭipakkhena na yujjanti, te apakaḍḍhitabbā, sace apakaḍḍhiyantā yojanaṃ deti.
So wherever [on the level of any one of the four paths] any defilements come to [their] abandonment, any defilements [so far] not construable as opposites of noble ideas there [in that particular plane, say, that of Seeing,] must be reserved. 254. If, when they are [thus] reserved,1 they give the construction,2
Tattha evaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ.
[still that Thread] must be inquired into herein [in regard to those defilements] as follows:
Dve tīṇi vā taduttari vā kilesā ekena ariyamaggena pahānaṃ gacchantīti.
"Do two or three or more 3 defilements come to [their] abandonment by means of any single Path?
Sace evaṃ vīmaṃsiyantā yojanaṃ deti, tattha upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
255. If, when thus inquired into, they give the construction, [then that Thread] must be scrutinized therein [in regard to those defilements] as follows:
Paramparāya vā piṭakasampadānena vā suttassa attho ca nattho ca.
"What is the Thread's meaning and what is not its meaning according to the traditional [interpretation] or by what is given in the texts?"
Yaṃ vā na sakkā suttaṃ niddisituṃ neva suttaṃ vicikicchitabbaṃ.
256. Or even if not capable of being demonstrated in thls way, [still] the Thread need not [on that account alone] be the object of uncertainty (see § 264),
Evaṃ yathā ādimhi kusalā dhammā honti.
[rather it should be further investigated] according as to whether the iaeas in the beginning are profitable [instead of unprofitable (as in §§ 251 ff.)].
Ye kilesā te pahīneyyāti.
257. Whatever the defilements, as to how they are abandonable
Te upaparikkhitabbā.
- they must be scrutinized,
Puro vā kusalo paṭipakkhena vā puro desanā, anūnā anadhikā uggahetabbā.
whether the profitable comes first or whether it is arrived at through its opposite's coming first. The teaching must be taken as having nothing lacking or superfluous.
Yathā paṭhamo uttilo yesamidāni kilesānaṃ ye ariyadhammā desitā ime kilesā imehi ariyadhammehi pahīyanti, udāhu nappahīyantīti vicinitabbā.
258. Just as [in the case of] the first statement 1 (§§ 251 ff.), [namely that of defilement's coming first,] now [again] any noble ideas taught [for the abandoning] of any defilements must be investigated as to whether they are abandoned by these [particular] noble ideas or not.
Yadi upaparikkhiyamānā yujjanti, gahetabbā.
If, when so scrutinized, they are construable, then they can be accepted [as such] ;
Atha na yujjanti, ye kilesā apaṭipakkhā honti, te kilesā aparipakkhitabbā.
but [if] they are not [so] construable, then any defilements that are not opposites [of those particular noble ideas] cannot be opposed to them.
Ye ca ariyadhammā paṭipakkhā honti, te ariyadhammā apakaḍḍhitabbā.
Na hi ariyadhammā anāgāmikilesappahānaṃ gacchanti, nāpi ariyadhammā sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya saṃvattanti.
For noble ideas do not arrive at the abandonment of defilements that are future 2 [to them]. Neither does [any] noble idea [alone indiscriminately] bring about the abandoning of all defilements.
Yathā kusalā mettā akusalo rāgo na tu kusalā mettāti kāretvā akusalassa rāgassa pahānāya sambhavati byāpādo mettāya pahānaṃ gacchati.
As [for example], while loving- kindness is profitable and lust unprofitable, [yet] taking loving- kindness as profitable does not bring about the abandoning of lust; it is [in fact] ill will [not lust] that comes to abandonment by means of lovingkindness.
Tasmā ubho kilesā upaparikkhitabbā.
So both sorts of defilement have to be scrutinized,
Yo yo ca dhammo upadisiyati kusalo vā akusalo vā so apakaḍḍhitabbo.
and any idea [so] disclosed,3 whether profitable or unprofitable, must be reserved.4
Sace te yujjanti apakaḍḍhiyamāno natthi upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
If these [namely ill will and lust in this case] 5 are construed when reserved, then there is nothing [more] to be scrutinized.
Dve vā kilesā ekena ariyadhammena pahīneyyāti dvīhi vā ariyadhammehi eko vā kileso pahīyatīti.
Either the two defilements may be abandonable by the one noble idea, 6 or else either one of the [two] defilements may be abandonable by two noble ideas [successively].7
Atha vā evampi upaparikkhiyamānaṃ yujjati, tattha vīmaṃsitabbaṃ vā yathā yujjati tattha vīmaṃsitabbaṃ vā, yathā nanu sakkā suttaṃ niddisituṃ, na hi sutte vicikicchitabbaṃ.
259. Or alternatively, also when [only] one, on being scrutinized, is construed, herein it must be inquired into how it is construed, [namely by which noble idea,] or it must be inquired into why it is that the Thread cannot 1 be demonstrated ; for no Thread must remain an object of uncertainty (cf. § 252).
Kileso maṃ ariyadhammesu desitesu ubhayato upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
260. Any defilement's lapse 1 when any noble ideas that are taught must be scrutinized in both the ways [indicated above for lovingkindness (§ 253) as follows]:
Kira ye vā ime kilesā desitā ye ca ariyadhammā desitā gāthāya vā byākaraṇena vā, kiṃ nu kho ime kilesā imehi ariyadhammehi pahīyanti, udāhu nappahīyanti?
It seems (1) that these 2 [particular] defilements are taught in [this] verse or prose-exposition: How then, are these defilements abandoned by these noble ideas or are they not?
Ime vā ariyadhammā imesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya saṃvattantīti.
Or [conversely] do these noble ideas lead to the abandonment of these defilements?
Kiñcāpi kusalehi dhammehi akusalā dhammā pahānaṃ gacchanti.
[For] although unprofitable ideas do come to abandonment by means of profitable ideas,
Na tu sabbehi ariyadhammehi sabbākusalā pahānaṃ gacchanti.
still not all unprofitable ideas come to abandonment [indiscriminately] by means of any profitable ideas [indiscriminately].
Yathā mettā kusalo akusalo ca rāgo na tu kusalā mettā akusalo rāgoti kāretvā mettāya rāgo pahānaṃ, byāpādo mettāya pahānaṃ gacchanti.
As [for example] while lovingkindness is profitable and lust unprofitable, yet, taking lovingkindness as profitable and lust as unprofitable, lust does not come to abandonment by means of lovingkindness ; it is [in fact] ill will [not lust] that comes 3 to abandonment by means of loving- kindness (§ 258).
Evaṃ kilesoti kāretvā suttena pahānaṃ gacchati.
Consequently [defilement] does not come 3 to abandonment in a [given] Thread [simply] by taking it as ' defilement' [indiscriminately],
Na sutto dhammoti kāretvā sabbaṃ kilesassa pahānāya saṃvattati.
nor, [simply] by taking a [profitable] idea in a [given] Thread, 4 [in this case lovingkindness], does that lead to the abandonment of all defilements [indiscriminately].
Yaṃ tu suttassa ariyadhammo saṃkilesapaṭipakkho, so tena pahānaṃ gacchatīti.
In fact, it is [only when] a noble idea [belonging] to a [particular] Thread is a defilement's opposite that that [defilement] comes to be abandoned by means of that [noble idea]."
41.Tattha kusale desite sutte byākaraṇe vā saṃkilesā na yujjanti ariyadhammā vā, te mahāpadese niddisitabbāvayavena apakaḍḍhitabbā.
261. Herein, when the profitable taught in a [particular verse] or prose-exposition in the Thread and the corruptions [taught there] do not construe or the noble ideas [do not construe] , these should be reserved in accordance with the parts [of the formula for scrutinizing] demonstrable in the Principal Appeals to Authority (A.ii, 167).1
Tattha kilesehi ca desitehi ariyadhammesu ca yadipi tena ariyadhammena te kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti.
262. Herein, if, with the defilements taught and with that noble idea among the noble ideas-, those defilements do come to abandonment,
Tatthapi uttari upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
[then] it should also be scrutinized as follows:
Kena kāraṇena ete kilesā pajahitabbā, kena kāraṇena ariyadhammā desitāti?
" In which [Path-]function are these defilements abandonable? In which [Path-]function 1 are these noble ideas taught?
Yena yena vā ākārena ariyadhammā desitā, tena tena pakārena ayaṃ kileso ṭhito.
In whichever mood [that is, as Seeing or as one of the stages of Keeping-in-Being] the noble ideas are taught, that is the aspect in which this defilement stands [in relation thereto].
Atthi hi eko kileso, tena vā ariyadhammā na aññathā aññathā pahātabbo, yathā diṭṭhi rāgo avijjā ca dassanena pahātabbā.
For there is one defilement abandonable by only one 2 noble idea,2 not in any other way: while view and lust 2 are abandonable by Seeing [in the first Path], not so ignorance [which is only abandonable by Arahantship].
Sā ce evañca avijjā bhāvanāya bhūmi vā dhammā bhāvanāya pahātabbā.
And if ignorance or ideas belonging to the plane of Keeping-in-Being [i.e. the last three paths and second and third fruits] are abandonable in this way [regarded collectively under "Keeping-in-Being"],
Sāyeva uddhaṃbhāgiyaṃ asaṅkhatadassanāya vimuttiyā animittena cetosamādhinā amanasikārena pahīyati.
it is precisely that [ignorance], which belongs to the further side [fetters], which is abandoned through the kind of non-attention that is due to the deliverance's signless heart-concentration for the purpose (? ) of seeing the undetermined.
Evaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ upaparikkhitabbaṃ.
263. That is how the Thread should be scrutinized [in order to verify] that it is ( with its meaning 1 and with its phrasing ) (M. iii, 280).
Ye dassanena pahātabbā kilesā dassanākārena ariyadhammo desito, bhāvanāya pahātabbā bhāvanākārena ariyadhammo desito, patisevanā pahātabbā patisevanākārena ariyadhammo desito, evaṃ vinodanapahātabbā yāva satta āsavā kātabbā, yāvaññathā.
When defilements are [of the kind] abandonable by Seeing, then the noble idea is taught in the mood of Seeing, when [they are of the kind] abandonable by Keeping-in-Being, then the noble idea is taught in the mood of Keeping-in-Being. When [of the kind] abandonable 2 by [right] use [of the four requisites of the bhikkhu's life], then the noble idea is taught in the mood of [right] use ; and so on from those abandonable by removal down to the [end of the Thread dealing with the] seven kinds of taints (M. Sutta 2), which can be quoted..
Aññathā hesa dhammo pahātabbo aññenākārena ariyadhammo desito, so ariyadhammo aññathā pariyesitabbo.
264. In so far as this [defilement] idea is abandonable in the various other stages [than that of Seeing],1 the noble idea [will be appro-priately] taught in another mood, [and so] that noble idea must be sought otherwise [according to the mood].
Yadi ayaṃ dhammo pariyesato yo ca deseti yena yenākārena, so ariyadhammo pariyesitabbo, tenākārena kileso pahīyati.
If this [defilement-]idea gives the construing 2 for one when one is seeking it [thus], then in whichever mood that noble idea can be sought out, that is the mood in which the [particular] defilement is abandoned.
So tattha upaparikkhitabbo.
[And so] that [noble idea] must be scrutinized therein [with respect to the seven moods mentioned above (§ 263)].
Atha na yujjati yadi hi tena suttena vihitaṃ suttaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ.
Then if it still does not construe, the [meaning of the actual] Thread [itself] which is being sought out by means of that [already] tested [other] Thread(§ 250) must be inquired into,
Yathā yujjati, tathā gahetabbaṃ.
[and] in so far as it is construable it can be accepted,
Yathā na yujjati, tathā na gahetabbaṃ, addhā etaṃ bhagavatā na bhāsitaṃ, āyasmatā vā duggahitaṃ, yathā mahāpadese niddisitabbaṃ, bhagavatā yathābhūtaṃ desitaṃ, yo ca dhammo desito kusalo ca akusalo ca tassa dhammassa paccayo pariyesitabbo.
but in so far as it is not construable it cannot be accepted : ( Certainly tliis was not spoken by the Blessed One, or it has been wrorigly taken by the venerable one) (A.ii, 167), which is demonstrable according to the [prescribed way of searching (testing) in the] Principal Appeals to Authority. What is taught by the Blessed One is according to how things are. 265. Whatever the idea taught, profitable as well as unprofitable, that idea's condition must be sought out ;
Na hi paccayā vinā dhammo appaccayo uppajjati.
for no idea arises unconditioned, without a condition.
Tattha ko ākāro pariyesanāya?
266. Herein, what is the mood for the search?
Tattha tathārūpaṃ sahetu sappaccayaṃ soyaṃ dhammo vuttoti idaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ.
Herein, this Thread [to be sought] must be inq11ired into as to whether this 1 idea [in question] has been stated with the cause and with the condition appropriate thereto.
So ca paccayo tividho – mudu majjho adhimatto.
267. And the condition is of three kinds: slight, medium, and outstanding.1
Tattha mudumhi paccaye mududhammo gahetabbo, evaṃ satyesa paccayo duvidho paraṃparāpaccayo ca samanantarapaccayo ca.
Herein, when the condition is slight, the idea [conditioned] must be taken as slight. That being so, 2 this condition is [again] of two kinds: condition in remote relation and condition in immediate proximity (see§§ 402 ff.).
So paccayo mudutena byādhimattaṃ pariyesitabbaṃ.
268. When the condition is slight, what is unoutstanding 1 owing to it must be sought.
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Aññataropi paccayo aññehi paccayehi pariyattiṃ vā pāripūriṃ vā gacchati.
[It may be that] a certain condition 2 comes to occurrence (?) 3 or fulfilment through other conditions.
Tattha yo dhammo desito, tassa dhammassa etena vā kāraṇena vā hetu pariyesitabbo.
Herein, whatever the idea taught [in this Thread that is being scrutinized], the cause of that must be sought either through that [idea] or through a [Path-]function.4
Yathā paccayo hetunā paccayena ca, so tassa dhammassa nissando pariyesitabbo.
269. [And] like the condition, the outcome (see §§ 198-9) of that idea must be sought by cause and by condition.
Yathā niddiṭṭho adhiṭṭhāne padhānaṃ pariyesati, so paccayo pariyesitabbo.
That condition should be sought in the way that one seeks [how] the basic state was demonstrated 1 in the terms of expression [of the particular Thread] ;
Na hi mudussa dhammassa adhimatto nissando adhimattassa vā nissandassa mududhammo, atha mudussa mudu majjhāya majjho adhimattassa adhimatto yujjati, taṃ gahetabbaṃ, atha na yujjati na gahetabbaṃ.
for there is no slight idea that has an outstanding outcome, nor 2 does any outstanding outcome have a slight [condition-]idea. If 3 the slight is construable of the slight, 4 the medi11m of the medium, and the outstanding of the outstanding, that can be accepted. [But] if 3 it does not [so] construe, it cannot be accepted.
Yañca bhagavā ārabhati dhammaṃ desetuṃ, taṃyeva dhammaṃ majjhantapariyosānaṃ deseti, yathā suttādhiṭṭhāne dhammā ādimhi niddisati, taṃyeva bahu tassa suttassa pariyosānaṃ.
270. And whatever idea the Blessed One instigates [initially] in order to teach [a particular teaching], that he teaches also in the middle and the end [of it] (see § 208): he demonstrates in the beginning the idea 1 according as [it is given] in the terms of expression [of that particular teaching, and] only that idea [appears] much [in it] and is that Thread's end;
Tassa hi dhammassa vasena taṃ suttaṃ hoti gāthā vā byākaraṇaṃ khuddakaṃ mahantaṃ vā, yathā pana duvidhā anurūpanti vā thapanā ca desanāthapanā.
for it is in virtue of that idea that that Thread comes to be such [as it is in type], whether verse or prose-exposition, whether small or large. 271. But as the fixing 1 is twofold, namely fixing that is in conformity as well as fixing the [actual] teaching,
Rūpantipi dhammassa pariyesitabbā.
[the fixing] of that idea must also be sought (tested) as to whether it is in conformity 1 [with other Threads].
Yathā ca bhagavatā pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ saṃvaraṇaṃ desitaṃ taṇhāya niggahaṇatthaṃ icchāva hoti.
And just as the restraining of the five faculties [of the eye, etc.,] taught by the Blessed One, in having for its purpose the curbing of craving,
Deseti yathā gopālakopame sutte aññehipi suttehi bhagavā bhāsati icchāva hoti majjhimanikāye vitakko ayaṃ bhagavato desanānurūpanti iti so dhammo aññesupi veyyākaraṇesu pariyesitabbo.
teaches that [that idea] conveys his wish 2 as 3 in the simile of the Cattle-herd Thread [in the Anguttara] (§§ 53 and 248), [when tested] also by means of other Threads that the Blessed One has uttered, [namely] the thought (1) 4 in the Majjhima Nikaya (M.Suttas 33 and 34 (1)), it conveys his wish.2 This is what is in conformity with the Blessed One's teaching. So this idea has to be sought also in other prose-expositions ;
Na hi ekaṃ hi sutte daṭṭhabbo.
for it cannot be regarded [as sought out] in [only] a single Thread.
Yujjanaṃ taṃ gahetabbaṃ.
When it construes, it can be accepted.
42.Tattha katamaṃ anuññātaṃ?
272. Herein, what is the agreed (cf.§ 190)?
Yaṃ kiñci suttaṃ bhagavatā na bhāsitaṃ tañca suttesuyeva ndissati, evametaṃ dhāretabbaṃ.
[When] any Thread whatever is not uttered by the Blessed One and that [Thread] is found among the Threads too,
Yathā asukena bhāsitanti, taṃ suttaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ.
[then] according as it is uttered by whomsoever it may be, so it should be borne in mind (cf. A. ii, 168).
Kiṃ nu kho imaṃ suttaṃ anuññātaṃ khamaṃ bhagavato udāhu nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ, kiñci rūpañca suttaṃ bhagavato anuññātaṃ khamaṃ kiñci rūpañca nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ?
273. That Thread must be inquired into as follows : " How then, does this Thread allow of the Blessed One's agreement or does it not allow of his agreement?" And some Threads allow of the Blessed One's agreement 1 and some Threads do not allow of his agreement.2
Yaṃ sabbaso anotāretvā dasabalo gocaraṃ deseti, taṃ sabbaṃ suttaṃ bhagavato nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ.
When someone teaches what is the Ten Powered One's 3 province, [doing so] altogether without giving a way of entry [to the main ideas in _his teaching (see §§ 366)],' that Thread does not allow of the Blessed One's agreement (see, e.g. M. Suttas 22 and 136 beginning).
Atthipi so sāvako dasabalānaṃ gocaraṃ jānāti odhiso anodhiso, taṃ pana balaṃ sabbaso na jānāti aññathā nāma savanena, yathā āyasmatā sāriputtena yena brāhmaṇo ovadito, tassa āyasmato natthi indriyabalavemattañāṇaṃ, tena puggalaparo [puggalo paroparañca (pī.)] parañca taṃ ajānanto sati uttarikaraṇīye uppādito, so bhagavatā apasādito.
But there is also the kind of hearer who knows the Ten Powered One's province, [doing so] either limitedly or unlimitedly, yet he does not know that power [itself] at all beyond the hearing [of it]; as [for instance, in the case of] the divine exhorted by the venerable Sariputta. Now that venerable one had no Knowledge of Variety in Faculties and Powers (see§ 123), hence by his not knowing the Encompassing of [Other] Persons,6 while [the divine] had more he could still have done [i.e. by attaining the Noble Path], he was made to reappear [after death in the world of High Divinity, and so the venerable Sariputta] was not congratulated by the Blessed One (M. Sutta 97).
Yathāva āyasmā mahākassapo bhāgineyyaṃ ovadati anantariyasamannāgato iddhipāṭihīrena aṅguliyo adīpetvā yaṃ sabbesaṃ dhammānaṃ kammasamādānānaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇaṃ, tassa āyasmato saṃvijjate, tena naṃ ovadati, taṃ bhagavā karoti.
And as [for instance, in the case of] the venerable Maha-Kassapa 8 when he advised his nephew, 7 [though] he [the nephew] was possessed of [unprofitable] action ripening straightway [upon rebirth, 7 the Elder] lighting a finger by a feat of supernormal power ; 8 [but since] no 9 knowledge of how things are by cause and instance in the case of all Undertaking of Action(§ 119) existed in that venerable one, hence the Blessed One 10 advised him, saying:
"Sacepi dasa pajjote, dhārayissasi kassapa;
( Even, o Kassapa, if thou Wilt carry ten such luminaries,
Neva dakkhati rūpāni, cakkhu tassa na vijjatī"ti.
Not even then will he see forms : That eye does not exist in him) (S.i, 199).
Api ca kho yathā dūto rājavacanena sattamanusāsati, evaṃ sesānugo aññātakaṃ ghosaṃ paresaṃ deseti.
[And again] like a messenger who informs a creature of the king's word, so the [mere] emulator 11 teaches to others speech he does not [himself] understand.
Anuññātakhamasuttaṃ gahetabbaṃ.
A Thread which has the agreed approval (as, e.g. M.Sutta 18) can be accepted ;
Ananuññātakhamaṃ na gahetabbaṃ.
that which has not the agreed approval cannot be accepted.
Tattha katamo suttasaṅkaro?
274. Herein, what is Mixing-Up of Threads?
Pañcavidhaṃ suttaṃ, saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ dassanabhāgiyaṃ bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ.
The Thread is fivefold: (1) the type of Thread Dealing with Corruption, (2) the type of Thread Dealing with Morality, (3a) the type of Thread Dealing with Seeing, (3b) the type of Thread Dealing with Keeping-in-Being, and (4) the type of Thread Dealing with the Adept (see§§ 129-146).
Aññaṃ ārādheyya aññaṃ deseti aññassa ca suttassa atthaṃ aññamhi sutte niddisati.
[If] one type would requite,1 he teaches another, and he demonstrates in one type of Thread the meaning of another type of Thread.
Suttassa vā hi anekākāraṃ atthaṃ niddisati.
Or he demonstrates a Thread's meaning 2 in several moods 3
Ariyadhammasādhane atthaṃ vivarati.
[and] in the establishing of the [particular] noble idea [taught there] he divulges 4 a meaning not there (?).5
Vāsanābhāgiyassa atthaṃ dassanabhāgiyesu niddisati.
He demonstrates 6 in those dealing with Seeing the meaning of one dealing with Morality.
Orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ atthaṃ uddhaṃbhāgiyesu niddisati.
He demonstrates in the further-side [fetters] the meaning of higher-side fetters.
Mudumajjhānaṃ indriyānaṃ adhimattesu suttesu niddisati.
He demonstrates in Threads [dealing] with outstanding [faculties (?) (see § 87) the meaning] of those [dealing] with blunt and medi11m faculties (?).7
Iti ayaṃ suttaṃ sambhedaṃ hetunā ca nissandena ca phalena ca niddesena ca mudumajjhādhimattatāyapi ca atthena ca byañjanena ca yo sambhedo, ayaṃ vuccati suttasaṅkaro.
275. So this Thread is [thus] broken up [by him]. The breaking up as to cause, outcome and fruit(§§ 198-9),1 as to the blunt, medium and outstanding state (§§ 267-8), and as to meaning and phrasing, is what is called" Mixing-Up of Threads".
Yo asambhedo, ayaṃ vuccati suttavicayo.
The non-breaking-up is what is called " Investigation of Threads ".
Tatthimā uddānagāthā
276. Herein, this is a mnemonic verse :
Purimānaṃ akkhaṇḍaṃ, yathābhūtassa paccayo;
(i) Untornness of the first (§§ 250-264-), and then (ii) Condition for what comes to be,
Nissando vāsanāsaddhi, anuññā suttasaṅkaro.
And Outcome with 1 with Morality(§§ 265-271), (iii) Agreement (§§ 272-3), and then (iv) Thread-Mixing-Up (§§ 274-5).
Therassa mahākaccāyanassa
The Elder Maha-Kaccayana's
Suttavicayo nāma catutthabhūmi.
fourth chapter called "the Investigation of Threads ".

5 - Pañcama-bhūmi: fifth ground (16 modes of conveying)

43.Tattha katamo hāravibhaṅgo?
277. Herein, what is the Separate Treatment of the Modes of Conveying?
Yattha soḷasa hārā akkharaso bhedaṃ gacchanti.
Where the sixteen Modes of Conveying [a Communication] are separately handled according to the letter,
Tattha ādimhi desanāhāro.
there in the beginning is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching.
Tattha ayaṃ gāthā kusalā vā akusalā vā saccāni vā saccekadeso vā.
278. Here is a verse for it: Profit? Unprofit? All Truths, or but one part of Truths?-1
Kiṃ desitanti?
What is taught?
Sutte vīmaṃsā desanāhāro.
Inquiring thus into a Thread, This Mode it is Conveys a Teaching.2
Yathā ariyasaccāni nikkhepo cattāri saccāni sādhāraṇāni asādhāraṇāni ca.
279. As [shown] in the presentation of Noble Truth (Ch.1),1 there are four Truths shared (§§ 48 ff.) and unshared (§§ 22 ff.).
Yāni ca aṭṭhārasa padāni dukkhato satta padāni saṅkhepena kāyikena cetasikena dukkhena, appiyasampayogena piyavippayogena ca tīhi ca saṅkhatāhi.
These are the eighteen terms(§§ 17-18). 280. As to Suffering, there are in brief the seven terms (§ 63) with (3) bodily and (4) mental pain, (1) association with the loathed, (2) dissociation from the loved, and the three characteristics of the determined (A. i, 152).
Tattha tīṇi saṅkhatalakkhaṇāni tisso dukkhatā uppādo saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, saṅkhāradukkhatāya dukkhatā ca saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, vipariṇāmadukkhatāya dukkhatāti aññathatthaṃ ca saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, dukkhadukkhatāya ca dukkhatā, imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ saṅkhatalakkhaṇānaṃ tīsu vedanābhūmīsu adukkhamasukhā vedanā uppādo saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, saṅkhāradukkhatāya ca dukkhatā tayo saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, sukhā vedanāya ca vipariṇāmadukkhatāya ca dukkhatāti aññathattaṃ saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, dukkhāvedanā dukkhadukkhatā ca dukkhatā imamhi imesu navapadesu paṭhamakesu sattasu padesu soḷasasu padesu dukkhā pariyesitabbā, ekādasa dukkhatāya ca lakkhaṇaṃ niddese niddiṭṭhaṃ.
281. Herein, the three characteristics of the determined are (5-7) the three kinds of painfulness (§ 63). Arising-as-a-characteristic-of- the-determined is a painfulness in virtue of the painfulness-in- determinations ; subsidence 1-as-a-characteristic-of-the-determined is a painfulness in virtue of the painfi1lness-in-change ; alteration- of-what-is-steady-as-a-characteristic-of-the-determined is a pain- fulness in virtue of the painfulness-as-pain. 282. As to the three feeling-planes of these three characteristics of the determined, neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling is arising-as-a- characteristic-of-the-determined 1 and is a painfulness in virtue of the painfulness-in-determinations. Pleasant feeling is subsidence-as- a-characteristic-of-the-determined and is a painfulness in virtue of the painfulness-as-change. Painful feeling is alteration-of-what-is- steady-as-a-characteristic-of-the-determined and is a painfulness in virtue of the painfulness-as-pain. 283. So suffering can be sought for in these sixteen terms, that is, in these nine 1 terms and in the previous seven (§ 280). Also a characteristic [of suffering] is demonstrated in the Book of Demonstrations by eleven kinds of painfulness (Nd2 ad Sn. 1049 ff.).
Pātubhāvalakkhaṇā jātiyā ca pātubhāvacutilakkhaṇo cutoti vitthārena pannarasapadāni kattabbāni, evaṃ sādhāraṇāni asādhāraṇāni ca sattasu dasasu padesu saññāsa tividhe ca sāsanappaṭṭhāne aṭṭhārasavidhesu ca suttādhiṭṭhānesu dasavidhesu ca suttavidheyyesu soḷasavidhesu ca hāresu ekavīsatividhāya ca pavicayavīmaṃsāyāti idaṃ desitaṃ.
[Also] the fifteen terms, namely " (1) Birth has the characteristic of causing to be manifest ... down to ... (15) Decease-and- Reappearance has the characteristic of decease and manifestation" (§ 17) can be quoted in detail. 284. So this [Truth] is taught, and is taught how it comes to be, thus : shared and unshared Threads (§ 279) in the seven and in the ten 1 terms (Ch. I), and in the fiftyfold (1) 2 "Pattern of the Dispensation " (Ch. II, § 72), and in the eighteenfold 3 " Terms of Expression of the Thread " (Ch. III), and in the tenfold 4 " Testings of the Thread" (Ch. IV 1), and in the sixteenfold Modes of Conveying (Chs. V and VII), and in the twenty-one-fold Investigation- Inquiry (Ch.VI 1).5
Yathābhūtañca desitanti, ayaṃ vuccati desanāhāro.
This is called the Mode of Conveying a Teaching.
44.Tattha katamo vicayo hāro?
285. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation?
Padaṃ pañhā ca pucchā ca, kiṃ pubbaṃ kiñca pacchimaṃ;
(i) Term ; (ii) questions ; (iii) asking ; (iv) what before, What after;
Anugīti sā ca vicayo, hāro vicayoti niddiṭṭho.
(v) and a verse-paraphrase's 1 Investigation : this demonstrates The Mode Conveying Investigation.
Padanti paṭhamaṃ padaṃ.
286. (i) Term: 1 first the term-
Tassa ko attho?
what is the meaning of that?
Yaṃ bhagavā puṭṭho āyasmatā ajitena taṃ gahetabbaṃ, katipadāni puṭṭhāni yathākiṃ kenassu nivuto lokoti gāthā, imāni katipadāni cattāri iti visajjanāya pucchā.
When the Blessed One was asked by the venerable Ajita, that can be taken [thus]: how many terms 2 are asked about? Like what? The verse: ("[Tell] what is the world shut in by : .. ) (Sn. 1032). How many terms are these? Four.3 So much is the asking for an answer.
Yattakehi padehi bhagavatā visajjitāni padāni iti pucchāya ca yā padānaṃ saṅkāsanā, idaṃ vuccati padanti.
The terms are answered by the Blessed One with the same number of terms as in the asking, and these are the explaining of the terms. This is what is called " term ".
Pañhāti imāni cattāri padāni.
287. (ii) Questions : these four terms
Kati pañhā?
- how many questions are ?
Eko vā dve vā taduttari vā imāni cattāri padāni eko pañho, atthānuparivatti byañjanaṃ hoti, sambahulānipi padāni ekamevatthaṃ pucchati.
One, or two, or more than that ? These four terms are one question ; 1 [for] the phrasing is subordinate to (has parallel occurrence with) the meaning (see§ 44). Although the terms are several, the meaning he asks about is only one.
Imāni cattāri padāni anuparivattīni taṃ byañjanena eko pañhova hoti.
That these four terms are subordinate is due to the phrasing, the question being only one.
Kenassu nivuto lokoti lokaṃ sandhāya pucchati, kenassu nappakāsati kissābhilepanaṃ brūsīti taṃyeva pucchati.
[For with the term] " [Tell] what is the world shut in by ? " he asks with reference to the world. [And with the terms] "And whereby is it not displayed? And what is it besmeared with? Say" he asks about the same [world, and with the term]
Kiṃsu tassa mahabbhayanti taṃyeva pucchati.
"And what will be its greatest fear ? " he asks about that same [world].
Evaṃ atthānuparivatti byañjanaṃ eko pañho hoti, so pañho catubbidho ekaṃsabyākaraṇīyo vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo paṭipucchābyākaraṇīyo ṭhapaniyoti.
That is how the phrasing is subordinate to the meaning and how the question is only one. Now "question" is of four kinds: declarable unilaterally, declarable after analysis, declarable by asking a counter-question, and unacceptable (see A. i, 197).
Tattha cakkhu aniccanti ekaṃsabyākaraṇīyo, yaṃ aniccaṃ taṃ dukkhanti vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo, siyā aniccaṃ na cakkhu, yānipi āyatanāni ca na cakkhu, tānipi aniccanti na cakkhuyeva, ayaṃ vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo, yaṃ cakkhu taṃ cakkhundriyaṃ neti paṭipucchābyākaraṇīyo, taṃ cakkhu tathāgatoti ṭhapaniyo.
Herein, [when it is asked]"' [Is] the eye impermanent? " that is declarable unilaterally [in the affirmative]. [When it is asked]" Is what is impermanent painful?" that is declarable after analysis ; [for] there is what is impermanent and not an eye; and also the bases that are not the eye[-base] are also impermanent, not only the eye. This is what is declarable after analysis. [When it is asked] " Does the eye guide 2 the eye faculty ? " that is declarable by asking a counter-question. [When it is asked] " Is that eye a Perfect One ? " that is an unacceptable question,
Aññatra cakkhunāti ṭhapaniyo pañho.
[and likewise] "[Is a Perfect One] apart from the eye?".
Idaṃ pañhaṃ bhagavā kiṃ pucchito, lokassa saṃkileso pucchito.
This is" questions ". 288. (iii) As to what the Blessed One is asked, (§ 285) : he is asked about the world's corruption.
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
For what reason ?
Tividho hi saṃkileso taṇhāsaṃkileso ca diṭṭhisaṃkileso ca duccaritasaṃkileso ca.
Because corruption is of three kinds: corruption by craving, corruption by view, and corruption by misconduct (§ 82).
Tattha avijjāya nivutoti avijjaṃ dasseti, jappāti taṇhaṃ dasseti, mahabbhayanti akusalassa kammassa vipākaṃ dasseti, sotaṃ nāma sukhavedanīyassa kammassa dukkhavedanīyo vipāko bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatīti bhagavā visajjeti, catūhi yo padehi avijjāya nivuto lokoti - pe - evaṃ vuccati.
289. Herein, [with the reply] (" By ignorance is [the world] shut in, ... ") (§ 49) he teaches ignorance. By " hankering " he teaches craving. By " greatest fear " he teaches ripening of unprofitable action. What the Blessed One answers is this: "That such kind of ripening of action as is experienceable as pleasure shall be experienceable as pain, no such instance is found." 290. When it was said [by the Blessed One] with four terms, namely " By ignorance is the world shut in, ... ",
45.Taduttari paṭipucchati, savanti sabbadhi sotāti gāthā, cattāri padāni pucchati taṃ bhagavā dvīhi padehi visajjeti.
then it was asked further1 ( " The streams keep streaming everywhere ..." ) (Sn. 1034), in which he asks four terms, and the Blessed One answers it with two terms as follows :
Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;
( Whatever streams are in the world They are shut, off by mindfulness;
Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhīyare.
The streams' restraint I tell, whereby They can be sealed, is understanding ) (§ 56).
Imāni cattāri padāni dvīhi padehi visajjeti.
He answered those four terms with two terms. 2
Idaṃ padanti pucchito, tassa saṃkiliṭṭhassa lokassa vodānaṃ pucchito, sotāni cha taṇhākāyā bahulādhivacanena niddiṭṭhā bhavanti sabbehi āyatanehi.
291. What is this that is asked 1 1 What is asked about is the cleansing of that corrupted world. 292. The "streams" are the (six bodies of craving) (M.i, 51), which are demonstrated in the plural in virtue of all the [six external] bases.
Tāni sotāni kena nivāriyantīti pariyuṭṭhānapahānaṃ pucchati, kena sotā pidhīyareti anusayasamugghātaṃ pucchati.
[With the question] " What is it that shuts off the streams?" he asks about the abandoning of obsession. [With the question] " Whereby is it that streams are sealed? " he asks about eradication of underlying tendencies (cf. §§ 424-5).
Tattha bhagavā chasu dvāresu satiyā deseti, yo hi sampajāno viharati satidovārike ca tassa indriyāni guttāni sambhavanti.
293. Herein, the Blessed One teaches by way of mindfulness in the six doors; for when someone abides aware with mindfulness as doorkeeper his faculties [beginning with that of the eye] are 1 guarded.
Tattha guttesu indriyesu yā yā vipassanā, sā sā tesaṃ tesaṃ sotānaṃ tassā ca avijjāya yo loko nivuto accantapahānāya saṃvattati.
Herein, the faculties being guarded,2 when there is any insight, that conduces to the complete abandonment of any streams and of that ignorance 8 [whereby] the world is shut in.
Evaṃ sotāni pihitānipi bhavanti tato uttari pucchati.
That is how the streams are sealed off.4 294. After that, he asked further
Paññā ca sati ca nāmarūpassa kho tassa bhagavantaṃ puṭṭhumāgamma katthetaṃ upasammati imāni cattāri padāni bhagavā ekena padena visajjeti.
( " Understanding and mindfulness ... " ) (Sn. 1036), having come in order to ask 1 the Blessed One where name-and-form is set at rest. The Blessed One answered these four terms with one term:
Yametaṃ pañhaṃ apucchi [pucchase pañhaṃ (pī. ka.) passa su. ni. 1043], ajita taṃ vadāmi te - pe -;
( " As to the question that you ask, Ajim, I shall tell you [now]:
Viññāṇassa nirodhena, etthetaṃ upasammati.
With cessation of consciousness 'Tis here that this is set at rest" ) (cf.Sn. 1037).
Iminā pañhena kiṃ pucchati?
295. What does he ask with this question!
Anupādisesanibbānadhātuṃ pucchati, taṃ bhagavā anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā visajjeti.
He asks about 1 the element of extinction without trace left. The Blessed One answered him with the element of extinction without trace left.
Tattha paṭhamena pañhena saṃkilesaṃ pucchati.
296. Herein, with the first question (§§ 287-9) he asks about corruption,
Dutiyena pañhena vodānaṃ pucchati.
with the second question (§§ 290-3) he asks about cleansing,
Tatiyena pañhena sopādisesanibbānadhātuṃ pucchati.
with the third question(§ 294) he asks about the extinction element without trace left, 1
Catutthena pañhena anupādisesanibbānadhātuṃ paṭipucchati tato uttari paṭipucchati.
and with the fourth question (§ 297) he asks further 2 about the extinction element with trace left.3 297. In addition to that [third question(§ 294)] he asked further: 1
Ye ca saṅkhātadhammāse, ye ca sekhā [sekkhā (ka.) passa su. ni. 1044] puthū idha;
("There are these Masters of ideas, 2 And several Initiates here:
Tesaṃ me nipako iriyaṃ, puṭṭho pabrūhi mārisa.
Good sir, if asked, you have the skill To tell me their 3 behaviour") (Sn.1038).
Imāni cattāri padāni pucchati.
He asks these four terms.
Kati ca pana te pañhe saṅkhātadhammā ca arahantā sekkhā ca?
Now how many questions are these?4 They are those about the Arahant "Masters of ideas" and about the " Initiates ".
Kiṃ pubbaṃ kiñca pacchimanti ayamattho.
298. (iv) " What is before, what after" (§ 285) : the meaning is this: 1
Tattha kataraṃ paṭhamaṃ pucchati, kataraṃ pacchā?
"Herein, which does he ask about first and which last?"
Arahantaṃ paṭhamaṃ pucchati.
He asks about the Arahant first
Sekkhadhamme tattha kena padena saṅkhātadhammāti arahanto gahitā, puthūti sekkhā gahitā.
and about the ideas of the Initiate with the corresponding (1) term. The Arahants are referred to [by the phrase] "Masters of ideas" while the Initiates are referred to [by the phrase]" the several".
Tesaṃ me nipakoti sādhāraṇaṃ padaṃ bhagavantaṃ pucchati.
[With the phrase]" You have skill to tell me their " he asks the Blessed One a term shared in common [with both].
Tassa sādhāraṇāni ca asādhāraṇāni ca pañhesu pucchitabbāni.
Now shared and unshared questions can be asked of him.
Taṃ bhagavā visajjeti.
The Blessed One [sometimes, as in this case,] answers [such questions]
Na tathā puṭṭhaṃ, paṭhamaṃ puṭṭhaṃ, taṃ pacchā visajjeti.
not [in the same order] as [that in which the questions are] asked.2 [Here] he answers afterwards what was asked first
Yaṃ pacchā pucchitaṃ paṭhamaṃ visajjeti.
and answers first what was asked afterwards.
Kiñca idaṃ pucchitaṃ visuddhānaṃ visujjhantānañca kā iriyāti idaṃ pucchi, taṃ kāmesu nābhigijjheyya.
And what is this that he asked? 3 He asks this: "What is the behaviour of those [already] purified and of those [still] being purified? " That is answerable as follows : 299. ("Sensual desires he would not want,
Manasānāvilo siyāti pariyuṭṭhānāni vitakkena ca bhagavā nivāreti, dve pana vitakkaanāvilatāya pariyuṭṭhānaṃ, yathā nīvaraṇesu niddiṭṭhaṃ.
He would be undisturbed in mind, ... " ) (Sn. 1039). [Here] the Blessed One shuts off the obsessions [produced] by the thought [of sensual desires]; but 1 [there is also] the obsession due to disturbedness by the [other] two kinds of thoughts [namely those of ill will and cruelty] as demonstrated among the in-shuttings (hindrances).2
Kusalā sabbadhammesūti arahantaṃ visajjeti.
[With the phrase] "Skilled 3 in all ideas" he answers about the Arahant [asked about first].
Kenassu tarati oghanti gāthā, imāni cattāri padāni.
300. Now as to the verse beginning. (By what means does he cross the flood? ) (cf. S. i, 53), these are four terms [in the whole verse].
Cattāroyeva pañhā.
The questions are four too.
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ, na hi ettha atthānuparivatti byañjanaṃ [yathānuparivatthivajjaṃ (pī. ka.)] yathā paṭhamaṃ ajitapañhesu, tassa na ekaṃsena bahūni visajjanāni, bahukā pañhā, ekova na cāpi, sabbe pucchati, pubbe visajjito, yathā catuttho ajitopañhe, yaṃ ettha yathābhūtaṃ pariyesanāpadabandhena visajjanāyo evaṃ yathābhūtaṃ pariyesati.
What is the reason? It is because here the phrasing is not subordinate to (does not have parallel occurrence with) the meaning 1 like Ajita's first question (§ 286 f.), where the answers were not unilaterally plural, since the questions there, though plural [in phrasing] were only one [in meaning]. 2 Also, while in the first Ajita question the fourth was answered [after] he had already asked [the other three questions and had been answered, it is] not so [here],3 since here it is a seeking out how things come to be, and accordingly one seeks (tests) the answers 4 as to how things come to be, [doing so] by the term-connexion.
Yo puna ettha yaṃ evaṃ pucchati tattha ayamākāro pucchanāyaṃ antojaṭā bahijaṭāti gāthā [saṃ. ni. 1.29] pucchitavisajjanāya maggitabbā.
As to the question 5 which he asks here again 6 in this way, herein, this is [simply (? )] a mood of the questioning. 6 301. Now the verse 1 [beginning] ( The inner tangle and the..outer tangle, ... ) (S. i, 13) must be traced out by means of the answer to this question.
Kathaṃ visajjitāti bhagavāti visajjeti?
How is it answered? [Herein,] the Blessed One answers with the
Sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapaññoti gāthā.
verse 1 ( When a wise man, established well in virtue, ... ) (§ 156).
Tattha cittabhāvanāya samathā, paññābhāvanāya vipassanā.
Herein, "keeping a pure heart in being" is quiet, while "keeping understanding in being " is insight.
Tattha evaṃ anumīyati, ye dhammā samathena ca vipassanāya ca pahīyanti, te ime antojaṭā bahijaṭā.
Herein, he infers as follows : The" inner tangle and the outer tangle" are any ideas abandoned by means of quiet and insight.
Tattha visajjanaṃ samathena rāgo pahīyati, vipassanāya avijjā.
As to the answer herein, lust is abandoned by means of quiet and ignorance is abandoned by means of insight.
Ajjhattavatthuko rāgo antojaṭā, bāhiravatthuko rāgo bahijaṭā.
The lust which has what is in oneself for its ground is the " inner tangle " while the lust which has what is external for its ground is the " outer tangle ".
Ajjhattavatthukā sakkāyadiṭṭhi, ayaṃ antojaṭā.
And the embodiment-view (§ 534) with what is in oneself for its ground is the " inner tangle "
Ekasaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni ca bāhiravatthukāni bahijaṭā, yā hi ajjhattavatthukā yā diṭṭhibhāgiyena bhavissati, ayaṃ jaṭā.
while the sixty-one 2 types of view with what is external for their ground are the "outer tangle". [In fact] whatever, due to lust and to view-type, will exist there regarding what is in oneself and what is external,3 this is the "tangle".
Tathā saṃkhittena yā kāci ajjhattavatthukā taṇhā ca diṭṭhi ca, ayaṃ antojaṭā.
So in brief any craving and view whatever with what is in oneself for their ground are the " inner tangle "
Yā kāci bāhiravatthukā taṇhā ca diṭṭhi ca, ayaṃ bahijaṭā.
while any craving and view whatever with what is external for their ground are the " outer tangle ".
Yathā devatā bhagavantaṃ pucchati "catucakkaṃ navadvāra"nti gāthā [saṃyuttanikāye].
302. And according as a deity asked the Blessed One, there is the verse: ( " Four wheels it has and has nine doors, ['Tis full of associated greed And born of mire, o Hero great; How then will there survival be? ] " ) (S. i, 16 ; 63).
Tattha bhagavā visajjeti "chetvā naddhiṃ varattaṃ cā"ti gāthā, idaṃ bhagavā dukkhanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ visajjeti.
Herein, the Blessed One answered with the verse : ( " By severing the tie and trace, [And evil greed for wishes, too, And craving with its root expelling, Thuswise will there survival be]") (S. i, 16; 63).1 303. What the Blessed One answers with is the Way Leading to Cessation of Suffering.
Imāya visajjanāya bhagavā anumīyati kilese ettha purimāya gāthāya niddisitabbena.
With this answer the Blessed One infers the defilements here from what is demonstrable by the first verse.
Taṃ hi catucakkanti cattāro vā hatthapādā.
For either the " four wheels " are the four hands and feet,
Navadvāranti nava vaṇamukhāni.
and the " nine doors " are the nine bodily orifices,
Yathā catucakkanti cattāro upādānā, upādānappaccayā bhavo, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho.
or else 1 the " four wheels" are the four assumings-and with assuming as condition, being : with cessation of assuming, cessation of being ,
Navadvāranti nava mānavidhā, mānajātikāya hi dukkhaṃ seyyenamhi paraso tīṇi tikāni puṇṇaṃ.
and the " nine doors" are the nine positions of conceit (Vbk.389-390); for the suffering born of conceit is the [position for conceit] ( I am better ) (Vbih.389) in the three triads that follow [in the Vibhanga text].
Tikena saṃyuttaṃ hi pañcakāmaguṇiko rāgo.
"Full of associated greed" is lust for the five strands of sensual desire.
Tattha naddhīti taṇhā visajjīyati.
Herein, it is " the tie " that is answered by craving
Varattanti mānaṃ visajjeti, icchā lobho ca pāpakoti pañcakāmaguṇiko rāgo.
and "the trace" by conceit. "Evil greed for wishes" is lust for the five strands of sensual desire.
Tattha visamalobho pāpakoti niddisiyati samūlataṇhanti.
Herein, it is ( unrighteous greed ) (M. i, 36) he demonstrates as " evil ".
Aññāṇamūlakā taṇhāti aññāṇamūlakā taṇhā, taṇhāya ca diṭṭhiyā ca pahānaṃ.
" Craving with its root " 3 is (craving rooted in unknowing) ( ). "Expelling" 3 is the abandoning of the craving rooted in unknowing and of view.
Ye ca puna aññepi keci catucakkayogena teneva kāraṇena ca yujjanti, saṃsāragāmino dhammā sabbe niddisitabbā.
And again any other ideas leading to the roundabout whatever that construe 4 for that same reason in association with the "four wheels " can all be demonstrated.
Tatthāyaṃ gāthā visajjanā pucchāya ca visajjanāya sameti [samaṃti (pī.)].
So 5 this verse-answer agrees with the question.6
Yaṃ yadi sandena atha saha byākaraṇena anugītiyaṃ ca so vicayoti bhagavā yattakāni padāni nikkhipati, tattakehi anugāyati.
304. (v) Now if [there is any recapitulation] with a summary,1 then this Investigation [becomes an inquiry] into a paraphrasing-verse (§ 285) together with its prose-exposition [that it recapitulates, and this in order to see whether] the Blessed One paraphrases in verse as many terms as he presents [in the prose-exposition.
46.Aṭṭhahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgato bhikkhu dūteyyaṃ gantumarahati [kātumarahati (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 8.16].
For example: 305. ( Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu possesses eight factors he is fit to go on a mission ... ) (A.iv, 196).
Imāni aṭṭha padāni nikkhittāni.
Now these eight meaning-terms presented [here in this prose-exposition]
Chahi padehi bhagavā anugāyati.
the Blessed One paraphrases in verse by six terms 1 as follows :
"Yo ve na byathati [byāthati (ka.)] patvā, parisaṃ uggavādiniṃ;
(He is undismayed when come before A parliament assembly,
Na ca hāpeti vacanaṃ, na ca chādeti sāsanaṃ.
He does not lose his [thread of] Speech, He does not hide his mission's aim,
"Asandiddhiṃ ca bhaṇati, pucchito na ca kuppati;
He can expound views not his own, When questioned, he is undisturbed :
Sa ve tādisako bhikkhu, dūteyyaṃ gantumarahatī"ti.
A bhikkhu such as this will be One on a mission fit to go) (A.iv, 106).2
Tattha pana bhagavā yattakāni padāni nikkhipati, tattakehi anugāyati.
306. Herein, the Blessed One does not 1 paraphrase in the verse with as many terms as he presents [in the prose].
Sattahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgato kalyāṇamitto piyo garubhāvanīyoti vitthārena, idaṃ bhagavā sattahi padehi anugāyati.
307. ( Bkikkhus, when a good friend possesses seven factors ... ), [and the paraphrasing-verse] (He is dear, revered, and venerable, ... ) (cf.A.iv, 32), can be quoted in detail. This [where seven terms are presented in the prose] the Blessed One paraphrases in verse by seven terms.
Iti bahussutavā anugāyati, appatarakathaṃ padaṃ vā nikkhepo, bahussutavā nava padāni nikkhepo, appatarikā anugītiyā bahutarikā anugāyati.
308. So [sometimes] the verse-paraphrases with more when the presentation [in the prose] has fewer terms, or when the [prose] presentation has more terms he verse-paraphrases with fewer.1
Ayaṃ vuccati te anugīti ca vicayo, ayaṃ vicayo nāma hāro.
This is what was called " and a verse-paraphrase's investigation " (§ 285). This is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation.
Tattha katamo yuttihāro?
309. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Construing?
Sabbesaṃ hārānaṃ, yā bhūmī yo ca gocaro tesaṃ;
In the case of the Thread's Conveyings' Plane, resort, outcome,
Yuttāyutti parikkhā, hāro yuttīti niddiṭṭho.
Looking for right and wrong construing demonstrates The Mode Conveying a Construing.1
Hārānaṃ soḷasannaṃ yathā desanā yathā vicayo yo ca niddisiyati, ayaṃ niddeso.
310. That which is demonstrated of the sixteen Modes of Conveying as Teaching (Mode 1) and as Investigation (Mode 2) is the demonstration.
Ayaṃ pucchā suttesu na yujjatīti yā tattha vīmaṃsā, ayaṃ yutti.
Such inquiry as " Does this question construe or does it not construe in the Threads?" 1 is Construing.
Yathā hi sahetū sappaccayā sattā saṃkilissanti, atthi hetu atthi paccayo sattānaṃ saṃkilesāya, sahetū sappaccayā sattā visujjhanti, atthi hetu atthi paccayo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā.
311. As [for example] (Creatures are defiled owing to a cause, owing to a condition ; there is a cause, there is a condition, for creatures' defilement. Creatures are purified owing to a cause, owing to a condition , there is a cause, there is a condition, for creatures' purification ) (cf.M.i, 407), and the path to [that] purification is this
Sīlavatā, ānanda, puggalena na veyyākaraṇiyā kinti me vippaṭisāro uppādeyya - pe - abyākaraṇaṃ kattabbaṃ, ayaṃ visuddhiyā maggo.
( Ananda, one who is virtuous does not have to choose "How shall I have no remorse?" ... etc. ) (§ 153),1 which prose-exposition 1 can be cited.
Tassa hetu ko paccayo, sīlakkhandhassa cattāri cattāri hetu ca paccayo ca.
Now what 2 is the cause, what is the condition, for that [path]? 312. There are four 1 causes and four conditions for the Virtue Category [of the Path]:
Sappurisasaṃsevo yo ca patirūpadesavāso ca, ayaṃ upādāpaccayatā sappaccayo.
(i) waiting on True Men (see D.iii, 276) and (ii) living in befitting places are a condition through assumptive conditionality.2
Yaṃ porāṇakammaṃ assa vipāko paccayo, tāya paccayāya attasammāpaṇidhi, ayaṃ hetu.
(iii) When there is any old [appropriate] action,3 its ripening is a condition. (iv) And through that same conditionality, 4 there is right direction in self-guidance, which is a cause (see§ 525).
Iti sīlakkhandho sahetu sappaccayoti idaṃ lokikaṃ sīlaṃ.
So the [Path's] Virtue Category has a cause and has a condition. This is virtue belonging to worlds.
Yaṃ pana lokuttaraṃ sīlaṃ, tassa tīṇi indriyāni paccayo – saddhindriyaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ samādhindriyaṃ – ayaṃ paccayo.
But as to virtue dissociated from worlds, that has three faculties as condition, namely the faith faculty, the energy faculty, and the concentration faculty. These are a condition.
Satindriyañca paññindriyañca hetu.
The mindfulness faculty and the understanding faculty are a cause;
Paññāya nibbedhagāminiyā, yaṃ sīlaṃ jāyati.
[for] understanding generates 6 the virtue that leads to penetration 8
Sotāpannassa ca sīlaṃ tenāyaṃ hetu ayaṃ paccayo.
and also the virtue of [the fruit of] Stream-Entry. Hence these [faculties] are the cause, these are the condition.
Yaṃ puna samādhino passaddhi ca pīti ca pāmojjaṃ paccayo.
313. Since, moreover, the "tranquillity" and "happiness " and " gladness " (see second quotation in § 311 in full) are a condition for concentration,
Yaṃ sukhaṃ hetu tena samādhikkhandho sahetu sappaccayo.
and since the " pleasure " is a cause, hence the Concentration Category [of the Path] has a cause and has a condition.
Yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ paññā.
314. And since "one who is concentrated understands how things are" (§ 311 full version of 2nd quotation) this is understanding.
Tassa paratoghoso ajjhattaṃ ca yoniso manasikāro hetu ca paccayo ca, iti ime tayo khandhā sahetū sappaccayā evaṃ satta paññā.
For that another's utterance and reasoned attention in oneself are the cause and the condition (§ 2). So these three categories [of the Path] have a cause and have a condition.
Sattabyākaraṇīsu ca suttesu na yujjati.
315. Inquiry thus" Does this [construe or does it] not construe?" (§ 310) in regard to Threads concerning what is declarable unilaterally or after analysis or by a counter-question (?) (see§ 287) 1
Ayaṃ yuttihāro.
is the Mode of Conveying a Construing.
So catūsu mahāpadesesu daṭṭhabbo.
316. And that [Mode of Conveying] can also be seen in the four Principal Appeals to Authority (§ 264).
47.Tattha katamaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ?
317. Herein, what is the [Mode of Conveying] Footings?
Dhammaṃ deseti jino, tassa ca dhammassa yaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ;
The victor teaches an idea, And also what has that idea As Footing :
Iti yāva sabbadhammā, eso hāro padaṭṭhāno.
so with all ideas : This is the Mode Conveying Footings.1
Tattha pañcakāmaguṇā kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
318. The five strands of sensual desires are a footing for lust for sensual desires;
Yesaṃ kesañci kāmarāgo uppajjati uppanno vā uppajjissati vā, etesu yepi pañcasu rūpesu āyatanesu nāññatra etehi kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānanti.
[for] it is said that "In whomsoever lust for sensual desires arises, has arisen, or will arise, the footing for that lust for sensual desires is in those five [external] bases that have form [beginning with visible forms, and] not apart from them ".1
Vuccate, tena pañca kāmaguṇā kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
That is why the five strands of sensual desire are the footing for lust for sensual desires.
Pañcindriyāni rūparāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The five faculties [beginning with the eye] are a footing for lust for form.
Manindriyaṃ bhavarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The mind faculty-is a footing for lust for being.
Pañcakkhandhā sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The five categories [beginning with form] are a footing for the embodiment-view.
Ekasaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni diṭṭhirāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The sixty-one 2 types of view are a footing for lust for views.
Kāmadhātu kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The sensual-desire element is a footing for lust for sensual desires.3
Arūpadhātu arūparāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The formless element is a footing for lust for the formless.
Sukhasaññā kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of pleasure is a footing for lust for sensual desires.
Byāpādasaññā byāpādassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of ill will is a footing for ill will.
Asampajaññatā sammohassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Unawareness is a footing for confusion.
Nava āghātavatthūni byāpādassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The nine grounds for annoyance (.A. iv, 408) are a footing for ill will.
Navavidhaṃ mānaṃ [navamānaṃ vidhamānassa (pī. ka.)] mānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The nine positions of conceit (§ 303) 4 are a footing for conceit.
Sukhā vedanā rāgānusayassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Pleasant feeling is a footing for the underlying tendency to lust.
Dukkhā vedanā paṭighānusayassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Painful feeling is a footing for the underlying tendency to resistance.
Adukkhamasukhā vedanā avijjānusayassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling is a footing for the underlying tendency to ignorance (see M. i, 303).
Attavādupādānañca musāvādo ca lobhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Self-theory assuming and false speech are a footing for greed.
Pāṇātipāto ca pisuṇavācā ca pharusavācā ca byāpādassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Killing breathing things and malicious speech and harsh speech are a footing for ill will.
Micchattañca samphappalāpo ca mohassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Wrongness and gossip are a footing for delusion.
Bhavaṃ bhogañca vokāro ahaṃkārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Inequality in existence and in property is a footing for I-making.
Bāhirānaṃ pariggaho mamaṃkārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Appropriation of external [objects] is a footing for my-making.
Kāyassa saṅgaṃ [kāyavaṅkaṃ (pī.)] diṭṭhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Bodily crookedness is a footing for view.
Kāyikadoso dosassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Bodily fault (dosa) is a footing for hate (dosa).5
Kāyikakāsāvo lobhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Bodily coloration(?) is a footing for greed.
Yo yo vā pana dhammo yena yena ārammaṇena uppajjati saccādhiṭṭhānena vā dhammādhiṭṭhānena vā anusayanena vā, so dhammo tassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
319. Or [in fact when] any 1 idea arises by means of any object, whether the idea is expressed in terms of creatures 1 or expressed in terms of ideas (see § 43-5), its footing is accordingly (?) 1
Tena sārammaṇena so dhammo uppajjati.
that whereby 1 that idea arises with an object.
Yathā manusso purimassa padassa padaṭṭhānaṃ alabhanto dutiyaṃ padaṃ uddharati, so pacchānupadaṃ saṃharati.
320. Just as, when a man 1 finds a(?) 2 footing for his foremost foot, he raises his second foot and brings it forward past [that] foot,
Yadi pana yo na dutiyapadassa padaṭṭhānaṃ labhati, aparaṃ padaṃ uddharati.
but if he 3 finds no footing for his second foot, he does not (?) 3 raise the other foot
Tassa yo ceso paccayo bhavati.
since there is no(? ) condition for it,
Evaṃ dhammo kusalo vā akusalo vā abyākato vā padaṭṭhānaṃ alabhanto na pavattati.
so too an idea, whether profitable or unprofitable or undeclared (see Dhs.p.1) does not occur when it finds no footing,
Yathā payuttassa dhammassa yonilābho [yoniso lābho (pī.)], ayaṃ vuccati padaṭṭhāno hāro.
owing to (? ) 4 non-obtainment(?) 4 of a reason for the idea so 5 produced. This is called the Mode of Conveying Footings.
48.Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
321. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Vuttamhi ekadhamme, ye dhammā ekalakkhaṇā tena;
When one idea is mentioned, all Ideas of like characteristic
Sabbe bhavanti vuttā, so hāro lakkhaṇo nāma.
Are by that mentioned : here abides The Mode Conveying Characteristics.
Yesañca susamāraddhā, niccaṃ kāyagatāsatīti gāthāya vuttāya kāyagatāsatiyā vuttā vedanāgatā cittagatā dhammagatā ca sati catunnaṃ satipaṭṭhānānaṃ ekena satipaṭṭhānena.
322. [For example,] when in the verse ( They whose mindfulness of body Is constantly well instigated ... ) (Dh.293) mindfulness occupied with the body is mentioned, then mindfulness occupied with feelings, with cognizance, and with ideas (cf. D.iii, 221) are also mentioned by the single Fonndation of Mindfulness's [representing all] four Foundations of Mindfulness ; 1
Na hi cittaṃ ekasmiṃ viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā pavattati, nānāsu gatīsu pavattati, kāyagatāsatiyā vuttāya vuttā vedanāgatā cittadhammagatā ca.
for cognizance does not occur in only a single Steadying-point for consciousness (see D. iii, 228), it occurs in the different ways [simultaneously, so] when mindfulness occupied with the body is mentioned, then that occupied with feelings, with cognizance, and with ideas, is mentioned as well.
Na hi kāyagatāsatiyā bhāvitāya satipaṭṭhānā cattāro bhāvanāpāripūriṃ na gacchanti.
For it is not that when mindfulness occupied with the body is kept in being then the [rest of the] four Fonndations of Mindfulness do not 2 come to fulfilment by keeping in being.
Evaṃ tassadisesu dhammesu vuttesu sabbadhammā vuttā ca bhavanti.
So when any among like ideas 3 are mentioned then all those ideas [with that same general characteristic] are mentioned.
Sacittapariyodāpanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsananti gāthā cetasikā dhammā vuttā, citte rūpaṃ vuttaṃ.
323. [Again,] in the verse "And purifying one's own heart: This is the Buddhas' Dispensation" (§ 183) ideas concomitant with cognizance are mentioned. And when "heart (cognizance)" is mentioned form [is also] mentioned.
Idaṃ nāmarūpaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.
This is the name-and-form that is the Noble Truth of Suffering.
Tato sacittapariyodāpanā yaṃ yaṃ odapeti, taṃ dukkhaṃ.
Consequently in the" purifying" of" one's own heart (cognizance)" what one purifies is Suffering,
Yena odapeti, so maggo.
what one purifies by is the Path,
Yato odapanā, so nirodho.
[what one purifies from is origin, and] 1 the purifying is Cessation.
Cakkhuṃ ca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, tattha sahajātā vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro ete te dhammā ekalakkhaṇā uppādalakkhaṇena.
324. [Again,] (Eye consciousness arises depending on eye and forms) (M.i, 111-112). Herein, the conascent feeling, perception, choice, contact, and attention (see M. i, 53), are ideas with a single [general] characteristic in virtue of the characteristic of assuming.
Yo ca rūpe nibbindati, vedanāya so nibbindati, saññāsaṅkhāraviññāṇesupi so nibbindati.
He who 1 finds dispassion in form (see M. i, 139) finds dispassion in feeling, and he also finds dispassion in perception,2 determinations, and consciousness.
Iti ye ekalakkhaṇā dhammā, tesaṃ ekamhi dhamme niddiṭṭhe sabbe dhammā niddiṭṭhā honti, ayaṃ vuccati lakkhaṇo hāro.
So when any one of those ideas that have a single [general] characteristic is demonstrated, all the [rest of those] ideas [with that same general characteristic] are demonstrated too. This is called the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
325. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Nirutti adhippāyo ca, byañjanā desanāya ca;
(i) Language by way of phrasing, (ii) Purport, (iii) The Teaching's Source,1 and
Suttattho pubbāparasandhi, eso hāro catubyūho.
(iv) the Thread-Meaning As a Consecutive-Sequence : This Mode Conveys a Fourfold Array.
Tattha katamā nirutti, sā kathaṃ pariyesitabbā [passitabbā (pī. ka.)] ?
326. (i) Herein, what is Language? How is that to be seen?
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā ekādasahi aṅgehi samannāgato bhikkhu khippaṃ dhammesu mahattaṃ pāpuṇāti, atthakusalo ca hoti, dhammakusalo ca hoti, niruttikusalo ca hoti, itthādhivacanakusalo ca hoti, purisādhivacanakusalo ca, vipurisādhivacanakusalo ca, atītādhivacanakusalo ca, anāgatādhivacanakusalo ca, paccuppannādhivacanakusalo ca.
According as it is said by the Blessed One (A bhikkhu possessing eleven factors swiftly reaches greatness in True Ideas: he is (1) skilled in meanings, (2) skilled in ideas, (3) skilled in language, 1 (4) skilled in designations for the feminine gender, (5) skilled in designations for the masculine gender, (6) skilled in designations far the neuter gender, 2 (7) skilled in designations for the past [tenses], (8) skilled in designations for the future [tenses], (9) skilled in designations for the present [tenses], (10) skilled in single purport, (11) skilled in differing purport) ( )3 .
Ekādhippāyena kusalo nānādhippāyena kusalo.
Kimhi desitaṃ, atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ.
327. What is taught? past, future, and present,1
Itthādhivacanena purisādhivacanena vipurisādhivacanena sabbaṃ yathāsuttaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ.
by means of the feminine-gender designation, the masculine-gender designation, and the neuter-gender designation. All according to the Thread demonstrated as (before).
Taṃ byañjanato niruttikosallato yo yaṃ suttassa suniruttidunniruttitaṃ avekkhati, idaṃ evaṃ niropayitabbaṃ.
He 2 looks that [Thread] over as to phrasing and as to language-skill for the correctness or incorrectness of the Thread's language thus: This should be inflected 3 thus,
Idampi na niropayitabbaṃ.
this should not be inflected thus.
Idaṃ vuccate niruttikosallaṃ.
This is called Skill in Language.
49.Tattha katamaṃ adhippāyakosallaṃ?
328. (ii) Herein, what is Skill in Purport?
Yathādesitassa suttassa sabbassa vāraṃ gacchati imena bhagavatā desitabbanti.
[It is skill in knowing] how a section(?) of a Thread taught comes to be taught by the Blessed One with this [particular intent (? )].1
Yathā kiṃ appamādo amataṃ padaṃ, pamādo maccuno padanti gāthā.
Like what 1 [As follows:] ( The Deathless State is diligence, That of Mortality neglect) (Dh.21).2
Ettha bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport here?
Ye asītimeva ākaṅkhanti te appamattā viharissanti, ayaṃ adhippāyo.
It is that those who wish 3 for coolness (?) 3 will abide diligent. This is the purport here (but see§ 386).
Yogassa kālaṃ na nivattati yā ca, so na tattha pāpintave bhavanti;
329. [Again :] 1 No one turns back time for devotion, and while Feelings there are not [yet] overwhelming, let one keep in being
Vedanāmaggaisinā [vedanāmaggaṃ isinā (pī.)] paveditaṃ, dhutarajāsavā dukkhā pamokkhātā.
The path proclaimed by the Seer [which is] the state of safety From suffering that has shaken off dirt and taints ( ).
Ettha bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport here?
Ye dukkhe nāssādakā [dukkhena sādhakā (pī.)], te vīriyamārabhissanti dukkhakkhayāyāti.
It is that those who are afflicted 2 by pain will instigate energy 3 for the exhaustion of suffering.'
Ayaṃ tattha bhagavato adhippāyo.
This is the Blessed One's purport here.
Iti gāthāya vā byākaraṇena vā desite iminā suttena sādhakā, yo evaṃ dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjatīti so adhippāyo, ayaṃ vuccati desanādhippāyo.
330. So the Purport in what is taught by verse or by prose-exposition is the establishment 1 that through such a Thread one practises an idea in accordance with the True Idea. This is what is called the Teaching's purport.
Tattha katamo pubbāparasandhi?
331. (iv) Herein,1 what is Consecutive-Sequence (syntax) (§ 325)?
Yaṃ gāthāyaṃ vā suttesu vā padāni asīti tāni bhavanti evaṃ vā evameti tassā gāthāya suttassa vā yāni purimāni padāni yāni ca pacchimakāni, tāni samosāretabbāni.
Since in a verse or in [prose (?)] Threads the terms are multiple (? ) 2 in this way or in that,3 the preceding terms and the subsequent terms belonging to such 4 verse or [prose] Threads must be taken together.
Evaṃ so pubbāparena sandhi ñāyati.
332. That sequence is known 1 as to its consecutivity as follows :
Yā ekā samāraddhā gāthā dve tīṇi vā tassa mekadese bhāsitānaṃ abhāsitāhi gāthāhi aniddiṭṭho attho bhavati tadupadhāritabbaṃ.
When one verse in two or three 2 is embarked upon [for search](?), the meaning of the [verse] spoken 3 as one part thereof is 4 yet undemonstrated owing to some verses being still not spoken ; 3 what is [still] to be said 5 must be compared with that.
Yaṃva sabbā [yaṃ vattabbaṃ (pī.)] itissa pariyesamānassa pariyesanā kaṅkhā, tassa vā puggalassa paññattīnaṃ apare pariyesitabbaṃ.
So while he who is searching (testing) has doubts about the search (test), that person has still 6 to search [further] in another of the descriptions [still unspoken (? )] (see §§ 385 ff.).
Idaṃ vuccate pubbāparena sandhi.
This is what is called sequence by consecutivity.
Kosallanti vatthuto nidānakosallaṃ.
333. Skill : 1 (iii) Skill in source as circumstance,
Byañjanato niruttikosallaṃ.
(i) skill in language as phrasing,
Desanādhippāyakosallaṃ.
(ii) skill in the teaching's purport,
Pubbāparena sandhikosallaṃ.
(iv) skill in sequence by consecutivity (syntax).
Tattha tassa gāthā pariyesitā nidānaṃ vā.
334. Herein, when a verse is searched for that(?) in order to obtain the source, etc.,1
Upalabbhituṃ na attho niddisitabbo vatthuto nidānakosallaṃ atthakosallaṃ imehi catūhi padehi attho pariyesiyanto yathābhūtaṃ pariyiṭṭho hoti.
the meaning does not have to be demonstrated [separately] since skill in sources as circumstances is skill in meanings. When the meaning 2 is being sought out by means of these four terms it is sought out according to how it is.
Atha ca sabbo vatthuto vā nidānena vā yo adhippāyo byañjano nirutti sandhi ca anuttaro eso pubbāparena evaṃ suttatthena desitabbaṃ.
And then all 3 that is, either the source as circumstance or the purport, the language as phrasing, and the sequence (syntax) 3 is in consecutivity when not a conclusion.4 That is how it can be taught as to the Thread's meaning.
Ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array.
50.Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro?
335. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion?
Ekamhi padaṭṭhāne, pariyesati sesakaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ;
The Mode that, when there is one footing, Seeks out the footing that remains
Āvaṭṭati paṭipakkhe, āvaṭṭo nāma so hāro.
And converts to the opposites Is that Conveying a Conversion.
Yathā kiṃ unnaḷānaṃ pamattānanti gāthāyo.
336. Like what? [For example,] the verse : (And for the proud, the negligent, ... ) (Dh.292).
Yaṃ pamādo, idaṃ kissa padaṭṭhānaṃ?
337. This 1 negligence, what is it the footing for?
Kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ osaggassa.
For the relinquishment of profitable ideas.2
Kusaladhammosaggo pana kissa padaṭṭhānaṃ ?
Now the relinquishment of profitable ideas,2 what is that the footing for?
Akusaladhammapaṭisevanāya.
For using unprofitable ideas.2
Kissa padaṭṭhānaṃ, kusaladhammapaṭisevanāya?
Using unprofitable ideas, what is that the footing for?
Kissa padaṭṭhānaṃ, kilesavatthupaṭisevanāya?
For using objects of defilement.
Iti pamādena mohapakkhiyā diṭṭhi avijjā chandarāgapakkhiyā.
So in the case of negligence, 2 while it is view that sides 2 with delusion it is craving (?) 2 that sides with will and lust.
Tattha taṇhā ca diṭṭhi cattāro āsavā taṇhā kāmāsavo ca bhavāsavo ca diṭṭhāsavo ca avijjāsavo ca.
338. The craving and the view herein are the four taints : the craving is the taint of sensual desire and the taint of being, while the view 1 is the taint of views and the taint of ignorance.
Tattha citte atthīti diṭṭhi cetasikesu niccanti pañcasu kāmaguṇesu ajjhāvahanena kāmāsavo, upapattīsu āsatti bhavāsavo.
339. Herein, [the view that there is] self 1 in cognizance [is the taint of] views, 1 and that there is permanence in the concomitants of cognizance [is the taint of ignorance] ; 1 the taint of sensual desire is due to bias 2 towards sensual desires, and the taint of being consists in clutching at reappearance.
Tattha rūpakāyo kāmāsavassa bhavāsavassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
340. Herein, the form-body is a footing for the taint of sensual desire and the taint of being,
Nāmakāyo diṭṭhāsavassa avijjāsavassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
while the name-body is a footing for the taint of views and the taint of ignorance.
Tattha alliyanāya ajjhattavāhanaṃ kāmāsavassa lakkhaṇaṃ.
341. Herein, (1) the characteristic of the taint of sensual desire is any sticking to and bias 1 towards the [external five] bases (? ) adhered to.2
Patthanaganthanaabhisaṅkhārakāyasaṅkhāraṇaṃ bhavāsavassa lakkhaṇaṃ, abhiniveso ca parāmāso ca diṭṭhāsavassa lakkhaṇaṃ.
(2) The characteristic of the taint of being is the determining of a [physical or mental] body by aspiration, ties, and determinative acts. 3 (3) The characteristic of the taint of views is insistence and misapprehension.
Appaṭivedho dhammesu asampajaññā ca avijjāsavassa lakkhaṇaṃ.
(4) The characteristic of the taint of ignorance is non-penetration [of the four Truths] and unawareness of ideas.4
Ime cattāro āsavā cattāri upādānāni.
342. These four taints are the four assumings (cf.§§ 1052) :
Kāmāsavo kāmupādānaṃ, bhavāsavo bhavupādānaṃ, diṭṭhāsavo diṭṭhupādānaṃ, avijjāsavo attavādupādānaṃ, imehi catūhi upādānehi pañcakkhandhā.
the taint of sensual desire is sensual-desire-assuming, the taint of being is being-assuming, the taint of views is view-assuming, and the taint of ignorance is self-theory-assuming. 343. With these four assumings there are the five categories.1
Tattha avijjāsavo citte pahātabbo, so citte cittānupassissa pahīyati.
344. Herein, (3) the taint of views 1 can be abandoned in cognizance; it is abandoned in one contemplating cognizance as cognizance.
Diṭṭhāsavo dhammesu pahātabbo, so dhammesu dhammānupassissa pahīyati.
(4) The taint of ignorance 1 can be abandoned in ideas; it is abandoned in one contemplating ideas as ideas.
Bhavāsavo āsattiyā pahātabbo, so vedanāsu vedanānupassissa pahīyati.
(2) The taint of being can be abandoned in clutching [at reappearance]; it is abandoned in one contemplating feelings as feelings.
Kāmāsavo pañcasu kāmaguṇesu pahātabbo, so kāye kāyānupassissa pahīyati.
(1) The taint of sensual desire can be abandoned in the five strands of sensual desire ; it is abandoned in one contemplating the body as a body.
Tattha kāyānupassanā dukkhamariyasaccaṃ bhajati.
345. Herein, (I) contemplation of the body belongs with the Noble Truth of Suffering.
Vedanānupassanā pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ paccayo sukhindriyassa dukkhindriyassa somanassindriyassa domanassindriyassa upekkhindriyassa, sattakilesopacāro tena samudayaṃ bhajati.
(2) Contemplation of feelings, since the condition for the five [affective] faculties-for the pleasure faculty, pain faculty, joy faculty, grief faculty, and onlooking-equanimity faculty-is the approach [thereto by craving] as creatures' defilement,1 belongs therefore with [the Noble Truth of] Origin.
Citte cittānupassanā nirodhaṃ bhajati.
(3) Contemplation of cognizance belongs with Cessation.
Dhammesu dhammānupassanā maggaṃ bhajati.
(4) Contemplation of ideas belongs with the Path.
Tenassa catūsu ca dassanena tasseva sabbe pahīyanti, yena niddiṭṭhā paṭhamaṃ unnaḷānaṃ pamattānaṃ tesaṃ vaḍḍhanti āsavā.
346. And by this seeing of his in the four [instances] all his [taints] are abandoned which 1 were earlier demonstrated [thus] "And for the proud, the negligent, their taints increase " (§ 336) ;
Jānato hi passato āsavānaṃ khayo dukkhaṃ samudayo nirodho maggo hi akusalā dhammā.
for he has exhausted taints when he knows and sees [in the four instances] namely Suffering, Origin, Cessation, and Path.2
Evaṃ pariyesitabbā.
That is how unprofitable ideas should be sought out.2
Yāva tassa akusalassa gati tato paṭipakkhena akusale dhamme pariyesati tesaṃ kilesānaṃ hārena āvaṭṭati.
347. One seeks profitable 1 ideas in the [sense] opposite to the unprofitable and to like extent. One converts by the abandoning 2 of these defilements.3
Ayaṃ vuccate āvaṭṭo hāro.
Evaṃ sukkāpi dhammā pariyesitabbā.
That is how white ideas come to be sought out (tested) too
Akusaladhamme āgamissa.
by arrival through profitable ideas.
Tattha āvaṭṭassa hārassa ayaṃ bhūmi sati upaṭṭhānā ca vipallāsā ca cattāri ñāṇāni sakkāyasamuppādāyagāminī ca paṭipadā sakkāyanirodhagāminī paṭipadā.
348. Herein, the plane of the Mode of Conveying a Conversion is this: Mindfulness and its four Foundations (Appearances),1 and [their opposites] the [four] Perversions, and the four kinds of knowledge [of the four Truths], the way leading to arising of embodiment and the way leading to cessation of embodiment.
51.Tattha katamo vibhatti hāro?
349. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis?1
Yaṃ kiñci vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ vuccati vibhatti hāro.
Anything at all that is " declarable after analysis " (§ 287) is called the Mode of Conveying an Analysis.
Yathā kiṃ āgantvā ca puna puggalo hoti, no vāgataṃ na paribhāsati [no vā na paribhāsati (pī.), na tāvāyaṃ paribhāsi (ka.)] paripucchatāya pañhāya atiyanaṃ ekassa kiñci – ayaṃ vuccate vibhatti hāro.
Like what? ( And again there is the type of person ... So far I have not told this ... ) 2 (A. iv, 379-382), this being in no way (? ) the kind of question for further questioning. This is called the Mode of Conveying an Analysis.
Tattha katamo parivattano hāro.
350. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal?
Yaṃ kiñci paṭipakkhaniddeso, ayaṃ vuccati parivattano hāro.
Any demonstration of an opposite is called the Mode of Conveying a Reversal,
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā sammādiṭṭhikassa purisapuggalassa micchādiṭṭhi nijjiṇṇā hotīti vitthārena sabbāni maggaṅgāni.
according as it is said by the Blessed One ( In a mature person possessing right view wrong view is abolished) (cf.M.iii, 76),1 [which can be quoted] in detail in regard to all the [remaining] path-factors.
Ayaṃ vuccate parivattano hāro.
This is called the Mode of Conveying a Reversal.
Tattha katamo vevacano hāro?
351. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Synonyms?
Vevacanehi anekehi, ekaṃ dhammaṃ pakāsitaṃ;
Knower of Threads is he that knows 1 ' A single idea in the Thread 2
Sutte yo jānāti suttavidū, vevacano nāma so hāro.
Displayed by many synonyms: So synonyms this Mode conveys.
Yathā āyasmā sāriputto ekamhi vatthumhi vevacanena nānāvuttena bhagavatā pasaṃsito "mahāpañño sāriputto hāsapañño javanapañño"ti idaṃ paññāya vevacanaṃ.
352. As [for example, when] the venerable Siriputta was praised in one instance [namely that of understanding] by the Blessed One with variously stated synonyms thus : ( Sariputta has great understanding, ... has joyous understanding,...has impulsive understanding) (M. iii, 15). These are synonyms for understanding.
Yathā ca maggavibhaṅge niyyānattho ekamekaṃ maggaṅgaṃ vevacanehi niddiṭṭhaṃ.
353. And as [for example] the meaning of outlet in the Magga- Vibhanga (Vbh.235),1 [where] each path-factor is demonstrated by synonyms.
Evaṃ avijjāya vevacanā.
354. So too the synonyms for ignorance,
Ekaṃ akusalamūlaṃ tadeva santaṃ tesu tesu janapadesu tena tena pajānanti.
which is one of the unprofitable roots, and which, while [it remains] that same [unprofitable root], people understand by means of this or that [synonym] in such and such countries ;
Na hi anena tadevapi ālapiyanti aññaṃ bhajati.
for it does not thereby become 1 another 1 even [when called]" reliance ".2
Sabbakāmajahassa bhikkhunoti kāmā ālapitā.
355. [In the passage] ( For the bhikkhu who has left all sense-desires) (Ud.21) sensual desires are called [by that synonym for them].
Yassa nitthiṇṇo saṅkoti teyeva kāme saṅkāti ālapati.
[In the passage] ( Who has crossed the mire ) 1 ( Ud.24) he calls 2 those same sensual desires " mire " .1
Suṇamānassa puretaraṃ rajjanti teyeva kāme rajjanti ālapati.
[In the passage] ( Shaking off dirt that had been earlier made) 3 (Ud.21) those same sensual desires he calls 2 " dirt ".
Evaṃ suttamhi yo dhammo desiyati tassa pariyeṭṭhi "katamassa dhammassa idaṃ nāmaṃ katamassa idaṃ vevacana"nti.
356. So when any such idea is taught in the Thread 1 thus, the search is as follows : What 1 idea is this a name for 1
Sabbaññū hi yesaṃ yesaṃ yā nirutti hoti, yathāgāmi tena tena desetīti tassa vevacanaṃ pariyesitabbaṃ.
Because whatever the language of any [inhabitants of any country ], however it goes, it is by means of that that the Omniscient One teaches (cf.§§ 103 f.), and so the synonym for that has to be sought.
Ayaṃ vevacano hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Synonyms.
52.Tattha katamo paññatti hāro?
357. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Descriptions?
Cattāri ariyasaccānīti suttaṃ niddisati, nikkhepapaññatti.
When he demonstrates a Thread thus (Four Noble Truths) (§ 176), that is a description in terms of presentation.
Yā samudayapaññatti.
358. Description in terms of origin [is as follows]: 1
Kabaḷīkāre āhāre atthi chando atthi rāgo yāva patiṭṭhitaṃ.
(If there is will and there is lust ... for physical nutriment ... down to ... a standing-point
Tattha viññāṇaṃ pabhavapaññattiṃ paññapeti.
there 2 consciousness finds ) (§ 167), whereby he describes a description in terms of giving being.3
Kabaḷīkāre āhāre natthi chando - pe - samugghāti paññatti.
359. By (If there is no will ... for physical nutriment...etc ....) (§ 167) he describes a description in terms of eradication.
Tassa kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccatīti pahānapaññattiṃ paññapeti.
360. By (His heart is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, and his heart is liberated from the taint of being, and his heart is liberated from the taint of ignorance) (§ 141 ; M. i, 183-4) he describes a description in terms of abandoning.
Taṇhā yassa purakkhatā paññā parivattati gāthā manāpapaññattiṃ paññapeti.
361. Now by the verse ( People 1 who are led by craving Wriggle 1 ... ) (cf. Dh.342) he describes [craving by] a description in terms of the agreeable; 2
Evaṃ pana manāpapaññattīti ekadhammaṃ bhagavā paññapeti.
but with a description in terms of the agreeable thus it is still the same one idea the Blessed One describes ;
Na hi taṇhā dukkhasamudayoti kāretvā sabbattha taṇhāsamudayo niddisitabbo.
for while taking it that craving is the origin of suffering, nevertheless craving is not demonstrable as origin in every instance,3 as [for example in the passage]
Yathā uppannaṃ kāmavitakkaṃ nādhivāseti vinodeti pajahatīti paṭikkhepapaññatti.
( He does not endure an arisen thought of sensual desire, he removes it, abandons' it) (cf.M.i, 11), which is a description in terms of rejection.6
Evaṃ sabbesaṃ dhammānaṃ kusalānañca akusalānañca yañcassa dhammakkhettaṃ bhavati, so ceva dhammo tattha pavattati.
So for all ideas, both profitable and unprofitable. 362. And whatever is a [particular] idea's own field, it is only 1 that idea that occurs there,
Tadavasiṭṭhā dhammā tassānuvattakā honti.
the remaining ideas being subordinate to it.
Sā duvidhā paññatti – parādhīnapaññatti ca sādhīnapaññatti ca.
For this description is of two kinds: (1) description-in-terms-of- dependence-on-another and description-in-terms-of-self-dependence.2
Katamā sādhīnapaññatti?
363. What is the description in terms of self-dependence?
Samādhiṃ, bhikkhave [passa saṃ. ni. 3.5], bhāvetha, samāhito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
( Bkikkhus, keep concentration in being.One who is concentrated ... understands how it is ...
"Rūpaṃ anicca"nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ sādhīnapaññatti parādhīnapaññatti ca, sā paññatti paññāya ca sīlassa ca, yathā cattāri jhānāni bhāvetha.
" Form is impermanent " : that is how he understands how it is ) (§ 157) : this is a description in terms of self-dependence 1 [when applied to the concentration category]. And that 1 description is also a description in terms of dependence- on-another [when applied] to [the associated Path-categories of] understanding and virtue. As [for example, in the passage] ( Keep the four Meditations in being) ( ),
Tassa atthi samādhindriyaṃ mudūni cattāri indriyāni tāni catuparādhīnāni, tīṇi aveccappasādeti parādhīnaṃ samādhindriyaṃ cattāri indriyāni parādhīnāti catūsu ariyasaccesu aparādhīnaṃ paññindriyaṃ satipaṭṭhānesu sammappadhānesu vīriyindriyaṃ.
while that [statement] has the concentration faculty [outstanding], the [other] four faculties are blunt and they, in fact,2 are dependent-on-another [with respect to that concentration]. In the case of the three 2 kinds of confidence due to undergoing (cf. S. v, 323) [which are faith's field] the concentration faculty is dependent-on-another [namely faith]. In the case of the four Truths, the four faculties [of faith, energy, mindfulness, and concentration] are dependent- on-another 3 [namely understanding], and the understanding faculty [which has the Truths for its field] is then not dependent-on-another. In the case of the Foundations of Mindfullness, the mindfulness faculty 4 [is not dependent-on-another], and in the case of the Right Endeavours, the energy faculty [is not].
Iti sake padaṭṭhāne sake khettasādhīno so dhammo, so ca tattha paññāpetabbo.
364. So when any idea has self-dependence in its own footing and its own field (§ 362),1 that idea should be described with respect thereto.
Tassa paṭipakkhā nighāto niddisitabbo.
The counteraction of it can be demonstrated from its opposite.
Etthāyaṃ anekākārapaññatti kena kāraṇena ayaṃ dhammo paññattoti.
365. Here [in this Mode of Conveying] description has many moods, which is why this idea is described thus.
Ayaṃ vuccate paññatti.
This is called Description.
53.Tattha katamo otaraṇo hāro?
366. Herein, what is the [Mode of Conveying] Ways of Entry?
Chasu dhammesu otāretabbaṃ.
Ways of entry can be found in six ideas.
Katamesu chasu?
In what six?
Khandhesu dhātūsu āyatanesu indriyesu saccesu paṭiccasamuppādesu.
In (1) the Categories, (2) the Elements, (3) the Bases, (4) the Faculties, (5) the Truths, and (6) the [two moods of] Dependent Arising.1
Natthi taṃ suttaṃ vā gāthā vā byākaraṇaṃ vā.
There is no Thread, whether verse or prose-exposition,
Imesu channaṃ dhammānaṃ aññatarasmiṃ na sandissati.
that does not exhibit one or other of these 2 six ideas.
Ettāvatā esa sabbā desanā yā tā khandhā vā dhātuyo vā āyatanāni vā saccāni vā paṭiccasamuppādo vā, tattha pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ vedanākkhandho rāgadosamohānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
For the whole extent of the Teaching 3 is about either the Categories or the Bases or the [Faculties 4 or the] Truths or Dependent Arising. 367. (1) Herein, it is the feeling category that, among the five categories, is the footing for lust, hate, and delusion.
Tattha tisso vedanāyo tassa sukhāya vedanāya somanasso savicāro, dukkhāya vedanāya domanasso savicāro, adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya upekkho savicāro.
Herein, there are three kinds of feeling in that [feeling category, wherein] the pleasant [feeling] has the approach with joy,1 the painf"ul has the approach with grief,1 and the neither-painful-nor-pleasant has the approach with onlooking-equanimity.1
Yaṃ puna tattha vedayitaṃ idaṃ dukkhasaccaṃ, khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandho tattha kāyo pamattaṃ saupavattati, tañca saṅkhāragato dvidhā ca bhavaṅgotaraṇaṃ kammaṃ tīṇi ca saṅkhārāni puññābhisaṅkhārā vā apuññā vā āneñjā vā hetu sabbasarāgassa no vītarāgassa, dosassa abhisaṅkhārāni ca avītarāgo ceteti ca pakappeti ca, vītarāgo pana ceteti ca no abhisaṅkharoti, yaṃ uṇhaṃ vajiraṃ kaṭṭhe vā rukkhe vā aññattha vā patantaṃ bhindati ca ḍahati ca, evaṃ sarāgacetanā ceteti ca abhisaṅkharoti ca.
Again, whatever is felt there [among these three kinds of feeling] is (5) the Truth of Suffering (see S.iv, 134). 368. Now as to the determinations category among the categories: herein, a body occurs for one 1 [who has acted] negligently. And that [negligent action] is included among determinations ; and action is a way of entry to the factors of being 2 in two ways. And the three kinds of determinations-determinative acts of merit, determinative acts of demerit, and determinative acts of imperturbability (see S. ii, 82)-are a root-cause for all kinds of [personalities] with lust,8 though not for the lust-free; 4 And likewise the determinative acts of hate. It is one not without lust who " chooses and determinatively acts " ; it is one without lust 4 who cc neither 5 chooses nor determinatively acts" 6 (cf. § 78; S. ii, 65).
Yathā sataṃ vajiraṃ na bhindati na ca ḍahati, evaṃ vītarāgacetanā ceteti na ca abhisaṅkharoti.
Just as a hot thunderbolt falling on a log or a tree or elsewhere splits and burns it, so does choice with lust choose and determinatively act; as a cold (1) 7 thunderbolt neither splits nor burns it, so lust-free choice neither chooses nor determinatively acts.8
Tattha pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ eko khandho anindriyasarīraṃ saññākkhandho.
369. Herein, there is one among the five categories which belongs to the kind of physical frame without faculties, namely the perception category.1
Tattha dhātūnaṃ aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo.
370. (2) Herein, as to the Elements (§ 66), there are the eighteen elements.
Tattha yā rūpī dasa dhātuyo, tāsu desiyamānāsu rūpakkhandho niddisitabbo, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.
Herein, when the ten elements having form (§ 371) are being taught, the form category can be demonstrated, which is (5) the Noble Truth of Suffering (§ 16).
Yepi ca cha viññāṇakāyā manodhātusattamā, tattha viññāṇakkhandho ca niddisitabbo, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.
Also when the six bodies of consciousness (M.i, 53) with the mind as seventh ( ) [are being taught], there the consciousness category can be demonstrated, which is (5) the Noble Truth of Suffering.
Dhammadhātu pana dhammasamosaraṇā, so dhammo hetunā ca nissandena ca phalena ca kiccena ca vevacanena ca yena yena upalabbhati, tena tena niddisitabbo.
The idea element is the meeting-place of the different 1 ideas, and that idea can be demonstrated by cause and outcome and fruit (see §§ 202, 375), and by function and word, whichever applies,
Yadi vā kusalā yadi vā akusalā yadi vā abyākatā yadi vā asaṅkhatā.
whether [that idea element is] profitable or unprofitable or undeclared (Dhs. p.1) or undetermined (Dhs § 1086).
Dvādasannaṃ āyatanānaṃ dasa āyatanāni rūpāni taṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ niddisitabbaṃ.
371. (3) Of the twelve Bases, ten bases have form [namely the first five pairs, and] these can be demonstrated as (5) the Noble Truth of Suffering,1
Rūpakkhandho ca manāyatanañca viññāṇakkhandhena niddisitabbaṃ, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.
and as the form category, while the mind base can be demonstrated as the consciousness category [which is also] (5) the Noble Truth of Suffering.
Dhammāyatanaṃ nānādhammasamosaraṇaṃ.
The idea base is the meeting-place of the different ideas.
Tattha ye dhammā indriyānaṃ indriyesu niddisitabbā, ye anindriyānaṃ anindriyesu niddisitabbā.
372. (4) Herein, ideas belonging to those with faculties can be demonstrated among those with faculties, and ideas belonging to those without faculties can be demonstrated among those without faculties,1
Pariyāyato ca otāretabbā.
and they can be made ways of entry indirectly (see § 380 for " faculties ").
Yathā sā dhammadhātu tathā dhammāyatanaṃ pariyesitabbaṃ.
373. And as (2) the idea element, so (3) the idea base can be sought out ;
Yāyeva hi dhammadhātu tadeva dhammāyatanaṃ anūnaṃ anadhikaṃ.
for what the idea element is that the idea base is too, neither less nor more (see Vbh.73, 89).
Tattha paṭiccasamuppādo atthi tividho, atthi catubbidho, atthi duvidho.
374. (6) Herein,1 there is Dependent Arising in three ways, there is that in four ways, and there is that in two ways.
Tattha tividho paṭiccasamuppādo hetuphalanissando.
375. Herein, there is Dependent Arising in three ways as cause, fruit, and outcome (§§ 202 ff., 370).
Avijjā saṅkhārā taṇhā upādānaṃ ca ayaṃ hetu, viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ phasso vedanā ca ayaṃ paccayo, yo bhavo ayaṃ vipāko, yā jāti maraṇaṃ ayaṃ nissando.
Then ignorance, determinations, craving, and assuming, are the cause ; consciousness, name-and-form, the sixfold base, contact, and feeling, are the fruit ; 1 being, birth,1 and ageing-and-death are the outcome.
Kathaṃ catubbidho hetu paccayo vipāko nissando ca?
376. How in four ways? As cause, condition, ripening, and outcome,
Avijjā ca taṇhāsaṅkhārā ca upādānaṃ ca – ayaṃ hetu.
ignorance and craving, determinations and assuming : these are the cause.
Viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpassa paccayo.
Consciousness is name-and-form's condition,
Nāmarūpaṃ upapajjati, tathā upapannassa saḷāyatanaṃ phasso vedanā ca – ayaṃ paccayo.
and name-and-form when it arises is [a condition] for the sixfold base, [and so] contact, and feeling: these are the condition.
Yo bhavo ayaṃ vipāko.
Being is the ripening.1
Yā jāti yā ca jarāmaraṇaṃ – ayaṃ nissando.
Birth and ageing-and-death are the outcome.
Kathaṃ duvidho paṭiccasamuppādo?
377. How is there Dependent Arising in two ways?
Avijjā saṅkhārā taṇhā upādānaṃ – ayaṃ samudayo.
Ignorance, determinations, cravings, and assuming, are (5) Origin.
Viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ phasso vedanā bhavo jāti maraṇañca – idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Consciousness, name-and-form, the sixfold base, contact, feeling, being, birth, [ageing-and-] death are (5) Suffering.
Yaṃ pana avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho imāni tappaṭipakkhena dve saccāni.
378. But since with cessation of ignorance, cessation of determinations, etc., these, as the opposites, are (5) the other two Truths.
Tasmā paṭiccasamuppādo yena ākārena niddiṭṭho, tena tena niddisitabbo.
379. Therefore whatever Dependent Arising can be made a way of entry by, that is what it can be demonstrated by.1
Tathā bāvīsati indriyāni.
380. (4) Likewise the twenty-two faculties.1
Dvādasa indriyāni cakkhundriyāni cakkhundriyaṃ yena domanassindriyaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
[Herein,] the twelve faculties,2 that is, the eye-faculty, ... down to 8 ... the grief faculty, are (5) Suffering.
Purisindriyaṃ ca diṭṭhiyā ca taṇhāpadaṭṭhānaṃ.
The masculinity faculty and the femininity faculty 4 are a footing for craving.5
Yato puriso purisakānaṃ taṃ evaṃ kātabbatā.
For as soon as the male has to do with women, 4
Atha ajjhattaṃ sārajjati.
it then becomes subject to lust in oneself :
Ayaṃ ahaṃkāro taṃ yasā sāratto bahiddhā pariyesati, ayaṃ mamaṃkāro evaṃ itthī, tattha sukhindriyaṃ ca somanassindriyaṃ ca purisindriyassānuvattakā honti.
this is I-making. Being thus lustful, it seeks [an object] externally: this is my-making. Likewise the female. Herein, the pleasure faculty and the joy faculty are sub-ordinate 6 to the masculinity faculty.
Tassa adhippāyaparipuṇṇā lobhadhammā kusalamūle pavaḍḍhenti.
When the man's ideas of greed have their purport fulfilled, they increase the unprofitable ;
Tassa ce ayamadhippāyo na pāripūriṃ gacchati.
but if his purport fails to be fulfilled,
Tassa dukkhindriyaṃ ca domanassindriyaṃ ca vattati.
then the pain faculty occurs in him and the grief faculty,
Doso ca akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍhati.
and also hate as a root of unprofit increases.
Sace pana upekkhā bhāveti upekkhindriyassa anuvattakāmā bhavati.
But if he keeps onlooking-equanimity 7 in being, the onlooking-equanimity faculty has parallel occurrence with the masculinity faculty, 7
Amoho ca kusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍhati.
and non-delusion as a root of profit increases.
Iti satta indriyāni kilesavatthumupādāya ananvemāni avamāni sabbassa vedanā itthindriyaṃ purisindriyaṃ.
381. So there are seven faculties, neither more nor less (?),1 due to assuming an object for defilement, namely feeling of all [five kinds and] and the femininity faculty and masculinity faculty.
Tattha aṭṭha indriyāni saddhindriyaṃ yāva aññātāvino indriyaṃ, ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā.
382. Herein, the eight faculties, namely the faith faculty(§ 194) ... down to ... the final-knower faculty(§ 221) are (5) the way leading to Cessation of Suffering.
Dasannaṃ paññindriyānaṃ kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
383. Of the twelve 1 [faculties(§ 380)], the five faculties 1 [beginning with that of the eye] are a footing for lust for sensual desires,
Manindriyaṃ bhavarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
the mind faculty is a footing for lust for being,
Paññindriyāni rūparāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
the five faculties 2 [beginning with forms] are a footing for lust for form,
Itthindriyaṃ ca purisindriyaṃ ca satta paññattiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
and the femininity faculty and the masculinity faculty are a footing for the description 3 in terms of creatures.
Tattha yena yena indriyena yuttaṃ vā gāthāya otāretuṃ sakkoti, tena tena niddisitabbo.
Herein, whatever faculty a Thread," whether verse " or [prose], can be made a way of entry by, that is what it can be demonstrated by.
Evaṃ khandhesu dhātūsu āyatanesu saccesu paṭiccasamuppādesu ayaṃ otaraṇo hāro.
384. That is how [ways of entry can be found] in the cases of the Categories, Elements, Bases, [Faculties] Truths, and moods of Dependent Arising (§ 366). This is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry.
54.Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
385. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Yo gāthā ekena ārambho bhāsissanti.
Several verses may express a single instigation.1
Tattha ekissā bhāsitāya avasiṭṭhāsu bhāsitāsu so attho na niddisitabbo.
386. Herein, the meaning of one [of such verses] so stated cannot be demonstrated so long as the remaining ones are still unstated.1
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Na hi tāva so attho bhāsito, so abhāsito na sakkā niddisituṃ.
That meaning has not yet been stated ; it being not yet stated, it cannot yet be demonstrated (cf.§§ 331-2).
Yathā kiṃ appamādo amataṃ padanti gāthā ayamekā gāthā niddisitabbā.
Like what? [For example] the verse: ( The Deathless State is diligence, ... ) (§ 328; Dh. 21).2 This single verse has yet to be demonstrated.3
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ, atthikkhātāva imassa ārambhassa anabhāsitaṃ?
What is the reason? There is still expectation [of more to come] owing to the instigations not having yet been stated.4
Evaṃ [etaṃ (pī.) passa dha. pa. 22] visesato ñatvā, appamādamhi paṇḍitā;
( The wise, then, recognizing this As diligence's rare distinction,
Appamāde pamodanti, ariyānaṃ gocare ratāti.
In diligence rejoice, delighting In the way of Noble Ones) (Dh.22).
Idaṃ abhāsitaṃ.
What has not yet been stated is this (above).
Imissāpi gāthāya bhāsitāya attho niddisitabbo.
Also this verse's meaning has yet to be demonstrated.3
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ, atthi tattha avasiṭṭhaṃ?
What is the reason? There is still something remaining unstated there too, namely the verse ·
Te jhāyino [dha. pa. 23] sātatikā, niccaṃ daḷhaparakkamāti gāthā, evaṃ imā gāthāyo upadhāritā yadā bhavanti, tadā attho niddisitabbo.
(They meditate persistently, Constant and firm in perseverance ... ) (Dh.23).So when these verses 5 are collated, then the meaning can be demonstrated.
Evaṃ assutapubbesu suttesu byākaraṇesu vā ekuddeso bhāsito.
387. So when a single indication is stated in regard to Threads, whether [verse or] prose-expositions, not yet heard,
Yā vīmaṃsā tulanā idaṃ atthi kiccaṃ, idaṃ suttaṃ bhāsitaṃ tassa vevacanaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ vā na vāti.
any inquiry is an examination with the following task: 1 "This Thread has been stated ; is its synonym 2 demonstrated yet or not?",
Tattha yā vīmaṃsā, ayaṃ vuccate sodhano hāro.
and such inquiry is called the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up.
55.Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno hāro?
388. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression?
Ekattatā ca vemattatā ca.
It is unity and diversity.
Tattha kitapaññatti ca kiccapaññatti ca.
389. Herein, the description in terms of operator 1 and the description in terms of operation 1 are [respectively] the unity and the diversity.
Sā ekattatā ca vemattatā ca yathā paññatti ekavevacanena vemattatā pajānātīti paññā, sā ca ādhipateyyaṭṭhena paññatti.
For example, what is a description [i.e. a " making- understood " (pannatti)] according to the single synonym [as a unity] is, according to diversity,2 [expressible as follows]" It understands (pajanati), thus it is understanding (panna), and that [understanding] is, in the sense of dominance,
Yaṃ anomattiyaṭṭhena paññattanti.
the understanding faculty (pannindriya), 3
Taṃ anomattiyaṭṭhena paññābalaṃ.
and, in the sense of non-lapse (?), 4 the understanding power.
Tanubhūtā gocarattavasā sevasati tīsu ratanesu anussati buddhānussati dhammānussati saṅghānussati aviparītānussaraṇatāya.
390. [103] When made to exist accordingly (ANUbhuta), the mindfulness (SATI) cultivating a triple province,1 which is recollection (ANUSSATI) of the three Jewels, namely Recollection of the Enlightened One, Recollection of the True Idea, and Recollection of the Community, [is a diversity, but it is a unity] as a state of undistorted recollection.
Sammādiṭṭhi dhammānaṃ pavicayena dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo abhinīhārato abhiññāti.
391. Right view [as such is a unity while it is a diversity] as the investigation-of-ideas enlightenment factor both as the investigating of ideas and as acquaintance [with supernormal power] due to directing [cognizance thereto] .1
Saṅkhepena maggā kā vatthu avikopanatāya ekattā, yathā uṇhena saṃsaṭṭhaṃ uṇhodakaṃ, sītena saṃsaṭṭhaṃ sītodakaṃ khārodakaṃ guḷhodakanti, idaṃ ekattatā vemattatā ca.
392. Briefly what are the [four] Paths [as unity and diversity]? It is with non-confounding of the basic [idea, namely" path"] that they are a unity, just as [water] when combined with heat is "hot water " and when combined with cold it is " cold water ", " biting water", and "frozen (? ) water" : this is the unity and the diversity.1
Atthi puna dhammo nānādhammasaṅghato ekato yathārūpaṃ cattāro vāretabbā, tañca rūpanti ekattatā.
393. Again, there is the type of idea that is a bringing together (collection) 1 of different ideas [combined] together, as [for instance] form, 2 [which consists of] the four obstructibles,3 is a unity as "form"
Pathavīdhātu āpo tejo vāyodhātūti vemattatā.
but a diversity as "the element of earth", and "the elements of water, fire, and air".
Evaṃ sabbā catasso dhātuyo rūpanti ekattatā, pathavīdhātu āpo tejo vāyodhātūti vemattatā.
394. That is how all the four_ elements are a unity as "form " but are a diversity as" the element of earth" and" the elements of wate are a diversity as "the element of earth" and "the elements of water, fire, and air ".
Pathavīdhātūti lakkhaṇato ekattatā, saṃkiṇṇavatthuto vemattatā.
395. " Earth element " : by [its specific] characteristic [of hardness (see M.i, 421)] is a unity, but it is a diversity as the physical basis [namely the body,
Yaṃ kiñci kakkhaḷalakkhaṇaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ pathavīdhātūti ekattatā.
where the 32 parts are] mixed up; for whatever the [specific] characteristic, that is all a unity as" earth element",
Kesā lomā nakhā dantā chavi cammanti vemattatā.
but as "head-hairs, body-hair, nails, teeth, cuticle-hide" 1 it is a diversity.
Evaṃ sabbaṃ catasso dhātuyo rūpanti ekattaṃ.
396. That is how all four elements, as" forms", are a unity,
Saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbāti vemattatā.
but as "sounds, odours, flavours, and tangibles", they are a diversity.
Atthi puna dhammo vemattatā añño nāmaṃ labhati.
397. Again, there is the type of idea that [through its diversity] gets another name,
Yathā kāyānupassanāya navasaññā vinīlakasaññā uddhumātakasaññā, ayaṃ asubhasaññā, yā ekattatā ārammaṇato vemattato, sā evaṃ saññāvedanāsu ādīnavaṃ samanupassato tathādhiṭṭhānaṃ samādhindriyaṃ ca sāyeva dhammesu tattha saññābhāvanā vīriyindriyaṃ ca dhammesu dhammānupassanā citte attasaññaṃ pajahato paññindriyaṃ ca citte cittānupassanā. (Iti) [( ) natthi pī. potthake] yo koci ñāṇapacāro sabbaso paññāya gocaro paññā, ayaṃ vemattatā, yathā kāmarāgo bhavarāgo diṭṭhirāgoti vemattatā taṇhāya.
as [for instance] Contemplation of the Body as the "Nine Perceptions", namely perception [of a corpse] as "discoloured", perception [of it] as" bloated", ... (M.i, 58): this is " perception of ugliness ", and so that which [by perception of ugliness] is a unity is a diversity 1 in virtue of its object. 398. That same 1 perception in one contemplating disappointment in feelings is, when expressed in such terms, the concentration faculty. And that same [perception] as "perception of not-self" 2 in ideas is, as keeping-in-being, the energy faculty and it is contemplation of ideas as ideas, and in one abandoning perception of self in cognizance it is the understanding faculty and it is contemplation of cognizance as cognizance. 399. So any 1 access to knowledge whatever is in all cases, as understanding, understanding of a particular province : this is the diversity. Likewise" lust for sensual desires"," lust for being", and" lust for views", are the diversity in the case of craving, [which as such is a unity].
Iti yaṃ ekattatāya ca vemattatāya ca ñāṇaṃ vīmaṃsanā tulanā.
400. So any knowledge, inquiry, or examination,1 concerning unity and diversity
Ayaṃ adhiṭṭhāno hāro.
constitutes the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression.2
56.Tattha katamo parikkhāro hāro?
401. Herein, what is the mode of Conveying Requisites?
Sahetu sappaccayaṃ vodānañca saṃkileso ca, yaṃ tadubhayaṃ pariyeṭṭhi, sa parikkhāro hāro.
Cleansing and corruption too Are both with cause and with condition ; The search for both of these is called The Mode Conveying Requisites.
Iti dhammānaṃ sahetukānaṃ hetu pariyesitabbo, sappaccayānaṃ paccayo pariyesitabbo.
So the cause for ideas-with-a-cause must be sought out and the condition for those with a condition must be sought out.
Tattha kiṃ nānākaraṇaṃ, hetussa ca paccayassa ca?
402. Herein, what is the difference between the cause (cf.§§ 199, 267) and the condition (cf.§ 267)?
Sabhāvo hetu, parabhāvo paccayo.
The same-essence (individual-essence) is the cause and the other-essence is the condition ;
Parabhāvassa paccayo hetupi, sabhāvassa hetuyā parabhāvassa kassaci paccayo avutto hetu, vutto paccayo.
but, though it is the same-essence's cause that is the other-essence's condition, [nevertheless when] the causality 1 [is regarded] as a condition for any other-essence at all it is not called " cause ", it is called "condition".
Ajjhattiko hetu, bāhiro paccayo.
The in-onself is the cause while the external is the condition.
Sabhāvo hetu, parabhāvo paccayo.
Nibbattako hetu, paṭiggāhako [pariggāhako (ka.)] paccayo.
The generator is the cause while the receiver is the condition.
Nevāsiko hetu, āgantuko paccayo.
The resident is the cause while the visitor is the condition.
Asādhāraṇo hetu, sādhāraṇo paccayo.
The unshared is the cause while the shared is the condition.
Ekoyeva hetu, aparāparo paccayo.
The cause is one only while the condition has distant consecutivity ;
Hetussa upakaraṇaṃ samudānetabbo.
[for the condition is] the cause's aid when the procuring-cause 2 is procurable.
Samudānaṃ hetu, tattha duvidho hetu.
Duvidho paccayo – samanantarapaccayo ca paramparapaccayo ca.
403. Herein, the condition is twofold as 1 condition-in-immediate- proximity and condition-in-remote-relation (§ 267).
Hetupi duvidho – samanantarahetu ca paramparahetu ca.
The cause is also twofold as cause-in-immediate-proximity and cause-in-remote- relation.
Tattha katamo paramparapaccayo?
404. Herein, what is the condition-in-remote-relation?
Avijjā nāmarūpassa paramparapaccayo, viññāṇaṃ samanantarapaccayatāya paccayo.
Ignorance is name-and-form's condition-in-remote-relation,1 while consciousness is its condition through conditionality-in-immediate-proximity ;
Yadi ādimhi avijjānirodho bhavati nāmarūpassa nirodhopi.
if there is cessation of ignorance in the beginning, 2 there is also cessation of name-and-form.
Tattha samanantaraṃ kiṃ kāraṇaṃ paramparapaccayo samanantarapaccayo samuddānito, ayaṃ paccayato.
Herein, why immediate succession 1 (Because] the condition-in-remote-relation is procured 3 through 4 the condition-in-immediate-proximity. This is as to condition.
Tattha katamo paramparahetu?
405. Herein, what is cause-in-remote-relation?
Vijānantassa paramparahetutāya hetu, aññākāro samanantarahetutāya hetu.
Ignorance 1 is consciousness's 1 cause by causality-in-remote-relation while determinations 1 are its cause by causality-in-immediate-proximity ;
Yassa hi yaṃ samanantaraṃ nibbattati, so tassa hetupi jātinirodhā bahi ākāranirodho, ākāranirodhā daṇḍanirodho, daṇḍanirodhā khaṇḍanirodho.
for when something generates something next to it, it is its cause too. With cessation of ignorance,1 cessation of determinations ; 1 with cessation of determinations, cessation of consciousness.1
Evaṃ hetupi dvidhā so tāhi passitabbo.
This is how the cause too is twofold.
Paṭiccasamuppādo yathā avijjāpaccayo tassa puna kiṃpaccayo, ayoniso manasikāro.
406. And 1 that condition 1 is dependently arisen.1 As ignorance is a condition, what is its condition? That is unreasoned attention.
So kassa paccayo saṅkhārānaṃ, iti paccayo ca samuppannaṃ ca tassa ko hetu avijjāyeva.
[And ignorance] is a condition for what? For determinations. So it [i.e. ignorance] is a condition and is [dependently] arisen. 407. What is its cause? Ignorance itself;
Tathā hi purimā koṭi na paññāyati.
for it is in this way that " no past beginning is evident " (§ 1041).
Tattha avijjānusayo avijjāpariyuṭṭhānassa hetu purimā hetu pacchā paccayo, sāpi avijjāsaṅkhārānaṃ paccayo catūhi kāraṇehi sahajātapaccayatāya samanantarapaccayatāya abhisandanapaccayatāya patiṭṭhānapaccayatāya.
Herein, ignorance as underlying-tendency is the cause of ignorance as manifest- obsession: the prior is the cause for the subsequent.1 That [second kind of] ignorance is also a condition for determinations for four reasons, namely (1) by conditionality-through-conascence, (2) by conditionality-through-immediate-proximity, (3) by conditionality- through-drenching, 2 and (4) by conditionality-through-standing- point.3
57.Kathaṃ sahajātapaccayatāya avijjāsaṅkhārānaṃ paccayo?
408. (1) How is ignorance a condition, by conditionality-through- conascence, for determinations?
Yaṃ cittaṃ rāgapariyuṭṭhaṃ, tattha avijjāpariyuṭṭhānena sabbaṃ paññāya gocaraṃ hanti.
[It is so for any] cognizance obsessed 1 by lust. Herein, owing to the obsession by lust, it destroys all understanding's province.
Tattha saṅkhārā tipaccayaṭṭhikā addhābhūmikāramahattassa [laddhā bhūmikaramahattassa (pī. ka.)] ayaṃ avijjāsahasamuppannaṃ vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullatamāpajjantī catūhi kāraṇehi paññā pahīyati.
409. Herein, as to" determinations" : they are those which, having become established in the triple [relationship of] condition, 1 and having obtained a plane [of existence], being mainly 2 arisen with ignorance,2 proceed to maturity, growth, and abundance. 410. Understanding is lost through four reasons.
Katamehi catūhi?
What four?
Anusayo pariyuṭṭhānaṃ saṃyojanaṃ upādānaṃ.
(a) Underlying-tendency, (b) manifest obsession, (c) fetter, and (d) assuming.
Tattha anusayo pariyuṭṭhānaṃ jāti pariyuṭṭhitā saṃyujjati saṃyuttā upādiyati upādānapaccayā bhavo.
Herein, from 1 the underlying-tendency is born 1 the manifest obsession. When obsessed, one is fettered. When fettered, one assumes. With assuming as condition,1 being.
Evaṃ te saṅkhārā tividhā uppannā bhūmigatā nāsaññattha ayaṃ maggena vinītattāyāti [vinibhattāya (pī.), vinibhattatāya (ka.)] te thāmagatā apativinītātipi te saṅkhārāti vuccati, evaṃ sahetusamuppannaṭṭhena atthi meva paccayā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo niddiṭṭhaṃ apanetvā kusalaṃ akusalaṃ kusalo ca akusalo ca pakkhipitabbo, vipākadhammā apanetvā vacanīyaṃ avacanīyaṃ vacanīyañca avacanīyañca pakkhipitabbaṃ, bhavaapevirittā, sabbasuttaṃ parikkhipitabbaṃ.
411. So these determinations, being triply arisen, and arrived at a plane [of being], and mainly 1 not stopped 1 by the Path, it is said that ( these determinations are confirmed, inveterate, and undisciplined) (cf. M. i, 433). 412. That is how there is also 1 a condition 1 for determinations in the sense of being arisen with a cause. 413. [But] the condition, [so far treated] disregarding any demonstrated profitable or unprofitable [aspect], must have the profitable and unprofitable [aspects] inserted, and the ideas ripening [from the condition, so far treated,] without any statable-unstatable 1 [aspect], must have the statable and the unstatable [aspects] inserted. Except for that which exceeds the range of being(? ); 2 the whole Thread can be encompassed,
Dasa tathāgatabalāni cattāri vesārajjāni puññāni anaññākataṃ avijjā samanantarapaccayatāya saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo yena cittena saha samuppannā avijjā tassa cittassa samanantaracittaṃ samuppannanti, tassa yaṃ samanantaracittaṃ samuppannanti, tassa pacchimassa cittassa purimacittaṃ hetupaccayatāya paccayo, tena avijjā hetu tena cittena upādānaṃ anokāsakatā ñāṇaṃ na uppajjanti.
not excluding(? ) the ten Powers of a Perfect One (§§ 96 ff.) [and the four] Intrepidities (§§ 99-102), which are kinds of merit.3 414. (2) Now when ignorance is a condition, by immediate-proximity-conditionality, for determinations, and when there is the cognizance [called] "arisen" immediately proximate to that cognizance wherewith the ignorance was co-arisen, 1 then the previous cognizance is a condition, by cause-conditionality, 2 for the subsequent cognizance. Hence, ignorance being in virtue of that previous cognizance the cause of arising 3 [of the subsequent], no knowledge arises [with the latter] because it has no opportunity made for it.
Yā tassa appamādā dhātu abhijjhābhisanditā tahiṃ vipallāsā uppajjanti "asubhe subha"nti "dukkhe sukha"nti, tattha saṅkhārā uppajjanti rattā duṭṭhā mūlassa cetanā rāgapariyuṭṭhānena byāpādapariyuṭṭhānena avijjāpariyuṭṭhānena diṭṭhivipallāso vatthuniddese niddisitabbo, yaṃ viparītacitto vijānāti ayaṃ cittavipallāso, yā viparītasaññā upaggaṇhāti ayaṃ saññāvipallāso.
Since its element of diligence is drenched by ignorance, 4 hence the perversions 5 arise, [taking it] that there is beauty in the ugly, that there is pleasure in the painful, [etc.]. 415. Herein, the determinations that arise are the choice in one affected by lust, by hate, and by delusion, 1 r respectively] through obsession (§ 410) by lust, through obsession by hate, or through obsession by delusion. The Perversion of View is demonstrable in the demonstration of the [four] grounds [for perversion(see §§ 479ff.)]. In as much as one with perverted cognizance cognizes, this is the Perversion of Cognizance. In as much as perverted perception apprehends, this is the Perversion of Perception.
Yaṃ viparītadiṭṭhi abhinivisati ayaṃ diṭṭhivipallāso.
And in as much as the perverted view insists, this is the Perversion of View (cf.§ 483).
Aṭṭha micchattāni vaḍḍhanti, tīṇi akusalāni ayoniso manasikāre uppannaṃ viññāṇañca vijjañca karonti.
416. Then the eight Wrongnesses increase, and in the unreasoned attention the three Unprofitable [Roots] make wrong knowledge and wrong deliverance (1) arise.1
Iti pubbāparante akusalānātaritaro saṅkhārā vuddhiṃ vepullataṃ gacchanti.
In this way and no other (1) do unprofitable determinations come successively (1) to maturity and abundance.
Te ca mahatā ca appaṭividitā ponobhavikā [ponobbhavikā (ka.)] saṅkhārā bhavanti.
And being mainly 2 unpenetrated, they are determinations that bring renewal of being.
Iti evaṃ avijjā sahajātapaccayatāya saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo samanantarapaccayatāya ca.
417. So that is how ignorance is a condition for determinations (1) by conditionality-through-conascence and (2) by conditionality- through-immediate-proximity (§ 407).
58.Kathaṃ abhisandanākārena avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo?
418. (3) How is ignorance a condition for determinations in the mood of drenching (§ 407)?
Sā avijjā te saṅkhāre abhisanneti parippharati.
That ignorance drenches,1 extends through, those determinations :
Seyyathāpi nāma uppalaṃ vā padumaṃ vā taṃ udake vaḍḍhaṃ assa, sītena vārinā abhisannaṃ parisandanaṃ vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ āpajjati.
just as when a waterlily, or a lotus, is growing in water, and, being drenched and extended through 2 with cool water, it reaches maturity, growth, and abundance,3
Evaṃ abhisandanaṭṭhena avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo.
so too is ignorance a condition for determinations in the sense of drenching.
Kathaṃ patiṭṭhahanaṭṭhena avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo?
419. (4) How is ignorance a condition for determinations in the sense of standing-point (§ 407)?
Te saṅkhārā avijjāyaṃ nissāya vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ āpajjanti.
Those determinations reach maturity, growth, and abundance in dependence on ignorance:
Seyyathāpi nāma uppalaṃ vā padumaṃ vā pathaviṃ nissāya pathaviṃ patiṭṭhāya vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ āpajjati.
just as a waterlily, or a lotus, reaches maturity, growth, and abundance in dependence on earth by its having earth for its standing-point,
Ete saṅkhārā avijjāyaṃ patiṭṭhitā avijjāyaṃ nissāya vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ gacchanti.
[so too] these determinations reach maturity, growth, and abundance in dependence on ignorance by their having ignorance for their standing-point.
Evaṃ patiṭṭhahanaṭṭhena avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo.
That is how ignorance is a condition for determinations in the sense of standing-point.
Puna rāgasahagatassa kammassa vipākena paṭisandhimhi bhavo nibbattati, taṃ kammassa [kāmassa (pī.)] sabbaṃ abhiniviṭṭhaṃ aññāṇavasena ponobhavikā saṅkhārāti vuccanti, evampi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā atthi.
420. Again, being is generated in relinking 1 by the ripening of action 2 that was accompanied by lust. It is when that is firmly(? ) 8 insisted upon through lack of knowledge of action 2 [and its ripening] that [determinations] are called ( determinations that renew being ) (see§ 416). In this way too there are determinations with ignorance as condition.
Puna pañcasu ye ca sekkhā puggalā, ye ca asaññisamāpattiṃ samāpannā, ye ca bhavagatā, ye ca antogatāyeva saṃsedajā, ye ca vā pana añño hi koci anāgāmibhūtā na cetenti na ca patthenti, tesaṃ kiṃ paccayā saṅkhārā.
421. Again, among the five [kinds of persons, namely] (1) those who 1 are Initiate 2 persons, (2) those who have entered upon the non-percipient attainment, (3) those seeking to be 3 (1) and inside the egg (1), 3 (4) those who 1 are moisture-born, or (5) any others 4 not yet come to be : 4 these ( neither choose nor assert ) (§ 78) 5 so what do their determinations have for their condition?
Puna rāgā atthi tesaṃ saṅkhārāni upādānāni cittamanussarantiyeva avipakkavipākasamūhatā asamucchinnapaccayā tesaṃ puna ca gato bhavati.
They (1) still have previously 8 made determinations 8 and assuming 8 unabolished 6 in their cognizance ; as long as 8 the unripened ripening is uneradicated 6 through the condition [for its ripening] being unsevered they still have a destination.6
Evampi hi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā.
In this way too there are determinations with ignorance as condition (cf.§ 915).
Puna sā te na upādānā napi saṅkhārā atthi, puna tesaṃ satta anusayā asamūhatā asamucchinnā tadārammaṇaṃ bhavati.
422. Again, those [persons] (§ 421) : (2) may have neither that assuming nor those determinations,1 yet their seven underlying tendencies are still uneradicated and unsevered, and (that 1 becomes the object whereby consciousness has a standing-point) (§ 78) :
Viññāṇassa patiṭṭhāya viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ.
with consciousness as condition, name-and-form; ... (cf.§ 915).
Evampi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā.
In this way too there are determinations with ignorance as condition.
Puna sā yaṃ kiñci kammaṃ ācayagāmi sabbaṃ taṃ avijjāvasena abhisaṅkhariyati taṇhāvasena ca allīyati aññāṇavasena ca tattha ādīnavampi na jānāti.
423. Again,1 those [persons](§ 421): (3)-(5) whatever kind of action leads to setting-up, it is all determinatively acted through ignorance and stuck to by craving, and also it is owing to lack of knowledge that they do not know the disappointment therein.
Tadeva viññāṇabījaṃ bhavati, sāyeva taṇhāsineho bhavati.
That same [action] is (consciousness as seed) (cf.A. i, 224), that same craving is the moisture) [for the seed's growth],
Sāyeva avijjā sammohoti.
and that same ignorance is the stand-point) (cf. §§ 916 ff.).2
Evampi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā vattabbā.
In this way too there can be said to be determinations with ignorance as condition.
Iti imehi ākārehi avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ paccayo.
So ignorance is a condition for determinations in these moods.
Tattha avijjāya hetu ayoniso manasikāro paccayo hoti.
424. Herein, ignorance's cause is [prior] ignorance 1 [and] unreasoned attention is its condition.
Tattha abhicchedo ayaṃ tattha tatiyaṃ balaṃ [phalaṃ (pī.)] nivatti, ayaṃ paṭisandhi.
Where 2 there is non-interruption 2 this is continuity 2 there ; the fruit is generation ;
Tattha punabbhavo yo avecchedo asamugghātanaṭṭhena ayaṃ anusayo.
the relinking (§ 420) is renewal of being ; obsession in the sense of non-eradication is underlying tendency.
Yathā paṭākaṃ vā sāṭakaṃ vā dve janā pīḷesu ca ekā vā balaṃ vā assa nivāṭassesu, na pana pīḷesu soseyya.
425. Just as, when a cloak,1 or a sheet, is in the presses 11 and they are screwed down 3 [by] two people,' or [by] one strong [man],' it would not, however, get dry in the presses,
Tattha yaṃ sinehā āpodhātu anupullanā sosetabbā.
since the moist water- element still lurking 5 there cannot be dried out
Uṇhadhātumāgamma sace puna taṃ ākāse nikkhipeyya taṃ ussāvena yebhuyyataraṃ sinehamāpajjeyya, na hi anāgamma tejodhātuṃ parisesaṃ gaccheyya.
without 6 the heat-element's coming; 6 if it were put again in the open [outside the presses] it would mostly keep moist with the seeping [of the remaining moisture]; for it cannot come to be completely dried out 7 without the fire-element's coming ;
Evameva bhavaggaparamāpi samāpatti na anurūpassa samugghātāya saṃvattati.
so too, although attainment by concentration has the Acme of Being 8 for its ultimate, still it does not conduce to the eradication of the formless.8
Te hi ālayanti sammasanti, na ca taṇhāya taṇhāpahānaṃ gacchanti.
For those 10 [who attain that] rely on [it], are in touch with [it], and through craving [for it] they do not come to abandonment of craving.
Tattha so asamugghāto.
426. Herein, that non-eradication 1
Avijjāya anusayo ca cittassa sampalibodho, idaṃ pariyuṭṭhānaṃ.
is the underlying tendency (§ 410) to ignorance, and that is an impediment for cognizance.
Yathābhūtaṃ viññāṇassa appaṭivedho ayaṃ avijjāāsavo avijjāviññāṇabījaṃ bhavati.
That [in turn becomes] an obsession (§ 410) as the inability of [such impeded] cognizance to penetrate how things are. That is the taint of ignorance, which becomes consciousness-as-seed (§ 423).
Yaṃ bījaṃ so hetu na samucchijjati, asamucchijjanto paṭisandehati.
What is a seed is a cause if not severed. When unsevered, it causes relinking.
Paṭisandahanto na samugghātaṃ gacchati.
When relinking, it does not come to eradication.
Asamugghātaṃ cittaṃ pariyonahati, pariyonaddhacitto yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, iti saññāṇassa sāsavattho, avijjattho, hetuattho, avacchedattho, anivattiattho, phalattho paṭisandhiattho, punabbhavattho, asamugghātattho, anusayattho, pariyuṭṭhānattho, apaṭivedhanattho.
The non-eradication binds cognizance down. 2 One whose cognizance is bound down does not understand how things are. 427. So this consciousness [as seed (?)] 1 has the meaning of being affected by taints, the meaning of cause, the meaning of non-interruption,2 the meaning of non-stopping, 3 the meaning of fruit, the meaning of relinking, the meaning of renewal of being, the meaning of non-eradication, 4 the meaning of underlying tendency, the meaning of manifest obsession, the meaning of non-penetration.
Ettāvatā avijjāya khettaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ bhavati.
At this point the field of ignorance has been demonstrated.
Ayaṃ vuccate parikkhāro nāma hāro.
This is called the Mode of Conveying Requisites.
59.Tattha katamo samāropano hāro?
428. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Coordination?
Ugghaṭitamhi tamhi santañceva ca naṃ vitthāraṃ pana vattabbaṃ.
Regarding what has been condensed,1 The proper synonym 2 *//*[and] manner Of detail should be known as varied : 3
Vitthāravidhaṃ cittaññā ayaṃ samāropano hāro.
This Mode Conveys Coordination.
Tattha nāmaniddeso upaghaṭakā [ugghaṭakā (pī.)] vatthuniddeso vevacanaṃ vatthubhūto vitthāro.
429. Herein, the demonstration of the name condenses,1 the demon-stration of the example is the synonym, and the actual example is the detail.
Yathā kiṃ, yā bhikkhūnaṃ vattato [nivattato (pī.)] pahātabbo, ayaṃ upaghaṭanā.
*/But the detail has to be stated./* 2 Like what? 430. [For example:] in the passage ( Bhikklius, what is not-self ... should be abandoned) (cf. S.iii, 178).1 This is a condensation.2
Tattha katamo samāropano?
Herein, what is the coordination?
Kiñci na vattabbaṃ, rūparāgaṃ vā nāmavantapahātabbaṃ [nāmamantapahātabbaṃ (ka.)].
And what should be " abandoned"? 3 (Will and lust 4 for form should be abandoned ... down to ...
Yāva viññāṇanti vitthārena kātabbāni.
for consciousness 4 ...) can be given in detail ( ).
Avijjā tā opammena paññāpetabbā, ayaṃ samāropano.
As to ignorance, that can be described by simile.
Nissitacittassa ca mattiko ca nissayo taṇhā ca diṭṭhi ca.
431. [Again for example:] (The supported is liable to dislodgement) (§ 57).1 And what is the "support"? Craving and view.
Tattha diṭṭhi avijjā taṇhā saṅkhārā.
Herein, the view is ignorance and the craving is determinations.
Tattha diṭṭhipaccayā taṇhā ime avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā.
Herein, [to say] "with view as condition, craving" [is the same as saying] "with ignorance as condition, determinations".
Tattha nissitaṃ viññāṇaṃ idaṃ saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇaṃ, idaṃ saṃkhittena bhāsite avasiṭṭhaṃ paropayati.
Herein, what is "supported" is consciousness, and that [implies]" with determinations as condition, consciousness; ... down to ... ageing-and- death ", When this 2 has been briefly stated thus the remainder [of the passage] follows, 3 namely
Anissitassa [passa udā. 74] calitaṃ natthīti tassa evaṃ diṭṭhiyā taṇhāya ca pahānaṃ tattha diṭṭhiavijjānirodhāya bhūtaṃ viññāṇaṃ sarāgaṭṭhāniyesu dhammesu taṃ taṃ dhammaṃ upecca aññaṃ dhammaṃ dhāvati makkaṭopamatāya, atha khvassa parittesu dhammesu sarāgaṭṭhāniyesu chandarāgo natthi kuto tato calanā, adhimattesu sattesu cittaṃ nivessayati taṃ apatiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ anāhāraṃ nirujjhati viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho yāva jarāmaraṇanirodho.
(The unsupported has no liaility to dislodgement ) (§ 57), which is thus the abandoning of the view and the craving. Herein, with cessation of ignorance as view, consciousness no longer, as it did before, 4 lets go 5 this or that idea provocative of lust 6 in order to seize 7 another idea, as in the Monkey Simile (S. ii, 95), but rather since it has no will and lust for even the least ideas provocative of lust, 6 how is there to be any dislodgement 1 In the outstanding creatures [the Arahants] cognizance has done with insistence, 8 and consciousness, being without a standing-point, ceases for want of nutriment. With cessation of consciousness, cessation of name-and-form; ... down to ... cessation of ageing-and-death.
Ayaṃ samāropano.
This is a Coordination.
Tattha rāgavasena viññāṇassa calitaṃ sapariggaho, tasmiṃ calite asati yo parikilesopacāro tividho aggi paṭippassaddho bhavati.
432. Herein, consciousness's dislodgement comes about through lust. When there is no dislodgement, then the former approach to defilement,1 along with its chattels, which was threefold, has its fires tranquillized.
Tenāha calite asante passaddhi hoti.
Hence he said ( When there is no liability to dislodgement there is tranquillity ) (§ 57).
Tattha yaṃ samāropanā passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.
433. Herein, the coordination is this : ( One whose body is tranquil feels pleasure. When he is pleased his cognizance is concentrated ...
Yāva vimuttitamiti ñāṇadassanaṃ bhavati.
down to ... there is the knowing and seeing " I am liberated " ) (M.i, 37).
So āsavānaṃ khayā ca vimutti no upapajjati.
The deliverance being due to the exhaustion of taints, he no more 1 reappears.
Tassa upapattissa āgatigatiyā asantiyā nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena.
With his reappearance's having no actual coming or going, 2 there is ( no here or beyond or in between ;
Esevanto dukkhassāti anupādisesā nibbānadhātu.
this is the end of suffering) (§ 57),8 which is the element of extinction without trace left.
Idamassa suttassa majjhe samāropitaṃ paṭiccasamuppāde ca vimuttiyaṃ ca yogo na ca etaṃ tassa saṃkhittena bhāsitassa vitthārena atthaṃ vibhajjanti.
434. This [is only what is] coordinated in the middle part of this Thread, and [it is only] its construing in Dependent Arising and in Deliverance ; but this does not analyse in detail the meaning of what was stated in brief.1
Ayaṃ vuccate samāropano hāro.
This is called the Mode of Conveying a Coordination.
Na ca saṃkilesabhāgiyena suttena saṃkilesabhāgiyo ye ca dhammā samāropayitabbā nāññe.
435. Also 1 the ideas in 2 the type [of Thread] dealing with Corruption must be coordinated only 2 with the type dealing with Corruption, not with any other.3
Evaṃ vāsanābhāgiye nibbedhabhāgiye, ayaṃ samāropano hāro.
Likewise in the case of that dealing with Morality and that dealing with Penetration (cf.§ 274). This is the Mode of Conveying a Coordination.
Ime soḷasa hārā.
These are the sixteen Modes of Conveying.
Suvīrassa mahākaccāyanassa jambuvanavāsino peṭakopadese
in the valiant Maha-Kaccayana the Rose-Apple- Wood dweller's Pitaka-Disclosure is accomplished.
Pañcamā bhūmi.
The fifth chapter

6 - Sutta-t-thasamuccaya-bhūmi: thread compendium of meaning

60.Buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sāsanaṃ tividhena saṅgahaṃ gacchati, khandhesu dhātūsu āyatanesu ca.
436. The Dispensation of the Enlightened Ones, the Blessed Ones, comes into comprehension under three headings, namely (i) Categories, (ii) Elements, and (iii) Bases (cf. § 366).
Tattha pañcakkhandhā rūpakkhandho yāva viññāṇakkhandho.
437. Herein, the Categories are five, namely the Form Category, ... down to ... the Consciousness Category (cf. Vbh. 1 ; Pug. 1).
Dasa rūpaāyatanāni cakkhu rūpā ca yāva kāyo phoṭṭhabbā ca, ayaṃ rūpakkhandho.
The ten 1 Bases having form, namely eye-cum-forms, ... down to ... body-cum-tangibles, are the form category.
Tattha cha vedanākāyā vedanākkhandho cakkhusamphassajā vedanā yāva manosamphassajā vedanā, ayaṃ vedanākkhandho.
Herein, the six bodies of feeling are the feeling category. These are eye-contact-born feeling, ... down to ... mind-contact-born feeling. This is the feeling category.
Tattha cha saññākāyā saññākkhandho, rūpasaññā yāva dhammasaññā ime cha saññākāyā, ayaṃ saññākkhandho.
Perception of forms, ... down to ... perception of ideas, which are the six bodies of perception, these are the perception category.
Tattha cha cetanākāyā saṅkhārakkhandho, rūpasañcetanā yāva dhammasañcetanā ime cha cetanākāyā, ayaṃ saṅkhārakkhandho.
Herein, the six bodies of choice are the determinations category. Choice of forms, ... down to ... choice of ideas. These are the six bodies of choice. These are the determinations category.
Tattha cha viññāṇakāyā viññāṇakkhandho, cakkhuviññāṇaṃ yāva manoviññāṇaṃ ime cha viññāṇakāyā, ayaṃ viññāṇakkhandho.
Herein, the six bodies of consciousness are the consciousness category. Eye consciousness, ... down to ... mind consciousness. These are the consciousness category.
Ime pañcakkhandhā.
Tesaṃ kā pariññā?
438. What is the diagnosis of them?
Aniccaṃ dukkhaṃ saññā anattāti esā etesaṃ pariññā.
Impermanent, void, 1 painful, not-self. This is the diagnosis of them.
Tattha katamo khandhattho?
439. Herein, what is the meaning of " category" (khandha)?
Samūhattho khandhattho, puñjattho khandhattho, rāsattho khandhattho.
The meaning of mass is the meaning of category, the meaning of aggregate is the meaning of category, the meaning of class is the meaning of category.
Taṃ yathā dabbakkhandho vanakkhandho dārukkhandho aggikkhandho udakakkhandho vāyukkhandho iti evaṃ khandhesu sabbasaṅgahova evaṃ khandhattho.
That also which, among categories (khandha), is the comprehensive meaning, such as" material mass" (dabbakkhandha), "woodland mass" (vanakkhandha), "mass of fire " (aggikkliandha), " trunk of timber" (darukkhandha), " mass of water" (udakakkhandha), "wind mass" (vayukkhandha), is the meaning of category.
Tattha aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo cakkhudhātu rūpadhātu cakkhuviññāṇadhātu - pe - manodhātu dhammadhātu manoviññāṇadhātu.
440. Herein, the eighteen Elements are : the eye element, form element, eye-consciousness element ; ... etc .... the mind element, idea element, mind-consciousness element.
Etāyo aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo.
These are the eighteen elements.
Tāsaṃ pariññā aniccaṃ dukkhaṃ saññā anattāti esā etāsaṃ pariññā.
441. What is the diagnosis of them? Impermanent, void, painful, not-self. This is the diagnosis of them.
Tattha ko dhātuattho?
442. Herein, what is the meaning of " element " (dhatu)?
Vuccate avayavattho dhātuattho.
It may be said that the meaning of component is the meaning of element.
Avayavoti cakkhu no pasādo cakkhudhātu.
" Component "? The eye's clarity (sensitivity) 1 is the eye element ;
Evaṃ pañcasu dhātūsu puna rāgavavacchedattho dhātuattho.
and so with the five elements. Again, the meaning of cutting off lust is the meaning of element ;
Vavacchinnā hi cakkhudhātu.
for the eye element is cut off ;
Evaṃ pañcasu punarāha ekantipakatyatthena dhātuatthoti vuccate.
so with the five. Again, as it is said, the meaning of simple nature 2 is the meaning of element;
Taṃ yathā, pakatiyā ayaṃ puriso pittiko semhiko vātiko sannipātikoti evaṃ pakaticakkhudhātu dasannaṃ piyā ca sabbesu indriyesu - pe - visabhāgattho dhātuattho.
[for] it can be said that "just as this man is by nature choleric, phlegmatic, volatile, or of complex [nature] ",3 so the ten [beginning with] the eye element and also in all the faculties ... etc. 4 ... the meaning of dissimilar is the meaning of element.
Tattha dvādasāyatanāni katamāni?
443. Herein, what are the twelve Bases?
Cha ajjhattikāni cha bāhirāni.
They are the six in oneself and the six external :
Cakkhāyatanaṃ yāva manāyatananti ajjhattikaṃ, rūpāyatanaṃ yāva dhammāyatananti bāhiraṃ.
the eye base ... down to ... the mind base are those in oneself; the form base ... down to ... the idea base are the external.
Etāni dvādasa āyatanāni.
These are the twelve bases.
Etesaṃ kā pariññā?
444. What is the diagnosis of them?
Aniccaṃ dukkhaṃ saññā anattāti, esā etesaṃ pariññā.
Impermanent, void, painful, not-self. This is the diagnosis of them.
Api ca dvidhā pariññā ñātapariññā ca pahānapariññā ca.
Furthermore, the diagnosis is twofold, namely diagnosis as knowledge and diagnosis as abandoning.1
Tattha ñātapariññā nāma aniccaṃ dukkhaṃ saññā anattāti, esā ñātapariññā.
Herein, diagnosis as knowledge is this : Impermanent, void, painful, not-self; this is diagnosis as knowledge.
Pahānapariññā pana chandarāgappahānā, esā pahānapariññā.
But diagnosis as abandoning is the abandoning of will and lust ; this is diagnosis as abandoning.
Tattha katamo āyatanattho?
445. Herein, what is the meaning of "base" (ayatana)?
Vuccate ākārattho āyatanattho.
It may be said that the meaning of aspect (akara) 1 is the meaning of base;
Yathā suvaṇṇākaro dubbaṇṇākaro, yathā dvīhi tehi ākārehi te te gāvā uttiṭṭhanti.
like the handsome aspect and ugly aspect; 2 [for] just as such and such oxen stand out with those two aspects,
Evaṃ etehi cittacetasikā gāvā uttiṭṭhanti kammakilesā dukkhadhammā ca.
so with these the oxen of cognizance and cognizance-concomitants stand out with the defilement of action and inseparably from the idea of suffering.
Punarāha āyadānattho āyatanattho.
Again, it has been said 3 that the meaning of provision-of-a-way-of- access (aya-dana) is the meaning of base (ayatana) ;
Yathā rañño āyadānehi āyo bhavati, evaṃ āyadānattho āyatanattho.
[for] just as the way-of-access (iiya) to a king is through the provisions-for-ways- of-access (iiya-dana), so the meaning of provision-of-a-way-of-access is the meaning of base.
61.Cattāri ariyasaccāni dukkhaṃ samudayo nirodho maggo ca.
446. There are four noble Truths (cf. §§ 15 ff.and 366): Suffering, Origin, Cessation, and Path.
Dukkhaṃ yathā samāsena dhammācariyaṃ mānasañca, samudayo samāsena avijjā ca taṇhā ca, nirodho samāsena vijjā ca vimutti ca, maggo samāsena samatho ca vipassanā ca.
Suffering as a compound is any behaving not 2 according to the True Idea and [like] mentality; Origin as a compound is ignorance and craving ; Cessation as a compound is science and deliverance ; the Path as a compound is quiet and insight.
Tattha sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhikā dhammā katame?
447. Herein, what are the thirty-seven ideas siding with enlightenment?
Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā yāva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, evamete sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhikā dhammā.
They are the four Foundations of Mindfulness, ... down to ... the Noble Eight-Factored Path.
Ye dhammā atītānāgatapaccuppannānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ paccekabuddhānaṃ sāvakānaṃ ca nibbānāya saṃvattantīti, so maggo cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.
That is how these ideas siding with enlightenment are thirty-seven, which ideas, being those that conduce to extinction in the case of Fully Self-Enlightened Ones, Hermit Enlightened Ones, and [Enlightened Ones'] disciples (hearers), whether past, future or presently arisen,1 [constitute] the Path.2 448. (Four Foundations of Mindfulness:
Katame cattāro?
What four?
Idha bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati, sammappadhānaṃ - pe - iddhipādaṃ - pe - indriyāni - pe - balāni - pe - tattha ko indriyattho?
Here a bkikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body, ...) (cf. D. ii, 291 ; Vbh. 193). 449. [Also] the [fourfold] ( Right Endeavour) (Vbh. 208), the [fourfold] (Base for Success) (Vbh. 216), the five ( FacuUies) [beginning with faith], and the [five] (Powers) [beginning with faith] (cf. Ps. i, 16). 450. Herein, what is the meaning of faculty (indriya)?
Indattho indriyattho, ādhipateyyattho indriyattho, pasādattho indriyattho, asādhāraṇaṃ kassa kiriyattho indriyattho anavapariyattho balattho, thāmattho balattho, upādāyattho balattho, upatthambhanattho balattho.
The meaning of ruler (inda) is the meaning of faculty, the meaning of dominance is the meaning of faculty, the meaning of clarity (sensitivity) is the meaning of faculty, the meaning of function unshared with any other is the mea.ning of faculty.1 451. The meaning of unshakability 1 is the meaning of power, the meaning of firm is the meaning of power, the meaning of upholding 2 is the meaning of power, the meaning of stiffening is the meaning of power.
Tattha katame satta bojjhaṅgā?
452. Herein, what are the seven Enlightenment Factors?
Satisambojjhaṅgo yāva upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo.
They are the Mindfulness Enlightenment Factor, ... down to ... the Onlooking-Equanimity Enlightenment Factor (see Vbh. 227).
Tattha katamo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo?
453. Herein, what is the Eight-Factored Path?
Sammādiṭṭhi yāva sammāsamādhi.
It is Right View, ... Down to ... Right Concentration (see Vbh. 235).
Tattha aṭṭhaṅgiko maggoti khandho sīlakkhandho ca samādhikkhandho ca paññākkhandho ca.
454. Herein, the Eight-Factored Path has three categories, namely the Virtue Category, the Concentration Category, and the Understanding Category (see M. i, 301).
Tattha yā ca sammāvācā yo ca sammākammanto yo ca sammāājīvo, ayaṃ sīlakkhandho.
Herein, the right speech, right action and right livelihood are the Virtue Category ;
Yā ca sammāsati yo ca sammāvāyāmo yo ca sammāsamādhi, ayaṃ samādhikkhandho.
the right mindfulness,1 right effort,1 and right concentration are the Concentration Category ;
Yo ca sammāsaṅkappo yā ca sammādiṭṭhi, ayaṃ paññākkhandho.
and the right intention 1 and right view 1 are the Understanding Category.
Evaṃ tāyo tisso sikkhā.
455. Likewise, these three [categories] are the three Trainings (see D.iii, 219).
Evaṃ tīhākārehi dasa padāni - pe -.
456. So with the three moods there are the ten terms ... etc ....1
Tattha yogāvacaro sīlakkhandhe ṭhito dosaṃ akusalaṃ na upādiyati, dosānusayaṃ samūhanati, dosasallaṃ uddharati, dukkhavedanaṃ parijānāti, kāmadhātuṃ samatikkamati.
457. Herein, when a devotee is steadied in the Virtue Category he he does not assume unprofitable hate, he eradicates the underlying tendency to hate, he extracts the barb of hate, he diagnoses painful feeling, and he surmounts the element of sensual desire.
Samādhikkhandhe ṭhito lobhaṃ akusalaṃ na upādiyati, rāgānusayaṃ samūhanati, lobhasallaṃ uddharati, sukhavedanaṃ parijānāti, rūpadhātuṃ samatikkamati.
When he is steadied in the Concentration Category he does not assume unprofitable greed, he eradicates the underlying tendency to lust, he extracts the barb of greed, he diagnoses pleasant feeling, and he surmounts the element of form.
Paññākkhandhe ṭhito mohaṃ akusalaṃ na upādiyati, avijjānusayaṃ samūhanati, mohasallaṃ diṭṭhisallañca uddharati, adukkhamasukhavedanaṃ parijānāti, arūpadhātuṃ samatikkamati.
When he is steadied in the Understanding Category he does not assume unprofitable delusion, he eradicates the underlying tendency to ignorance, he extracts the barbs of delusion and view, he diagnoses neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, and he surmounts the formless element.
Iti tīhi khandhehi tīṇi akusalamūlāni na upādiyati, cattāri sallāni uddharati, tisso vedanā parijānāti, tedhātukaṃ samatikkamati.
So with these three Categories he does not assume the three unprofitable roots, he extracts the four barbs, he diagnoses the three kinds of feeling, and he surmounts the triple element.
62.Tattha katamā avijjā?
458. Herein, what is ignorance?
Yaṃ catūsu ariyasaccesu aññāṇanti vitthārena yathā so pāṇasajjesu kathaṃkathā kātabbaṃ.
It is ( any unknowing ) of the four Noble Truths (see S. ii, 4 ; Vbh. 135), which can be quoted in detail as 1 is done in the case of the steps of the staircase.2
Tattha katamaṃ viññāṇaṃ?
459. Herein, what is consciousness?1
Cha viññāṇakāyā vedanā saññā cetanā phasso manasikāro, idaṃ nāmaṃ.
The six bodies of consciousness. 460. Feeling, perception, choice, contact, and attention, are name.
Tattha katamaṃ rūpaṃ?
Herein, what is form?
Cātumahābhūtikaṃ catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ upādāyarūpassa paññattiṃ.
The four great entities, and any description of form assuming the four great entities.
Iti purimakañca nāmaṃ idañca rūpaṃ tadubhayaṃ nāmarūpanti vuccati.
So this name already mentioned and this form are together called name-and-form (see S. ii, 3-4 ; cf. Vbh. 136).
Tattha chaḷāyatananti cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni, cakkhu ajjhattikaṃ āyatanaṃ yāva mano ajjhattikaṃ āyatanaṃ.
461. Herein, the sixfold base? The six bases in oneself, namely the eye as a base in oneself, ... down to ... the mind as a base in oneself (see S. ii, 3 ; cf. Vbh. 136).
Phassoti cha phassakāyā cakkhusamphasso yāva manosamphassoti phasso.
462. Contact? The six bodies of contact, namely eye contact, ... down to ... mind contact (see S. ii, 3 ; cf. Vbh. 136).
Cha vedanākāyā vedanā.
463. The six bodies of feeling are feeling (see S. ii, 3 ; Vbh. 136).
Taṇhāti cha taṇhākāyā taṇhā.
464. The six bodies of craving are craving (see S. ii, 3 ; Vbh. 136).
Upādānanti cattāri upādānāni kāmupādānaṃ diṭṭhupādānaṃ sīlabbatupādānaṃ attavādupādānanti upādānaṃ.
465. Assuming? The four kinds of asstiming, namely sensual-desire assuming, virtue-and-duty assuming, view assuming, and self-theory assuming, are assuming 1 (cf. S. ii, 3; Vbh. 136).
Bhavoti tayo bhavā kāmabhavo rūpabhavo arūpabhavo.
466. Being? The three kinds of being, namely sensual-desire being, being with form, formless being (cf. S. ii, 3; Vbh. 137).
Tattha katamā jāti?
467. Herein, what is birth?
Yā paṭhamaṃ khandhānaṃ paṭhamaṃ dhātūnaṃ paṭhamaṃ āyatanānaṃ uppatti jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo, ayaṃ jāti.
Any first arising of categories, first arising of elements, first arising of bases, any birth, coming to birth, finding a footing, generating, manifesting of categories, this is birth (cf.S. ii, 3 ; Vbh. 137).
Tattha katamā jarā?
468. Herein, what is ageing?
Jarā nāma yaṃ taṃ khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā pavivittaṃ catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ vivaṇṇataṃ bhaggo taṃ jarā hīyanā pahīyanā āyuno hāni saṃhāni indriyānaṃ paribhedo upanāho paripāko, ayaṃ jarā.
Any brokenness [of teeth], grey- ness [of hair], wrinkledness of skin (cf. S. ii, 2; Vbh. 137),1 totteringness,2 discolouration of the four great entities, doubled-up-ness, 3 ageing, waning, outwane, wane of life-span, waning away, dissolving of faculties, overripening of essentials of existence (1) : 4 this is ageing.
Tattha katamaṃ maraṇaṃ?
Herein, what is birth?
Maraṇaṃ nāma yaṃ tasmiṃ tasmiṃ sattanikāye tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ cuti cavanatā maraṇaṃ kālaṅkiriyā uddhumātakānaṃ bhedo kāyassa jīvitindriyassa upacchedo, idaṃ maraṇaṃ.
In the various orders of creatures any creature's decease, deceasing, death, completion of time, corpse- bloatedness,5 dissolution of body, severance of life-faculty: this is death (cf. S. ii, 3 ; Vbh. 137).
Iti purimikā ca jarā idañca maraṇaṃ tadubhayaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ.
So this ageing already mentioned and this death are together called ageing-and-death.
Tattha andhakāratimisā yathābhūtaṃ appajānanalakkhaṇā avijjā saṅkhārānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ ha.
469. Herein, ignorance, as murk and gloom, has the characteristic of not understanding how things are (cf.§ 472); it is the footing for determinations.
Abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇā saṅkhārā, upacayapunabbhavābhiropanapaccupaṭṭhānā.
Det£rminations have the characteristic of determinative acts, and their manifestation is implanting, amassing, and renewal of being ;
Te viññāṇassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
they are the footing for consciousness.
Vatthu saviññattilakkhaṇaṃ viññāṇaṃ, taṃ nāmarūpassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Consciousness has the characteristic of causing the physical body to give intimation; 1 it is the footing for name-and-form.
Anekasannissayalakkhaṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ, taṃ saḷāyatanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Name-and-form has the characteristic of plurality of dependence ; it is the footing for the sixfold base.
Indriyavavatthāpanalakkhaṇaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ, taṃ phassassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The sixfold base has the characteristic of causing the [separate] defining 2 of the faculties [beginning with the eye] ; it is the footing for contact.
Sannipātalakkhaṇo phasso, so vedanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Contact has the characteristic of causing occurrence of the three [namely pair of bases and appropriate consciousness]; it is the footing for feeling.
Anubhavanalakkhaṇā vedanā, sā taṇhāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Feeling has the characteristic of the co-existing [of pleasure, etc. ;] it is the footing for craving.
Ajjhosānalakkhaṇā taṇhā, sā upādānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Craving has the characteristic of cleaving to; 3 it is the footing for assuming.
Ādānaparihananalakkhaṇaṃ upādānaṃ, taṃ bhavassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Assuming has the characteristic of destroying 4 [by consumption of] what is taken up ; it is the footing for being.
Nānāgativikkhepalakkhaṇo bhavo, so jātiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Being has the characteristic of flinging [into one or other] among the different types of destination; it is the footing for birth.
Khandhānaṃ pātubhāvalakkhaṇā jāti, sā jarāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Birth has the characteristic of causing manifest being (existence) of the categories (cf. § 17); it is the footing for ageing.
Upanayaparipākalakkhaṇā jarā, sā maraṇassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Ageing has the characteristic of overripening of essentials of existence; 5 it is the footing for death (cf. § 17).
Āyukkhayajīvitauparodhalakkhaṇaṃ maraṇaṃ, taṃ dukkhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Death has the characteristic of exhausting the life-span and causing life's surcease (cf.§ 17); it is the footing for pain.
Kāyasampīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, taṃ domanassassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Pain has the characteristic of oppressing the body(§ 17); it is the footing for grief.
Cittasampīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ domanassaṃ, taṃ sokassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Grief has the characteristic of oppressing cognizance (§ 17) ; it is the footing for sorrow.
Socanalakkhaṇo soko, so paridevassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Sorrow 8 has the characteristic of sorrowing (smouldering) (cf.§ 17); it is the footing for lamentation.
Vacīnicchāraṇalakkhaṇo paridevo, so upāyāsassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Lamentation 8 has the characteristic of speech-utterance (cf. § 17); it is the footing for despair.
Ye āyāsā te upāyāsā.
Despairs (upayasa) are any kinds of hopelessness (ayasa) (cf. § 17).7
Nava padāni yattha sabbo akusalapakkho saṅgahaṃ samosaraṇaṃ gacchati.
470. There are nine terms wherein all the unprofitable comes to be comprised 1 and meets together.
Katamāni nava padāni?
What nine terms?
Dve mūlakilesā, tīṇi akusalamūlāni, cattāro vipallāsā.
The two root- defilements, the three unprofitable roots, and the four perversions (see§ 11).
Tattha dve mūlakilesā avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca, tīṇi akusalamūlāni lobho doso moho ca.
471. Herein, (1-2) the two root-defilements are ignorance and craving-for-being (D. iii, 212). (3-5) The three unprofitable roots are greed, hate and delusion.
Cattāro vipallāsā [a. ni. 4.49] – "anicce nicca"nti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso, "dukkhe sukha"nti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso, "anattani attā"ti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso, "asubhe subha"nti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso.
(6-9) the four perversions (a) perversion of perception, (b) perversion of cognizance, and {c) perversion of view, (1) of the impermanent that it is permanent; the (a) perversion of perception, (b) perversion of cognizance, and (c) perversion of view, (2) of the painful that it is pleasant; the {a) perversion of perception, (b) perversion of cognizance, and (c) perversion of view, (3) of the not-self that it is self; and (a) the perversion of perception, (b) perversion of cognizance, and (c) perversion of view, (4) of the ugly that it is beautiful.
63.Tattha avijjā nāma catūsu ariyasaccesu yathābhūtaṃ aññāṇaṃ, ayaṃ avijjā.
472. Herein (§ 471), what is called ignorance is unknowing of how things are in the four noble Truths (§ 469) ; this is ignorance.
Bhavataṇhā nāma yo bhavesu rāgo sārāgo icchā mucchā patthanā nandī ajjhosānaṃ apariccāgo, ayaṃ bhavataṇhā.
What is called cravingjor-being is lust, lustfulness,1 wish, infatuation, aspiration, relish, cleaving, not giving up, with regard to the types of being; this is craving for being (cf. § 469).
Tattha katamo lobho akusalamūlaṃ?
473. Herein(§ 471), what is greed as a root of unprofit?
Lobho nāma so tesu tesu paravatthūsu paradabbesu paraṭṭhānesu parasāpateyyesu parapariggahitesu lobho lubbhanā icchā mucchā patthanā nandī ajjhosānaṃ apariccāgo, ayaṃ lobho akusalamūlaṃ.
What is called greed is any greed, greediness, wish, infatuation, aspiration, relish, cleaving, not giving up, with regard to others' lands, others' materials, others' places, others' belongings,1 others' chattels (cf. Vbk. 361); this is greed as a root of unprofit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
474. What is it the root of?
Lobho lobhajassa akusalassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa ca, tathā yathā taṃsampayuttānaṃ cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of greed-born unprofitable bodily and verbal and mental action, and in the same way also for the cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Tattha katamo doso akusalamūlaṃ?
475. Herein, what is hate as a root of unprofit?
So sattesu āghāto akkhanti appaccayo byāpādo padoso anatthakāmatā cetaso paṭighāto, ayaṃ doso akusalamūlaṃ.
It is annoyance with creatures, impatience, irritation, ill will, hatred,1 desire for harm, 2 resistance of the heart (cf. Vbh. 362); this is hate as a root of unprofit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
476. What is it the root of?
Dosajassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa sampayuttānañca cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of hate-born unprofitable bodily and verbal and mental action, and for the cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Tattha katamo moho akusalamūlaṃ?
477. Herein, what is delusion as a root of unprofit?
Yaṃ catūsu ariyasaccesu anabhisamayo asampajjaggāho appaṭivedho moho muyhanā sammoho sammuyhanā avijjā tamo andhakāro āvaraṇaṃ nīvaraṇaṃ chadanaṃ acchadanaṃ [avecchadanaṃ (pī. ka.)] apasacchāgamanaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ, ayaṃ moho akusalamūlaṃ.
It is the non- actualizing of the four noble Truths, non-apprehending-by-entering-upon,1 non-penetration, [of them, and it is] delusion, deluding, confusion, confusing, ignorance, gloom, dark, obstruction, hindrance, covering up, concealing, non-arrival-at-verification (1), 2 regarding profitable ideas (cf. Vbh.362); this is delusion as a root of unprofit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
478. What is it the root of?
Mohajassa akusalassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa ca taṃsampayuttakānañca cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of delusion-born unprofit- able bodily and verbal and mental action, and for the cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Tattha vipallāsā jānitabbā, vipallāsānaṃ vatthu jānitabbaṃ.
479. Herein (§ 471), the perversion has to be known, the object of perversion has to be known,
Yaṃ vipallāsaṃ siyā, taṃ jānitabbaṃ.
and what is pervertable has to be known.1
Tattha eko vipallāso tīṇi vipallāsāni cattāri vipallāsavatthūni.
Herein, there are: one perversion, three that are perverted, and four objects of perversion (see §§ 66, 471).1
Katamo eko vipallāso ca, yena paṭipakkhena vipallāsitaṃ gaṇhāti?
480. What is the one perversion? It is that [distortion into the] opposite by which the perverted 1 [perception, etc.,] seizes
"Anicce nicca"nti, "dukkhe sukha"nti, "anattani attā"ti, "asubhe subha"nti, ayaṃ eko vipallāso.
permanence in the impermanent, pleasure in the painful, self in the not-self, beauty in the ugly (cf.§ 66).
Katamāni cattāri vipallāsavatthūni?
481. What are the four objects of perversion?
Kāyo vedanā cittaṃ dhammā ca.
The body, feelings, cognizance, and ideas ; these are the four objects of perversion (§§ 66, 339).
Imāni cattāri vipallāsavatthūni.
Katamāni tīṇi vipallāsāni?
482. What are the three perverted?
Saññā cittaṃ diṭṭhi ca.
(a) Perception, (b) cognizance, and (c) view.
Imāni tīṇi vipallāsāni.
These three are perverted (cf.§§ 66, 415).1
Tattha manāpike vatthumhi indriyavatthe vaṇṇāyatane vā yo nimittassa uggāho, ayaṃ saññāvipallāso.
483. Herein, (a) when an agreeable object has [either] come within the horizon of the faculties (beginning with that of the eye] or fails to do so (1), any seizing [of it as] a sign 1 is the perversion of perception.
Tattha viparītacittassa vatthumhi sati viññatti, ayaṃ cittavipallāso.
Herein, (b) when one whose cognizance is distorted finds intimation 2 in an object, this is the perversion of cognizance.
Tattha viparītacittassa tamhi rūpe "asubhe subha"nti yā khanti ruci upekkhanā nicchayo diṭṭhi nidassanaṃ santīraṇā, ayaṃ diṭṭhivipallāso.
Herein, (c) when one whose cognizance is distorted has, in regard to form that is ugly, any liking, preference, way of regarding (cf. § 534), formulating, pondering of views, 3 adjudgment, that it is beautiful, [etc.,] this is the perversion of view (cf. § 415).
Tattha vatthubhedena kāyesu dvādasa vipallāsā bhavanti.
484. Herein, these perversions become twelve as the three 1 in each of the [four] objects,
Tayo kāye tayo vedanāya tayo citte tayo dhamme, cattāro saññāvipallāsā cattāro cittavipallāsā cattāro diṭṭhivipallāsā, āyatanūpacayato cakkhuviññāṇasaññāsamaṅgissa rūpesu dvādasa vipallāsā yāva mano saññāsamaṅgissa, dhammesu dvādasa vipallāsā cha dvādasakā cattāri vipallāsā bhavanti.
namely three in a body, three in a feeling, three in a cognizance, 2 and three in an idea ; so there are four perversions of perception, four perversions of cognizance,3 and four perversions of view. [And] when applied to the [six] bases, 4 the four perversions become six dodecads as follows : twelve perversions [as above] with respect to forms in the case of one possessing eye- perception, 5 ... down to ... twelve perversions with respect to ideas in the case of one possessing mind-perception.8
Ārammaṇanānattato hi aparimitasaṅkheyyānaṃ sattānaṃ [attānaṃ (ka.)] aparimitamasaṅkheyyā vipallāsā bhavanti hīnukkaṭṭhamajjhimatāya.
But as to difference of object, 7 since creatures are ungauged and incalculable the perversions are ungauged and incalculable 8 by way of the inferior, superior, and average.
64.Tattha pañcakkhandhā cattāri attabhāvavatthūni bhavanti.
485. Herein, the five categories are the four grounds for selfhood.1
Yo rūpakkhandho, so kāyo attabhāvavatthu.
The form category is the body-as-a-ground-for-selfhood,
Yo vedanākkhandho, so vedanā attabhāvavatthu.
the feeling category is feeling-as-a-ground-for-selfhood,
Yo saññākkhandho ca saṅkhārakkhandho ca, te dhammā attabhāvavatthu.
the perception category and determinations category are ideas-as-a-ground-for-selfhood,1
Yo viññāṇakkhandho, so cittaṃ attabhāvavatthu.
and the consciousness category is cognizance-as-a-ground-for- selfhood.
Iti pañcakkhandhā cattāri attabhāvavatthūni.
That is how the five categories are the four grounds for selfhood.
Tattha kāye "asubhe subha"nti vipallāso bhavati.
486. Herein, it is with respect to the body, which is ugly, that there is the perversion that it is beautiful ;
Evaṃ vedanāsu - pe - citte - pe - dhammesu ca attavipallāso bhavati.
so too with respect to feelings ... cognizance ... ideas that there comes to be the perversion that they are self.1
Tattha catunnaṃ vipallāsānaṃ samugghātanatthaṃ bhagavā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne deseti paññapeti kāye kāyānupassī viharato "asubhe subha"nti vipallāsaṃ samugghāteti, evaṃ vedanāsu, citte, dhammesu ca kātabbaṃ.
487. Herein, it is for the purpose of the four perversions' eradication that the Blessed One teaches and describes the four foundations of mindfulness : when someone abides contemplating the body as a body, he eradicates his perversion that there is beauty in the ugly. So it can be stated too with respect to feelings, cognizance, and ideas.
Tattha andhakāratimisā appaṭivedhalakkhaṇā avijjā, tassā vipallāsapadaṭṭhānaṃ.
488. Herein, ignorance, which is murk and gloom, has the characteristic of non-penetration (§ 469) ; its 1 footing is the perversions.
Ajjhosānalakkhaṇā taṇhā, tassā piyarūpasātarūpaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Craving has the characteristic of cleaving to(§ 469); its 1 footing is a dear likeable form.
Attāsayavañcanālakkhaṇo lobho, tassa adinnādānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
489. Greed has the characteristic of converting 1 to one's own bias (cf.§ 473); its footing is taking-what-is-not-given.
Idha vivādalakkhaṇo doso, tassa pāṇātipāto padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Hate has the characteristic of quarrelling here; its footing is killing-breathing- things.
Vatthuvippaṭipattilakkhaṇo moho, tassa micchāpaṭipatti padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Delusion has the characteristic of mis-theorizing about an object; its footing is wrong theory.
Saṅkhatānaṃ dhammānaṃ avināsaggahaṇalakkhaṇā niccasaññā, tassā sabbasaṅkhārā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
490. Perception of permanence has the characteristic of apprehending non-destruction of determined ideas ; its footing is determinations.
Sāsavaphassopagamanalakkhaṇā sukhasaññā, tassā mamaṅkāro padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of pleasure has the characteristic of approaching contact affected by taints ; its footing is my-making.
Dhammesu upagamanalakkhaṇā attasaññā, tassā ahaṅkāro padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of self has the characteristic of approaching [wrong theory (?)] about ideas; its footing is I-making.
Vaṇṇasaṅgahaṇalakkhaṇā subhasaññā, tassā indriyaasaṃvaro padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of beauty has the characteristic of apprehending colour (appearance); its footing is lack of faculty restraint.
Etehi navahi padehi uddiṭṭhehi sabbo akusalapakkho niddiṭṭho bhavati, so ca kho bahussutena sakkā jānituṃ no appassutena, paññavatā no duppaññena, yuttena no ayuttena.
491. By these nine terms' being indicated, all the unprofitable side is demonstrated. And that can be known by one who has learnt much, not by one who has learnt little, by one with understanding, not by one without understanding, by one devoted, not by one undevoted.
Nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbo kusalapakkho saṅgaho samosaraṇaṃ gacchanti.
492. There are nine profitable terms wherein all the profitable side comes to be comprised 1 and meets together (see § 11).
Katamāni nava padāni?
What nine terms?
Samatho vipassanā alobho adoso amoho aniccasaññā dukkhasaññā anattasaññā asubhasaññā ca.
Quiet and insight ; non-greed, non-hate, and non-delusion ; perception of impermanence, perception of pain, perception of not-self, and perception of ugliness.
Tattha katamo samatho?
493. Herein, what is quiet?
Yā cittassa ṭhiti saṇṭhiti avaṭṭhiti ṭhānaṃ paṭṭhānaṃ upaṭṭhānaṃ samādhi samādhānaṃ avikkhepo avippaṭisāro vūpasamo mānaso ekaggaṃ cittassa, ayaṃ samatho.
Cognizance's steadiness, shaping, stability, steadying, steadying on, establishment, concentration, concentrating, non-distraction, non-remorse, peace of mind, unification of cognizance ; this is quiet.
Tattha katamā vipassanā?
494. Herein, what is insight?
Khandhesu vā dhātūsu vā āyatanesu vā nāmarūpesu vā paṭiccasamuppādesu vā paṭiccasamuppannesu vā dhammesu dukkhesu vā samudayesu vā nirodhe vā magge vā kusalākusalesu vā dhammesu sāvajjaanavajjesu vā kaṇhasukkesu vā sevitabbaasevitabbesu vā so yathābhūtaṃ vicayo pavicayo vīmaṃsā paravīmaṃsā gāhanā aggāhanā pariggāhanā cittena paricitanā tulanā upaparikkhā ñāṇaṃ vijjā vā cakkhu buddhi medhā paññā obhāso āloko ābhā pabhā khaggo nārāco [nārajjo (pī. ka.)] dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo sammādiṭṭhi maggaṅgaṃ, ayaṃ vipassanā.
A:n.y investigation into how things are, re-investigation, inquiry, re-inquiry, prehension, apprehension, re-prehension, consolidating by the mind,1 estimating, scrutiny, knowledge; or it is any science, discovery, wit, understanding, illumination, light, radiance, luminosity, sword, javelin, investigation-of-ideas enlightenment-factor, right view as path-factor, concerning categories or elements or bases or name-and-forms or dependent-arising [factors] or dependently arisen ideas or kinds of suffering or kinds of origin or cessation or path or ideas profitable and unprofitable or blameable and blameless or black and white or cultivatable and uncultivatable (cf.Dhs. 292): this is why it is called insight.
Tenesā vipassanā iti vuccati vividhā vā esā vipassanāti, tasmā esā vipassanāti vuccati.
495. Or it is [called] insight (vipassana) since it [occurs] in the various ways (vividha) of seeing (PASSANA) 1 impermanence, pain, and not-self.
Dvidhā cesā hi vipassanā dhammavipassanāti vuccati, dvidhā imāya passati subhañca asubhañca kaṇhañca sukkañca sevitabbañca asevitabbañca kammañca vipākañca bandhañca vimokkhañca ācayañca apacayañca pavattiñca nivattiñca saṃkilesañca vodānañca, evaṃ vipassanāti vuccati.
For this twofold (dvidha) seeing (passana) 1 is called insight into ideas (dhammavipassana): by its means one sees twofold, namely the beautiful -and ugly, the black and white, the cultivatable and uncultivatable, action and ripening, bondage and liberation, setting-up and dispersal, occurrence and non-occurrence,2 corruption and cleansing : that is why it is called insight.
Atha vā viiti upasaggo passanāti attho tasmā vipassanāti vuccate, ayaṃ vipassanā.
Or alternatively "in-" (vi-) is a prefix, "sight" (passana) being the meaning: 3 that is why it is called insight (vipassanii). This is insight.
65.Tattha dve rogā sattānaṃ avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca, etesaṃ dvinnaṃ rogānaṃ nighātāya bhagavatā dve bhesajjāni vuttāni samatho ca vipassanā ca.
496. Herein, creatures have two ailments, namely ignorance and craving-for-being (§ 471). Two medicines have been stated by the Blessed One for the counteraction 1 of these two ailments, namely quiet and insight.
Imāni dve bhesajjāni paṭisevento dve aroge sacchikaroti rāgavirāgaṃ cetovimuttiṃ avijjāvirāgañca paññāvimuttiṃ.
Those who make use of these two medicines verify two kinds of non-ailment, namely the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance.
Tattha taṇhārogassa samatho bhesajjaṃ, rāgavirāgā cetovimutti arogaṃ.
Herein, quiet is the medicine for the ailment of craving, whose non-ailing is the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust,
Avijjārogassa vipassanābhesajjaṃ avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti arogaṃ.
while insight is the medicine for the ailment of ignorance, whose non-ailing is the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance.
Evañhi bhagavā cāha, "dve dhammā pariññeyyā [passa dī. ni. 3.352] nāmañca rūpañca, dve dhammā pahātabbā avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca, dve dhammā bhāvetabbā samatho ca vipassanā ca, dve dhammā sacchikātabbā vijjā ca vimutti cā"ti.
For the Blessed One said as follows : ( Two ideas should be diagnosed, namely name and form. Two ideas should be abandoned, namely ignorance and craving-for-being. Two ideas should be kept in being, namely quiet and insight. Two ideas should be verified, namely science and deliverance) (cf. D. iii, 273-4).
Tattha samathaṃ bhāvento rūpaṃ parijānāti, rūpaṃ parijānanto taṇhaṃ pajahati, taṇhaṃ pajahanto rāgavirāgā cetovimuttiṃ sacchikaroti, vipassanaṃ bhāvento nāmaṃ parijānāti, nāmaṃ parijānanto avijjaṃ pajahati, avijjaṃ pajahanto avijjāvirāgā paññāvimuttiṃ sacchikaroti.
497. Herein, one who keeps quiet in being diagnoses form. When he diagnoses form he abandons craving. When he abandons craving he verifies the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust. One who keeps insight in being diagnoses name. When he diagnoses name he abandons ignorance.
Yadā bhikkhuno dve dhammā pariññātā bhavanti nāmañca rūpañca, tathāssa dve dhammā pahīnā bhavanti avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca.
When a bhikkhu has diagnosed the two ideas, namely name and form, then likewise he has abandoned the two ideas, namely ignorance and craving-for-being.
Dve dhammā bhāvitā bhavanti samatho ca vipassanā ca, dve dhammā sacchikātabbā bhavanti vijjā ca vimutti ca.
Two ideas have been kept in being, namely quiet and insight, while two ideas have been verified, namely science and deliverance.
Ettāvatā bhikkhu katakicco bhavati.
498. At this point the bhikkhu is one who has done his task.
Esā sopādisesā nibbānadhātu.
This is the extinction element with trace left.
Tassa āyupariyādānā jīvitindriyassa uparodhā idañca dukkhaṃ nirujjhati, aññañca dukkhaṃ na uppajjati.
With the termination of his live-span, with the surcease of his life-faculty, this suffering ceases and no other suffering arises.
Tattha yo imesaṃ khandhānaṃ dhātuāyatanānaṃ nirodho vūpasamo aññesañca khandhadhātuāyatanānaṃ appaṭisandhi apātubhāvo, ayaṃ anupādisesā nibbānadhātu.
Herein, the cessation, the pacification, of these categories, elements, and bases, and the non- relinking, the non-manifestation, of other categories, elements, and bases, is the extinction element without trace left (cf. § 54 7).
Tattha katamaṃ alobho kusalamūlaṃ?
499. Herein, what is non-greed as a root of profit?
Yaṃdhātuko alobho alubbhanā alubbhitattaṃ anicchā apatthanā akantā anajjhosānaṃ.
It is non-greed about any element,1 non-greediness, non-greedifiedness, unwishing, unaspiration, unwanting, uncleaving (cf.Vbh.169) :
Ayaṃ alobho kusalamūlaṃ.
this is non- greed as a root of profit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
500. What is it the root of?
Alobhajassa kusalassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa taṃsampayuttānañca cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of non-greed-born profitable bodily and verbal and mental action and of cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Atha vā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo kusalanti vuccati, so tiṇṇaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ mūlaṃ.
Or alternatively, since the Noble Eight-factored Path is called" profitable", this [non-greed] is the root of three path factors.
Katamesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ, sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvāyāmassa sammāsamādhissa ca imesaṃ mūlanti, tasmā kusalamūlanti vuccati.
Of which three? Of right intention, right effort, and right concentration. It is the root of these. That is why it is called a root of profit.
Tattha katamaṃ adoso kusalamūlaṃ?
501. Herein, what is non-hate as a root of profit?
Yā sattesu vā saṅkhāresu vā anaghāto appaṭighāto abyāpatti abyāpādo adoso mettā mettāyanā atthakāmatā hitakāmatā cetaso pasādo, ayaṃ adoso kusalamūlaṃ.
Any unannoyance, non-resistance, non-ill-willing, non-ill-will; non-hate, lovingkindness, kindly-loving, desire for good,1 desire for welfare, confidence of heart, with respect to creatures or determinations (cf. Vbh. 169), is non-hate as a root of profit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
502. What is it the root of?
Adosajassa kusalassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa taṃsampayuttānañca cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of non-hate-born profitable bodily and verbal and mental action and for cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Atha vā tiṇṇaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ mūlaṃ.
Or alternatively, it is [the root] of three path factors.
Katamesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ?
Of which three?
Sammāvācāya sammākammantassa sammāājīvassa ca imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ mūlaṃ, tasmā kusalamūlanti vuccati.
Of right speech, right action, and right livelihood. It is the root of these three path factors. That is why it is called a root of profit.
Tattha katamaṃ amoho kusalamūlaṃ?
503. Herein, what is non-delusion as a profitable root?
Yaṃ catūsu ariyasaccesu yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ abhisamayo sammā ca paccāgamo paṭivedho amoho asammuyhanā asammoho vijjāpakāso āloko anāvaraṇaṃ sekkhānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ, ayaṃ amoho kusalamūlaṃ.
Any knowing and seeing with respect to the four Noble Truths how they come to be, any actualizing, apprehending by entering upon (? ) 1 penetration, non-delusion, non-confusing, non-confusion, science, displaying, light, non-obstruction of initiates' profitable ideas (cf. Vbk. 169): this is non-delusion as a root of profit.
Kassetaṃ mūlaṃ?
504. What is it the root of?
Amohajassa kusalassa kāyakammassa vacīkammassa manokammassa taṃsampayuttānañca cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ mūlaṃ.
It is the root of non-delusion-born profitable bodily and verbal and mental action, and for cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas associated therewith.
Atha vā dvinnaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ etaṃ mūlaṃ.
Or alternatively, it is the root of two path factors.
Katamesaṃ dvinnaṃ?
Of which two?
Sammādiṭṭhiyā ca sammāsatiyā ca imesaṃ dvinnaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ mūlaṃ, tasmā kusalamūlanti vuccati.
Of right view and right mindfulness. It is the root of these two path factors. That is why it is called a root of profit.
Evaṃ imesaṃ tīhi kusalamūlehi aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo yojetabbo.
That is how the eight-factored Path can be construed with the three roots.
66.Tattha katamā aniccasaññā?
505. Herein, what is perception of impermanence?
"Sabbe saṅkhārā uppādavayadhammino"ti ca yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ aniccasaññā.
Any perception, perceiving, defining, taking it, that (All determinations are inseparable from the idea of arising 1 and subsidence) (cf. Dh. 277 and S. i, 158), this is perception of impermanence.
Tassā ko nissando?
506. What is its outcome?
Aniccasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya aṭṭhasu lokadhammesu cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.
When perception of impermanence is kept in being, made much of, then with respect to the eight Worldly Ideas (see D. iii, 260) cognizance does not keep ]inking up, does not Jink, does not shape [itself thereto], [but rather] onJooking- equanimity or else repulsiveness [is what it] shapes [itself to].1 This is the outcome.
Tattha katamā dukkhasaññā?
507. Herein, what is perception of pain?
"Sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhā"ti yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ dukkhasaññā.
Any perception, perceiving, defining, apprehending, that
Tassā ko nissando?
508. What is its outcome?
Dukkhasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya ālasse saṃpamāde vimhaye ca cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.
When perception of pain is kept in being, made much of, then with respect to sloth,1 negligence, and hypocrisy, cognizance does not keep linking up, does not link, does not shape [itself thereto], [but rather] onlooking-equanimity or else repulsiveness [is what it] shapes [itself to]. This is the outcome.
Tattha katamā anattasaññā?
509. Herein, what is perception of not-self?
"Sabbesu dhammesu anattā"ti yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ anattasaññā.
Any perception, perceiving, defining, apprehending, that (All ideas are not-self) (Dh. 279), this is perception of not-self.
Tassā ko nissando, anattasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya ahaṅkāro cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati, mamaṅkāro na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.
510. What is its outcome? When perception of not-self is kept in being, made much of, then with respect to I-making 1 cognizance does not keep linking up, does not link, does not shape [itself thereto], [but rather] onJooking-equanimity or else repulsiveness [is what it] shapes [itself to]. This is the outcome.
Tattha katamā asubhasaññā?
511. Herein, what is perception of ugliness?
"Satta saṅkhārā asubhā"ti yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ asubhasaññā.
Any perception, perceiving, defining, apprehending, that ( Creatures and determinations are ugly ) ( ), this is perception of ugliness.
Tassā ko nissando?
512. What is its outcome?
Asubhasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya subhanimitte cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.
When perception of ugliness is kept in being, made much of, then with respect to the sign of beauty cognizance does not keep linking up, does not link, does not shape [itself thereto], [but rather] onlooking-equanimity or else repulsiveness [is what it] shapes [itself to]. This is the outcome.
Tattha pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ pariññā bhagavatā desitā, yo tattha asubhasaññā rūpakkhandhassa pariññattaṃ, dukkhasaññā vedanākkhandhassa pariññattaṃ, anattasaññā saññākkhandhassa saṅkhārakkhandhassa pariññattaṃ, aniccasaññā viññāṇakkhandhassa pariññattaṃ.
513. Herein, the diagnosis of the five categories is taught by the Blessed One, [and] herein, any 1 perception of ugliness is diagnostic of the form category, perception of pain is diagnostic of the feeling category, perception of not-self is diagnostic of the perception category and of the determinations category, and perception of impermanence is diagnostic of the consciousness category.
Tattha samathena taṇhaṃ samugghāteti, vipassanā avijjaṃ samugghāteti, adosena dosaṃ samugghāteti, amohena mohaṃ samugghāteti, aniccasaññāya niccasaññaṃ samugghāteti, dukkhasaññāya sukhasaññaṃ samugghāteti, anattasaññāya attasaññaṃ samugghāteti, asubhasaññāya subhasaññaṃ samugghāteti.
514. Herein, one eradicates craving by quiet, one eradicates ignorance by insight. [One eradicates greed by non-greed,] 1 one eradicates hate by non-liate, one eradicates delusion by non-delusion. One eradicates perception of permanence by perception of impermanence, one eradicates perception of pleasure by perception of pain, one eradicates perception of self by perception of not-self, and one eradicates perception of beauty by perception of ugliness.
Cittavikkhepapaṭisaṃharaṇalakkhaṇo samatho, tassa jhānāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.
515. Quiet has the characteristic of preventing distraction of cognizance; its footing is the Meditations.
Sabbadhammaṃ yathābhūtaṃ paṭivedhalakkhaṇā vipassanā, tassā sabbaneyyaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Insight has the characteristic of penetrating how all ideas come to be ; 1 its footing is all the knowable.
Icchāpaṭisaṃharaṇalakkhaṇo alobho, tassa adinnādānā veramaṇī padaṭṭhānaṃ.
516. Non-greed has the characteristic of removing wishes; its footing is abstention from taking-what-is-not-given.
Abyāpādalakkhaṇo adoso, tassa pāṇātipātā veramaṇī padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Non-hate has the characteristic of non-ill-will ; its footing is abstention from killing-breathing-things.
Vatthuappaṭihatalakkhaṇo amoho, tassa sammāpaṭipatti padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Non-delusion has the characteristic of not wrongly theorizing 1 about an object; its footing is right theory.
Saṅkhatānaṃ dhammānaṃ vināsaggahaṇalakkhaṇā aniccasaññā, tassā udayabbayo padaṭṭhānaṃ.
517. Perception of impermanence has the characteristic of grasping determined ideas' destruction ; its footing is rise-and-subsidence.
Sāsavaphassasañjānanalakkhaṇā dukkhasaññā, tassā vedanā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of pain has the characteristic of perceiving contact affected by taints ; its footing is feeling.
Sabbadhammaanupagamanalakkhaṇā anattasaññā, tassā dhammasaññā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of not-self has the characteristic of not approaching [wrong theory (? ) about] all ideas ;1 its footing is perception of ideas.
Vinīlakavipubbakauddhumātakasamuggahaṇalakkhaṇā asubhasaññā, tassā nibbidā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Perception of ugliness has the characteristic of apprehending the discoloured, the festering and the bloated [corpse-stages] ; 2 its footing is dispassion.
Imesu navasu padesu upadiṭṭhesu sabbo kusalapakkho upadiṭṭho bhavati, so ca bahussutena sakkā jānituṃ no appassutena, paññavatā no duppaññena, yuttena no ayuttenāti.
518. When these nine terms are disclosed, all the profitable is disclosed.1 And that can be known by one who has learnt much, not by one who bas learnt little, by one with understanding not by one without understanding, by one devoted, not by one undevoted.
67.Tattha niccasaññādhimuttassa aparāparaṃ cittaṃ paṇāmento satimapaccavekkhato aniccasaññā na upaṭṭhāti, pañcasu kāmaguṇesu sukhassādādhimuttassa iriyāpathassa agatimapaccavekkhato dukkhasaññā na upaṭṭhāti, khandhadhātuāyatanesu attādhimuttassa nānādhātuanekadhātuvinibbhogamapaccavekkhato anattasaññā na upaṭṭhāti, vaṇṇasaṇṭhānābhiratassa kāye subhādhimuttassa ca vippaṭicchannā asubhasaññā na upaṭṭhāti.
519. Herein, perception of impermanence does not become established in one who, believing in perception of permanence, does not review continuity in the consecutive occurrence of cognizance.I Perception of pain does not become established in one who, believing in the gratification offered by pleasure in the five strands of sensual desire, does not review the discomfort of the postures.2 Perception of not-self does not become established in one who, believing in self in the categories or elements or bases, does not review the resolution into the different elements and many elements. Perception of ugliness does not become established in one for whom, delighting in colour and shape and believing in beauty in the body, it remains concealed.
Avippaṭisāralakkhaṇā saddhā, saddahanā paccupaṭṭhānaṃ.
520. Faith (saddha) has the characteristic of non-remorse; its manifestation is placing faith (saddahana);
Tassa cattāri sotāpattiyaṅgāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.
its footing is the four factors of Stream-Entry
Evañhi vuttaṃ bhagavatā [passa saṃyuttanikāye] saddhindriyaṃ bhikkhave, kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, catūsu sotāpattiyaṅgesu kusalesu dhammesu.
as stated by the Blessed One ( Bhikkhus, where is the faith faculty to be seen? In the four factors of Stream Entry) (S.v, 196).
Sūrāapaṭikkhepanalakkhaṇaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ, vīriyindriyārambho paccupaṭṭhānaṃ.
521. The energy faculty has the characteristic of not dissipating vigour : its manifestation is the instigation of energy ; 1
Tassa atītā cattāro sammappadhānā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
the footing for its being there 2 is the four right endeavours,
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā [passa saṃyuttanikāye] vīriyindriyaṃ, bhikkhave, kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, catūsu sammappadhānesu.
as stated by the Blessed One ( Bhikkhus, where is the energy faculty to be seen? In the four right end,eavours) (S.v, 196).
Sati saraṇalakkhaṇā, asammohapaccupaṭṭhānā.
522. Mindfulness has the characteristic of remembering; its manifestation is non-forgetting; 1
Tassa atītā cattāro satipaṭṭhānā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
the footing for its being there 2 is the four foundations of mindfulness
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā satindriyaṃ bhikkhave, kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu.
as stated by the Blessed One ( Bhikkhus, where is the mindfulness faculty to be seen? In the four foundations of mindfulness) (S.v, 196).
Ekaggalakkhaṇo samādhi, avikkhepapaccupaṭṭhāno, tassa cattāri ñāṇāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.
523. Concentration has the characteristic of unification; its manifestation is non-distraction; its footing is the four meditations,1
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā samādhindriyaṃ, bhikkhave, kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, catūsu jhānesu.
as stated by the Blessed One ( Bhikkhus, where is the concentration faculty to be seen? In the four meditations) (S.v, 196).
Pajānanalakkhaṇā paññā, bhūtatthasantīraṇā paccupaṭṭhānā, tassa cattāri ariyasaccāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.
524. Understanding has the characteristic of act-of-understanding ; 1 its manifestation is judging how a meaning (aim) is; its footing is the four noble Truths,
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā [passa saṃyuttanikāye] paññindriyaṃ, bhikkhave, kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, catūsu ariyasaccesu.
as stated by the Blessed One ( Bhikkhus, where is the understanding faculty to be seen? In the four Noble Truths) (S. v, 196 ; cf. § 528).
Cattāri cakkāni [passa a. ni. 4.31] patirūpadesavāso cakkaṃ, sappurisūpanissayo cakkaṃ, attasammāpaṇidhānaṃ cakkaṃ, pubbe katapuññatā cakkaṃ.
525. Four Blessings (Wheels) : (1) living in befitting places as a blessing, (2) waiting on true men as a blessing, (3) right disposition in self-guidance as a blessing, and (4) having in the past made merit as a blessing (see A. ii, 32 ; also § 312).
Tattha ariyasannissayalakkhaṇo patirūpadesavāso, so sappurisūpanissayassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
526. Herein, (1) living in befitting places has the characteristic of dependence on Noble Ones ; it is the footing for waiting on true men.
Ariyasannissayalakkhaṇo sappurissūpanissayo, so attasammāpaṇidhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(2) Waiting on True Men has the characteristic of seeing 1 Noble Ones ; it is the footing for right disposition in self-guidance.
Sammāpaṭipattilakkhaṇaṃ attasammāpaṇidhānaṃ, taṃ puññānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(3) Right disposition in self-guidance has the characteristic of right practice; it is the footing for the kinds of merit.
Kusaladhammopacayalakkhaṇaṃ puññaṃ, taṃ sabbasampattīnaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(4) Merit has the characteristic of amassing profitable ideas ; it is the footing for all the kinds of excellence.
Ekādasasīlamūlakā dhammā sīlavato avippaṭisāro bhavati - pe - so vimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ "nāparaṃ itthattāyā"ti pajānanā.
527. The eleven Ideas Rooted in Virtue are these : (One who is virtuous... (1) no remorse... etc ....(11) knowing and seeing of deliverance) (§§ 75, 153) (that there is no more of this beyond ) (§ 141).1
Tattha veramaṇilakkhaṇaṃ sīlaṃ, taṃ avippaṭisārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
528. Herein, virtue has the characteristic of abstention ; it is the footing for non-remorse.
Na attānuvādalakkhaṇo avippaṭisāro, so pāmojjassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(1) Non-remorse has the characteristic of no-self-blame; it is the footing for gladness.
Abhippamodanalakkhaṇaṃ pāmojjaṃ, taṃ pītiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(2) Gladness has the characteristic of gladde1ling ; it is the footing for happiness.
Attamanalakkhaṇā pīti, sā passaddhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(3) Happiness has the characteristic of mental elation; it is the footing for tranquillity.
Kammaniyalakkhaṇā passaddhi, sā sukhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(4) Tranquillity has the characteristic of wieldiness; it is the footing for pleasure.
Abyāpādalakkhaṇaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃ samādhino padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(5) Pleasure has the characteristic of non-affliction ; 1 it is the footing for concentration.
Avikkhepanalakkhaṇo samādhi, so yathābhūtañāṇadassanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(6) Concentration has the characteristic of non-distraction; it is the footing for knowing and seeing how things are (cf.§ 523).
Aviparītasantīraṇalakkhaṇā paññā, sā nibbidāya padaṭṭhānaṃ anālayanalakkhaṇā nibbidā, sā virāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(7) Knowing and seeing how things are 2 has the characteristic of undistorted judgment ; it is the footing for dispassion. (8) Dispassion has the characteristic of non-reliance; it is the footing for fading of lust.
Asaṃkilesalakkhaṇo virāgo, so vimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(9) Fading of lust has the characteristic of non-corruption; it is the footing for deliverance.
Akusaladhammavivekalakkhaṇā vimutti, sā vimuttino vodānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(10) Deliverance has the characteristic of seclusion from unprofitable ideas; it is the footing for (11) knowing and seeing of deliverance.3
68.Catasso ariyabhūmiyo cattāri sāmaññaphalāni.
529. There are four noble planes and four fruits of the monk's state.
Tattha yo yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, esā dassanabhūmi.
530. Herein, when someone " (7) understands how things are " (§ 528) this is (a) the plane of seeing.
Sotāpattiphalañca so yathābhūtaṃ pajānitvā nibbindati, idaṃ tanukāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ byāpādānaṃ.
And it is (b) the fruit of Stream-Entry. Having understood how things are he " (8) finds dispassion " (§ 528) ; this is the footing for (c) attenuation of lust for sensual desire 1 and of the kinds of ill will,
Sakadāgāmiphalañca saṇhaṃ virajjati, ayaṃ rāgavirāgā cetovimutti.
and for (d) the fruit of Once- Return. When his subtle 1 [sensual lust and ill will] fade this is the heart-deliverance due to (e) fading of lust,
Anāgāmiphalañca yaṃ avijjāvirāgā vimuccati, ayaṃ katābhūmi.
and it is (f) the fruit of Non-Return. When with the fading of ignorance he is liberated this is (g} the plane of Him Who has Done, 1
Arahattañca sāmaññaphalānīti ko vacanattho, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo sāmaññaṃ, tassetāni phalāni sāmaññaphalānīti vuccati.
and it is Arahantship (cf. §§ 543-6). 531. Fruits of the monk's state : what is the word-meaning? The noble eight-factored path is the "monk's state". These [things mentioned above], being its fruits, are called 1 fruits of the monk's state.
Kissa brahmaññaphalānīti vuccante?
532. Why are they called fruits of the divine state [also]?
Brahmaññaariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, tassa tāni phalānīti brahmaññaphalānīti vuccante.
The "divine state" is the noble eight-factored path. These, being its fruits, are called fruits of the divine state.
Tattha sotāpanno kathaṃ hoti?
533. Herein, how is he a Stream-Enterer?1
Saha saccābhisamayā ariyasāvakassa tīṇi saṃyojanāni pahīyanti sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchā sīlabbataparāmāso ca, imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānā parikkhayā ariyasāvako hoti sotāpanno avinipātadhammo yāva dukkhassantaṃ karoti.
With the actualizing of Truth (§ 538) three fetters are abandoned for a noble hearer (disciple), namely embodiment-view, uncertainty, and misapprehension-of-virtue-and-duty (see Sn. 231 ; Dhs. 1002 ff.). ( With the abandoning, complete exhaustion, of these three fetters the noble hearer becomes a Stream-Enterer, no longer inseparable from the idea of perdition ... down to ... makes an end of suffering) (cf. Pug. 16).
Tattha katamā sakkāyadiṭṭhi?
534. Herein, what is the embodiment-view (§ 533)?
Assutavā bālo puthujjano yāva ariyadhamme akovido, so rūpaṃ attato samanupassati yāva viññāṇasmiṃ attānaṃ, so imesu pañcasu khandhesu attaggāho vā attaniyaggāho vā esohamasmi ekasmiṃ vasavattiko [avattito (pī. ka.)] pakkhitto anuggaho anusayanto aṅgamaṅganti parati.
( The unlearned foolish ordinary man ... down to ... unexpert in noble ideas, sees form as self, ... down to ... self in consciousness ) (§ 136). In regard to these five categories, either he is a self- apprehender or a self's-property-apprehender (cf. M. i, 138) [thus] ( This is I) (M. i, 138) in one of them, taking it as the power- wielder, 1 mover (? ), 2 helper, lyer-alongside-limb-for-limb 3 (cf. M. i, 328).
Yā tathābhūtassa khanti ruci pekkhanā ākāraparivitakko diṭṭhinijjhāyanā abhippasannā, ayaṃ vuccate sakkāyadiṭṭhīti.
When treating it thus,' any liking, preference, way of regarding (cf. § 483), way of arguing a case, liking for pondering views 5 (.A. i, 189 ; M. ii, 170), or seeing (? ), 5 on his part is called " embodiment-view ".
Tattha pañca diṭṭhiyo ucchedaṃ bhajanti.
Herein [in this embodiment-view] five [of the twenty kinds] belong with annihilationism.
Katamāyo pañca?
Which 6 five?
Rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, yāva viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati, imāyo pañca ucchedaṃ bhajanti, avasesāyo pannarasa sassataṃ bhajanti.
(He sees form as self) down to (he sees consciousness as self) [that is, the first of each of the five sets of four positions]. These five belong with annihilationism. The remaining fifteen [that is, the remaining three in each of the five sets] belong with eternalism (cf. §§ 136 f. ).
Iti sakkāyadiṭṭhipahānā dvāsaṭṭhidiṭṭhigatāni pahīyanti.
So with the abandoning of the embodiment-view the sixty-two 7 types of view are abandoned (cf. § 301).
Pahānā ucchedaṃ sassatañca na bhajati.
The abandoning 8 belongs neither to annihilationism nor to eternalism.
Iti ucchedasassatappahānā ariyasāvakassa na kiñci diṭṭhigataṃ bhavati, aññā vā lokuttarāya sammādiṭṭhiyā.
So with the abandoning of annihilationism and eternalism the noble hearer has no type of view at all except 9 right view dissociated from worlds (cf. Dhs. 1000; Vbh. 364).
Kathaṃ pana sakkāyadiṭṭhi na bhavati?
But how does the embodiment-view not come to be?
Idha ariyasāvako sutavā hoti, sabbo sukkapakkho kātabbo, yāva ariyadhammesu kovido rūpaṃ anattato samanupassati, yāva viññāṇaṃ - pe - evamassa samanupassantassa sakkāyadiṭṭhi na bhavati.
(Here a well taught noble hearer... ) (M. i, 300 ; § 136) and the whole white side can be quoted down to ( ... expert in noble ideas does not see form as self... down to ... consciousness ...) etc. (M. i, 300). When he sees thus he has no embodiment-view.
Kathaṃ vicikicchā na bhavati?
535. How does uncertainty (§ 559) not come to be (§ 533)?
Idha ariyasāvako buddhe na kaṅkhati, na vicikicchati abhippasīdati, itipi so bhagavāti sabbaṃ.
Here a noble hearer does not 1 doubt, is not uncertain, is confident, that the Enlightened One ( That Blessed One is suck since ... ) (A. iii, 285) [and] all [the rest of the passage].
Dhamme na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati sabbaṃ.
He does not 1 doubt, is not uncertain, ... about the True Idea ...
Yāva taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānanti, iminā dutiyena ākaṅkhiyena dhammena samannāgato hoti.
[with] all [the passage] down to ... Exhaustion of cramng, fading, ceasing, extinction ) (A.ii, 34) ; he possesses this second undoubtable 2 idea.
Saṅghe na kaṅkhati - pe - yāva pūjā devānañca manussānañcāti, iminā tatiyena ākaṅkhiyena dhammena samannāgato hoti.
He does not 1 doubt, ... about the Community ... down to ... ( merit for gods and men ) 3 ( ), he possesses this third undoubtable 2 idea.
Sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhāti na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati adhimuccati abhippasīdati.
He does not doubt, is not uncertain, believes, is confident, that (all determinations are suffering (painful)) (§ 507; also M. iii, 64).
Taṇhā dukkhasamudayoti na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati.
He does not doubt, is not uncertain, ... that craving is the origin of suffering.4
Taṇhānirodhā dukkhanirodhoti na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati.
He does not doubt, is not uncertain, ... that there is cessation of suffering with cessation of craving.
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti na kaṅkhati na vicikicchati adhimuccati abhippasīdati.
He does not doubt, is not uncertain, believes, is confident, that the noble eight-factored path is the way leading to cessation of suffering.
Yāva buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā dukkhe vā samudaye vā nirodhe vā magge vā kaṅkhāyanā vimati vicikicchā dvedhāpathā āsappanā [appanā (pī. ka.) dha. sa. 1008 nikkhepakaṇḍe passitabbaṃ] parisappanā anavaṭṭhānaṃ adhiṭṭhāgamanaṃ [aniṭṭhāgamanaṃ (ka.)] anekaṃso anekaṃsikatā, te tassa pahīnā bhavanti paṇunnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṃkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā.
In so far as concerns the Enlightened One or the True Idea or the Community (of. M. i, 101) or Suffering or Origin or Cessation or the Path (cf. Dhs. 1004; Vbh. 364), any doubting, vagueness, uncertainty, ambivalence, ... , vacillation, oscillation, 5 indefiniteness, inconclusiveness, ununilateralness, ununilaterality [all] that he has ( abandoned, dispelled, cut off at the root, made like a palm-stump, done away with, so that it is no longer inseparable from the idea of arising in the future ) (cf. M. i, 139).6
69.Tattha sīlabbataparāmāso dvidhā – sīlassa vā suddhassa vā.
536. Herein, Misapprehension-of-virtue-and-duty (§ 533) is of two kinds : that with regard to virtue and that with regard to one purified.
Tattha sīlassa sīlabbataparāmāso imināhaṃ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā tattha kapotapādāhi accharāhi saddhiṃ kīḷissāmi ramissāmi paricarissāmīti.
Herein, as to misapprehension-of-virtue-and-duty with respect to virtue: [when someone misapprehends thus] (By means of this virtue or duty or penance or divine-life I shall be some god or other ) (§ 82) and ( There I shall play, delight and sport with dove- footed nymphs) (cf.Ud.23),
Yathābhūtadassananti rucivimutti rāgo rāgaparivattakā diṭṭhirūpanā passanā asantussitassa sīlabbataparāmāso.
then any 1 liking, preference, belief, way of regarding, way of arguing a case, liking for pondering views, or seeing, on the part of one such as that, this is misapprehension-of-virtue-and-duty
Tattha katamo suddhassa sīlabbataparāmāso?
with respect to one purified?
Idhekacco sīlaṃ parāmasati, sīlena sujjhati, sīlena nīyati, sīlena muccati, sukhaṃ vītikkamati, dukkhaṃ vītikkamati, sukhadukkhaṃ vītikkamati anupāpuṇāti uparimena.
When someone has recourse to an uncleansing and unliberating idea as cleansing and liberating thus (Here someone misapprehends virtue thus" It is by virtue that one is purified,, by virtue that one finds outlet, by virtue that one is liberated, that one surmounts pleasure, surmounts pain, surmounts pleasure and pain, arrives accordingly 2 ) and so on (?)
Tadubhayaṃ sīlavataṃ parāmasati tadubhayena sīlavatena sujjhanti muccanti nīyanti, sukhaṃ vītikkamanti, dukkhaṃ vītikkamanti, sukhadukkhaṃ vītikkamanti, anupāpuṇantīti avisucikaraṃ dhammaṃ avimuttikaraṃ dhammaṃ visucito vimuttito paccāgacchantassa yā tathābhūtassa khanti ruci mutti pekkhanā ākāraparivitakko diṭṭhinijjhāyanā passanā, ayaṃ suddhassa sīlabbataparāmāso.
[and] (He misapprehends both that virtue and that duty [thus]: "It is by both that virtue and that duty that they are purified, are liberated, find outlet, surmount pleasure, surmount pain, surmount pleasure and pain, arrive 2 accordingly) (cf.Nd1. 188), then any liking, preference, belief (1), way of regarding, way of arguing a case, pondering of views, or seeing, on the part of one such as that is misapprehension-of-virtue-and-duty with respect to one purified.
Ete ubho parāmāsā ariyasāvakassa pahīnā bhavanti yāva āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā, so sīlavā bhavati ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato akkhaṇḍehi yāva upasamasaṃvattanikehi.
Now the noble hearer has abandoned both these kinds of misapprehension ... down to ... ( no longer inseparable from the idea of arising in the future) (§ 535). He is virtuous possessing the kinds of virtue desired of noble ones, that are untorn, ... down to... conducive to peace) (cf. 8. v, 343).
Imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānā sutavā ariyasāvako bhavati sotāpanno avinipātadhammo, sabbaṃ.
537. With the abandoning of these three fetters a well taught (noble hearer is a Stream-Enterer, no more inseparable from the idea of perdition,... ) [and] all [the rest] (cf. 8. v, 344).
Sahasaccābhisamayā, iti ko vacanattho?
538. "With the actualizing of truth " (§ 533): what is the word- meaning?
Cattāro abhisamayā, pariññābhisamayo pahānābhisamayo sacchikiriyābhisamayo bhāvanābhisamayo.
There are four kinds of actualizing : actualizing by diagnosing, actualizing by abandoning, actualizing by verifying, and actualizing by keeping in being.1
Tattha ariyasāvako dukkhaṃ pariññābhisamayena abhisameti, samudayaṃ pahānābhisamayena abhisameti, nirodhaṃ sacchikiriyābhisamayena abhisameti, maggaṃ bhāvanābhisamayena abhisameti.
Herein, a noble hearer actualizes Suffering by means of the actualizing by diagnosing, he actualizes Origin by means of the actualizing by abandoning, he actualizes Cessation by means of the actualizing by verifying, and he actualizes the Path by means of the actualizing by keeping-in- being.2
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
For what reason
Dukkhassa pariññābhisamayo, samudayassa pahānābhisamayo, nirodhassa sacchikiriyābhisamayo, maggassa bhāvanābhisamayo.
is there the actualizing of Suffering by diagnosis, the actualizing of Origin by abandoning, the actualizing of Cessation by verification, and the actualizing of the Path by keeping-in-being (cf.S.v, 422)?
Samathavipassanāya kathaṃ abhisameti?
Because of quiet and insight. 539. How does he actualize?
Ārammaṇe cittaṃ upanibandhetvā pañcakkhandhe dukkhato passati.
Having anchored cognizance on the object, he sees the five categories as suffering.
Tattha yo upanibandho, ayaṃ samatho.
Herein, any anchoring 1 is quiet
Yā pariyogāhanā, ayaṃ vipassanā.
and any fathoming 2 is insight.
Pañcakkhandhe dukkhāti passato yo pañcakkhandhesu ālayo nikanti upagamanaṃ ajjhosānā icchā mucchā paṇidhi patthanā pahīyati.
When he sees the five categories as suffering, then his reliance on the five categories, his attachment, approaching (see § 490), cleaving, wish, infatuation, disposition, aspiration, [concerning them] are abandoned.
Tattha pañcakkhandhā dukkhaṃ.
Herein, the five categories are suffering ;
Yo tattha ālayo nikanti upagamanaṃ ajjhosānaṃ icchā mucchā paṇidhi patthanā, ayaṃ samudayo.
any reliance thereon, attachment, approaching, cleaving, wish, infatuation, disposition, or aspiration, is Origin ; the abandoning of that is Cessation ; the quiet and insight are the Path.
Yaṃ tassa pahānaṃ, so nirodho samatho vipassanā ca maggo, evaṃ tesaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ekakāle ekakkhaṇe ekacitte apubbaṃ acarimaṃ abhisamayo bhavati.
Thus these four Truths have their actualization at one time, at one moment, in one cognizance, neither before nor after (cf. S. v, 437 ; Ps. i, 119).
Tenāha bhagavā "sahasaccābhisamayā ariyasāvakassa tīṇi saṃyojanāni pahīyantī"ti.
That is why the Blessed One said " With the actualizing of Truth three fetters are abandoned for a noble hearer" (§ 533).
70.Tattha samathavipassanā yuganaddhā vattamānā ekakāle ekakkhaṇe ekacitte cattāri kiccāni karoti, dukkhaṃ pariññābhisamayena abhisameti, yāva maggaṃ bhāvanābhisamayena abhisameti.
Herein, when quiet and insight occur coupled together (see A. ii, 156; Ps. ii, 92 f.) he performs four functions at one time, at one moment, in one cognizance : he actualizes suffering by means of the actualizing by diagnosing, ... down to ... he actualizes the Path by means of the actualizing by keeping-in-being.
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
What is the reason?
Dukkhaṃ pariññābhisamayo, yāva maggaṃ bhāvanābhisamayo.
[Because] the actualizing of suffering [is done] by diagnosis ... down to ... the actualizing of the Path by keeping-in-being.
Evaṃ diṭṭhanto yathā nāvā jalaṃ gacchantī cattāri kiccāni karoti, pārimaṃ tīraṃ pāpeti, orimaṃ tīraṃ jahati, bhāraṃ vahati, sotaṃ chindati; evameva samathavipassanā yuganaddhā vattamānā ekakāle ekakkhaṇe ekacitte cattāri kiccāni karoti, dukkhaṃ pariññābhisamayena abhisameti, yāva maggaṃ bhāvanābhisamayena abhisameti.
540. Because it can be regarded 1 as follows : Just as a boat going on the water performs four functions; it causes one to reach the further shore, it leaves the hither shore, it carries a cargo, and it cleaves the stream-so too, when quiet and insight occur coupled together he performs four functions at one time, at one moment, in one cognizance : he actualizes suffering by means of the actualizing by diagnosing, ... down to ... he actualizes the Path by means of the actualizing by keeping-in-being.
Yathā vā sūriyo udayanto ekakāle apubbaṃ acarimaṃ cattāri kiccāni karoti, andhakāraṃ vidhamati, ālokaṃ pātukaroti, rūpaṃ nidassīyati, sītaṃ pariyādiyati; evameva samathavipassanā yuganaddhā vattamānā ekakāle - pe - yathā padīpo jalanto ekakāle apubbaṃ acarimaṃ cattāri kiccāni karoti, andhakāraṃ vidhamati, ālokaṃ pātukaroti, rūpaṃ nidassīyati, upādānaṃ pariyādiyati; evameva samathavipassanā yuganaddhā vattamānā ekakāle - pe -.
541. Or just as the sun rising performs four functions at one time, neither before nor after ; it dispels darkness, makes light manifest, shows form, and terminates cold-so too, when quiet and insight occur coupled together ... etc .... 542. Or just as a lamp burning performs four functions at one time, neither before nor after : it dispels darkness, makes light manifest, shows form, and uses up fuel (consumption)-so too, when quiet and insight occur coupled together ... etc ....
Yadā ariyasāvako sotāpanno bhavati avinipātadhammo niyato yāva dukkhassantaṃ karoti, ayaṃ dassanabhūmi.
543. ( When the noble hearer becomes a Stream-Enterer, no longer inseparable from the idea of perdition, ... down to ... makes an end of suffering) (§ 533) this is (a) the plane of seeing, and it is (b) the fruit of Stream-Entry.1
Sotāpattiphalañca sotāpattiphale ṭhito uttari samathavipassanaṃ bhāvento yuganaddhā vattamānā kāmarāgabyāpādānaṃ yebhuyyena pahānā ariyasāvako hoti.
544. Being steadied in the fruit of Stream-Entry, when he further keeps quiet and insight in being, and when they occur coupled together, then with the abandoning of the greater part of lust for sensual desires and of ill will the noble hearer
Sakadāgāmi pariniṭṭhitattā sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karoti, ayaṃ tanubhūmi.
( becomes a Once- Returner, who having, for the purpose of attaining extinction,1 returned only once to this world, makes an end of suffering) (cf.Pug.16). This is (c) the plane of attenuation,
Sakadāgāmiphalañca yo sakadāgāmiphale ṭhito vipassanaṃ bhāvento kāmarāgabyāpāde sānusaye anavasesaṃ pajahati, kāmarāgabyāpādesu anavasesaṃ pahīnesu pañcorambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pahīnāni bhavanti sakkāyadiṭṭhi sīlabbataparāmāso vicikicchā kāmacchando byāpādo ca, imesaṃ pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānā [pahānāya (pī. ka.)] ariyasāvako hoti anāgāmī tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā, ayaṃ vītarāgabhūmi.
and it is (d) the fruit of Once- Return.2 545. Being steadied in the fruit of Once-Return, when he [further] keeps quiet and insight in being, he abandons without remainder both lust for sensual desires and ill will together with the underlying- tendencies to both, and when both lust for sensual desires and ill will are abandoned without remainder, then the five hither-side fetters are abandoned, namely embodiment-view, misapprehension-of- virtue-and-duty, uncertainty, will-for-sensual-desires, and ill-will. ( With the abandoning of these five hither-side fetters the noble hearer become,s a Non-Returner, who will attain extinction there, being no longer inseparable from the idea of return [from that world]) (Pug. 16). This is (e) the plane of the Lust-Free, and it is (f) the fruit of Non-Return.1
Anāgāmiphalañca anāgāmiphale ṭhito uttari samathavipassanaṃ bhāvento pañca uddhambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pajahati rūparāgaarūparāgamānauddhaccaavijjañca.
546. Being steadied in the fruit of Non-Return, when he further keeps quiet and insight in being he abandons the five further-side fetters, namely lust-for-form, lust-for-being, conceit, agitation, and ignorance.
Imesaṃ pañcannaṃ uddhambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānā ariyasāvako arahā bhavati, khīṇāsavo vusitavā sammadaññā [sampajañño (pī. ka.)] vimutto parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano anuppattasadattho, ayaṃ katābhūmi.
With the abandoning of these five further-side fetters the noble hearer ( becomes an Arahant with taints exhausted, who has lived out [the divine life], is liberated in awareness, has quite exhausted the fetter of being, and has reached the true goal) (cf. M. i, 4). This is (g) the plane of Him Who Has Done,1
Arahantova ayaṃ sopādisesā nibbānadhātu.
and it is (h) Arahantship.1 54: 7. This is the element of extinction with trace left.
Tassa āyukkhayā jīvitindriyāparodhā idañca dukkhaṃ nirujjhati, aññañca dukkhaṃ na uppajjati.
But with the exhaustion of his life-span, with the surcease of his life-faculty, this suffering too ceases and no other suffering arises.
Yo imassa dukkhassa nirodho vūpasamo, aññassa ca apātubhāvo, ayaṃ anupādisesā nibbānadhātu.
The cessation, pacification, of this suffering and the non-manifestation of any other is the element of extinction without trace left (cf.§ 4:98).
Imā dve nibbānadhātuyo.
These are the two elements of extinction (cf. § 43; also Iti.38).
Iti saccāni vuttāni.
548. So the Truths have been stated (§ 446),
Saccābhisamayo vutto, kilesavavatthānaṃ vuttaṃ, pahānaṃ vuttaṃ, bhūmiyo vuttā, phalāni vuttāni, nibbānadhātuyo vuttā.
Actualizing of the Truths has been stated (§§ 447-469), Definition of Defilement has been stated (§§ 470-491), Abandoning has been stated (§§ 492-528), the Planes have been stated (§§ 529-546), the Fruits have been stated (§§ 529-546), and the Elements of Extinction have been stated (§ 547).
Evamimesu vuttesu sabbabodhi vuttā bhavati.
So when these have been stated all [the ideas siding with] Enlightenment are stated.
Ettha yogo karaṇīyo.
The task to be done is here.
71.Tattha katamāyo nava anupubbasamāpattiyo?
549. Herein, what are the nine successive attainments?
Cattāri jhānāni catasso ca arūpasamāpattiyo nirodhasamāpatti ca.
They are the four Meditations, the four Formless Attainments, and Cessation Attainment.1
Tattha cattāri jhānāni katamāni?
550. Herein, what are the four Meditations?
Idha, bhikkhave, [passa dīghanikāye] bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehīti vitthārena kātabbāni.
(Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sensual desires, ... a bhikkhu ...) (Vbh. 245) can be quoted in detail.
Tattha katamā cattāro arūpasamāpattiyo?
551. Herein, what are the four Formless Attainments?
Virāgino vata vattabbo, yāva nirodhasamāpatti vitthārena kātabbā.
(Of one lust-freed, indeed it can be said ... ) ( ) 1 down to Cessation Attainment can be quoted in detail.
Imāyo nava anupubbasamāpattiyo.
These are the nine successive attainments.
Tattha katamaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ?
552. (1) Herein, what is the First Meditation?
Pañcaṅgavippayuttaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ.
It is that dissociated from five factors and associated with five factors (cf. M. i, 294).
Katamehi pañcahi aṅgehi vippayuttaṃ?
553. What five factors is it dissociated from?
Pañcahi nīvaraṇehi.
From the five Hindrances.
Tattha katamāni pañca nīvaraṇāni?
554. Herein, what are the five Hindrances?
Kāmacchandoti vitthāretabbo.
They are (i) (Will for sensual desires, ... ) (§ 73), which can be given in detail.
Tattha katamo kāmacchando?
555. (i) Herein, what is will for sensual desires?
Yo pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo pemaṃ nikanti ajjhosānaṃ icchā mucchā patthanā apariccāgo anusayo pariyuṭṭhānaṃ, ayaṃ kāmacchandanīvaraṇaṃ.
It is will-and-lust, love, attachment, cleaving, wish, infatuation, aspiration, non- giving-up, underlying-tendency, manifest-obsession, with regard to the five strands of sensual desire ; this is the hindrance of will for sensual desires.
Tattha katamaṃ byāpādanīvaraṇaṃ?
556. (ii) Herein, what is the hindrance of ill will?
Yo sattesu saṅkhāresu ca āghāto - pe - yathā dose tathā nioṭṭhānā, ayaṃ byāpādo nīvaraṇaṃ.
It is annoyance with creatures and with determinations ... etc .... as demonstrated 1 under hate (see § 475). This is the hindrance of ill will.
Tattha katamaṃ middhaṃ?
557. (iii) Herein, what is drowsiness?
Yā cittassa jaḷatā cittassa garuttaṃ cittassa akammanīyatā cittassa nikkhepo niddāyanā pacalikatā pacalāyanā pacalāyanaṃ, idaṃ middhaṃ.
It is dulling of cognizance, heaviness of cognizance, unwieldiness of cognizance, shirking (? ) of cognizance, sleepiness, nodding, blinking, winking,1 this is drowsiness.
Tattha katamaṃ thinaṃ [thīnaṃ (pī.)] ?
Herein, what is lethargy?
Yā kāyassa thinatā jaḷatā kāyassa garuttā kāyassa appassaddhi, idaṃ thinaṃ.
*//* It is any bodily lethargicness, di1llness, heaviness of body, untranquillity of body.
Iti idañca thinaṃ purimakañca middhaṃ tadubhayaṃ thinamiddhanīvaraṇanti vuccati.
So 2 this lethargy and the drowsiness mentioned before are together called the hindrance of lethargy-and-drowsiness (cf. Vbh. 253; also§§ 650 ff.).
Tattha katamaṃ uddhaccaṃ?
558. (iv) Herein, what is agitation?
Yo avūpasamo cittassa, idaṃ uddhaccaṃ.
Any disquiet of cognizance is agitation.
Tattha katamaṃ kukkuccaṃ?
Herein, what is worry?
Yo cetaso vilekho alañcanā vilañcanā hadayalekho vippaṭisāro, idaṃ kukkuccaṃ.
Any mental erasing, guilt, guiltiness,1 heart-erasing, remorse, this is worry.
Iti idañca kukkuccaṃ purimakañca uddhaccaṃ tadubhayaṃ uddhaccakukkuccanīvaraṇanti vuccati.
This worry and the agitation mentioned above are together called the hindrance of agitation-and-worry (cf. Vbh. 255).
Tattha katamaṃ vicikicchānīvaraṇaṃ?
559. (v) Herein, what is the hindrance of uncertainty (cf. § 535)?
Yo buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā - pe - ayaṃ vicikicchā.
Any [doubt, uncertainty,] about the Enlightened One, about the True Idea, about the Community, ... etc. (see § 535) ... this is uncertainty.
Api ca kho pana pañca vicikicchāyo samanantarāyikā desantarāyikā samāpattantarāyikā maggantarāyikā saggantarāyikā, imāyo pañca vicikicchāyo.
Furthermore, there are five kinds of uncertainty, namely entirely 1 obstructive, partly obstructive, obstructive to attainment [of quiet], obstructive to the Path, and obstructive to heaven; these are the five 2 kinds of uncertainty.
Idha pana samāpattantarāyikā vicikicchā adhippetā.
Here, however, what is intended 3 is uncertainty obstructive to attainment [of quiet].
Ime pañca nīvaraṇā.
Tattha nīvaraṇānīti ko vacanattho, kuto nivārayantīti?
560. Herein, as to " hindrances ", what is the word-meaning? What do they hinder from?
Sabbato kusalapakkhikā nivārayanti.
They hinder from all the profitable side.
Kathaṃ [kiṃ kaṃ (pī. ka.)] nivārayanti?
How 1 do they hinder?
Kāmacchando asubhato nivārayati, byāpādo mettāya [mettato (pī.)] nivārayati, thinaṃ passaddhito nivārayati, middhaṃ vīriyārambhato nivārayati, uddhaccaṃ samathato nivārayati, kukkuccaṃ avippaṭisārato nivārayati, vicikicchā paññāto paṭiccasamuppādato nivārayati.
Will-for-sensual-desires hinders from [perception of] ugliness, ill will hinders from lovingkindness, lethargy hinders from tranquillity, drowsiness hinders from instigation of energy, agitation hinders from quiet, worry hinders from non- remorse,2 and uncertainty hinders from understanding as (?) [that of] dependent arising.
Aparo pariyāyo.
561. Another way:
Kāmacchando alobhato kusalamūlato nivārayati, byāpādo adosato nivārayati, thinamiddhaṃ samādhito nivārayati, uddhaccakukkuccaṃ satipaṭṭhānehi nivārayati, vicikicchā amohato kusalamūlato nivārayati.
Will-for-sensual-desires hinders from non-greed as a root of profit, ill will hinders from non-hate, lethargy-and- drowsiness hinders from concentration, agitation-and-worry hinders from the foundations of mindfulness, and uncertainty hinders from non-delusion as a root of profit.
Aparo pariyāyo.
562. Another way :
Tayo vihārā dibbavihāro brahmavihāro ariyavihāro.
Three abidings, namely the heavenly abiding, the divine abiding, and the noble abiding (D.iii, 220).
Dibbavihāro cattāri jhānāni, brahmavihāro cattāri appamāṇāni, ariyavihāro sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā dhammā.
The heavenly abiding is the four meditations. The divine abiding is the four measureless states, and the noble abiding is the thirty-seven ideas that side with enlightenment (§§ 447 f.).
Tattha kāmacchando uddhaccaṃ kukkuccañca dibbavihāraṃ nivārayati, byāpādo brahmavihāraṃ nivārayati, thinamiddhaṃ vicikicchā ca ariyavihāraṃ nivārayati.
Herein, will-for-sensual- desires and agitation-and-worry hinder from the heavenly abiding, ill will hinders from the divine abiding, and lethargy-and-drowsiness and uncertainty hinder from the noble abiding.
Aparo pariyāyo.
563. Another way:
Kāmacchando byāpādo uddhaccakukkuccañca samathaṃ nivārayanti, thinamiddhaṃ vicikicchā ca vipassanaṃ nivārayanti, ato nīvaraṇanti vuccante.
Will-for-sensual-desires, ill will, and agitation- and-worry hinder from quiet, and lethargy-and-drowsiness and uncertainty hinder from insight. That is why these are called hindrances.
Imehi pañcahi aṅgehi vippayuttaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ.
The first meditation is dissociated from these five factors.
Katamehi pañcahi aṅgehi sampayuttaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ?
564. What five factors is the first meditation associated with?
Vitakkavicārehi pītiyā sukhena ca cittekaggatāya ca.
With (a) thinking and (b) exploring, with (c) happiness, with (d) pleasure, and with (e) unification of cognizance (of the heart).
Imesaṃ pañcannaṃ aṅgānaṃ uppādapaṭilābhasamannāgamo sacchikiriyaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ paṭiladdhanti vuccati.
With 1 the arousing, obtaining, possessing and verifying of these five factors the first meditation is said to be obtained:
Imāni pañca aṅgāni uppādetvā viharatīti, tena vuccate paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatīti dibbena vihārena.
having aroused, [perfected,] these five factors, he abides, that is why it is said that (...he enters upon and abides in the first meditation ) with the heavenly abiding.
Tattha dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgasamannāgataṃ pītisukhena cittekaggatāya ajjhattaṃ sampasādanena imāni cattāri aṅgāni uppādetvā sampādetvā viharati, tena vuccati dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatīti.
565. Herein, the second meditation possesses four factors with (c) happiness and (d) pleasure, with (e) unification of cognizance (heart), and with(f) confidence (clarity) in oneself. Having aroused, perfected, these four factors, he abides, that is why it is said that ( ... he enters upon and abides in the second mediwtion) (§ 554).
Tattha pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ satiyā sampajaññe sukhena cittekaggatāya upekkhāya imāni pañcaṅgāni uppādetvā sampādetvā viharati, tena vuccati tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatīti.
566. Herein, the third meditation possesses five factors with (g) mindfulness, (h) awareness, (d) pleasure, (e) unification of cognizance (heart), and (i) onlooking-equanimity. Having aroused, perfected, these five factors, he abides, that is why it is said that ( ... he enters upon and abides in the third meditation) (§ 554).
Tattha catutthaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgasamannāgataṃ upekkhāya satipārisuddhiyā adukkhamasukhāya vedanāya cittekaggatā ca, imehi catūhaṅgehi samannāgataṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
567. Herein, the fourth meditation possesses four factors with (i) onlooking-equanimity, (j) purity of mindfulness, (k) neither- painful-nor-pleasant feeling, and (e) unification of cognizance (heart). The fourth meditation possesses these four factors.
Iti imesaṃ catunnaṃ aṅgānaṃ uppādo paṭilābho samannāgamo sacchikiriyā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ paṭiladdhanti vuccati.
So with 1 the arousing, obtaining, possessing, and verifying of these four factors the fourth meditation is said to be obtained. [Having aroused, perfected, these four factors, he abides, that is why it is said that ( ... he enters upon and abides in the fourth meditation)(§ 554)).2
Imāni cattāri jhānāni uppādetvā sampādetvā upasampajja viharati, tena vuccati dibbena vihārena viharatīti.
568. Having aroused, perfected, these four meditations he abides, that is why it is said that (he abides with the heavenly abiding)
Tattha katamo aniccaá¹­á¹­ho?
569. Herein,1 what is the meaning of impermanent?
Pīḷanaṭṭho aniccaṭṭho pabhaṅgaṭṭho sampāpanaṭṭho vivekaṭṭho aniccaṭṭho, ayaṃ aniccaṭṭho.
The meaning of pressure is the meaning of impermanent, the meaning of fleeting, the meaning of making reach [an end], the meaning of seclusion [from permanence], is the meaning of impermanent. This is the meaning of impermanent.
Tattha katamo dukkhaá¹­á¹­ho?
570. Herein, what is the meaning of painful?
Pīḷanaṭṭho dukkhaṭṭho sampīḷanaṭṭho saṃvegaṭṭho byādhinaṭṭho, ayaṃ dukkhaṭṭho.
The meaning of repressing is the meaning of painful, the meaning of oppressing, the meaning of sense-of-urgency, the meaning of sickness. This is the meaning of painful.
Tattha katamo suññaṭṭho?
571. Herein, what is the meaning of void?
Anupalitto suññaṭṭho, asambhājanaṭṭho gatapaṭṭho [appaṭṭho (pī.)] vivaṭṭaṭṭho, ayaṃ suññaṭṭho.
The meaning of unsullied1 is the meaning of void, the meaning of non-constraint (? ), 2 the meaning of non-torment,3 the meaning of standstill. This is the meaning of void.
Tattha katamo anattaá¹­á¹­ho?
572. Herein, what is the meaning of not-self?
Anissariyaṭṭho anattaṭṭho, avasavattanaṭṭho, akāmakāriṭṭho parividaṭṭho, ayaṃ anattaṭṭhoti.
The meaning of unamenability to lordship-rule is the meaning of not-self, the meaning of unsusceptibility to the wielding of power the meaning of unsusceptibility to be done with as one wants, the meaning of being secluded 1 [from identification]. This is the meaning of not-self.
Suttatthasamuccayo nāma saṃvattisantikā peṭakabhūmi samattā.
The Pitaka chapter, called "Compendium of the Threads' Meaning" in the Actual Presence,2 is completed.

7 - Hārasampāta-bhūmi: 16 modes of conveying in combined treatment

    Pe 7.1 - (first jhāna j1🌘 )
        Pe 7.1.1 - (rich section on V&V, vitakka & vicara)
        Pe 7.1.2 - (V&V example: vitakka sees person, vicara scrutinizes their sila)
        Pe 7.1.3 - (appana is not a frozen trance)
        Pe 7.1.4 - (V&V winged bird simile)
        Pe 7.1.5 - (V&V relationship to right/wrong resolves)
        Pe 7.1.6 - (V&V example: oral tradition of reciting vocally first requires V&V to contain thinking and evaluation)
        Pe 7.1.7 - (vicara needs to finish the job vitakka started)
        Pe 7.1.8 - (example: vitakka’s comprehension more superficial, vicara explores/dives deep into meaning)
        Pe 7.1.9 - (example (related to right effort), vitakka sets task, vicara finishes)
        Pe 7.1.10 - (first jhāna: what parts mental, physical)
    Pe 7.2 - (second jhāna j2🌗 )
    Pe 7.3 - (third jhāna j3🌖 )
    Pe 7.4 - (fourth jhāna j4🌕 )

72.Jhānaṃ virāgo.
573. Meditation 1 is fading [of lust].
Cattāri jhānāni vitthārena kātabbāni.
The four meditations can be cited in detail (see§ 552).2
Tāni duvidhāni; bojjhaṅgavippayuttāni ca bojjhaṅgasampayuttāni ca.
574. They are of two kinds: dissociated from enlightenment factors and associated with enlightenment factors.
Tattha bojjhaṅgavippayuttāni bāhirakāni, bojjhaṅgasampayuttāni ariyapuggalāni.
Herein, those dissociated from enlightenment factors belong to those outside [the Enlightened Ones' dispensation] while those associated with enlightenment factors belong to persons ennobled [by obtainment of the Eight- Factored Path].
Tattha yena cha puggalamūlāni tesaṃ nikkhipetvā rāgacarito, dosacarito, mohacarito, rāgadosacarito, rāgamohacarito, dosamohacarito, samabhāgacarito, iti imesaṃ puggalānaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajjitānaṃ pañca nīvaraṇāni paṭipakkho tesaṃ paṭighātāya yathā asamattho tīṇi akusalamūlāni niggaṇhāti.
575. Herein, there are these 1 six personal roots [namely lust and the rest]. By presenting them as [in] one (1) of lusting temperament, (2) of hating temperament, (3) of deluded temperament, (4) of lusting-hating temperament, (5) of lusting-deluded temperament, (6) of hating-deluded temperament, and (7) of lust-hate-and- delusion-tending-to-be-quieted temperament,2 there are thus these [seven] types of persons who have the :five hindrances 3 to their entry upon meditation.
Lobhena akusalamūlena abhijjhā ca uddhaccañca uppilavataṃ alobhena kusalamūlena niggaṇhāti, kukkuccañca vicikicchā ca mohapakkho, taṃ amohena niggaṇhāti.
The opposite, according to capacity to resist them, counteracts the three roots of unprofit 4 [as follows]: by means of the profitable root non-greed it counteracts covetousness and agitation and drifting-about, which are due to the unprofitable root greed ; worry and uncertainty are on the side of delusion, and it counteracts that by means of non-delusion :
Doso ca thinamiddhañca dosapakkho, taṃ adosena niggaṇhāti.
hate and lethargy- and-drowsiness are on the side of hate, and it counteracts that by means of non-hate.

7.1 - (first jhāna j1🌘 )

KN-Pe has the earliest detailed word commentary on the standard jhāna formula: Peṭakopadesa 7.72
“composed probably in India beore 100 BCE”.

7.1.1 - (rich section on V&V💭 , vitakka & vicara: 3 right thoughts are 2💭 )

(first paragraph 72. talks about tīṇi akusala-mūlāni 3am😈🌱 and 5niv⛅ (hindrances) removal.)

♦ tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā nekkhamma-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
576. Here, for non-greed fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā abyāpāda-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-hatred fulfillment, non-ill-will-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-mohassa pāripūriyā avihiṃsā-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-delusion fulfillment, non-harm-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā vivitto hoti kāmehi.
577. “Here, for fulfilling non-passion he is secluded from sensual pleasures.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā
Here, for fulfilling non-aggression and
a-mohassa pāripūriyā ca vivitto hoti pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi,
fulfilling non-delusion he is secluded from unskillful phenomena.
savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ
And so he enters and remains in the first jhāna,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
which includes directed thought and evaluation, as well as joy and pleasure born of seclusion.
♦ vitakkāti tayo vitakkā —
578. Directed thought: There are three kinds of directed thought, namely
nekkhammavitakko
the thought of renunciation,
abyāpādavitakko
the thought of non-aversion,
avihiṃsāvitakko.
and the thought of harmlessness.
tattha paṭham-ābhinipāto vitakko,
579. Here, directed thought is the first instance
paṭiladdhassa vicaraṇaṃ vicāro.
while evaluation is the evaluation of what is thereby received.

7.1.2 - (V&V example: vitakka sees person, vicara scrutinizes their sila)

yathā puriso dūrato purisaṃ passati āgacchantaṃ,
580. Just as when a man sees someone approaching in the distance
na ca tāva jānāti eso itthīti vā purisoti vā
he does not yet know whether it is a woman or a man,
yadā tu paṭilabhati itthīti vā purisoti vā
but when he has received [the apperception] that “it is a woman” or “it is a man” or
evaṃ vaṇṇoti vā evaṃ saṇṭhānoti vā
that “it is of such color” or that “it is one of such shape,”
ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti
then when he has thought this he further scrutinizes,
kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ sīlavā udāhu dussīlo
“How then, is he ethical or unethical,
aḍḍho vā duggatoti vā.
rich or poor?”
evaṃ vicāro
This is examination.

7.1.3 - (appana is not a frozen trance)

(notice the meaning of appana: it’s not one pointed blanking out, it’s ‘fixing’ on a topic to explore)
vitakke appeti,
With directed thought he fixes.
vicāro cariyati ca anuvattati ca.
With examination he moves about and turns over [what has been thought].”


Notes of interest:
V&V “fixes” and “turning over” have been reinterpreted in the Vsm.


7.1.4 - (V&V winged bird simile)

yathā pakkhī
581. and just as a winged bird
pubbaṃ āyūhati
first accumulates [speed]
pacchā nāyūhati
and afterwards no more accumulates [speed, when gliding],
yathā āyūhanā evaṃ vitakko,
so too, thinking is like the accumulation [of speed],
yathā pakkhānaṃ pasāraṇaṃ evaṃ vicāro anupālati vitakketi vicarati vicāreti.
and like the out-stretchedness of the [gliding bird's] wings is exploring,
vitakkayati vitakketi,
[which] keeps preserving the thinkings
anuvicarati vicāreti.
and keeps preserving the explorings.


The meaning of the simile, when you read the entire V&V section, the recurring pattern is to show that vicara is connected to vitakka, and not some completely independent separate entity. The bird taking off and gliding requires that dependent connection. Vism. Has a completely different interpretation of the simile, they turn ‘vicara’ from its ‘exploring’ function into a ‘holding still’ in one pointed mind blanking out.


7.1.5 - (V&V relationship to right/wrong resolves)

kāma-saññāya paṭipakkho vitakko,
582. sensual-desire-perceptions (is the) opposite (of) directed-thoughts,
byāpāda-saññāya vihiṃsa-saññāya ca paṭipakkho vicāro.
ill-will-perceptions & cruelty-perceptions (is the) opposite of evaluation.
vitakkānaṃ kammaṃ a-kusalassa a-manasikāro,
(such) thinking (is an) action (whereby the) un-skillful (gets) no-attention.
vicārānaṃ kammaṃ jeṭṭhānaṃ saṃvāraṇā.
(such) evaluation (is an) action (whereby the) forerunners (gets) restrained.

7.1.6 - (V&V example: oral tradition of reciting vocally first requires V&V to contain thinking and evaluation)

yathā paliko tuṇhiko sajjhāyaṃ karoti evaṃ vitakko,
583. just-as (a) reciter silently recites, such (is) directed-thoughts,
yathā taṃyeva anupassati evaṃ vicāro.
just-as that-recitation (he) contemplates, such (is) evaluation.


Notice the connection and gradual transition from vocal recitation of Dhamma, to thinking about Dhamma with V&V, and then V&V dropping out in second jhāna, SN 36.11. V&V of first jhāna is vocal silence, 2nd jhāna is noble silence, SN 21.1. And of course V&V are vaci-sankhara, vocalization-co-doings, since they are the main cause of coherent vaca/speech MN 44.


7.1.7 - (vicara needs to finish the job vitakka started)

yathā a-pariññā evaṃ vitakko.
just-like incomplete-understanding, such (is) directed-thoughts,
yathā pariññā evaṃ vicāro.
just-like complete-understanding, such (is) evaluation.

7.1.8 - (example: vitakka’s comprehension more superficial, vicara explores/dives deep into meaning)

nirutti-paṭisambhidāyañca paṭibhāna-paṭisambhidāyañca vitakko,
language-analysis & clarity-analysis (is) directed-thoughts,
dhamma-paṭisambhidāyañca attha-paṭisambhidāyañca vicāro.
idea-analysis & meaning-analysis (is) evaluation.

unclear meaning here

kallitā kosallattaṃ cittassa vitakko,
good-health; skill (of the) mind (regarding that), is directed-thoughts.
abhinīhāra-kosallaṃ cittassa vicāro.
Resolution-in-being-skillful; mind [in that mode], is evaluation.

7.1.9 - (example (related to right effort), vitakka sets task, vicara finishes)

idaṃ kusalaṃ idaṃ akusalaṃ
this (is) skillful, this (is) unskillful,
idaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ idaṃ pahātabbaṃ
this should-be-developed, this should-be-abandoned,
idaṃ sacchikātabbanti
this (is) to-be-verified,
vitakko,
[those are examples of] directed-thoughts,
yathā pahānañca bhāvanā ca
these-are abandoned, are developed,
sacchikiriyā ca
(these are) verified,
evaṃ vicāro.
evaluation [finishes the task set out by vitakka]


You can see the importance of V&V working in concert with the right effort in first jhāna, and maintaining first jhāna, and removing enough subtle obstructions to move into second jhāna. V&V and right effort is not only active prior to first jhāna, which is what Vism. Apologists would have you believe.



7.1.10 - (first jhāna: what parts mental, physical)

imesu vitakka-vicāresu ṭhitassa
584. these directed-thoughts-&-evaluations (being) steady,
duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ na uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca;
two-fold suffering doesn't arise; bodily & mental;
duvidhaṃ sukhaṃ uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca.
two-fold pleasure arises; bodily & mental.
iti vitakka-janitaṃ
thus directed-thoughts-generates
cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ
mental pleasure,
pīti kāyikaṃ
rapture (in the) body,
sukhaṃ kāyikoyeva.
pleasure (in the) body.
yā tattha cittassa ekaggatā,
this here (is) mind's unification,
ayaṃ samādhi.
this is undistractable-lucidity.
iti paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ
Such is first jhāna,
pañc-aṅga-vippahīnaṃ
five-factors-abandoned,
pañc-aṅga-samannāgataṃ.
five-factors-possessed.

7.2 - (second jhāna j2🌗 )

♦ tesaṃyeva vitakka-vicārānaṃ
585. those directed-thoughts-&evaluation,
abhikkhaṇaṃ āsevanāya
(the) constant practice (of that),
tassa tappoṇa-mānasaṃ hoti.
(is what the) mind slopes toward.
tassa vitakka-vicārā
those directed-thoughts-&evaluation,
oḷārikā khāyanti.
coarse (is how they) appear (to him).
yañca pīti-sukhañca nekkhammañca
and-the rapture-&pleasure (born from) renunciation, [piti-sukha from first jhana]
oḷārikaṃ bhavati.
coarse (it) becomes (to him).
api ca samādhi-jā pīti rati ca jāyati.
and then undistractable-lucidity-induced rapture & relish is born.
tassa vicār-ārammaṇaṃ.
586. the evaluation-of-thought-objects [from first jhana V&V],
tesaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ ceto sampasīdati.
their calming [leads to] internal mental confidence.
ye vitakka-vicārā
those directed-thoughts-&evaluation
dve dhamm-{an?-}ānus-saritabbā.
[are] two dhammas (which) need {not?} be-recollected.
pacc-uppannā daraṇitabbaṃ.
presently-arisen {thinking & evaluation?} should-be-feared.
tesaṃ vūpasamā
with the calming [of directed-thoughts-&evaluation]
Ekodi-bhāvaṃ citt-ekaggataṃ hoti.
{there} becomes-singularity & mental-unification.
tassa ekodi-bhāvena pīti pāripūriṃ gacchati.
(with it) becoming-singular, rapture fulfillment happens.
yā pīti, taṃ so-manass-indriyaṃ,
whatever rapture, that (is) good-[happy]-mental-state-faculty.
yaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃ sukh-indriyaṃ.
whatever pleasure, that (is) [bodily] pleasure-faculty.
yā citt-ekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi.
whatever mind-unification, that (is) undistractable-lucidity.
taṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ
this second jhana,
catur-aṅga-samannāgataṃ.
four-factors-(it)-possesses.

7.3 - (third jhāna j3🌖 )

so pītiyā virāgā
587. he, (with) rapture's fading-away,
yāti ojahi jalla-sahagataṃ.
drives nutritive-essence wetness-,connected-with-that.
♦ 73. tattha so-manassa-cittam-upādānanti{uppādayati} ca
587. there happy-mental-state-(of)-mind-arises, [pīti leftover from 2nd jhana]
so taṃ vicinanto upekkhameva manasi-karoti.
he then investigates (that with) equanimous-obervation attention.
so pītiyā virāgā
he, (with) rapture's fading,
upekkhako viharati.
equanimously-observing (he) dwells.
yathā ca pītiyā sukha-mānitaṃ,
as-to the rapture induced-pleasure,
taṃ kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti
that, with the [physical] body (he) experiences,
sam-pajāno viharati.
(with) clear-discerning (of that he) dwells.
yena sati-sampajaññena
because-of remembrance-&clear-discerning,
upekkhā-pāripūriṃ gacchati.
equanimous-observation-fulfillment happens.
idaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ
this third jhana,
catur-aṅga-samannāgataṃ.
four-factors-(it)-possesses.

7.4 - (fourth jhāna j4🌕 )

♦ tathā kāyikassa sukhassa pahānāya
thus (with) body's pleasure abandoned, [from 3rd jhana]
paṭhame jhāne so-{do-?}manass-indriyaṃ nirujjhati.
(and) first jhana's distressed-mental-state-faculty ceased,
dutiye jhāne dukkh-indriyaṃ nirujjhati.
(and) second jhana's pain-faculty ceased.


So sukhassa ca pahānā
Pleasure's ** abandoning,
dukkhassa ca pahānā
pain's ** abandoning,
pubbeva so-manassa-do-manassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
(with) previous elated-mental-state-(and)-distressed-mental-states’ disappearance,
A-dukkham-a-sukhaṃ
Neither-pain nor-pleasure
Upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ
equanimous-observation-(and)-remembrance-purified,
catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati
fourth Jhāna (he) enters, dwells.



(Pe commentary)

tattha catūhi indriyehi upekkhā pasādā{ap-pasanna?} hoti,
Here, four faculties make equanimous-observation un-clarified:
dukkh-indriyena do-manass-indriyena
pain-faculty, distressed-mental-state-faculty,
sukh-indriyena so-manass-indriyena ca.
pleasure-faculty, elated-mental-state-faculty.
tesaṃ nirodhā upekkhā-sampajaññaṃ hoti,
With-their cessation {there is} equanimous-observation-&-clear-discerning.
tattha sukh-indriyena so-manass-indriyena
There [in previous jhanas], pleasure-faculty and elated-mental-state-faculty
ca a-sati hoti,
[caused] non-remembrance.
tesaṃ nirodhā satimā hoti,
With-their cessation {there is} remembrance.
dukkh-indriyena do-manass-indriyena
[Because of] pain-faculty and distressed-mental-state-faculty,
ca a-sam-pajaññaṃ,
[that caused] un-clear-discerning.
tesaṃ nirodhā sam-pajaññaṃ hoti,
With-their cessation, {there is} clear-discerning.
iti upekkhāya ca saññā{pasann-attā?},
[Because of] equanimous-observation's clarification,
sato sampajāno citt-ekaggatā ca
Remembrance, clear-discerning, and mind-unification happen.
idaṃ vuccate ca catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
This is called ** fourth jhāna.

7.5 – (3 kinds of temperament)

Tattha yo rāgacarito puggalo tassa sukhindriyañca somanassindriyañca; yo dosacarito puggalo tassa dukkhindriyañca domanassindriyañca; yo mohacarito puggalo tassa asati ca asampajaññañca.
589. Herein, (1) the person of lusting temperament has the pleasure faculty and the joy faculty. (2) The person of hating temperament has the pain faculty and the grief faculty. (3) The person of deluded temperament has unmindfulness and unawareness.
Tattha rāgacaritassa puggalassa tatiye jhāne catutthe ca anunayo nirujjhati, dosacaritassa paṭhame jhāne dutiye ca paṭighaṃ nirujjhati, mohacaritassa puggalassa paṭhame jhāne dutiye ca asampajaññaṃ nirujjhati.
Herein, the lusting-temperament person's approval ceases in the third meditation and in the fourth. The hating-temperament person's resistance ceases in the first meditation and in the second. The deluded-temperament person's unawareness ceases in the first meditation and in the second
Tatiye jhāne catutthe ca asati nirujjhati, evameva tesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ puggalānaṃ cattāri jhānāni vodānaṃ gamissanti.
while his uninindfulness ceases in the third meditation and in the fourth. That is how these three types of persons' four meditations arrive at their cleansing.
Tattha rāgadosacaritassa puggalassa asampajaññañca anunayo ca paṭighañca, tena hānabhāgiyaṃ [pahānabhāgiyaṃ (pī. ka.)] jhānaṃ hoti.
590. Herein, (4) the person of lusting-hating temperament has [unmindfulness and unawareness 1] and approval and resistance, hence his meditation is of the kind dealing with diminution (see Ps. i, 48).
Tattha rāgamohacaritassa puggalassa anunayattaṃ ca ādīnavaṃ dassitā, taṃ tassa hānabhāgiyaṃ jhānaṃ hoti.
591. Herein, (5) the person of lusting-deluded temperament has the trio with approval 1 (§ 590), [and he is one who sees gratification ; hence his meditation is of the kind dealing with diminution.
Tattha dosamohacaritassa puggalassa paṭigho ca asati ca asampajaññañca ādīnavaṃ dassitā tena tassa hānabhāgiyaṃ jhānaṃ hoti.
592. Herein, (6) the person of hating-deluded temperament has the trio with resistance,] 1 and he is one who sees disappointment ; hence his meditation is of the kind dealing with diminution.
Tattha rāgadosamohasamabhāgacaritassa puggalassa visesabhāgiyaṃ jhānaṃ hoti, imāni cattāri jhānāni sattasu puggalesu niddisitabbāni.
593. Herein, (7) It is the person of lusting-hate-and-delusion- tending-to-be-quieted temperament [ ... (?)] 1 who has the kind of meditation that deals with distinction (?).1 [That is how] 2 these four meditations can be demonstrated among these seven types of' persons (§ 575).
Catūsu ca samādhīsu chandasamādhinā paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ, vīriyasamādhinā dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ, cittasamādhinā tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ, vīmaṃsāsamādhinā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
594. Also 1 as regards the four kinds of concentration [in the four bases for success]: the first meditation is through concentration due to will, the second meditation is through concentration due to energy, the third meditation is through concentration due to cognizance, and the fourth meditation is through concentration due to inquiry.
Appaṇihitena paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ, suññatāya dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ, animittena tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ, ānāpānassatiyā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
595. [Again] the first meditation is through the Dispositionless, the second meditation is through the Void, the third meditation is through the Signless, and the fourth meditation is through Mindfulness of Breathing.
Kāmavitakkabyāpādānañca taṃ taṃ vūpasamena paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ hoti, vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamena dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ, sukhindriyasomanassindriyānaṃ vūpasamena tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ, kāyasaṅkhārānaṃ vūpasamena catutthaṃ jhānañca.
596. [Again] the first meditation is through the pacification of sensual-desire thinking and ill-will (thinking), the second meditation is through the pacification of thinking and exploring, the third meditation is through the pacification of the pleasure faculty1 and the grief faculty,1 and the fourth meditation is through the pacification of the bodily determinations, [namely in-breath and out-breath (cf.§ 589).]
Cāgādhiṭṭhānena paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ, saccādhiṭṭhānena dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ, paññādhiṭṭhānena tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ, upasamādhiṭṭhānena catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
597. [Again] the first meditation is through the Expression of Generosity, the second meditation is through the Expression of Truth, the third meditation is through the Expression of Understanding, and the fourth meditation is through the Expression of Peace.1
Imāni cattāri jhānāni saṅkhepaniddesena niddiṭṭhāni, tattha samādhindriyaṃ pāripūriṃ gacchati.
598. These four meditations are [now] demonstrated by a brief demonstration.1 599. It is here that the concentration faculty comes to fulfilment,
Anuvattanakāni cattāri, tattha yo paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ nissāya āsavakkhayaṃ pāpuṇāti, so sukhāya paṭipadāya dandhābhiññāya domanassindriyapaṭipakkhena.
the other four [faculties there] being subordinate to it. Herein, he who reaches exhaustion of taints by depending on the first meditation [has gone] by the painful I Way with sluggish acquaintance, with the grief faculty in opposition.
Yo dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ nissāya āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, so sukhāya paṭipadāya khippābhiññāya dukkhindriyapaṭipakkhena.
He who reaches exhaustion of taints by depending on the second meditation [has gone] by the painful 1 Way with swift acquaintance, with the pain faculty in opposition.
Yo tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ nissāya āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, so sukhāya paṭipadāya dandhābhiññāya somanassindriyapaṭipakkhena.
He who reaches exhaustion by depending on the third meditation [has gone] by the pleasant Way with sluggish acquaintance, with the joy faculty in opposition.
Yo catutthaṃ jhānaṃ nissāya āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, so sukhāya paṭipadāya khippābhiññāya sukhindriyapaṭipakkhena gato.
He who reaches exhaustion of taints by depending on the fourth meditation has gone by the pleasant 'Vay with swift acquaintance, with the pleasure faculty in opposition.
Pakiṇṇakaniddeso.
Miscellaneous Demonstration.2
74.Yāni cattāri jhānāni, tesaṃ jhānānaṃ imāni aṅgāni, tesaṃ aṅgānaṃ samūho [sammoho (pī. ka.)] assa aṅgā, ayaṃ jhānabhūmi ko visesoti assa viseso.
600. (i) The Meditations are four [and] their [respective] Factors are these(§ 601). (ii) The [particular] mass 1 of these factors is, with any factor of that [mass], 2 the Meditation Plane(§ 602). (iii) What 3 is its distinction 1 It is the distinction of this [meditation] (§ 603).
Ime sambhārā tehi ayaṃ samudāgamo, tassa samudāgamassa ayaṃ upanisā, tāya upanisāya ayaṃ bhāvanā.
(iv) The accessories are these (§ 604). (v) With these accessories, the [condition for its] coming about is this (§ 605). (vi) The stipulate for its coming about is this (§ 606). (vii) The keeping of the stipulate in being is this (§ 607).
Tassā bhāvanāya ayaṃ ādīnavo.
(viii) With that keeping of it in being, the disappointment is this (§§ 608-611).
Tena ayaṃ parihāni.
(ix) The falling away through this [disappointment] is this 3 (§ 612).
Kassa parihānīti tadupagajjhāyino [tadupakajjhāyino (pī. ka.)].
(x) Whose falling away? Falling away of a meditator who resorts to that meditation (§ 613).
Taṃ yathā bhaṇitaṃ paccavekkhanto ayaṃ viseso.
(xi) When he reviews that [meditation] as to superiority,3 the distinction being this (see (iii)),
Tena visesena ayaṃ assādo, so kassa assādo ajhāniyā jhāyino, tassā ajhāniyā jhāyino, idaṃ kallitā kosalle ṭhitajjhānaṃ anomaddiyataṃ gacchati jhānabalaṃ, jhānabale ṭhitassa ayaṃ pāramippattassa imāni jhānaṅgāni anāvilasaṅkappo paṭhame jhāne jhānaṅgāni bhāvī.
through that distinction the gratification is this(§§ 614-15). (xii) Whose gratification is it? The " thoroughbred" meditator's 4 (§ 616). (xiii) This " thoroughbred " meditator has steadied that meditation in skill in health (§ 617). (xiv) When that [steadied meditation] comes to non-lapse 6 it is the meditation power (§ 618). (xv) When steadied in the meditation power the perfection 6 is this (§ 619). (xvi) When [the meditation] has reached perfection its factors are these ( ... ).6 ' 601. (i) [Now] (1) he who has undisturbed intention 1 keeps the meditation factors in being in the first meditation ;
So pīti tadanusārittāva paṭhame jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ tassaṅguno ca dhammā tadabhisannitāya ca.
and precisely because he is one who recollects that [fact] (see § 586), happiness too 2 is a meditation factor in the first meditation; [and also because,] when he possesses the factors,3 his ideas are drenched 4 by that [happiness] (cf. § 564).
Pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgadhammatā kho pana tathā pavattassa sahagataṃ jhānaṅgadhammaṃ sasukhatāya ajjhattaṃ sampasādo dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ manosampasādanatāya tadabhisannitāya ca.
(2) In the second meditation 6 too happiness is a meditation- factor; but rather [is it so] as the essential idea [here], owing to the very pleasantness of the meditation-factor ideas that accompany [meditation] occurring in this [second] way. Confidence (clarification) in oneself is a meditation-factor in the second meditation owing to clarification of the mind, and it is owing to its being drenched 6 by that [clarification]
Pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ samādhitā [samādhikā (pī.)] pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, cetaso ekodibhāvo dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, upekkhā phassatā tatiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, sukhaṃ tassa aṅganti ca.
that the happiness is [also] a meditation-factor in the second meditation; [for] it is happiness concentrated 1 by the confidence (clarification) in oneself that is a meditation-factor in the second meditation. Singleness of heart 8 is [also] a meditation-factor in the second meditation (cf. § 565). (3) The state of contact [accompanied] by onlooking-equanimity is a meditation-factor in the third meditation, and pleasure is a factor of it too (cf.§ 566).
Cetaso ekodibhāvo catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, upekkhā adukkhamasukhā catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, abhinisābhūmi upekkhāsatipārisuddhi catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ.
Singleness of heart 8 is [also] a meditation- factor in the third 9 meditation. (4) Onlooking-equanimity [and] neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling are also 10 meditation-factors in the fourth meditation; [but] the onlooking-equanimity is that belonging to the plane of directive-management.11
Satipārisuddhi ca anekajjhābhūmīsu jhānaṅgasamāyuttā pīti cetaso ekodibhāvo catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ.
Purity-of-mindfulness is a meditation- factor in the fourth meditation; [but] purity-of-mindfulness [itself alone] is a meditation-factor in more than one plane unassociated with happiness.12 Singleness of heart is [also] a meditation-factor in the fourth meditation (cf.§ 567).
Tattha katamā jhānabhūmi?
602. (ii) Herein, what is the Meditation-Plane (§ 600)?
Savitakke savicāre vivekā anugatā paṭhame jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(1) In the first meditation with thinking and with exploring the meditation-plane is that which goes with seclusion.1
Avitakke avicāre ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ janitaṃ pītimanugatā dutiye jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(2) In the second meditation without thinking and without exploring the meditation-plane is that which goes with the happiness born of confidence (clarification) in oneself.2
Sukhasātasamohitā sappītikā tatiye jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(3) In the third meditation the meditation-plane is that which has no happiness 3 since it has abandoned 3 excitement due to pleasure.
Tassa sukhadukkhasahagatā abhinīhārasahagatā catutthe jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(4) In the fourth meditation the meditation-plane is that unaccompanied 4 by pleasure or pain [and] accompanied by directive-management.5
Appamāṇasahagatā sattārammaṇā paṭhame jhāne jhānabhūmi.
[Again] (1) the first meditation, the meditation-plane is that accompanied by the Measureless States 6 [and] has creatures for its object.
Abhibhūmiāyatanasahagatā rūpasaññīsu dutiye jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(2) In the second meditation, the meditation-plane is that accompanied by [those] Bases for Transcendance 7 which are [found] among those percipient of form [in themselves, namely the first two such Bases].
Vimokkhasahagatānaṃ vimokkhesu tatiye jhāne jhānabhūmi.
(3) In the third meditation, the plane of meditation is that accompanied by the Liberations among those having the [eight (? )] Liberations.8
Anupassanāsahagatā kāyasaṅkhārā sammā catutthassa jhānassa bhūmi.
(4) The plane of the fourth meditation is rightly that which has bodily-determinations unaccompanied by in-breath and out-breath (? ).
75.Tattha katame jhānavisesā?
9 603. (iii) Herein, what is the meditation-distinction?
Vivicceva kāmehi vivicca pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi cittacetasikasahagatā kāmadhātusamatikkamanatāpi, ayaṃ jhānaviseso.
(1) [It is that when] "quite secluded from sensual desires, secluded from evil unprofitable ideas" (§ 550) [there is] surmounting of the sensual- desire element, [which surmounting is] accompanied by cognizance and cognizance-concomitants, this is a meditation-distinction.
Avitakkā ceva avicārā ca sappītikāya satisahagatāya pītisahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti.
(2) [That] perception and attention 1 take place without thinking and without exploring and are accompanied by happiness owing to their being accompanied by mindfulness with happiness,
Ayaṃ jhānaviseso.
this is a meditation-distinction.
Avitakkāya bhūmiyā avicāreyeva sati anugatā upekkhāsahagatā manasikārā samudācaranti.
(3) [That] also in the plane without thinking and without exploring [perception and] attention 1 that go with mindfulness accompanied by onlooking-equanimity take place,
Tadanudhammatāya ca sati saṇḍahati [sandahati (pī.)].
and [that] in virtue of the essential idea of this [meditation] mindfulness is established,2
Tañca bhūmiṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ jhānaviseso.
and [that], having entered upon that plane, he abides [in it], this is a meditation-distinction.
Satipārisuddhisahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti, tañca bhūmiṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ jhānaviseso.
(4) [That] perception and attention 1 accompanied by purity of mindfulness take place, [and that], having entered upon that plane, he abides [in it], this is a meditation-distinction.
Viññāṇañcāyatanasahagatāya bhūmiyaṃ ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti, tañca bhūmiṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ jhānaviseso.
[That] perception and attention 1 accompanied by the Base- Consisting-of-Non-Owning take place on the plane of that accompanied by the Base-Consisting-of-Infiniteness-of-Consciousness,3 [and that], having entered upon that plane, he abides [in it], this is a meditation-distinction.4
Jhānasambhārā nekkhammavitakko sambhāro kāmavitakkavinodanādhippāyatā.
604. (iv) Meditation-Accessories? The state of purporting removal of sensual-desire thinking is the accessory consisting in renunciation thinking.
Abyāpādavitakko sambhāro byāpādavitakkapaṭivinodanādhippāyatā.
The state of purporting removal of ill-will thinking is the accessory consisting in non-ill-will thinking.
Avihiṃsāvitakko sambhāro vihiṃsāvitakkapaṭivinodanādhippāyatā.
The state of purporting removal of cruelty thinking is the accessory consisting in non-cruelty thinking.
Indriyesu guttadvāratā appicchatā sambhāro parisuddhājīvo catunnaṃ samāpattīnaṃ sambhāro akammassa vihāritā.
The state of abiding without action 1 as door-guardedness in the [five] faculties [beginning with the eye] is the accessory consisting in fewness-of-wishes, and it is purified livelihood as accessory of the four attainments.
Maggasambhāro samāpattipajjanatā.
The state of right practice is the accessory consisting in the path.
Phalasambhāro jhānanibbattitāya jhānasamudāgamo.
The state of meditation's having been generated 2 is the accessory consisting in the fruit.
Kusalahetu yaṃ jhānaṃ samudayaṃ gacchanti ko ca [koci (ka.)] na kutoci nekkhammappattā samudāgacchanti.
605. (v) The Meditation's Coming About? 1 Meditations 2 that have come to be originated (are aroused) in any instance whatever(? ) 3 with the profitable as cause. (1) These come about when they have reached renunciation.
Ālambanirodhasamādhi santo samudāgacchanti.
(2) They come about when there is the concentration due to cessation of objective-support (1) [of thinking and exploring (? )].4
Avītikkantā samudāgacchanti.
(3) They come about with the absence of happiness.5
Sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ pahānāya te ca abyāpajjatāya samudāgacchanti.
(4) They come about with the abandoning of the pleasure faculty and joy faculty and with the absence of affection.6
Taṃ pana sandhāya samudāgacchanti.
They come about with non-burning,7
Aparidāhanāya samudāgacchanti.
they come about with non-fever.
Ayaṃ ñāṇasamudāgamo.
This is the meditation's coming about.8
76.Tattha katamā upanisā?
606. (vi) Herein, what is the stipulate? 1
Kalyāṇamittatā jhānassa upanisā.
Having a good friend is a stipulate for meditation.
Kalyāṇasampavaṅkatā jhānassa upanisā.
Close relationship with the good is a stipulate for meditation.
Indriyesu guttadvāratā jhānassa upanisā.
Door-guardedness in the faculties [beginning with the eye] is a stipulate for meditation.
Asantuṭṭhitā kusalesu dhammesu jhānassa upanisā.
Discontent 2 with [mere] profitable ideas is a stipulate for meditation.
Saddhammassavanaṃ jhānassa upanisā.
Hearing the true object of faith is a stipulate for meditation.
Saṃvejaniye ṭhāne saṃviggassa yoniso padhānaṃ.
The measure-gauge 3 of one who has a sense of urgency with regard to an urgent instance,3
Ayaṃ jhānopanisā.
this is a stipulate for meditation.
Tattha katamā bhāvanā?
607. (vii) Herein, what is the keeping in being?
Mettāsevanā abyāpādavitakkabhāvanā.
Cultivation of lovingkindness is the keeping of non-ill-will thinking in being.
Karuṇāsevanā avihiṃsāvitakkabhāvanā.
Cultivation of compassion 1 is the keeping of non-cruelty thinking in being.
Muditābhāvanā pītisukhasampajaññā kāritā.
Keeping gladness in being is the state of one who acts with happiness, pleasure, and awareness.
Upekkhābhāvanā passavatā upekkhābhāvanā apassavatā upekkhā ca ajjhupekkhā ca, asubhasaññābhāvanā dukkhāpaṭipadā dandhābhiññā bhavasandhābhiññā bhavasandhānaṃ, sā chabbidhā bhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā anuṭṭhitā vatthukatā yānīkatā paricitā susamāraddhā.
[There is(? )] keeping onlooking- equanimity in being as productivity(? ) 2 [and there is(? )] keeping onlooking-equanimity in being as unproductivity (? ), 2 [which are respectively(? )] onlooking-equanimity and looking on at. [There is(? )] keeping perception of ugliness 3 in being [which is(? )] the painful way with sluggish acquaintance, [such(? )] acquaintance being that tied to existence(? ) [belonging] to those tied to existence (1). 4 That keeping in being in the six ways 5 is kept in being, made much of, established, made the basis, made the vehicle, 6 consolidated, 6 and thoroughly well instigated. 6
Ayaṃ bhāvanā.
Evaṃ bhāvayantassa ayaṃ ādīnavo.
608. (viii) For one who keeps [it] in being thus, the disappointment is as follows.1
Paṭhame jhāne saṅkhārasamannāgato eso dhammo assuto sāsavo.
(1) In the case of the first meditation: this idea possesses determinations, this idea is still unpurified (?), 2 and 2 has taints,
Sace esa dhammo ayaṃ sīlo āsannapaṭipakkho ca esa dhammo kāmo paticāro pativicāro samāpattīnaṃ ca sabboḷāriko esa dhammo vitakkavicāro ca.
this idea has this habit(?) and has a near-opposite, this idea has sensual desire to shadow [and] haunt [it],3 and it is the grossest of all the attainments. It has thinking and exploring
Tattha cittaṃ khobhenti, kāyo cettha kilamati, kāyamhi cettha kilante cittaṃ vihaññati.
[which still] disturb cognizance,4 and the body [still] gets tired there, and when the body gets tired cognizance is harrassed, 5
Anabhinīhārakkhamova abhiññānaṃ ime ādīnavā paṭhame jhāne.
and the body is unamenable to directive management for the [five worldly] kinds of supernormal acquaintance. These are the disappointments in the first meditation.
Dutiye jhāne ime ādīnavā pītipharaṇasahagato ca eso dhammo, na samudācārasseti cittaṃ.
609. (2) In the case of the second meditation the disappointments are these : this idea is accompanied by the extension 1 of happiness ; [while] cognizance is no longer accessible to disturbance 2 by thinking and exploring(?) 2
Asodhayaṃ upagamo cesa dhammo upagamiparissayo [upagamiparicayo (pī.)] domanassapaccatthiko cesa dhammo.
[yet] this idea [still] has a danger that has access 3 to it, [for] this idea has grief for its enemy;
Tattha tattha yuttīnaṃ pīti parajjato cesa dhammo dukkaraṃ hoti, avattasantāsabhūmiparivajjayanto catūsu dukkhatāsu esa dhammo anuviddhāpanasaddhāya [anuviddhā passatiyā (pī.)] dukkhatāya ca na palibodhadukkhatāya ca abhiññādukkhatāya ca rogadukkhatāya ca, ime ādīnavā dutiye jhāne.
[and] this idea is at the mercy 4 of the happiness [belonging] to the associated [ideas] there, [and accordingly] it has difficulty 5 in avoiding the plane of anxiety about the non-occurrence [of the ceased happiness(?)], and this idea, in regard to the four kinds of painfulness, is interpenetrated by [them,] namely by the painfulness in fear, 5 by the painfulness in impediment, 6 by the painfulness in acquaintance, 7 and by the painfulness in lust. These are the disappointments in the second meditation.
Tattha katame ādīnavā tatiye jhāne?
610. (3) Herein, what is the disappointment in the third meditation?
Upekkhāsukhasahagatāya tattha sātāvīnaṃ pañcannaṃ upekkhāsukhaṃ parivattito esa dhammo tena niccasaññitānañca yaṃ hoti.
Owing to its state of being accompanied by pleasure-due-to- onlooking-equanimity, 1 this idea is subordinate 1 to the onlooking- equanimity pleasure [belonging to] the perceptions (? ) 1 possessing the liking there(?
Dukkhopaniyaṃ sukhaṃ cittassa saṅkhobhataṃ upādāya sukhadukkhāya gato savati.
), hence the pleasure [there] is constantly perceived as accessible to pain, [and so] on account of the disturbance of cognizance it goes with 1 pleasure and pain,
Sukhadukkhānukatañca upādāya anabhihārakkhamaṃ cittaṃ hoti.
and on account of its [still] going with pleasure and pain, cognizance is [still] unamenable to directive management 1
Abhiññāya sacchikiriyāsu sabbepi cete dhammā tīsu jhānasamāpattīsu catūhi ca dukkhatāhi anuviddhānaṃ sā bhayā dukkhatāya palibodhadukkhatāya ca abhiññāya dukkhatāya ca ime ādīnavā tatiye jhāne.
for the verification of the five worldly supernormal acquaintances, and all these ideas, in regard to the [first] three meditation-attainments, are interpenetrated 1 by the four painfulnesses, namely by the painfulness in fear, 1 by the painfulness in impediment, by the painfi1lness in acquaintance, and by the painfulness in lust.1 These are the disappointments in the third meditation.
Tattha katame ādīnavā catutthe jhāne?
611. (4) What is the disappointment in the fourth meditation?
Ākiñcaññāsamāpattikā te dhammānusamāpattikā etissā ca bhūmiyaṃ sātānaṃ bālaputhujjanānaṃ anekavidhāni diṭṭhigatāni uppajjanti.
Up to the Non-Owning Attainment these ideas have further co-attainments,1 and on that plane various types of views arise in foolish ordinary men who like [them] (cf. A. i, 206).
Oḷārikā sukhumehi ca rūpasaññāhi anuvidhāni etāni jhānāni sadā anudayamettājhānakalānudanukalāya sādhāraṇā, dukkarā ca sabbe cattāro mahāsambhārā samudāgatāni ca etāni jhānāni aññamaññaṃ nissāya samudāgacchanti.
And the meditations are interpenetrated 2 by gross and subtle perceptions of form. Always a sentimental lovingkindness 4 [etc.] is shared (see § 602 (? )) with each fraction and sub-fraction of meditation, and all the four accessories (§ 604) are difficult. And these meditations come about [through something else] (§ 605), each coming about in dependence on another [below it],
Ettha samudāgatā ca ete dhammā na samattā honti.
and when come about here these ideas are [still] uncompleted,
Asamuggahitanimittā ca ete dhammā parihāyanti.
and with the sign not properly taken up 6 these ideas fall away.
Nirujjhanti ca ete dhammā na upādiyanti nirujjhaṅgāni ca, etesaṃ dhammānaṃ jhānāni nimittāni na jhānanimittasaññā vokirati.
And [since] these ideas are cessative (cf.§§ 589, 596), 6 they do not arouse [emergent qualities]. 7 The meditations belonging to these ideas have factors of [successive] cessation, and the signs 8 may not be conformable [with(?)] the meditation-sign perception,
Appaṭiladdhapubbā ca jhāyīvasena ca bhavati [jhāyī ca vasena ca bhavati (pī. ka.)].
and that [perception] comes about as something not previously obtained and [only] in virtue of the [right type of] meditator.9
Imehi ādīnavehi ayaṃ jhānaparihāni.
612. (ix) With these disappointments the falling away from the meditation is this.
77.Nirodhasamāpattiyā apaṭisaṅkhāya avasesasaññino ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti, so nirodhasamāpattito parihāyati.
In one who has some residual perception [while in the fourth Formless State], by his not deliberating upon the cessation- attainment 1 (see M. i, 296-7, 301-2; D. ii, 71), perception and attention 2 accompanying the Base Consisting of Non-owning [which is the third Formless State] take place in him, [and so] he falls away from the cessation-attainment (cf. Vis. 707-8).
Āneñjasaññino asaññāyatanaṃ samāpannassa ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā manasikārā samudācaranti, tañca bhūmiṃ na pajānāti, so tato parihāyati.
In one who, being percipient of imperturbability 3 (see M. Sutta 106, etc.), has entered upon the Non-percipient Base (see D. ii, 69, 1. 21), [perception and] attention 2 accompanying the Base-Consisting-of-Non-Owning 3 take place' in him, and since he does not understand that plane he falls away from it.
Ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samāpannassa viññāṇañcāyatanasaññā manasikārā samudācaranti, tañca bhūmiṃ na pajānāti, so tato parihāyati.
In one who has entered upon [the third Formless State, namely] the Base-Consisting-of-Non-Owning perception and attention 2 [accompanying] the Base-Consisting-of-Infiniteness-of-Consciousness take place in him, and since he does not understand that plane he falls away from it.
Viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samāpannassa rūpasaññāsahagatā.
In one who has entered upon [the second Formless State, namely] the Base-Consisting-of-Infiniteness-of-Consciousness [perception and attention] accompanied by perception of form 4 ...
Vitthārena - pe - yāva paṭhame jhāne kāmasaññāsahagatā kātabbā.
in detail down to ... in the first meditation perception of sensual desire ... can be cited.
Sakassa [sā tassa (pī. ka.)] parihāyati, kalaṅkajjhāne kalaṅkaṃ jhāyati, parisamantato jhāyati, bhindanto jhāyati, na sajjhāyati, āyūhanto jhāyati, kiñci ca niparicito jhāyati.
613. (x) For whom does it fall away? In " colt meditation " 1 [the meditator] meditates as a "colt ",1 he meditates misapprehending,2 he meditates interrupting, he meditates destroying (1), 3 he meditates accumulating [action], 4 he meditates without consolidating anything (1), he meditates overrunning, 6
Atividhāvanto jhāyati, atimaññanto jhāyati, kāyasaṅkhāre appaṭisambhāre jhāyati, pariyuṭṭhānassa nissaraṇaṃ ajānanto jhāyati, nīvaraṇābhibhūto jhāyati, assāpattimanasikaronto jhānassa assādo kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhānaṃ pahānaṃ jhānassa assādo kāmarāgahetūnaṃ dhammānaṃ udayanti, nirujjhaṅgāni etesaṃ dhammānaṃ jhānāni uparimā sukhupekkhā kāmakammakilesānaṃ pahānaṃ assādo, evaṃ kho puna jhānassa assādo mahāsaṃvāsamappīḷite lokasaṃnivāse asambodhokāsā vigamessamidaṃ jhānappahānā.
he meditates slighting, he meditates without tranquillizing 8 the bodily determination, he meditates without knowing the escape from obsession, he meditates while still overcome (transcended) by hindrances. 614. (xi) It is when [the meditator] gives attention to his having attained [meditation that there is] the gratification of the meditation. And the abandoning of the obsession by lust for sensual desires 1 is the gratification of meditation. While they owe their origin 2 to ideas whose cause is lust for sensual desires, the meditations have [in the first instance] factors cessative 3 of those ideas, and, beyond [the first], of the pleasure [by means of which the happiness is abandoned], [and so] it is the abandoning of defilements due to sensual desire and to action 4 that is the gratification. 615. Again the gratification of meditation is as follows: that while still in the life-in-a-world oppressed as it is by the major kinds of habit there may yet come about an opportunity for non-constraint,1 this is the abandoning offered by meditation; 2
Ayaṃ palirodhamappalirodhalokasannivāse esanidhamidaṃ jhānaṃ anamataggasaṃsārasamāpannānaṃ sattānaṃ saṃsārappahānanā ānisaṃso, yamidaṃ jhānassa assādo kāyassa ajhāniyajhāyino bhavati.
[nevertheless] this benefit of meditation here in the life-in-a-world, which consists in obstructing and disobstructing,3 does not have the benefit of abandoning the roundabout [of births] for creatures who are involved in the roundabout that evolves without ultimate goal (see § 1041 ). This is the gratification of meditation.6 616. (xii) [Gratification] for whom? 1 For the " thoroughbred" meditator ; 1
Ajhāniyajhāniyajhāyīhi aparāmasanto ajhāniyajhāyitaṃ jhāyati, yāni kalaṅkajjhāyino padāni, tāni anudhitāni paṭipakkhe.
for a meditator who has meditated as a " thorough- bred " meditates without misapprehending what he has meditated as a "thoroughbred", and the clauses for the "colt" meditator (§ 613} can be set up in parallel fashion in the opposite [sense].
78.Tattha katamaṃ jhānakosallaṃ?
617. (xiii) Herein, what is skill in meditation?
Samāpattikosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhānavisesakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhānantarikakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, samāpattivuṭṭhānakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhāne sabhāvakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhāne ādīnavakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhāne nissaraṇakosallaṃ jhānakosallaṃ, jhānaphalena upādāya kosallaṃ, jhānaphalena paṭisaṅkhānaphale aparihānadhammatā nibbattijhāne ca kīḷitāpi visesabhāgiyaṃ jhānaṃ paṭilabbhati.
Skill in attaining is skill in meditation, skill in distinction of meditations is skill in meditation, skill in succession of meditations is skill in meditation, skill in emerging from attainment is skill in meditation, skill in the meditations' individual essences is skill in meditation, skill in the meditations' disappointments is skill in meditation, skill in escape in the case of the meditations is skill in meditation.1 618. (xiv) Through the Meditation Power 1 skill in means [is obtained].2 Through the Meditation Power the non-falling-away that is the essential idea [of a power] in the Deliberating Power 3 [is obtained] and also the [higher] meditation dealing with distinction that is due to playing(?) 4 with the meditation [already] generated 6 is obtained.
Idaṃ panassāti bhavahāritā ca ārammaṇānimittaggāho anabhinīhārabalaṃ, cittekaggatā nimittāsu gatisahitā samathabalena asaṃsīdanañca jhāne maggaphalaṃ samathaṃ pavatte samādhino upekkhāpalipubbāparanimittāsayo paggāhino [maggāhino (pī.)] satibalaṃ taṃ pavattitānañca vipassanānaṃ samaññābale.
Now this, also 6 in one [as just described] and who does not apprehend 6 any sign in the object externally(? ), 6 is the Directive-Management Power [for supernormal acquaintance]. The signs of unification of cognizance 6 are well apprehended by the Quiet Power, and it is in meditation made to occur by the quiet due to the Path and its Fruit that there is no more foundering. 6 Concentration's purity 6 that is due to onlooking-equanimity, which is that in one who apprehends well the consecutivity of the signs, 6 is the Mindfulness Power. Insight 6 with respect to [ideas] made to occur thereby is the Understanding Power 6 (cf. Ps. i, 61-2).
Tattha katamā jhānapāramitā?
619. (xv) Herein, what is meditation-perfection?
Supāramitā mettā kāmesu sattā kāmasaṅgasattāti [udā. 63 udāne passitabbaṃ] yamhi sutte desanāya vohārena dve saccāni niddiṭṭhāni, dukkhañca samudayo ca, vicayena hārena ye saṃyojanīyesu dhammesu vajjaṃ na passanti, te oghaṃ tarissantīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
Lovingkindness [brought to] thorough perfection ... 1 (xvi) ... 1 620. [Now as to the verse:] 1 ( Clung to desires, clung with sensual clinging) (§ 39). 621. (I) By the Mode of Conveying a Teaching,1 two truths are demonstrated [here] in This Thread, namely Suffering and Origin.2 622. (2)-(3) By the Mode of Conveying an investigation, that those who see 1 nothing blameworthy in ideas provocative of fetters will cross the flood, no such instance is found ;
Na tarissantīti atthi esā yutti ca vicayo ca idaṃ nu kissa padaṭṭhānaṃ, kāmesu sattāti pañca kāmaguṇā, taṃ kāmataṇhāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
that they will not cross, [such an instance is found.] 2 There is this Construing and Investigation. 623. (4) What is this the Footing for? " Clung to desires" (§§ 39, 620) is the five strands of sensual desires ; that is the footing for craving for sensual desires.
Saṃyojane vajjamapassamānāti avijjāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, na hi jātu saṃyojanasaṅgasattā oghaṃ tareyyuṃ vipulaṃ mahantanti upādānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
" Seeing nothing blameworthy in fetters" (§ 39) is the footing fo: ignorance. "Assuredly those clung with fetter-clinging 1 never cross the vast abounding flood " (§ 39) is the footing for assuming.
Kāmesu sattāti kāmā dvidhā – vatthukāmā ca kilesakāmā ca, tattha kilesakāmā kāmataṇhā kāmataṇhāya yuttā bhavanti rūpataṇhā bhavataṇhā lakkhaṇena hārena, saṃyojane vajjamapassamānāti saṃyojanassa.
624. (5) " Clung to desires" (§§ 38, 620) : sensual desires are twofold, namely sensual desire as thing and sensual desire as defilement (see Nd1. 1). 625. Herein, sensual desire as defilement is craving for sensual desires [as things]; when craving for sensual desires is stated,1 craving for form and craving for being are stated 1 under the Mode of Conveying Characteristics. 626. " Seeing nothing blameworthy in Fetters " (§ 39) :
Yo tattha chandarāgo tassa kiṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ?
Any will and lust herein, for the fetter,1 what is the footing for that?
Sukhā vedanā dve ca indriyāni – sukhindriyañca somanassindriyañca.
It is pleasant feeling, and the two faculties, namely the pleasure faculty and the joy faculty.
Iti sukhāya vedanāya gahitāya tayopi vedanā gahitā honti.
627. Now when pleasant feeling is admitted, the three kinds of feeling are admitted.
Vedanākkhandhe gahite sabbe pañcakkhandhā gahitā honti.
When the feeling category is admitted all the five categories are admitted.
Rūpasaddagandharasaphoṭṭhabbā gahitā, vatthukāmesu gahitesu sabbāni cha bāhirāni āyatanāni gahitāni honti.
When sensual desires as things- forms, sounds, odours, flavours, tangibles 1-are admitted, all the six external bases are admitted.
Ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu yo sato, ayaṃ vuccate lakkhaṇo hāro, tattha yo oḷārikamhi kilese ajjhāvasito sabbakilesesu yo na tato sukhumataresu na vītarāgo bhavati.
When the in-oneself and external bases [are admitted all] the existent [is admitted]. 2 This is called the Mode of Conveying Characteristics. 628. Herein, he 1 who becomes free from lust for a gross defilement resided in does not [thereby become necessarily free from lust] for all the defilements subtler than that (cf. § 656).
Tattha bāhirasaṃyojanaṃ mamanti ajjhattasaṃyojanaṃ ahanti.
629. Herein, the external fetter is " mine " while the fetter in oneself is " I ".
Tattha bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
630. (6) Herein, what is the Blessed One's Purport?
Ye oghaṃ taritukāmā te saṃyojanīyesu dhammesu ādīnavānupassino viharissantīti ayamettha bhagavato adhippāyo.
It is that those who desire to cross the flood will abide contemplating disappointment in ideas provocative of fetters : this is the Blessed One's purport here.
Kāmesu sattāti yesu ca sattā yena ca sattā yesañca sattā ayaṃ catubbidho ākāro sabbesaṃ hārabhāgiyo.
631. (7) " Clung to desires" (§§ 39, 620) [Those who cling 1], the things to which they cling, those who do not cling,1 and that whereby they do not 1 cling : this mood is fourfold.
79.Tattha katamāni tīṇi vipallāsāni padaṭṭhānāni ca?
Herein, what are the three footings for the perversions? 2
Cittavipallāsassa diṭṭhivipallāsassa saññāvipallāsassa tayo vipallāsā tīṇi akusalamūlāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The three unprofitable roots are the footing for the perversion of cognizance, for the perversion of view, and for the perversion of perception * *.1
Tīṇi akusalamūlāni hīnappaṇītakāriyakammassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
633. The three unprofitable roots are the footing for the action of a doer 1 of what is inferior and superior
Catunnañca upādānānaṃ doso akusalamūlaṃ dissati.
and for the four kinds of assuming. [For instance] the unprofitable root hate
Hīnappaṇītakāriyakammassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
is met with as the footing for the action of a doer of what is inferior and superior,
Yathā mātuyā vā pituno vā aññatarassa vā puna uḷārassa bhikkhuno abhayaṃ deti.
as when someone gives freedom from fear to (provide for the safety of) a mother or a father or 2 some important bhikkhu,
Tattha añño micchā paṭipajjeyya kāyena vā vācāya vā.
and someone else might misbehave towards them by body or by speech.
Tattha so byāpādamupādāya tesaṃ uḷārānaṃ rakkhāvaraṇaguttiyā anupālayanto yo uḷārānaṃ abhayaṃ deti.
[Then] when persevering with the protection, guarding and preservation of those important [persons, even while] assuming 3 ill will towards that [other], he [still] sees to the safety of the important [persons].
Tesaṃ abhaye dinne yo tattha micchā paṭipajjeyya.
In their safety being seen to, when he assumes 4 ill will towards him who might misbehave towards them,
Tattha so byāpādaṃ upādāyanto dosajaṃ kammaṃ karoti.
he performs action born of hate,
Yo tattha asādhu indriyā nīvaraṇaṃ yaṃ tesaṃ abhayaṃ dakkhiṇato saññaṃ idaṃ paṇītaṃ kāraṇaṃ mayā puna tattha micchāpaṭipatti ayaṃ byāpādo hīnagamivakammaṃ lobho moho ca imāni nīvaraṇāni vacanāni tāni cattāri upādānāni tehi catūhi upādānehi yo so upādāno itthī vā puriso vā tesaṃ pañcakkhandhānaṃ teyeva upādāno samudayo idaṃ dukkhañca samudayo ca soyeva desanāhāro.
which is a hindrance due to an improper (?) faculty (?).5 [Then] any 6 perception 6 herein of their freedom from fear as an offering is action 7 of a doer of what 7 is superior, but 7 any 7 ill will regarding the misbehaviour 8 towards them is action of a doer of what 9 is inferior. Greed and hate are terms for hindrances.10 These are the four assumings. When anyone-whether woman or man-has assuming in virtue of these four assumings, their five categories [are Suffering,11 while] that same assuming is Origin. This Suffering and this Origin [are] also the Mode of Conveying a Teaching(§ 621).12
Tattha kāmesu ye na pajjanti, te ādīnavānupassanāya pajjanti.
634. Herein, those who do not 1 cling 1 to sensual desires do not 1 cling owing to contemplation of disappointment.
Itissā kāmadhātuyā nikkhamitukāmatā, ayaṃ vuccati nekkhammacchando.
635. So desirousness to renounce with respect to this element of sensual desire 1 is called will for renunciation ;
Yo tattha anabhisaṅkhārānaṃ kiñci visodheti tassa dhāvarā vā, ayaṃ abyāpādacchando.
any determinative act 2 that does not upset any (?) 2 whether frail or firm (?) 2 is will for non-ill-will,
Kiñci vihiṃsati, ayaṃ vihiṃsāchando.
[and which does not 2] show cruelty is will for non- cruelty.2
Iti nekkhammābhinīhatā tayo chandā – nekkhammacchando abyāpādacchando avihiṃsāchando.
So three kinds of will are directed to renunciation: will for renunciation, will for non-ill-will, and will for non-cruelty.
Tattha nekkhammacchando alobho; abyāpādacchando adoso; avihiṃsāchando amoho.
636. Herein, will for renunciation is non-greed, will for non- ill-will is non-hate, and will for non-cruelty is non-delusion.
Imāni tīṇi kusalamūlāni aṭṭhasu sampattesu parahitāni, tesaṃyeva catunnaṃ upādānānaṃ nirodhāya saṃvattanti.
637. These three roots of profit, when produced (?) in the eight Rightnesses (? ),1 conduce to cessation of those same four assumings.
Sace vā puna kammaṃ kareyya kaṇhaṃ vā sukkaṃ vā tassa vipākahānāya saṃvattanti.
Or if one should again do action, whether black or white, they conduce to the diminution of its ripening :
Idaṃ kammaṃ akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ kammakkhayāya saṃvattati.
this is the neither-black- nor-white kind of action that conduces to exhaustion of action (see A.iii, 384).
Tattha yo tiṇṇaṃ akusalamūlānaṃ nirodho, ayaṃ nirodho.
638. Herein, cessation of the three roots of unprofit is Cessation,
Soyeva maggo tattha paṭipadāni imāni dve saccāni imāni cattāri saccāni āvaṭṭo hāro.
and the way thereto 1 is the Path, so these are two Truths : these are the four Truths (see§ 633 end for the other two). [This is] the Mode of Conveying a Conversion
Kāmesu sattāti ye sekkhā, te ekenevākārena sattā.
639. (8) " Clung to desires " : those who are Initiates cling only in one 1 mood,
Ye puthujjanā, te dvīhākārehi sattā, tassāyaṃ pañho vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo vattabbo.
while those who are ordinary men cling in two moods. Therefore 2 this question must be called one declarable after analysis (see A. ii, 197).
Kiñcāpi sotāpanno paṭisevanāya, no ca kho abhinivese satto yo hi apacayāya padahati, na upacayāya.
640. Although the Stream-Enterer [still] clings, it is in using, not in insisting ; for he 1 exerts himself for dispersal, not for amassing.
Sekkho hi kilesavasena kāme paṭisevati.
The Initiate [still] uses sensual desires with defilement (?),2
Puthujjano pana kilesasamuṭṭhānāya kāme paṭisevati.
but the ordinary man uses sensual desires in order to mould defilement.
Tattha kāmesu sattānaṃ catuoghaṃ tarissatīti vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo, ayaṃ vibhatti.
That is why 3 [the question, namely] "One who clings 4 to sensual desires will not 4 cross the fourfold flood " is one that is declarable after analysis. This is Analysis.
80.Parivattanoti kāme ye neva sajjanti na ca saṃyojanehi saṃyuttā, te oghaṃ tarissanti vipulaṃ mahantanti.
641. (9) Reversal? Those who are not 1 clung to sensual desires and not bound by fetters will cross over the vast abounding flood.
Ayaṃ suttassa paṭipakkho.
This is the opposite of this Thread.
Vevacananti yo kāmesu satto yo ca tattha kāmānaṃ guṇo, tattha viso satto.
642. (10) Synonyms? one who is clinging (satto) to sensual desires, and the strand of sensual desires there: [a synonym] therefore is this 1 term " creature who clings" (satto).
Yepi kāmānaṃ āhārā dhammā, tattha viso satto.
Tatthimaṃ kāmānaṃ vevacanaṃ pāko rajo sallaṃ gaṇḍo īti upaddavoti.
Herein, synonyms for sensual desires are as follows: mire,2 dirt (see § 355), barb,3 boil, calamity, 4 menace, 5 or any other synonyms;
Yāni vā pana aññāni vevacanāni tattha viso sattoti vevacanaṃ.
also for this 1 [term] "creature who clings" (satto) the synonyms are:
Satto bandho mucchito gadhito ajjhosito kāme ajjhāpannā parimutto tabbahulavihārīti.
clung (satto), bound, 8 infatuated, seized, cleaved to, implicated in sensual desire, not released, 7 much abiding in,
Yāni vā pana aññāni vevacanāni, ayaṃ vevacano nāma.
or any other synonyms. This is Synonyms.
Kāmappacārapaññattiyā kilesagocarapaññattiyā paññattā cittanti vevacanaṃ.
643. (11) Sensual desires 1 are described by a description in terms of indulging in sensual desires,1 and by a description in terms of the province of defilement (cf.§ 624). The synonyms are varied,2
Satto tabbahulavihārīti yāni vā pana aññāni.
namely " creature who clings, ... much abiding in, or any other " (§ 642),
Ime kāmappacārapaññattiyā kilesagocara paññattiyā paññattā, bījapaññattiyā paññattā, saṅkhārā saṃyojanapaññattiyā paññattā, upādānaṃ hetupaññattiyā paññattaṃ, puggalo puthupaññattiyā paññatto.
and these sensual desires 1 described by a description in terms of indulging in sensual desires and by a description in terms of province of defilement, are [also] described by a description in terms of seed (§ 423), described by a description in terms of the fetter of determinations. The assuming is described by a description in terms of cause. The person is described by a description in terms of the ordinary [man].
Otaraṇoti imāya paṭiccasamuppādo dukkhañca samudayo ca.
644. (12) Ways of Entry 1 with this [verse, the way of entry is (1)] dependent arising, suffering and origin,
Ye kilesā ye saṅkhārā saṃyojanāni ca pañcasu khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandho dhammāyatanesu akusalā dhammāyatanāni indriyesu sukhindriyañca, somanassindriyañca, ayaṃ indriyotaraṇo.
the defilements, the determinations, and the fetters : in the case of the Categories, the determinations category [is the way of entry], in the case of the Bases,1 the unprofitable ideas are the idea base,1 in the case of the faculties, the pleasure faculty and joy faculty. This is the way of entry by faculties.2
Sodhanoti ettako.
645. (13) Clearing Up?
Eseva ārambho niddisitabbo suttattho.
the Thread's meaning is demonstrable as having this much instigation.
Adhiṭṭhānoti ime dhammā atthi ekattatāya paññattā atthi vemattatāya.
646. (14) Terms of Expression? some of these ideas are described by a unity and some by a diversity,
Ye saññā bāhiro kāme, te vemattatāya paññattā.
of which [ideas] 1 any 1 external sensual desires are described by a diversity.
Pañcasu kāmaguṇesu sattāti pariyuṭṭhānavipallāsā vemattatāya paññattā oghaṃ tareyyuṃ.
[In the case of] those who "cling" to the five strands of sensual desires, the obsessions and perversions are described in terms of a diversity.
Vipulaṃ mahantanti avijjā ekattatāya paññattā.
" Cross the vast abounding flood": ignorance is described in terms of a unity.
Parikkhāroti tassa ko hetu ko paccayo?
647. (15) Requisites? what is the cause, what the condition, for that?
Ārammaṇapaccayatāya paccayo.
[The strands of sensual desire (?)] are 1 a condition by object-conditionality,
Ayoniso ca manasikāro sannissayassa paccayatāya paccayo.
and unreasoned attention is a condition by the conditionality of dependence, 2
Avijjā samanantarapaccayatāya paccayo.
ignorance is a condition by immediate-proximity conditionality,
Rāgānusayo hetupaccayatāya paccayo.
the underlying tendency to lust is a condition by cause-conditionality.
Ayaṃ hetu, ayaṃ paccayo.
This is the cause, this is the condition.
Samāropano paccayoti ye kāmesu sattā sugatā surūpāti ayaṃ kāmadhātuyā chando rāgo te apuññamayā saṅkhārā.
648. Coordnation? [the opinion] 1 that "those who have clung to sensual desires have a good destination, are fair of form ",2 this is will and lust for the sense-desire element. That is determinations consisting of demerit.
Te kiṃ paccayā?
What have they for their condition?
Avijjā paccayā.
They have ignorance of their condition.
Te kissa paccayā?
What are they a condition for?
Viññāṇassa paccayā.
They are a condition for consciousness.
Iti avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā.
So, with ignorance as condition, determinations ;
Saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇaṃ evametassa kevalassa mahato dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti ekaṃ suttaṃ gataṃ.
with determinations as condition, consciousness ; ....down to ... ageing and death ; that is how there is an origin to this whole great 3 category of suffering. One Thread is gone.4
Pañcanīvaraṇikaṃ suttaṃ kātabbaṃ.
649. The Thread dealing with the five Hindrances can be quoted (see § 73, second quotation).
81.Tattha katamo desanāhāro nāma?
650. (1) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching?
Yā ca abhijjhā yo ca byāpādo yañca uddhaccaṃ, ayaṃ taṇhā.
(i) Covetousness and (ii) ill will and (iva) agitation are craving.
Yañca thinamiddhaṃ, yañca kukkuccaṃ yā ca vicikicchā, ayaṃ diṭṭhi.
(iiia) Lethargy and (iiib) drowsiness and (ivb) worry and (v) uncertainty are [wrong] view.
Yā pana kāyassa akammaniyatā kiñcāpi taṃ middhaṃ no tu sabhāvakilesatāya kileso, iti yā ca cittasallīyanā yā ca kāyākammaniyatā, ayaṃ pakkhopakileso na tu sabhāvakileso.
But although unwieldiness of the body is (iiib) drowsiness, yet it is not a defilement by its individual essence.1 Accordingly stickiness of cognizance 2 and unwieldiness of body 2 are an imperfection by what they side with, not a defilement by their own individual essence.
Tattha attasaññānupacittaṃ kilamatho kukkuccānupacittaṃ thinaṃ yā cittassa līyanā, iti ime pañca nīvaraṇā cattāri nīvaraṇāni sabhāvakilesā thinamiddhaṃ nīvaraṇapakkhopakileso.
Herein, (iiia) [the kind of lethargy] belonging to cognizance obeying 3 perception of self (1) is weariness, [while] worry is stickiness of cognizance (cf.§ 557). So these are the five hindrances. Four hindrances are defilements by their individual essence, but lethargy-and-drowsiness is an imperfection by its siding with the hindrances.
Yathā cattāro āsavā sabhāvaāsavatāya āsavā no tu cittasāsavatāya āsavā.
Just as the four taints are taints through their being taints by their own individual essences (as such], not through cognizance's taintedness,
Sabhāvatāya āsavā.
[nevertheless, while these are the four] taints [that are] through their own individual essences
Pakkhe āsavatāya āsavā.
[as such, there are also] taints [that are taints only] through the taintedness of what they side with (see M.Sutta 2).
Atha panāha suttantaṃ yena te sampayuttā vā vippayuttā vā āsavā, teyeva ete vattabbā sāsavā vā anāsavā vā.
But then it was said: 4 Whatever any 5 taints are associated with or dissociated from in the Thread-of-Argument [concerned], it is by that alone that they can be called tainted or untainted.
Tattha katamo vicayo.
651. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Abhijjhā kāmataṇhā rūpataṇhā bhavataṇhā.
(i) Covetousness is craving for sensual desires, craving for form, and craving for being,
Yaṃ vā pana kiñci ajjhosānagataṃ sāsavā abhijjhitassa mettānupassiya yo anatthaṃ carati.
or anything that comes under cleaving-to. (ii) And the nine Grounds for Annoyance (see A.iv, 408) can be cited thus, namely how tainted lovingkindness-contemplators,1 of someone coveted [think about someone] (He is working
Tattha yo byāpādaṃ uppādeti, acari carissatīti.
-has work-will work for [his] harm ),2 and arouse 3 ill will therefor.
Evaṃ nava āghātavatthūni kattabbāni, tassevaṃ byāpādānupassissa kileso yo paridāho kāyakilamatho akammaniyatā middhaṃ.
(iii) Such defilement of this contemplator of ill will [in the form of] fever, 4 bodily weariness [or] unwieldiness [is] drowsiness,
Cittānupassissa paṭighātena khiyanā, idaṃ thinamiddhaṃ.
[while] a cognizance-contemplator's 5 resistance [or] demurring is lethargy-and-drowsiness.
Tattha adhikaraṇaavūpasamo, idaṃ uddhaccaṃ.
(iv) Disquiet due 6 thereto is agitation,
Yaṃ kiṃ kasathamīti [karathamīti (pī. ka.)] idaṃ kukkuccaṃ.
while the state of wondering what to do 7 is worry.
Yaṃ yathā idaṃ santīraṇaṃ, ayaṃ vicikicchā.
(v) Any judgment 8 similar to that is uncertainty.
Tattha avijjā ca taṇhā ca atthi, idaṃ pariyuṭṭhānaṃ.
Herein,9 ignorance and craving: there is this.10 [And] obsession,
Āvaraṇaṃ nīvaraṇaṃ chadanaṃ upakkileso ca atthi, idaṃ kāmacchando kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
obstruction, hindrance, covering up, imperfection: there is this. 10 652. (i) Will for sensual desires is thefooting for obsession by lust for sensual desires,
Byāpādo byāpādapariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(ii) ill will is the footing for obsession for ill will,
Thinamiddhaṃ thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(iii) lethargy-and-drowsiness is the footing for obsession by lethargy- and-drowsiness,
Uddhaccakukkuccaṃ avijjāpariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(iv) agitation-and-worry is the footing for obsession by ignorance,
Vicikicchā vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
(v) uncertainty is the footing for obsession by uncertainty.
Kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhānaṃ anusayasaṃyojanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Obsession by lust for sensual desires is the footing for the fetter of approval.1
Byāpādapariyuṭṭhānaṃ paṭighasaṃyojanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Obsession by ill will is the footing for the fetter of resistance.
Thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhānaṃ mānasaṃyojanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Obsession by lethargy-and-drowsiness is the footing for the fetter of conceit.2
Avijjāpariyuṭṭhānañca vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhānañca diṭṭhisaṃyojanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Obsession by ignorance and obsession by uncertainty are the footing for the fetter of views.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
653. (5) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhāne vutte sabbāni pariyuṭṭhānāni vuttāni hontīti.
When obsession by lust-for-sensual-desires is stated, all obsessions are stated.
Saṃyojanesu vuttesu sabbasaṃyojanāni vuttāni honti.
When [any one of] the fetters [is] stated, all fetters are stated.
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
82.Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
654. (6) Herein, what is the Fourfold Array?
Ye ime pañca nīvaraṇā jhānapaṭipakkho so dukkhasamudayo.
These five Hindrances are the opposites of the Meditations ; they are the Origin of Suffering.
Yaṃ phalaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
Any fruit [thereof] is Suffering.
Tattha kāmacchandassa nekkhammavitakko paṭipakkho; byāpādassa abyāpādavitakko paṭipakkho; tiṇṇaṃ nīvaraṇānaṃ avihiṃsāvitakko paṭipakkho.
Herein, renunciation-thinking is the opposite of will-for-sensual-desires, non-ill-will- thinking is the opposite of ill will, non-cruelty-thinking is the opposite of the three [remaining] hindrances.
Iti ime tayo vitakkā.
These are the three kinds of [right] thinking.
Nekkhammavitakko samādhikkhandhaṃ bhajati.
Renunciation-thinking belongs with the Concentration Category,1
Abyāpādavitakko sīlakkhandhaṃ bhajati.
non-ill-will-thinking belongs with the Virtue Category,
Avihiṃsāvitakko paññākkhandhaṃ bhajati.
non-cruelty-thinking belongs with the Understanding Category.
Ime tayo khandhā.
These are the three Categories.
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo nīvaraṇappahānāya saṃvattati.
The Noble Eight-Factored Path occurs with abandoning of the Hindrances.
Yaṃ nīvaraṇappahānaṃ, ayaṃ nirodho.
Any abandoning of hindrances is Cessation.
Imāni cattāri saccāni.
These are the four Truths.
Ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro?
655. (7) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion?
Pañca nīvaraṇāni dasa bhavanti.
The five Hindrances are ten.
Yadapi ajjhattaṃ sārajjati, tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ.
What one lusts for in oneself is a hindrance,
Yadapi bahiddhā sārajjati, tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ, evaṃ yāva vicikicchā ime dasa nīvaraṇā.
what one lusts for externally is a hindrance ; ... and so down to ... uncertainty.. These are ten hindrances.
Ajjhattabahiddhā kilesā imāni dve saṃyojanāni ajjhattasaṃyojanañca bahiddhāsaṃyojanañca.
There is defilement concerning what is in oneself and what is external ; that is two kinds of fetter, namely fetter in oneself and fetter externally.
Tattha ahanti ajjhattaṃ, mamanti bahiddhā.
Herein, " I " is that in oneself while " mine " is the external.
Sakkāyadiṭṭhi ajjhattaṃ, ekasaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni bahiddhā.
The embodiment view is that in oneself while the sixty-one types of view are the external.
Yo ajjhattaṃ chandarāgo rūpesu avītarāgo bhavati avītacchando.
Any will and lust 1 regarding what is in oneself is not without lust, not without will for form, 1 ...
Evaṃ yāva viññāṇe, ayaṃ ajjhattā taṇhā.
and so down to ... 2 for consciousness.
Yaṃ chasu bāhiresu āyatanesu tīsu ca bhavesu ajjhosānaṃ, ayaṃ bahiddhā taṇhā.
Any cleaving to the six external bases and to the kinds of being is craving for the external.
Imāni dve saccāni saṃyojanāni saṃyojanīyā ca dhammā.
These are two Truths, namely the fetters and the ideas provocative of fetters.
Tattha saṃyojanesu dhammesu yā nibbidānupassanā ca, ayaṃ maggo.
Herein, any contemplation of dispassion in regard to ideas provocative of fetters is the Path,
Yaṃ saṃyojanappahānaṃ, ayaṃ nirodho.
and any abandoning of fetters is Cessation.
Ayaṃ āvaṭṭo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion.
Tattha katamo vibhattihāro?
656. (8) Herein, what is the Mode of Coveying an Analysis?
Saṃyojananti na etaṃ ekaṃsena.
"Fetter" : this is not unilaterally [always so].
Mānasaṃyojanaṃ diṭṭhibhāgiyanti na taṃ ekaṃsena adiṭṭhamānaṃ nissāyamānaṃ na pajahati.
"The fetter of conceit 1 deals with views " : this is not unilaterally [always so]. For one does not abandon conceit by depending on abandoning views (cf.§ 628);
Yo pañca uddhambhāgiyo māno kiñcāpi so diṭṭhipakkhe siyā.
and although the conceit that belongs to the further-side [fetters] may be on the side of views,
Na tu orambhāgiyaṃ saṃyojanaṃ tassa pahānāya saṃvattatīti.
[nevertheless] the abandoning of [only] the hither-side fetters does not bring about its abandoning,
Yo ca ahaṃkāro na paviddhoyaṃ panassa evaṃ hoti.
since the I-making is [still left] intact (see S.v, 61).
Kadāsu nāmāhaṃ taṃ santaṃ āyatanaṃ sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissāmi, yaṃ ariyā santaṃ āyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissantīti, ayaṃ abhijjhā na ca taṃ nīvaraṇaṃ.
Again, when it occurs to someone thus (When shall I enter upon by verification and abide in that peaceful base which peaceful base the Noble One enter upon by verification and abide in?) (M. i, 3034; iii, 218 ; Nelli 87), while this is covetousness, it is not [the first] hindrance.
Atthi pana arahato kāyakilesamiddhañca okkamati na ca taṃ nīvaraṇaṃ tassa thinamiddhaṃ nīvaraṇanti.
Again, an Arahant has the drowsiness of bodily defilement that finds a footing in him, but that is not the [third] hindrance, so [when it is said]" lethargy-and-drowsiness is a hindrance to one",
Na ekaṃsena.
that is not unilaterally [so always].
Ayaṃ vibhattihāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis.
Parivattanoti pañca nīvaraṇā pañcaṅgikena jhānena pahānaṃ gacchanti.
657. (9) Reversal? the five hindrances come to abandonment by means of the five-factored Meditation (see § 564);
Ayaṃ tesaṃ paṭipakkho nīvaraṇo asukassa pahīnāti na aññānuminitabbaṃ, paramatthamajjhattaṃ, ayaṃ parivattanā.
this is their opposite. It cannot be assessed in any' other [way than this] that "So-and-so's hindrances 1 are abandoned". The ultimate aim (meaning) is in-oneself (? ). 2 This is the Reversal.
Tattha katamo vevacano?
658. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Kāmacchando chandarāgo pemaṃ nikantīti vevacanaṃ.
Will-for-sensual-desires, will-and-lust, love, attachment, are synonyms.
Nīvaraṇaṃ chadanaṃ upakkileso pariyuṭṭhānanti vevacanaṃ.
Hindrance, covering up, imperfection, obsession, are synonyms.
Paññattīti avijjāpaccayā kiccapaññattiyā [paccāpaññattiyā (ka.)] paññatti, byāpādo vikkhepapaññattiyā paññatti, thinamiddhaṃ asamugghātapaññattiyā paññatti.
659. (11) Descriptions? covetousness 1 is described 2 by a description in terms of function, ill will is described 3 by a description in terms of distraction (?), lethargy-and-drowsiness is described 4 by a description in terms of non-eradication.
Evaṃ sabbepi ete pañca nīvaraṇā imamhi sutte vikkhepapaññattiyā paññatti.
In this way too these five hindrances 5 in this Thread are described 6 by a description in terms of presentation.6
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
660. (12) Herein, what is the Way of Entry?
Ime pañca nīvaraṇā avijjā ca taṇhā ca tattha avijjāmūlā nīvaraṇā.
These five hindrances are ignorance and craving. Herein, hindrances have ignorance for their root;
Yā taṇhā ime saṅkhārā, te avijjāpaccayā ime dve dhammā pañcasu khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpannā, āyatanesu dhammāyatanaṃ, dhātūsu dhammadhātu, indriyesu imesaṃ dhammānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ sukhindriyassa ca somanassindriyassa ca itthindriyassa ca purisindriyassa ca.
[for] any craving is determinations, and they have ignorance for therr condition. These two ideas are included in the determinations category among the five categories, [in] the idea base among the bases, the idea element among the elements, while in the case of the faculties, the footing for these ideas [is that (?)] of the pleasure faculty and the joy faculty and the femininity faculty and the masculinity faculty.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
661. (13) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Idaṃ suttaṃ yathā ārabbha nikkhittaṃ so attho bhāsito imehi pañcahi padehi.
This Thread [is] presented according to its instigation; that meaning is stated by these five terms.
Tattha kāmacchando ca byāpādo ca vicikicchā ca na ekattatāya paññattā, kāmāti na ekattatāya paññattā, atha khalu vemattatāya paññattā.
662. (14) Herein, will for stinsual desires and ill will and uncertainty are not described by a unity, and " sensual desires" is not described by a unity; on the contrary, it is described by a diversity.
Ayaṃ adhiṭṭhāno hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
663. (15) Herein, what is the Requisite?
Kāmacchandassa ayoniso manasikāro subhārammaṇapaccayo; subhanimittañca hetu.
Will-for-sensual-desires has for its condition unreasoned attention and a beautiful object,1 and for its cause a sign of beauty.
Byāpādassa ayoniso manasikāro āghātavatthūni ca paccayo; paṭighānusayo hetu.
Ill will has for its condition unreasoned attention and the grounds for annoyance, and for its cause the underlying tendency to resistance.
Thinamiddhassa paṭisaṃhāro paccayo; pavattiyā kilamathā calanā tañca hetu.
Lethargy-and- drowsiness has for its condition paralysis,2 and for its cause the motionlessness due to weariness in occurrence.3
Uddhaccakukkuccassa rajanīyaṃ ārammaṇiyaṃ assādiyākindriyaṃ tāva aparipuṇṇañca ñāṇaṃ paccayo; kāmasaññā ca diṭṭhianusayo ca hetu.
Agitation-and-worry has for its condition a lust-provoking, delightful,4 and gratifying 4 faculty and knowledge that is not yet fulfilled, and for its cause perception of sensual desires and the underlying tendency to wrong view.5
Vicikicchāya nava mānavidhā ārammaṇaṃ mānānusayo, sova paccayo; vicikicchānusayo hetu.
Uncertainty has for its condition the underlying tendency to conceit whose object is the nine ways of behaviour of conceit, and for its cause the underlying tendency to uncertainty.6
Ete pañca dhammā sahetu sappaccayā uppajjanti.
These five ideas arise with cause and with condition.
Tattha katamo samāropano hāro?
664. (16) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Coordination?
Ime pañca nīvaraṇā cattāropi ete āsavā gaṇḍāpi [taṇhāpi (pī.)] ete sallāpi ete upādānāni ete.
These five hindrances are also the four taints and also craving and also the barbs and also the assumings.
Tesu eva bāhiresu dhammesu saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ suttanti paññattiṃ gacchati.
It is in regard to only these external ideas that a Thread comes under the description" Thread dealing with corruption " (§ 73).
Ayaṃ samāropano hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Coordination.
Niddiṭṭhaṃ saṃkilesikabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ.
The type of Thread dealing with Corruption has been demonstrated.
83.Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti gāthā.
665. The verse : ( Ideas are heralded by mind, ... ) (§ 74).
Tattha katamo desanā hāro?
666. Herein,1 what is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching?
Imamhi sutte ko attho khandhavavatthānena viññāṇakkhandhaṃ deseti, dhātuvavatthānena manoviññāṇadhātuṃ, āyatanavavatthānena manāyatanaṃ, indriyavavatthānena manindriyaṃ.
What is the meaning in the case of this Thread? It teaches the consciousness category under the definition by categories, the mind-consciousness element under the definition by elements, the mind base under the definition by bases, and the mind faculty under the definition by faculties.
Tassa kiṃ pubbaṅgamā dhammā?
What 2 ideas are heralds?
Saṃkhittena cha dhammā pubbaṅgamā dhammā kusalamūlāni ca akusalamūlāni ca animittaṃ imamhi sutte kusalamūlaṃ desitaṃ.
Briefly six ideas are heralds : the roots of profit and the roots of unprofit. But 3 here 3 the unprofitable roots 3 are not implied ; in this Thread [only] the profitable roots are taught.
Tattha katamā manopubbaṅgamā dhammā?
Herein, how 4 are ideas heralded by mind?
Mano tesaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ, yathāpi balassa rājā pubbaṅgamo, evameva dhammānaṃ manopubbaṅgamā.
The mind is their herald: as a king is an army's herald (i.e. preceder), so too is mind ideas' herald.
Tattha tividhānaṃ pubbaṅgamānaṃ nekkhammacchandena abyāpādacchandena avihiṃsāchandena.
Herein, mind-heralding [occurs] in three ways: 5 as will for renunciation, as will for non-ill-will, and as will for non-cruelty.
Alobhassa nekkhammacchandena pubbaṅgamā.
As will for renunciation, the [mind-]heralding [is that] of non-greed,
Adosassa abyāpādacchandena pubbaṅgamā.
as will for non-ill-will the [mind-]heralding [is that] of non-hate,
Amohassa avihiṃsāchandena pubbaṅgamā.
as will for non-cruelty the [mind-]heralding [is that] of non-delusion.
Tattha manoseṭṭhāti manasā ime dhammā ussaṭā manena vā nimmitā.
Herein, "mind heralds them" (§ 74) : these ideas are made emergent 6 by mind, or they are created by mind.
Manova imesaṃ dhammānaṃ seṭṭhoti manova imesaṃ dhammānaṃ seṭṭhajeṭṭhoti manova imesaṃ dhammānaṃ ādhipaccaṃ karotīti manoseṭṭhā.
And mind being the head of these ideas, mind alone is the senior head of these ideas, mind alone effects the domination of these ideas, thus " mind heads them" 7 (§ 74).
Manojavāti yattha mano gacchati.
667. "And they are mind-made" (§ 74) : I where mind goes
Tattha ime dhammā gacchantīti manojavā.
there ideas go, thus they are mind-made.1
Yathā vāto sīghaṃ gacchati añño vā koci sīghaṃ gāmako vuccate vātajavoti pakkhigāmikoti, evameva ime dhammā manena sampajāyamānā gacchanti, tattha ime dhammā gacchantīti manojavāti.
Just as the wind goes swiftly, and any other swift goer is called "wind-sped ",1 "a wing-goer," so too these ideas being produced by mind, where the mind goes 2 there these ideas go, thus they are mind-made.1
Te tividhā chandasamudānitā anāvilatā ca saṅkappo.
They are procured by will in three ways: (1) [the threefold] thinking is undisturbed,3
Sattavidhā ca kāyikaṃ sucaritaṃ vācasikaṃ sucaritaṃ, te dasa kusalakammapathā.
and there is the sevenfold (2) bodily and (3) verbal good conduct. These are the ten profitable courses of action.
Tattha manasā ce pasannenāti manokammaṃ.
Herein, "If someone with a placid (pasannena) mind..(§ 74) is mental action,
Bhāsati vāti vacīkammaṃ.
"is wont to speak" (§ 74) is verbal action,
Karoti vāti kāyakammaṃ.
and "or act" (§ 74) is bodily action.
Imehi imasmiṃ sutte dasa kusalakammapathā paramāpi santā sīlavatā paramā.
With these in this Thread the ten profitable courses of action, being ultimate (PArama), are settled (SANNA), 4 the virtue and duty are creditable.5
So bhavati vivattiyaṃ na lokaniyyānāya vāsanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ bhavati.
The type of Thread dealing with morality [consists] in prosperity (?), 5 not in the outlet from the world [provided by the Path].
Ayaṃ desanā.
This is the teaching.
Tattha katamo vicayo hāro?
668. (2) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation?
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti kusalamūlāni ca aṭṭhaṅgasammattāni.
"Ideas are heralded by mind": the profitable roots and the eight-factored Rightness-
Idaṃ suttaṃ.
these are what is stated.1
Yuttīti dasannaṃ kusalakammapathānaṃ yo vipāko, so sukhavedanīyo abyāpādassaṅgamāno.
669. (3) Construing? the ripening of the ten profitable courses o action is to be felt as pleasure, they being heralded by non-ill-will.1
Chāyāva anapāyinīti anugacchati atthi esā yutti.
"As does his shadow keep him company" (§ 74): [this ripening] goes along with [him]. There is this construing.
Padaṭṭhānanti aṭṭhārasannaṃ manopavicārānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
670. (4) Footings? [mind is] the footing for the eighteen kinds of [mental] approach.1
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti sabbakusalapakkhassa ime dhammā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
"Ideas are heralded by mind" : these ideas are the footing for all the profitable side.
Manasā ce pasannenāti yo cetaso pasādo, idaṃ saddhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
" If someone with a placid mind" : the placidity (clear confidence) of cognizance is the footing for the faith faculty.
Bhāsati vāti sammāvācāya.
"Is wont to speak" is the footing for right speech,
Karoti vāti sammākammantassa ca sammāvāyāmassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
and " or act" for right action and for right effort.2
Lakkhaṇoti iti pubbaṅgamā dhammāti vedanāpubbaṅgamāpi ete, saññāpubbaṅgamāpi ete, saṅkhārapubbaṅgamāpi ete.
671. (5) Characteristics? ideas heralded thus [by consciousness] are also heralded by feeling ; and these are also heralded by perception and also heralded by determinations.
Ye keci dhammā sahajātā sabbe pubbaṅgamā etesaṃ dhammānaṃ.
And whatever ideas are conascent [with the feeling, etc.,] all are heralds for these ideas [heralded by consciousness and the rest].
Tato naṃ sukhamanvetīti somanassamapi naṃ anveti yaṃ susukhacchāyā tadāpi naṃ sukhaṃ tadapi anveti.
"Then bliss sure follows after him" (§ 74): joy follows after him too: as a most pleasant shadow, so does that bliss follow after him.
84.Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
672. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fou1fold Array?
Manopubbaṅgamāti na idaṃ ekādivacanaṃ.
"Heralded by mind" : this is not the singular number.1
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
What is the reason?
Sabbe yeva ime chaviññāṇakāyā, imamhi bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
Because these are all the six bodies of consciousness. 673. What is the Blessed One's purport in this [Thread]?
Ye sukhena atthikā, te manaṃ pasādentīti ayaṃ imamhi sutte bhagavato adhippāyo.
Those who seek bliss make the mind placid (clearly confident).1 This is the Blessed One's purport in this Thread.
Attho pubbeyeva niddiá¹­á¹­ho.
The meaning has already been demonstrated (§ 666).
Yāni hi kusalamūlāni, tāni aṭṭhānisaṃsamattā hetu, ayaṃ aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo.
674. (7) The three 1 profitable roots are the cause of the eight Rightnesses; this is the eight-factored Path.1
Dasa ṭhānāni desanāhetūni desanāpaccayā niddesanā ca.
The 2 ten instances (Rightnesses (? )) are the teaching's causes (? ), the teaching's conditions (? ), and the demonstration (?).2
Tattha yaṃ maññe dukkhena saha nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇasaccanti aṅgena kusalamūlaṃ pahīyati, ayaṃ appahīnabhūmiyaṃ samudayo.
Herein,3 mind is Suffering. That (?) together with name-and-form is conditioned by consciousness, so while the unprofitable root [is being] abandoned [factor] by factor, the plane of the unabandoned [is Suffering's] Origin.
Yaṃ tesaṃ pahānā, ayaṃ nirodho.
The abandoning of these [factors (?)] is Cessation.
Imāni cattāri saccāni.
These are the four Truths.
Ayaṃ āvaṭṭo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion.
Vibhattīti –
675. (8) Analysis?
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā, manoseṭṭhā manomayā;
( Ideas are heralded by mind, Mind heads them, and they are mind-made,1
Manasā ce pasannena, bhāsati vā karoti vā;
If someone with a placid mind Is wont to speak or act,
Tato naṃ sukhamanveti, chāyāva anapāyinīti.
then bliss Sure follows after him as does His shadow keep him company) (§§ 74, 666).
Taṃ na ekaṃsena samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā pana hoti.
But that is not unilaterally [always so] of a monk or of a divine
Tassa vā micchādiṭṭhikassa sakasatthe cittaṃ pasādeti, tena ca pasannena cittena bhāsati byākaroti na taṃ sukhamanveti na chāyāva anugāminī, dukkhameva taṃ anveti.
with wrong view; 2 [for when] his cognizance is placid (has clear confidence) in his own aim, 2 and [when] he" is wont to speak or act" with that kind of placid (clearly confident) cognizance, [then] bliss does not "surely follow after him as does His shadow keep him company", but only suffering follows after him,
Yathā vahantaṃ cakkaṃ padamanveti, idaṃ taṃ vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ.
[and] that (follows after him as does The wheel the harnessed [ox's] hoof) (Dh.1 ; § 676). [So] this is declarable after analysis
Manasā ce pasannena kāyakammaṃ vacīkammaṃ sukhavedanīyanti samaggate sukhavedanīyaṃ micchaggate dukkhavedanīyaṃ, ayaṃ vibhatti.
that the bodily action and verbal action if [done] with a placid mind is to be felt as pleasure [on ripening] : when rightly done,3 it is to be felt as pleasure, but when wrongly done, it is to be felt as pain. This is the analysis.
Tattha katamo parivattano hāro?
676. (9) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal?
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti yaṃ manasā paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā dukkhamassānugāminī, etāniyeva dve suttāni bhāsitāni esa eva ca paṭipakkho.
" Ideas are heralded by mind " : that when ( someone with corrupted mind is wont to speak or act) (Dh.1) suffering is his companion 1-these two Threads being as they are stated-this is the opposition.
Vevacananti yadidaṃ manocittaṃ viññāṇaṃ manindriyaṃ manoviññāṇadhātu.
677. (10) Synonyms? that is to say, mind, cognizance, consciousness, mind faculty, mind-consciousness element.
Paññattīti manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti ayaṃ mano kiñci paññattiyā paññattaṃ.
678. (11) Descriptions? "Ideas are heralded by mind" : This mind is described by a description in terms of function.1
Dhammāti kusalakammapathapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
"Ideas" : this is described by a description in terms of the profitable courses of action.
Manoseṭṭhāti visiṭṭhapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
"Mind heads them": this is described by a description in termsofwhatisdistinguished.
Manojavāti sahapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
"Mind-made": 2 this is described by a description in terms of the conascent.3 "Cognizance" : 4 this is described by a description in terms of renunciation.
Cittanti nekkhammapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
Manasā ce pasannenāti saddhindriyapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
" If someone with a placid mind" : this is described by a description in ter1ns of faith.
Manasā ce pasannenāti anāvilasaṅkappadutiyajjhānapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
" If someone with a placid mind " : this is described by a description in terms of undisturbed intention in the second meditation.
Manasā ce pasannenāti assaddhānaṃ paṭipakkhapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
" If someone with a placid mind " : this is described by a description in terms of the opposite of the faithless.
Bhāsati vāti sammāvācāpaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
" Is wont to speak " : this is described by a description in terms of right speech.
Karoti vāti sammākammantapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
" Or act " : this is described by a description in terms of right action.
Tato naṃ sukhamanvetīti jhānasamādhānaṃ.
" Then bliss Sure follows after him " : this is the concentrating of meditation.
Indriyesu manindriyaṃ.
679. (12) In the case of the faculties, [the way of entry here is] the mind faculty ;
Paṭiccasamuppāde viññāṇaṃ.
in the case of Dependent Arising it is consciousness.
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti mettā ca mudutā ca jhānesu dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ tatiyañca.
"Ideas are heralded by mind": lovingkindness and gladness [are the ways of entry in the case of the Divine Abidings, and] in the case of the Meditations, the second meditation and the third.
Khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpanno.
In the case of the Categories, it is included in the determinations category,1
Dhātūsu dhammadhātu, āyatanesu dhammāyatanaṃ.
in the case of the elements, the idea element, in the case of the Bases, the idea base,
Yaṃ kusalaṃ indriyesu sukhindriyañca somanassindriyañca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
and in the case of the faculties, the pleasure faculty and joy faculty that are profitable are the ways of entry.2
Imesaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭiccasamuppannānaṃ phassapaccayā sukhavedanīyo phasso sukhavedanā manopavicāresu somanassavicāro chattiṃsesu paṭhamapadesu cha somanassanekkhammassitā.
These ideas, which are dependently arisen with contact as condition, have contact to be felt as pleasant. In the case of the [eighteen] mental approaches,3 pleasant feeling is the approach with joy. In the case of the thirty-six positions for creatures, 4 the six kinds of joy based on renunciation.5
Iti ayaṃ otaraṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
680. (13) Herein, what is the mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Yaṃ atthaṃ ārabbha idaṃ suttaṃ bhāsitaṃ.
The meaning (aim) instigated by which this Thread was stated
So attho niyutto etamatthaṃ ārabbha suttaṃ.
[is] the meaning (aim) that concludes it; 1 the Thread is instigated by that meaning (aim).
Ayaṃ sodhano hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up.
85.Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno hāro?
681. (14) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression?
Manopubbaṅgamā dhammāti vevacanapaññatti, na ekattapaññatti.
"Ideas are heralded by mind" is a description in terms of synonyms, not a description in terms of a unity.1
Dhammāti ekato na vevacanapaññatti.
" Ideas " is a unity, 2 not a description in terms of synonyms.
Manasā ce pasannenāti so pasādo dvidho ajjhattañca abyāpādāvikkhambhanabahiddhā ca okappanato.
"If someone with a placid mind": this [unity], namely placidity is [as a diversity] twofold, namely non-suppression 3 of non-ill-will in oneself and as trust externally.
So ajjhattapasādo dvidho.
This placidity (confidence) in oneself is twofold
Samugghātapasādo ca vikkhambhanapasādo ca byāpādapariyuṭṭhānaṃ.
as placidity due to eradication [by the Path] and placidity due to suppression [by the Meditations]. As deterrence 4 of obsession by ill will,
Vighāto na mūlapasādo jātamūlampi vā.
the placidity is due to (?) the root [namely non-hate (?)), or also the placidity is the root [itself]
Pasādo sabyāpādaṃ vighātena.
owing to [its] deterrence of what accompanies ill will.4
Tato naṃ sukhamanvetīti sukhaṃ kāyikañca cetasikañca appiyavippayogopi piyasampayogopi nekkhammasukhampi puthujjanasukhampi pītisambojjhaṅgampi cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ.
" Then bliss sure follows after him " : bliss (pleasure) is bodily and mental. Dissociation from the loathed and association with the loved and pleasure of renunciation and pleasure of ordinary men (?) and the happiness enlightenment factor are mental pleasure (bliss) ;
Yampi passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, tampi kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ bojjhaṅgā ca cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ.
and when one whose body is tranquil feels pleasure (see M.i, 36) 5 that is bodily pleasure.
Yampi passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedesi, tampi tañca sukhapadaṭṭhānaṃ paññattiyā yathāvuttaṃ taṃ aparāmaṭṭhaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ.
And that is the footing for the [mental (1)] pleasure as stated by the description. That [pleasure] of profitable ideas is not misapprehended.6
Anvetīti appanā sandissati na cāyaṃ vā pattabhūto anveti.
"Follows" : absorption is shown, 7 and this [absorption- concentration] does not follow one who is given over to ill will.8
Tadidaṃ suttaṃ dvīhi ākārehi adhiṭṭhātabbaṃ.
This Thread can be expressed by two moods:
Hetunā ca yo pasannamānaso vipākena ca yo dukkhavedanīyo.
he who is placid- minded through the cause, and he who has what is to be felt as pleasure 9 through the ripening.
Parikkhāroti bhagavā pañcasatena bhikkhusaṅghena nagaraṃ pavisati rājagahaṃ.
682. Requisite? together with five hundred bhikkhus the Blessed One entered the city of Rajagaha.
Tattha manusso puggalo bhagavantaṃ parivisati, tassa pasādo uppanno kusalamūlapubbayogāvacaropi.
There a poor man served the Blessed One. Placidity (confidence) arose in him with a profitable root and connected 1 with previous devotion.
So aññesañca akkhāti, idaṃ vācaṃ bhāsati lābhā tesaṃ, yesaṃ nivesanaṃ bhagavā pavisati, amhākampi yadi bhaveyya mayampi bhagavato saṃpasādaṃ lacchamhāti.
To others he announced, 2 he spoke this pronouncement : " It is gain for them whose dwelling the Blessed One enters, and if that happens to us, we too shall gain placidity (confidence) in the Blessed One."
Yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā "namo bhagavato namo bhagavato"ti abyāpādamāno ekamante aṭṭhāsi.
[Then] extending his hands palms together towards where the Blessed One was : "Honour to the Blessed One! Honour to the Blessed One l " [he said] with no ill will in mind, and he stood at one side.
Tadanantare bhagavā imaṃ suttaṃ abhāsittha "manopubbaṅgamā dhammā"ti.
Thereupon the Blessed One uttered this Thread : " Ideas are heralded by mind ... ",3
Sabbaṃ suttaṃ tathā yaṃ paresaṃ bhāsati idaṃ vācākammaṃ.
namely the whole Thread.4 683. That he [the poor man] spoke to others in this way 1 is verbal action,
Yaṃ añjaliṃ paṇāmeti, idaṃ kāyakammaṃ.
that he extended his hands palms together is bodily action,
Yo manopasādo, idaṃ manokammaṃ.
that he was placid (confident) in mind is mental action.
Tattha yaṃ paresaṃ pakāseti bhāsati vaṇṇaṃ.
Herein, in that he displays and speaks praise to others,
Yesaṃ bhagavā nivesanaṃ gacchatīti.
[and with] all [his utterance] namely "For them whose dwelling enters the Blessed One" 2
Sabbaṃ tassa alobho kusalamūlaṃ.
[therein is manifest] in him the profitable root non-greed.
Yaṃ bhagavati mettacitto, tassa adoso kusalamūlaṃ.
In that his heart has lovingkindness towards the Blessed One, [therein is manifest] in him the profitable root non-hate.
Yaṃ añjaliṃ paṇāmeti mānañca niggaṇhāti, tatthassa amoho kusalamūlaṃ pātubhavati.
In that he extends his hands palms together and deters conceit, therein is manifest in him the profitable root non-delusion.
Yaṃ uḷārapaññaṃ paṭilabhati, idamassa diṭṭhivipallāsappahānaṃ.
In that he obtains especial understanding, this is his abandoning of the perversion of view ;
Yaṃ tathāyeva saṃvaro hoti, idamassa saññāvipallāsappahānaṃ.
in that he has suchlike restraint, this is his abandoning of the perversion of perception ;
Yaṃ manassa pasādanaṃ, idamassa cittavipallāsappahānanti akusalavipallāsānaṃ vikkhambhanaṃ pahānaṃ paccayo.
in that he has placidity of mind, this is his abandoning of the perversion of cognizance : thus [there is] the unprofitable perversion's abandoning by suppression.3 684. The condition [for all this]
Tīṇi kusalamūlāni yo anāvilacittasaṅkappo, so tassa manasikāroti vuccati.
is the three profitable roots.1 The intention in the undisturbed cognizance is what is called his [reasoned] attention.
Yaṃ kilesehi vikkhambhanaṃ iti vipallāsā ca ārammaṇā sappaccayatāya paccayo kusalamūlāni ca sandissayatāya paccayo, so ca manasikāro hetunā iminā paccayena cittaṃ uppannaṃ.
There being any suppression owed to 2 defilements, the perversions are [then] a condition through object- conditionality,3 and the profitable roots are a condition through co-support conditionality, 4 and that [reasoned] attention is the cause; 5 so with this 5 cause and this condition this 5 cognizance is arisen.
Tattha yaṃ sasatthārammaṇaṃ cittaṃ pavattaṃ ayaṃ buddhānussati.
Herein, this 6 cognizance that has occurred with the Teacher 7 as its object is the Recollection of the Enlightened One ;
Yampi bhagavato guṇe manasi karoti, ayamassa dhammānussati.
and in that he gives attention to the Blessed One's qualities, this is the Recollection of the True Idea in him.
Tattha satisampajaññaṃ hetu, ayañca paccayo.
Herein, mindfulness and awareness are the cause, and they are the condition ;
Vācā paññā hetu vitakkavicārā paccayo.
feeling and perception 8 are the cause, [and] thinking and exploring are the condition.
Kāyasaṅkhārā kammassa abhisaṅkhāro nāma hetu vā appaccayo sukhavedanīyassa kammassa upacayo hetukā kammassa paccayo.
With the bodily determination, 9 the active determining of the action is either the cause and not the condition,10 or 11 [it is both (? )] the cause 11 as the amassing of the action to be felt as pleasant [and] the condition for the action.
86.Tattha katamo samāropano hāro?
685. (16) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Coordination?
Manasāyeva pasannena satoyevettha pasanno api ca cittavodānā sattā vimuccantīti tena sattā cittapubbaṅgamā cittena pasannena cetanāpi tattha cittabhūtā bhavantīti paṭighā ayaṃ cetanānaṃ pasādena kāyo cassa pasādo, so ca ārabhati pasādena pasanno saññānanti cassa aviparītā, so pañcavidho vikkhambhanā, kāyapassambhanāyevā pasādo cittasito cittaṃ pana pubbaṃyeva pasannaṃ.
" If someone with a placid mind " : 1 here only one who is mindful is placid. Furthermore, it is with cleansing of cognizance that creatures are liberated, hence 2 herein also the kinds of choice, being cognizance-heralded by placid cognizance, are (? ) liberated (? ) 2 from resistance; this [is placidity] of the kinds of choice. The 2 placidity whereby his (body is tranquil and uninstigated) (see M. i, 21), that is the placidity whereby his perception 2 is 2 undistorted. This [placidity, which is] fivefold 3 [is here placidity] as suppression (see, e.g.§ 681); the placidity as tranquillization of the body too 4 is dependent on cognizance, but the cognizance was placid previously as well.
Ayaṃ samāropanā.
This coordination is thus
Evaṃ pañcannampi pasādo.
also placidity of the [rest of the] five.3
Tato naṃ sukhamanvetīti katamaṃ bhagavā niddisati?
686. "Then bliss sure follows after him": what is the Blessed One describing?
Na hi attasaccaṃ tassa kammassa vipāko anveti.
For it is not owing to the existence (truth) of a self that the action's ripening follows.
Tassa upāyo anugacchati yadā sitapaccayā uppajjate somanassaṃ avippaṭisāropi anveti.
It is that the means to that [ripening] goes along with [the action], and 1 when with that [action] as condition 1 joy arises, that is also the non-remorse 8 that follows after.
Ayaṃ samāropano hāro.
This is the Coordination.
Mahānāma sakkassa suttaṃ [passa saṃ. ni. 5.1017].
687. The Thread of Mahanama the Sakyan (§ 74) can be cited in detail, namely [how he asked]
Tasmiṃ ce samaye assato asampajāno kālaṃ kareyya kāme bhavati.
( If I were to die on that occasion unmindful and unaware, what would be my destination, what my prospect) 1
Assato abhisamāhāro yo mā bhāyi, mahānāma, yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ saddhāparibhāvitaṃ sīlaparibhāvitaṃ sutacāgaparibhāvitanti vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
[and the Blessed One's reply] (Do not fear, Mahanama, since [your] heart has for long been imbued with faith, virtue, learning, generosity, [and understanding]) (§ 74).2
Cāgena ca paññāya ca kiṃ dasseti?
688. [Demonstration of the Thread's Meaning (see§ 694 end).] What does he show by (i) faith, (ii) virtue, (iii) generosity, and (iv) understanding? 1
Yā saddhā, sā cetaso pasādo.
(i) Faith is confidence (placidity) of the heart;
Yā anāvilasaṅkappitā, sā saddhā.
undisturbedness of intention is faith.
Kiṃ kāraṇā?
For what reason?
Anāvilalakkhaṇā.
Because of the characteristic of being undisturbed ;
Anāvilalakkhaṇā hi saddhā.
for faith has the characteristic of being undisturbed.
Apare āhu guṇaparisuddhiniṭṭhāgamanalakkhaṇā, yañca apare vā vacanapaṭiggahalakkhaṇā saddhā.
689. Others have said 1 that faith has the characteristic of making purification of qualities reach the goal (see M. i, 320), and still others that faith has the characteristic of accepting statements.
Aparo pariyāyo attānaṃ yadi evaṃ okappeti "nāhaṃ kiñci jānāmīti esā ahaṃ tattha anuññattā anaññatā"ti.
690. Another way: If for himself [someone] trusts thus "I know nothing" and "Herein, by agreement I am no knower ",1
Ayaṃ saddhāti.
this is faith.
Aparo pariyāyo ekasaṭṭhiyā diṭṭhigatānaṃ ādīnavānupassanā aniccaṃ dukkhamanattāti.
691. Another way: [there is] the contemplation of disappointment in the sixty-one types of views as impermanent, painful, not-self,
Tena ca padiṭṭhaṃ bhavati yathā gambhīre udapāne udakaṃ cakkhunā passati na ca kāyena abhisambhunāti.
and thereby it is well seen; 1 just as a man with [good] eyesight 2 sees water in a deep well without his being able to reach it with the body,
Evamassa ariyā nijjhānakkhantiyā diṭṭhi bhavati, na ca sacchikatā.
so too he has a view of the noble ideas 3 by means of liking for pondering [upon them], 4 without his having yet verified [them for himself].
Ayaṃ vuccati saddhā.
This is called faith,
Sā ca lokikā.
and that belongs to the worlds.
Aparo pariyāyo khamati puthujjanabhūtassa vīsati cāti ko sakkāyādhīnā na niveso.
692. Another way: some ordinary being likes non-insistence (?) 1 upon the twenty-based (?) 1 embodiment-view,1
Na etaṃ ekanti nayasaññā yathābhūtaṃ diṭṭhiyā tu khalu mudūhi pañcahi indriyehi dassanamaggena pahīnā bhavanti.
[though] this [non-insistence] is not [yet] the kind of understanding that belongs to finding a footing (?) in rightness (?) ; 1 for on the contrary it is [only] owing to [right] view of how[things] are that by means of [all] the five faculties [even though] blunt, the defilements coefficient with [wrong] view 1 come to be
Diṭṭhekaṭṭhā ca kilesā, ayaṃ saddhā.
abandoned by means of the path of seeing, [which is why] this faith
Sotāpattaṅgamadukkhāyaṃ bhūmiyaṃ paripuṇṇā vuccati.
is called" fulfilled" [only] on the plane of the heading of Stream-Entry factors.1
Tasmiṃyeva bhūmiyaṃ sekkhasīlaṃ ariyā dhāranti vuccati.
693. (ii) It is on that same plane that the Initiate's virtue is called "the support of Noble Ones",
Tasmiṃyeva bhūmiyaṃ mudupaññā paññindriyanti vuccati.
and it is on that same plane that [even] blunt understanding is called "the understanding faculty".
Tasmiṃyeva bhūmiyaṃ khandhehi anatthikatā, ayaṃ cāgo.
(iii) On that same plane the non-seeking 1 of categories [by desiring rebirth] is generosity;
Tasmā saddhā cāgādhiṭṭhānena niddisitabbā.
[and] it is by that [non-seeking] that faith can be demonstrated through the Expression of Generosity,
Yatikena [tena (ka.)] bhiyyo manena sā hissa viparītā diṭṭhikā assaddhā, sā nayanaupadhīsu pamattā samādinnā.
the more so (?) too since there may be 2 the faithlessness that belongs to a distorted view, and owing to that (?) the essentials of existence are undertaken and completed; 2
Tattha saddhindriyaṃ yo kāmaṃ parivissanti iti santapāpapaṭinissaggā na cāgādhiṭṭhānaṃ paññindriyena paññādhiṭṭhānaṃ, sīlena upasamādhiṭṭhānaṃ.
[but] herein the Expression of Generosity is not [merely] relinquishment of such evident evils as [the decision] "I shall indulge in sensual desires" the while the faith faculty [is still placed] there [in those essentials of existence].3 (iv) The Expression of Understanding is due to the Understanding faculty, while the Expression of Peace is due to virtue.4
Ime cattāro dhammā sīlaṃ paribhāvayanti saddhā sīlaṃ cāgo ca paññāti.
694. [Now it is when] these ideas, namely faith, virtue, generosity, and understanding,1 imbue cognizance 2 that
Tattha saddhāya oghaṃ tarati.
herein one (crosses the flood by faith) (cf.Sn.184),
Yaṃ sīlaṃ, ayaṃ appamādo.
[and then] the virtue is diligence,
Yo cāgo, idaṃ paññāya kammaṃ.
the generosity is action with understanding,
Yā paññā, idaṃ paññindriyaṃ, tattha yaṃ saddhindriyaṃ.
and the understanding is the understanding faculty. [And] herein, the faith faculty
Taṃ tīsu aveccappasādesu.
is that in the three kinds of Confidence due to Undergoing (see, e.g.S.v, 371),
Yaṃ sīlaṃ, taṃ saddhindriyesu.
Yo cāgo, so catūsu jhānesu.
the generosity is that in the four Meditations,
Yā paññā, sā saccesu, sati sabbatthagāminī.
the understanding is that of the Truths, and any mindfulness [there] is conducive to all good.
Tassa sekkhassa bhaddikā bhati, bhaddiko abhisamparāyo.
That Initiate has an auspicious destination,3 he has auspicious prospect (cf.§ 687).
Tassa sammuṭṭhassatikassa sīlaṃ karontassa na kāyasammuṭṭhassatitāya tāni vā indriyāni taṃ vā kusalamūlaṃ kammavipākaṃ bhavati.
[Even] when he dies 4 with mindfulness forgotten, 4 it is not through that state of forgotten mindfulness 5 that those faculties or that profitable root have their ripening.
Tassa tikassa atthaniddeso.
This is the demonstration of the Thread's Meaning.6
Tattha saddhā sīlaṃ cāgo paññā cattāro dhammā.
695. (1) [Teaching?] herein, there are the four ideas, namely faith, virtue, generosity, and understanding.1
Yā saddhā yā ca paññā, idaṃ manosucaritaṃ.
The faith and the understanding are mental good conduct,
Yaṃ sīlaṃ, idaṃ kāyikaṃ vācasikaṃ sucaritaṃ.
the virtue is bodily and verbal good conduct,
Yo cāgo, idaṃ cetasikaṃ alobho sucaritaṃ.
while the generosity is a cognizance-concomitant, namely good conduct as non-greed.
Iti citte gahite pañcakkhandhā gahitā bhavanti.
So when cognizance is admitted the five categories are admitted.
Imehi dhammehi sucaritaṃ idaṃ dukkhañca ariyasaccaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ maggassa.
The good conduct in virtue of these [four] ideas is the Noble Truth of Suffering and the footing for the Path.
87.Tattha katamo vicayo hāro?
696. (2) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation?
Yā ca saddhā yañca sīlaṃ.
This faith and this virtue, [and the rest],
Taṃ kissa karoti?
why does he do that?
Yā saddhā tāya bhagavantaṃ anussarati mattenapi hatthinā samāgatā, assa bho kukkurā sabbaṃ sīlena nappaṭipajjati kāyena vā vācāya vā ṭhānaṃ visārado bhavatīti avippaṭisārī paññā yassa paññattaṃ upaṭṭhapeti.
It is through faith that he recollects the Blessed One, even were he to meet with a mad elephant [saying (1)] "Master Hound" 1 [and] all [the rest of the passage (?)]. It is through virtue that he does not transgress 2 any instance either by body or speech, and so is one free from remorse. It is through generosity (? ) 3 that his understandingness is established.
Tassa akhaṇḍassa sīlaṃ yaṃ na pacchi tassaṃ mohassa akusalacittaṃ uppajjati micchādiṭṭhisahagataṃ vā, ayaṃ vicayo hāro.
[When] his virtue is untorn 4 [then] even when forgetfulness is arisen 4 no cognizance that is unprofitable or accompanied by wrong view arises in him. This is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation.
Dhammavādino bhaddikārāti bhavissati atthi esā yutti.
697. (3) One who asserts the True Idea will have an auspicious destination: 1 there is this construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hāro?
698. (4) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Footings?
Yamidaṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ paribhāvitaṃ saddhāya sīlena cāgena paññāya samādhinā paṭhamajjhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
That his cognizance has for long been imbued with faith, virtue, generosity, and understanding, is, through concentration,1 the footing for the first Meditation.
Yā saddhā assa anāvilasaṅkappo, taṃ dutiyajjhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The faith is his undisturbed intention, and that is the footing for the second Meditation.
Tīṇi ca aveccappasādā yaṃ sīlaṃ, taṃ ariyakantaṃ, taṃ sīlakkhandhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
There are the three kinds of confidence due to undergoing, and the virtue is that desired of Noble Ones [which together are the four factors of Stream-Entry (see S. v, 371)]: that is the footing for the Virtue Category [of the Noble Path].
Yā paññā, sā paññākkhandhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The understanding is the footing for the Understanding Category.
Ime ca dhammā idañca cittaṃ ekodibhūtasamādhissa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
And these ideas and this cognizance are the footing for the concentration become singleness.
Saddhā saddhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Faith is the footing for the faith faculty.
Cāgo samādhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Generosity is the footing for the concentration faculty.
Paññā paññindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Understanding is the footing for the understanding faculty.
Saddhā ca paññā ca vipassanā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Faith and understanding are the footing for insight.
Sīlañca cāgo ca samathassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Virtue and generosity are the footing for quiet.
Saddhā ca paññā ca avijjā virāgāya paññāvimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Faith and understanding are the footing for the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance.
Sīlañca cāgo ca rāgavirāgāya cetovimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Virtue and generosity are the footing for the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
699. (5) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Viññāṇe vutte saddhāsatibhāvite sabbe pañcakkhandhā vuttā bhavanti.
When consciousness is stated as imbued by faith, etc.,1 all the five categories are stated.
Saddhāya bhaṇitāya sabbāni satta dhanāni bhaṇitāni honti saddhādhanaṃ - pe - sīlakkhandhe vutte samādhikkhandho ca paññākkhandho ca vuttā bhavanti.
When faith is mentioned, all the seven kinds of riches (see D. iii, 251) are mentioned, namely faith as riches, ... and so on. When the virtue category is stated the concentration category and understanding category are stated too.
Yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ paribhāvitaṃ pacchimake kāle na tadanuparivatti bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
That when this cognizance has been long imbued it will not 2 have parallel occurrence therewith at the last moment 2 [of life], no such instance is found.
Tattha saññāpi tadanuparivattinī bhavati.
Herein, perception too has parallel occurrence therewith,
Yepi tajjātikā dhammā, tepi tadanuparivattino bhavanti.
and also the ideas born therefrom have parallel occurrence therewith,
Rūpasaññā rūpasañcetanānupassanamanasikāro evaṃ channaṃ āyatanānaṃ viññāṇakāye, ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
namely perception of forms [and] choice, contact 3 and attention occupied with forms, and likewise in the case of each body of consciousness in regard to the [rest of the] six bases. This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
700. (6) Herein, what is the Fourfold Array?
Idha sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's purport in this Thread?
Ye bhaddikaṃ bhatiṃ ākaṅkheyya bhaddikañca abhisamparāyaṃ, te saddhaṃ sīlaṃ cāgaṃ paññañca manasi karissanti, ayaṃ adhippāyo.
It is that those who want an auspicious destination 1 and an auspicious prospect will give attention to faith, virtue, generosity, and understanding : this is the purport.
Ye caññepi sattā tathāgatassa sammukhaṃ na paṭiyujjhante, imaṃ dhammaṃ sotā avippaṭisārato kālaṃ karissantīti, ayaṃ adhippāyo.
And other creatures, even if they do not encounter a Perfect One face to face, 2 will, by hearing 3 the True Idea, complete their term free from remorse.
88.Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro?
701. (7) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion?
Idampi cattāro dhammā saddhā ca paññā ca assaddhiyañca avijjañca hananti.
Among these four ideas, faith and understanding slay faithlessness and ignorance,
Sīlañca cāgo ca taṇhā ca dosañca hananti.
while virtue and generosity and craving 1 slay hate.
Tassa dve mūlāni pahīyanti.
[Thus] two roots are [still to be (?)] abandoned in him.
Dukkhaṃ nivatteti appahīnabhūmiyañca dvimūlāni pañcakkhandhā.
And the suffering on the plane of the unabandoned which he is stopping [now] is the two-rooted five-categories.2
Dve ariyasaccāni samatho ca vipassanā ca.
[Thus] two Truths, [namely Origin and Suffering.] The quiet and insight
Dvinnaṃ mūlānaṃ pahānaṃ.
and the abandoning of the roots :
Imāni dve saccāni nirodho ca maggo ca.
these are two Truths, namely Cessation and the Path.
Ayaṃ āvaṭṭo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion.
Tattha katamo vibhatti?
702. (8) Herein, what is the Analysis?
Yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ saddhāparibhāvitaṃ - pe - sace puthujjanassa tassapi bhaddikā bhati bhavissatīti na ekaṃsena tassa kammaṃ diṭṭheyeva dhamme vipākanti paccessati, aparamhi vā pariyāye bhavissati.
As to this " cognizance imbued with faith", etc.: if [it can] not [be said] unilaterally also of an ordinary man that his destination 1 [on rebirth] will be auspicious, that is because his action either turns out 2 to be that with only ripening here and now [in this existence] (see Ps.ii, 78);
Yaṃ vā atītaṃ vipākāya paccupaṭṭhitaṃ, tappaccayāni cetāni, ye yathā mahākammavibhaṅge "tenāyaṃ vibhajjabyākaraṇiyo niddeso dhammacārino yā bhaddikā bhatī"ti.
or else it is that [some] past [unprofitable action of his] was ready manifested for ripening and that these [now] become the conditions for that [ripening], like those [instances] in the Mahakammavibhanga Sutta (M.iii, 214-15). Hence this demonstration that one who walks in the True Idea has an auspicious destination 1 is one to be declared [only] after analysis.
Tattha katamā parivattanā?
703. (9) Herein, what is the Reversal?
Assaddhiyaṃ dussīlyaṃ yaṃ maccheraṃ duppaññaṃ ca [duppaññiyaṃ (ka.)] yañca paṭipakkhena pahīnā bhavanti, ayaṃ parivattanā.
Faithlessness, unvirtuousness, avarice, and stupidity, are abandoned by their opposites. This is the Reversal.
Tattha katamaṃ vevacanaṃ?
704. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ paribhāvitaṃ cittaṃ manoviññāṇaṃ - pe - yaṃ saddhābalaṃ saddhindriyaṃ, yaṃ sīlaṃ taṃ sucaritaṃ, saṃyamo niyamo damo khandhatā imāni tassa vevacanāni.
The cognizance that has long been [so] imbued is cognizance, mind, consciousness, ... etc. The [faith is the] faith faculty, faith power. As to virtue, good conduct, refraining, constraint, taming, untornness,1 are synonyms for it.
Yo cāgo so paṭinissaggo alobho vosaggo cāgoyiṭṭhānaṃ.
Generosity (giving up) is relinquishment, non-greed, loosing-hold, Expression of Generosity.2
Yā paññā sā paññattā paññappabhā paññindriyaṃ paññābalaṃ.
Understanding is understandingness,3 understanding-luminosity, understanding faculty, understanding power.
Tattha katamā paññatti?
705. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ bījaṃ paññattiyā paññattaṃ.
The cognizance is described by a description in terms of seed.1
Paribhāvanā vāsanā paññattiyā paññatti.
The imbuing is described 2 by a description in terms of morality.
Saddhā pasādapaññattiyā paññattā.
The faith is described by a description in terms of confidence.
Sīlaṃ sucaritapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
The virtue is described by a description in terms of good conduct.
Cāgo puññakiriyapaññattiyā paññatto.
The generosity is described by a description in terms of making merit.
Paññā vīmaṃsapaññattiyā paññattā.
The understanding is described by a description in terms of inquiry.
Ime tayo dhammā saddhā sīlaṃ cāgo paññavato pārisuddhiṃ gacchanti.
These three ideas, namely faith, virtue, and generosity, come to purification in one possessed of understanding.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
706. (12) Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Yaṃ cittaṃ, taṃ khandhesu viññāṇakkhandho, dhātūsu manoviññāṇadhātu, āyatanesu manāyatanaṃ.
The cognizance is the consciousness category in the case of the categories, the mind- consciousness element in the case of the elements, the mind base in the case of the bases.
Ye cattāro dhammā, te khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandhe pariyāpannā - pe - dhātūsu āyatanesu.
The four ideas are included in the determinations category in the case of the categories, ... etc.... in the case of the elements, ... in the case of the bases....1
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
707. (13) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Idaṃ bhagavato bhāsitaṃ mahānāmena sakkena pucchitena sabbaṃ taṃ niyuttaṃ.
This, which was the Blessed One's utterance when questioned by Mahanama the Sakyan: all [in the question] has been concluded [with the answer].
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno?
708. (14) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression?
Idaṃ cittaṃ vemattatāya paññattaṃ akusalehi cittehi aparibhāvitehi paribhāvitanti yāni puna paribhāvitāni aññesampi tattha upādāya paññattaṃ sabbepime cattāro dhammā ekattatāya paññattā.
This cognizance, described by a diversity, is not imbued with unprofitable cognizances. " Imbued " : any [cognizances] again [so] imbued, and also what is [so] described by assumption of the others (?); also all these four ideas are described by a unity.
Bhaddikā bhatīti kāmabhogino teva rūpadhātu arūpadhātu manussāti sabbā bhaddikā bhati tadeva kathāya paññattaṃ, ayaṃ paññatti.
"Auspicious destination" : 1 even for an enjoyer of sensual desires the form element, the formless element, and the human state are all 11 described by a unity 2 as " an auspicious destination ".1 This is the Description.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
709. (15) Herein, what are the Requisites?
Cittassa indriyāni paccayo ādhipateyyapaccayatāya manasikāro.
For cognizance the faculties [of the eye, etc.,] are a condition by dominance-conditionality and attention
Hetupaccayatāya paccayo.
is a condition by cause-conditionality.
Saddhāya lokikā paññā hetupaccayatāya paccayo.
For faith worldly understanding is a condition by cause-conditionality
Yoniso ca manasikāro paccayo.
and reasoned attention is a condition.
Sīlassa patirūpadesavāso paccayo.
For virtue living in befitting places is a condition
Attasammāpaṇidhānañca hetu.
and right disposition in self-guidance is the cause.
Cāgassa alobho hetu.
For generosity non-greed is the cause
Avippaṭisāro ca hetupaccayo.
and non-remorse is the cause-condition (?).
Paññā parato ca ghoso ajjhattañca yoniso manasikāro hetupaccayo ca.
For understanding 1 another's utterance and reasoned attention in oneself are the cause and the condition.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
710. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ paribhāvitanti cetasikāpi.
The cognizance has for long been imbued, and also the concomitants of cognizance.
Ettha sabbe dhammā paribhāvitā bhaddikā te bhati bhavissati, bhaddikā upapattiko abhisamparāyo.
Here all ideas being [thus] imbued, the destination 1 will be auspicious, and auspicious the reappearance in a future existence.
Iti ye keci manussakā upabhogaparibhogā sabbe bhaddikā bhatiyeva, ayaṃ samāropano.
So those human uses of possessions (cf. § 708) are all an auspicious destination,2 too. This is the Coordination.
89.Uddhaṃ adho sabbadhi vītarāgoti gāthā [passa udā. 61 udāne].
711. [For example,] the verse: ( Above, below, in every way without lust,1 ... >(§ 75).
Tattha kiṃ uddhaṃ nāma?
712. [The Thread's Meaning.] Herein, what is " Above"?
Yaṃ ito uddhaṃ bhavissati anāgāmī, idaṃ uddhaṃ.
Beyond this (ito uddham) is what will be, future ; 1 this is " above" (uddham).
Adho nāma yamatikkantamatītaṃ, idamavoca apadānatanti uddhaṃ.
" Below" is what is bygone, past. The above and the below are called the extent (?).2
Tattha atītena sassatadiṭṭhi pubbantākappikānaṃ aparantadiṭṭhi kesañci, ucchedadiṭṭhiṃ yaṃ [ucchedadiṭṭhiyaṃ (ka.)] vuttakappikānaṃ imā ceva diṭṭhiyo ucchedadiṭṭhi ca sassatadiṭṭhi ca.
713. Herein,1 conjecturors about a retrospective finiteness by means of the past have the eternalist-view, while some conjecturors about prospective finiteness have the annihilationist-view. These said conjecturors have these two views,1 namely the annihilationist-view and the eternalist-view.
Tatthāyaṃ sassatadiṭṭhi imāni pannarasa padāni sakkāyadiṭṭhi sassataṃ bhajanti.
714. Herein, [as to] this eternalist-view, the following fifteen [of the twenty] terms of the embodiment-view belong to eternalism,
Rūpavantaṃ me attā, attani me rūpaṃ, rūpaṃ me attāti yaduccate paññaṃ paridahanti.
and they favour perception, in the way stated 1 as follows : ( (2) My self is possessed of form, ... (3) form is in my self, ... (4) my self is in form...) 2 (§ 136), [and likewise three each with feeling, perception, determinations, and consciousness.]
Yā ucchedadiṭṭhi sā pañcasatāni ucchedaṃ bhajanti.
As to the annihilationist-view, [the remaining] five terms 3 belong to annihilationism,
Te "taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīra"nti passanti, rūpaṃ me attāti tathārūpā catubbidhā sakkāyadiṭṭhi ucchedena ca sassatena ca.
and they 4 see that ( (1) Form is my self)(§ 136), [taking it that] ( What the soul is, that the body is ) (§ 137) [and similarly with the other four categories.] Such is the fourfold Embodiment-view as annihilationism and eternalism.
Evaṃ pañcasu khandhesu vīsativatthukāya diṭṭhiyā pannarasa padāni pubbantaṃ bhajanti.
That is how, in the case of the five categories, fifteen tenns of the twenty-based [embodiment-]view belong to retrospective finiteness
Sassatadiṭṭhiyā pañca padāni aparantaṃ bhajanti ucchedadiṭṭhiyā.
with the eternalist-view and five clauses belong to prospective finiteness with the annihilationist-view.
Tattha "ayamahamasmī"ti passantā rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, so ucchedavādī rūpavantañca attānaṃ, attani ca rūpaṃ, rūpasmiṃ vā attāti so passati cāti iti ucchedadiṭṭhi ca, attato paṭissarati sassatadiṭṭhi pubbantato ca paṭissarati.
715. Herein, one who sees 1 thus, namely " I am this" (§ 75), when he sees form as self, he has the annihilationist-theory, [but when] he sees thus, namely (Self is possessed of form, ... and form is in self, ... and selfis in form ... ) (§ 136), he has the eternalist-theory.2 The annihilationist-view treats in terms of self[-identification with the particular category,] and the eternalist-view treats in terms of retrospective finiteness.
"Ayamahamasmī"ti na samanupassati.
716. [When] he does not see " I am this ",
Tassa diṭṭhāsavā pahānaṃ gacchanti.
his taints of [wrong] view come to abandonment (see M. i, 7 f.).
Yo tīsu addhāsu pubbante ca aparante ca tena tena niddiṭṭhānena uddhaṃ adho sabbadhi vītarāgo "ahamasmī"ti na anupassatīti iminā dvārena iminā payogena iminā upāyena idaṃ dassanabhūmi ca sotāpattiphalañca so ariyo payogo anabhāvaṃgatena saṃsārena apunabbhavāti yo koci ariyo payogo punabbhavāya mudūni vā pañcindriyāni majjhāni adhimattāni vā sabbaṃ apunabbhavappahānāya saṃvattanti.
[When] by this door, by this instrumentality, by this means, namely " Above, below, in every way without lust,1 And seeing not at all that 'I am this' " (§ 75), it is thus demonstrated in the several instances 2 in retrospective finiteness and prospective finiteness in the three [temporal] periods, [then] this is the Plane of Seeing and the Fruit of Stream- Entry, [and so] this noble means [occurs] for non-renewal of being 3 through the Roundabout's becoming non-extant, thus, there being any noble means at all [in the guise of one of the four paths], for non-renewal of being 4 it is the five faculties [beginning with faith], whether blunt, medium, or outstanding, that occur 5 for all 6 non-renewal of being.
Ahanti diṭṭhogho kāmogho bhavogho avijjogho ca odhiso.
"I" is the flood of views, the flood of sensual desire, the flood of being, the flood of ignorance, according to limitation.7
Tattha desanāhārena cattāri saccāni pañcahi indriyehi sotāpattiphalena ca dve saccāni maggo ca nirodho ca.
717. (1) Herein, as to the four Truths by the Mode of Conveying a Teaching: with the five faculties [beginning with faith] and with the fruit of Stream Entry [there are respectively] two Truths, namely the Path and Cessation.
Sakkāyasamudayena dve saccāni dukkhañca samudayo ca, ayaṃ desanā hāro.
And with embodiment 1 and its origin there are two Truths, namely Suffering and its Origin. This is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching.
Tattha katamo vicayo?
718. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
"Ayamahamasmī"ti asamanupassanto tīṇi dassanappahātabbāni saṃyojanāni pajahati.
When he does not see "I am this", he abandons the three fetters to be abandoned by Seeing.1
Ayaṃ vicayo.
This is the investigation.
Tattha katamā yutti?
719. (3) Herein, what is the Construing?
Tividhā puggalā koci ugghaṭitaññū koci vipañcitaññū koci neyyo.
Persons are of three types, namely one type gains knowledge by a condensed statement, one gains knowledge by an expanded statement, and one is guidable (cf.§§ 86-93).
Ugghaṭitaññū tikkhindriyo ca tato vipañcitaññū mudindriyo tato mudindriyehi neyyo.
The type that gains knowledge by a condensed statement has keen faculties, the type that gains knowledge by an expanded statement has blunter faculties than that, and the guidable type has [still] blunter faculties 1 than that.
Tattha ugghaṭitaññū tikkhindriyatāya dassanabhūmimāgamma sotāpattiphalaṃ pāpuṇāti, ekabījako bhavati.
Herein, the type that gains knowledge by a condensed statement, after his coming to the plane of seeing with keenness in his faculties, reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry and becomes a Single-Seed :
Ayaṃ paṭhamo sotāpanno.
this is the first kind of Stream-Enterer (see§ 88).
Vipañcitaññū mudūhi indriyehi dassanabhūmimāgamma sotāpattiphalaṃ pāpuṇāti, kolaṃkolo ca hoti.
The type that gains knowledge by an expanded statement, after his coming to the plane of seeing with blunter faculties, reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry and becomes a Clan-to-Clan:
Ayaṃ dutiyo sotāpanno.
this is the second type of Stream- Enterer.
Tattha neyyo dassanabhūmimāgamma sotāpattiphalaṃ pāpuṇāti, sattakkhattuparamo ca bhavati.
Herein, the guidable type, after his coming to the plane of seeing, reaches the fruit of Stream-Entry and becomes a Seven- times-at-Most:
Ayaṃ tatiyo sotāpanno.
this is the third kind of Stream-Enterer.
Atthi esā yutti mudumajjhādhimattehi indriyehi mudumajjhādhimattaṃ bhūmiṃ sacchikareyya sakkāyadiṭṭhippahānena vā diṭṭhigatāni pajahati.
There is this construing. Whether he verifies the blunt or medium or outstanding plane 2 with blunt or medium or outstanding faculties, he abandons [all] the types of views w~th the abandoning of the embodiment-view.3
Ayaṃ yutti.
This is the Construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno?
720. (4) Herein, what are the Footings?
Tattha sakkāyadiṭṭhi sabbamicchādiṭṭhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Herein, the embodiment- view is the footing for all wrong view.
Sakkāyo nāmarūpassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Embodiment is the footing for name-and-form.
Nāmarūpaṃ sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Name-and-form is the footing for the embodiment-view.
Pañca indriyāni rūpīni rūparāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The five faculties having form [beginning with the eye] are the footing for lust for form.
Saḷāyatanaṃ ahaṃkārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The sixfold base is the footing for I-making.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
721. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Dvīsu diṭṭhīsu pahīnāsu tattha ekā diṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni pahānaṃ gacchanti.
When two kinds 1 of view are abandoned, herein the sixty-one 2 types of view come to abandonment
Uddhaṃ ca adho ca vītarāgo sabbarajanīyesu vītarāgo hoti.
both "above" and "below" (see §§ 712-13), and he is " without lust ",3 that is, without lust for all things provocative of lust.
Tajjā parabhūmiyaṃ, idaṃ paccayanti yathābhūtaṃ passati.
When he sees in the plane born of that [view its] specific conditionality 4 [by seeing] how [the view] comes to be (see D. Sutta 14),
So sabbapaṭiccasamuppādaṃ āmasati.
he grasps all dependent arising.
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
90.Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
722. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Imamhi sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport in this Thread?
Ye sattā ye nābhiramissanti, te diṭṭhippahānāya vāyamissanti.
It is that any creatures who will not 1 delight [in lust-provoking things] will make efforts 1 for the abandoning of views.
Ayamettha bhagavato adhippāyo.
This is the Blessed One's purport here.
Ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro?
723. (7) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion?
Yānimāni mudūni pañcindriyāni tāni orambhāgiyāni pañcindriyāni.
The five faculties [beginning with faith], when blunt, are five hither-side 1 faculties.
Sabbena sabbaṃ samūhananti abhijjhābyāpādo ca bhāvanākārena sekkhāya vimuttiyā balaṃ saddhā, uddhambhāgiyāni diṭṭhivasena balaṃ saddhā, vīriyindriyaṃ ārabhitattā satindriyaṃ paggahitattā accantaṃ niṭṭhaṃ gacchanti.
They eradicate covetousness and ill will 1 altogether with the means of keeping-in-being fby the Non-Return Path], faith being a power [then] in virtue of the Initiate's deliverance. [When] they [come to] belong to the further side, faith is [then] a power in virtue of [the Arahant's Right] View, because exerted by the energy faculty 3 and based on memory by the mindfulness faculty 3 and it reaches 4 the goal.
Tattha yāni indriyāni, ayaṃ maggo saṃkilesappahānaṃ.
Herein, the faculties are the Path, and the abandoning of defilement
Ayaṃ nirodho āyatiṃ anuppādadhammo, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
is Cessation. What is no more inseparable from the idea of future arising is Suffering.
Ayaṃ āvaṭṭo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion.
Tattha katamo vibhatti hāro?
724. (8) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis?
"Ayamahamasmī"ti yo samanupassati, so ca kho adhimattena lokikā yaṃ bhūmiyaṃ na tu ariyena payogena so sakkāyadiṭṭhi pajahati.
"And seeing not at all that ' I am this ' " : 1 [this is not unilaterally always so; for when] someone 1 [does this merely] by outstanding [intellectual effort] in the plane of the worlds, he certainly has not abandoned the embodiment-view by the noble instrumentality (see § 716),
Yaṃ vuccati tajjāya bhūmiyā adhimattāya.
[his effort being merely that] which is called outstandingness 2 in the plane born of that [embodiment- view] (see § 721).
Tattha tajjāya bhūmiyaṃ pañcahi ākārehi adhimattataṃ paṭilabhati sīlena vatena bāhussaccena samādhinā nekkhammasukhena.
Herein, one acquires outstandingness in the plane born of that [embodiment-view] in five moods: by virtue, duty, much learning, concentration, and pleasure in renunciation.
Tattha appatte pattasaññī adhimānaṃ gaṇhāti.
Herein, one who perceives something as reached when it is not reached overestimates.3
Etasmiṃyeva vatthuppattiyaṃ bhagavā idaṃ suttaṃ bhāsati.
And it was on account of this very need arisen 4 that the Blessed One delivered this Thread:
Sīlavā vatamattenāti.
(One virtuous merely by duty ... ) ( ).
Tattha yo appatte pattasaññī tassa yo samādhi, so sāmiso kāpurisasevito pana so kāpurisā vuccanti puthujjanā.
Herein, when he is one who perceives something as reached when it is not reached, his concentration is materialistic, it is that cultivated by trivial men, and it is ordinary men that are called " trivial men".
Āmisaṃ yañca ariyamaggamāgamma lokikā anariyaṃ tena samādhi hoti anariyo kāpurisasevito.
And this 6 materialistic [concentration] belongs to the worlds 5 and is ignoble 6 through its not having come to the Noble Path, that is why [such] concentration is ignoble and of the kind cultivated by trivial men.
Yo pana ariyākārena yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati [jānāti passati (pī.)], so adhigamanaṃ pajahati yo ariyena samādhinā akāpurisasevitena nirāmisena nīyati, tattha akāpurisā vuccanti ariyapuggalā.
But he who understands and sees 6 in the noble mood how [this] is abandons overestimation. 7 He 8 is guided 8 by the noble concentration cultivated by untrivial men and unmaterialistic. Herein, it is noble persons that are called " untrivial men ",
Yo tehi sevito samādhi, so akāpurisasevito.
and the concentration cultivated by them is [what is called] concentration cultivated by untrivial men.
Tasmā ekaṃ vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ "ayamahamasmī"ti asamanupassanto tathā pāteti.
Therefore this 9 is declarable after analysis, namely the passage (?) 9 " Seeing not at all 9 that ' I am this ' ".
Tattha katamā parivattanā?
725. (9) Herein, what is the Reversal?
Imāya dassanabhūmiyā kilesā pahātabbā, tehi pahīyanti aniddiṭṭhāpi bhagavatā niddisitabbā yo.
It is owing to this plane of seeing that defilements are abandor1able ; for they 1 are abandonable [here]. Both any 1 not demonstrated [in this Thread] by the Blessed One and any 1 demonstrated by the Blessed One [here] can be demonstrated 1 here.
Tattha katamaṃ vevacanaṃ?
726. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Yā sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā attadiṭṭhiyā.
Any embodiment- view, of self-view
Ayaṃ bhūmi.
this is the plane.
Ye kilesā pahātabbā.
Defilements abandonable
Te appahīyanti aniddiṭṭhāpi bhagavatā sassatadiṭṭhi ca ucchedadiṭṭhi ca, sā pariyantadiṭṭhi ca.
are abandoned 1 also when undemonstrated by the Blessed One (see § 725). They are [for instance] the eternalist-view and the annihilation-view,
Yā apariyantadiṭṭhi ca, sā sassatadiṭṭhi ca.
the latter being the finitist-view and the infinitist-view the eternalist-view.
Yā ucchedadiṭṭhi, sā natthikā diṭṭhi.
The annihilationist-view is the non-existence[-of-giving-etc.-]view,
Yā sassatadiṭṭhi, sā akiriyadiṭṭhi.
and the eternalist-view is the no-need-for-action-view.
Idaṃ vevacanaṃ.
These are synonyms.
Tattha katamā paññatti?
727. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Taṇhā saṃyojanapaññattiyā paññattā.
Craving is described by a description in terms of fetters,
Maggo paṭilābhapaññattiyā paññatto.
the Path is described by a description in terms of obtaining,
Indriyā paṭilābhapaññattiyā paññattāti.
the faculties are described by a description in terms of obtaining.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
728. (12) Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Sakkāyo dukkhaṃ dassanappahātabbo.
Embodiment is Suffering; what is abandonable by seeing
Samudayo maggo.
is its Origin is [which is] the Path.1
Indriyāni tāni ca niddiṭṭhāni khandhadhātuāyatanesu.
Such faculties as are demonstrated [can be similarly made ways of entry and likewise] in the cases of the categories, elements, and bases.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
729. (13) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Yañhi ārabbha bhagavatā idaṃ suttaṃ bhāsitaṃ, so ārabbha niddiṭṭho.
The instigation, instigated whereby the Blessed One uttered this Thread, has been completed.1
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
730. (15) Herein,1 what are the Requisites?
Nāmarūpassa hetupaccayopi viññāṇaṃ hetu bījaṃ.
Name-and-form has cause and condition; consciousness is the cause as seed;
Tena avijjā ca saṅkhārā ca paccayo.
through it ignorance and determinations are the condition.
Nivattinayo na aparo pariyāyo sabbabhavo, ye ca sabbabhavassa hetu parabhaṇḍapaccayo iti sammādiṭṭhi parato ca ghoso yoniso ca manasikāro paccayo.
What has to be stopped is the renewal of being 2 in a further existence 2 and the 2 individual-essence as cause 2 and the other-essence as condition 2 (see § 402).
Yā paññā uppādeti, esā hetu sammādiṭṭhiyā sammāsaṅkappo bhavati, yā sammāsamādhi [sammādiṭṭhi (pī.)], ayaṃ parikkhāro.
For any 2 such right view another's utterance and reasoned attention (see § 1) are the condition, and any understanding that is aroused is the cause, [since] from the right view right intention has its being (see M. iii, 76) [and so] right view is the requisite.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
731. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
"Ayamahamasmī"ti asamanupassī dukkhato rogato - pe - pannarasa padāni.
He who " sees not at all that 'I am this"' [sees it] as painful as an ailment, ... etc.... with the eleven 1 terms.
Sīlāni bhagavā kimatthiyāni kimānisaṃsāni.
732. (" The virtues, Blessed One, what is their aim, what is their reward?"
Sīlāni, ānanda, avippaṭisāratthāni yāva vimutti.
" The virtues, Ananda, have non-remorse for their aim, ... down to ... deliverance " ) (§ 75).
Tattha duvidho attho – purisattho ca vacanattho ca.
733. Herein, "aim (meaning)" is twofold: man's aim (meaning) 1 and word's aim (meaning).
91.Tattha katamo purisattho?
Herein, what is the man's aim (meaning)?
Yāyaṃ na pacchānutāpitā ayaṃ avippaṭisāro, ayaṃ purisattho.
That there is no subsequent regret, this is (ii) the " non-remorse" (see A.v, 310) ; this is the man's aim (meaning).
Yathā koci brūhayati imatthamāsevati so bhaṇeyya, kiñci mamettha adhīnaṃ tassatthāya idaṃ kiriyaṃ ārabhāmīti.
As [for instance] when someone fosters this aim, cultivates it, he might say 2 " Whatever it is I am dependent on, that is the aim (meaning) for which I instigate this task" .2
Ayaṃ purisattho.
This is the man's aim (meaning).
Tattha katamo vacanattho?
Herein, what is the word's aim (meaning)?
Sīlāni kāyikaṃ vā vācasikaṃ vā sucaritaṃ avippaṭisāroti.
(i) The kinds of virtue, [whether] bodily or verbal good conduct, [have(?)] (ii) non-remorse [for their aim (? )].
Tattha sīlassa vatassa ca bhāsoyeva.
Herein, it is only the radiance (?) of virtue and duty 3
Anaññā sugatakammatā sucaritaṃ ayaṃ avippaṭisāro.
as good conduct due to the state of action well done,3 nothing else, that is (ii) the "non-remorse" [here].
Evaṃ yāva vimuttīti ekamekasmiṃ pade dve atthā – purisattho ca vacanattho ca, yathā imamhi sutte evaṃ sabbesu suttesu dve dve atthā.
And so, down to (xi) "deliverance" (see A. v, 310), there are the two aims (meanings), the man's aim and the word's aim, in the case of each term [in the text]. And as in this Thread, so in all Threads, there are the two aims (meanings).4
Ayaṃ hi paramattho uttamattho ca.
734. And the ultimate aim (meaning), the supreme aim (meaning),1
Yaṃ nibbānasacchikaṃ nissāya yaṃ sakaṃ sacchikātabbaṃ bhavati, so vuccati katassa [satassa (ka.)] katthoti.
is this, namely what can be verified for oneself 2 on one's own, depending on what is verifiable 3 as extinction: this is called one's own aim effected.4
Ayaṃ puna vevacanaṃ sampajānāti.
This again is a synonym. That one understands, 5
Iminā niyuttatthamabhilabbhanti vacanattho.
by this [synonym] the concluded (?) aim (meaning) referred to, 6 this is the word's aim (meaning).
Tattha yaṃ atthaṃ sāvako abhikaṅkhati.
Herein, of whatever aim (meaning) the hearer wants
Tassa yo paṭilābho, ayaṃ purisattho.
the [actual] obtaining (of that) is the man's aim (meaning),
Yaṃ yaṃ bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti, tassa tassa dhammassa yā atthaviññatti.
while the intimation of the aim (meaning) of whatever idea the Blessed One teaches
Ayaṃ attho, tattha sīlānaṃ avippaṭisāro atthopi ānisaṃsopi.
is the [word's (?)] aim (meaning). Herein, (ii) non-remorse is the aim (meaning) and the reward of (i) the kinds of virtue.
Eso ca ānisaṃso yaṃ duggatiṃ na gacchati.
And the reward is this, namely that one does not go to a bad destination,
Yathā taṃ bhagavatā esānisaṃso dhamme suciṇṇe na duggatiṃ gacchati dhammacārī, ayaṃ attho.
according as [it is said] by the Blessed One (The True Idea's reward when walked in right is this: Who walks therein has no bad destination) § 153). This is the aim (meaning) :
Yaṃ puriso bhāvanābhūmiyaṃ sīlāni ārabbha sīlena saṃyutto hoti evaṃ yāva vimutti tathā sīlakkhandho.
that a man associated with power 7 on the plane of mastery 7 has been instigated by virtue. And so down to (xi) "deliverance". 735. Likewise the Three Categories : 1
Tattha yo ca avippaṭisāro anusayavasena niddiṭṭho, tañca sīlaṃ ayaṃ sīlakkhandho.
herein, both (ii) the non- remorse demonstrated by means of underlying tendency(? ) and that (i) virtue are the Virtue Category.
Pāmojjapītipassaddhīti ca samādhindriyena, ayaṃ samādhikkhandho.
And in virtue of (vii) the concentration faculty the (iii) gladness, (iv) happiness and (v) tranquillity are the Concentration Category.
Yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ paññākkhandho.
And that one concentrated 2 (viii) understands how this is, this is the Understanding Category.
Ime tayo khandhā sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca tathā sīlaṃ paripūreti yaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ tena kāraṇena so sīlaṃ paripūreti, anuppannassa ca akusalassa anuppādāya vāyamati, uppannassa ca pahānāya anuppannassa ca kusalassa uppādāya, uppannassa ca kusalassa bhiyyobhāvāya iti vīriyindriyaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ.
These are the three Categories: Virtue, Concentration, and Understanding. 736. Likewise 1 [in the case of the Faculties] when he fulfils virtue: the (B) energy faculty is the reason whereby he fulfils (i) virtue and makes efforts for the non-arising of the unarisen unprofitable, for the abandoning of the arisen unprofitable, for the arising of the unarisen profitable, and for the increase of the arisen [profitable], thus the (B) Energy Faculty is demonstrated.
Tattha yo samādhikkhandho, idaṃ samādhindriyaṃ.
And herein, the (vii) concentration category is the (C) Concentration Faculty,
Paññākkhandho paññindriyaṃ, taṃ catūsu sammappadhānesu daṭṭhabbaṃ.
and (viii) the understanding category is the (E) Understanding Faculty. That can also be seen in the case of the four Right Endeavours
Tathā yo anuppannassa ca akusalassa anuppādāya vāyamati, idaṃ paṭhamaṃ sammappadhānaṃ.
likewise: [for] when someone makes eftorts for the non-arising of unarisen unprofit, this is the first Right Endeavour,
Yaṃ uppannassa, idaṃ dutiyaṃ.
and that for the [abandoning of the] arisen is the second,2 [and so on.]
Cattāri sammappadhānāni catūsu jhānesu passitabbāni.
These are the four Right Endeavours.3 737. [Also it] can be seen in the case of the four Meditations
Tathā sīlakkhandhena nekkhammadhātu ca adhikā [ādikā (pī.)], tayo ca vitakkā nekkhammavitakko abyāpādavitakko avihiṃsāvitakko ca.
likewise : [First Meditation:] With (i) the virtue category, there comes the renunciation element as the beginning [i.e. renunciation of sensual- desire], and the three kinds of thinking, namely renunciation- thinking, non-ill-will-thinking, and non-cruelty-thinking,
Sādhāraṇabhūtā.
accompanied by exploring.1
Yā piyāyamānassa pāmojjena idaṃ kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ ānitaṃ aniyamītipemena, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
[Then] (iv) the happiness (?) 2 that is born 2 in one happy-minded 2 through (iii) gladness is happiness ; 2 and the (vi) bodily pleasure induced through the (v) tranquillization of the body 2 is pleasure;
Yo tattha avikkhepo, ayaṃ samādhi.
and the non-distraction there is (vii) concentration.
Idaṃ pañcaṅgikaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ.
This is the five-factored first meditation (see § 564).
Yā cetasikā passaddhi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ virodhanaṃ, yo kileso ca paridāho, so paṭhame jhāne niruddho.
738. [Second Meditation:] What is the mental tranquillity? Any obstruction 1 with the thinking and exploring, which is defilement and fever, has ceased in the first meditation;
Tathā yā ca kilesapassaddhi yā ca vitakkavicārānaṃ passaddhi, ubhayepi ete dhamme passaddhāyaṃ.
and any such 2 (v) tranquillization of defilement [in the first meditation), and any 3 (v) tranquillization of thinking and exploring [in the second meditation], this is tranquillization of both these ideas.4
Tattha kāyassa cittassa ca sukhaṃ sukhāyanā, idaṃ pītisukhino passaddhi.
Herein, any 4 (vi) pleasure and pleasing of the body and of cognizance, this is the (v) tranquillity of one who has (iv) happiness and (vi) pleasure,
Yopi ekodibhāvo cittassa, tena ekodibhāvena yaṃ cittassa ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ, idaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṅgaṃ.
and also any singleness 5 of cognizance and confidence i1i oneself due to that singleness, this is the fourth meditation factor [in the second meditation).
Iti ajjhattañca sampasādo cetaso ca ekodibhāvo pīti ca sukhañca, idaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgikaṃ.
So the confidence in oneself and the singleness of cognizance and the happiness and the pleasure are the four- factored second meditation (see§ 565).
Yo passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, tena adhimattena sukhena pharitvā sukhaṃ cetasikaṃ yaṃ, so pītivītarāgo evaṃ tassa pītivītarāgatāya upekkhaṃ paṭilabhati.
739. [Third Meditation :] As to 1 ( One whose body is (v) tranquil feels (vi) pleasure) (A.v, 312), after dispensing 2 with that outstanding [bodily] pleasure [only] mental (vi) pleasure [remains], this being fading 3 of happiness ;
So pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhaṃ paṭilabhati.
with the fading of happiness he obtains onlooking-equanimity, 4
Sukhañca paṭisaṃvedeti.
and he feels (vi) pleasure,
Sati ca sammā paññāya paṭilabhati.
and he obtains mindfulness and awareness,
Sace sati ekaggatā idaṃ pañcaṅgikaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ.
and also (vii) unification of cognizance.4 This is the five-factored third meditation (see § 566).
Yaṃ sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, ayaṃ ekaggatāya parāvidhānabhāgiyā, paṭhame jhāne atthi cittekaggatā no cakkhussa vedanā sabbaṃ pāripūriṃ gacchati.
740. [Fourth Meditation:] As to ( When he is (vi) pleased, his cognizance is (vii) concentrated ) (M. i, 37), this is unification. Now 1 this 1 [unification], of the kind dealing with meditation,1 is there also in the first meditation, [but] owing to its being accompanied 1 there 1 by pleasant 1 feeling it does not 1 come altogether to fulfilment
Yathā catutthe jhāne, tathā yā upekkhā passambhayaṃ satisampajaññaṃ cittekaggatā ca, idaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
there as in the fourth meditation. Accordingly, onlooking-equanimity, purified mindfulness,1 neither-painful-nor- pleasant feeling,1 and unification, these are the fourth meditation (see§ 567).
92.Yathā samādhi dassayitabbaṃ, tathā paññindriyaṃ taṃ catūsu ariyasaccesu passitabbaṃ.
741. And just as (C) the Concentration [Faculty] can be shown [thus in the four Meditations,] so too (E) the Understanding Faculty can be shown in (I-IV) the four Truths.
Yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, sā pajānanā catubbidhā asubhato dukkhato anattato ca, yadārammaṇaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ, yaṃ pajānanto nibbindati vimuccati tathā yaṃ kāmāsavassa pahānaṃ bhavāsavassa diṭṭhāsavassa avijjāsavassa, ayaṃ nirodho appahīnabhūmiyaṃ āsavasamudayo.
[For] as to (He who is (vii) concentrated (viii) understands how it is ) (A. v, 312 ; § 75), this act- of-understanding is fourfold, namely [understanding] as ugly, as impermanent, as painful, and as not-self, and then its object is (I) the Noble Truth of Suffering. Then as to (When he understands, he (ix) finds dispassion) [and ( (x) his lust fades), this is (IV) the Path. When] 1 (he is (xi) liberated) (A. v, 312; § 75), the abandoning accordingly of the taint of sensual desire, the taint of being, the taint of view, and the taint of ignorance, [on reaching Arahantship,] is (III) [the Noble Truth of] Cessation. (II) The Origin of taints is on the plane of unabandoned [defilement].
Imāni cattāri ariyasaccāni yathā paññindriyaṃ passitabbaṃ.
This is how (E) the Understanding Faculty can be seen as the four Noble Truths.
Yathāyaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ dassanabhūmi.
742. Likewise [with the 4 Paths and Fruits] : as to "He who is (vii) concentrated (viii) understands how it is ", this is the plane of seeing.
Sotāpattiphalañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānanto nibbindatīti, idaṃ tanukañca.
And then when he (viii) understands how the fruit of Stream-Entry is he (ix) finds dispassion, and this is then the attenuation 1
Kāmarāgabyāpādaṃ sakadāgāmiphalañca yaṃ nibbindati virajjati, ayaṃ paṭhamajjhānabhāvanābhūmi ca rāgavirāgā cetovimutti anāgāmiphalañca.
of lust for sensual desires and of ill will [f1rrnished by the Path of Once-Return]. And when (ix) he finds dispassion, and (x) his lust fades, for the Fruit of Once-Return, this is the first plane of keeping meditation in being as (xi) the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and it is the Fruit of Non-Return.
Yaṃ vimutti vimuccati, ayaṃ avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti arahattañca.
What is called (xi) " deliverance " is the understanding-deliverance, and it is Arahantship.
Ime avippaṭisārā ca vīriyindriyañca cattāro sammappadhānā avippaṭisārā tañca upari yāva samādhi, evaṃ te cattāri jhānāni samādhindriyañca yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
743. [Now] these are the kinds of (ii) non-remorse(§ 735); and the (B) Energy Faculty (§ 736) and the four right endeavours (§ 736) are [also] the kinds of non-remorse. 744. And (iii-vi) what follows down to 1 (vii) the concentration which is the four meditations (§§ 737-740) in this way is (D) the Concentration Faculty...745. As to " he who is (vii) concentrated (viii) understands how it is ",1
Ime cattāro satipaṭṭhānā sīlapāripūrimupādāya cāgasaṃhitena ca nibbedhikānañca nimittānaṃ anāvilamanā, idaṃ satindriyaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.
this is the four foundations of mindfulness(§ 741). 2 Consequent upon the fulfilment of virtue due to its being connected with generosity, they provide an undisturbed state of mind 3 for signs penetrative [of the Truths]. This is (C) the Mindfulness Faculty, namely the four foundations of mindfulness.
Yaṃ puna imāya dhammadesanāya tīsu ṭhānesu diṭṭhogamanakindriyaṃ kilesapahānena ca sekkhasīlaṃ, idaṃ saddhindriyaṃ.
746. Again, the faculty that, owing to this teaching of the True Idea, is, in the three instances,1 without inclusion (? ) 2 of [wrong] views, and has the virtue that is [only] the Initiate's owing to the abandonment of [only] a portion 3 of what is given up [by the Arahant] is (A) the Faith Faculty.
Cattāri ca sotāpattiyaṅgāni phalāni.
And these are the four factors of Stream-Entry. The fruits
Samādhindriyāni sopaniyāhārīni sabbasuttesu niddisitabbāni.
as the concentration faculties (? ) 4 that are accompanied by what is deferred till higher 4 [in the subsequent attainments (? )] can be demonstrated in all Threads (? ).
Yaṃ jhānaṃ paṭilabhanaṃ vīriyagahitaṃyeva ñāṇaṃ paṭissarato, ayaṃ sutamayī paññā.
747. (E) Knowledge in one who remembers that the obtaining of meditation is got only through energy is understanding consisting in what is heard (learnt).
Yo samādhi pubbāparanimittābhāso anomagatitāya yathākāmo, ayaṃ cintāmayī paññā, yaṃ tathāsamāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ bhāvanāmayī paññā.
The concentration possessing illumination of the successive signs in their due order 1 owing to non-lapse in procedure (see M. Sutta 128? ) is understanding consisting in cogitation. And since one who is thus " concentrated understands how it is", this is understanding consisting in keeping-in-being.
Ayaṃ suttaniddeso.
This is a demonstration of the Thread.
Imaṃ suttaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ bujjhakāradhikaṃ bujjhitabbaṃ.
748. This Thread is one dealing with penetration. It requites a discoverer, it can be discovered;
Yehi aṅgehi samannāgataṃ taṃ bujjhissanti tassa aṅgāni bujjhissanti, tena bojjhaṅgā.
it is by means of the factors with which it is endowed that it will be discovered (will enlighten) ; its factors will discover (enlighten); hence Enlightenment (Discovery) Factors (cf. MA. i, 83).
Tathā ādito yāva sīlaṃ vataṃ cetanā karaṇīyā, kissa sīlāni pāripūreti.
749. Accordingly in so far as at the beginning [of this Thread it is said] (No virtuous man has to choose) 1 (§ 75; A.v, 312), how does he fulfil (i) the kinds of virtue?
Anuppannassa ca akusalassa anuppādāya uppannassa ca akusalassa pahānāya anuppannassa kusalassa uppādāya uppannassa ca kusalassa bhiyyobhāvāya, idaṃ vīriyaṃ tassa tassa bujjhitassa aṅganti.
Energy for the non-arising of the unarisen unprofitable, for the abandoning of the arisen unprofitable, for the arousing of the unarisen profitable, and for the increase of the arisen profitable, is a factor 2 for that [virtue's] being brought to enlightenment (discovery),
Ayaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgo.
thus this is (c) the Energy Enlightenment Factor.
Iminā vīriyena dve dhammā ādito avippaṭisāro pāmojjañca yā puna pīti avippaṭisārapaccayā pāmojjapaccayā, ayaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgo.
750. It is owing to this energy that there are the two ideas [stated] at the beginning [of this Thread], namely (ii) non-remorse and (iii) gladness; and again, any 1 (iv) happiness with (ii) the non-remorse as condition and with (iii) the gladness as condition is (d) the Happiness Enlightenment Factor.
Yaṃ pītimanassa kāyo passambhati.
751. As to ( When his mind is (iv) happy his body becomes (v) tranquillized) (§ 75; A.v, 312),
Ayaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgo.
this is (e) the Tranquillity Enlightenment Factor.
Tena kāyikasukhamānitaṃ yaṃ sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, ayaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgo.
752. The (v) bodily pleasure induced thereby since ( When he is (vi) pleased his cognizance is (vii) concentrated) (§ 75 ; A. v, 312) is ( f) the Concentration Enlightenment Factor.
Yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo.
753. As to (He who is (vii) concentrated (viii) understands how it is) (§ 74; A. v, 312), this is (b) the Investigation-of-Ideas Enlightenment Factor.
Yā sīlamupādāya pañcannaṃ bojjhaṅgānaṃ upādāyānulomatā nimittāyanā pītibhāgiyānañca visesabhāgiyānañca apilāpanatā sahagatā hoti anavamaggo, ayaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo.
754. That, owing to (i) the virtue, the employment of a sign 1 that is in conformity with the arising 2 of the (b-f) five enlightenment factors [so far mentioned] is accompanied by their non-floating- away [when] partaking of steadiness 3 and partaking of distinction, [and] does not come to lapse, 4 this is the (a) Mindfulness Enlightenment Factor.
Yaṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, accāraddhavīriyaṃ karoti.
755. As to [the clause] he (viii)" understands how it is" : he works over-energetically ;
Uddhaccabhūmīti katā abhipatthitaṃ peseti.
this being taken as the plane of agitation, he drives it over-slackly (?); 1
Kosajjabhūmīti garahito rahitehi aṅgehi bujjhati yaṃ cakkhusamathapathaṃ, sā upekkhāti.
this being censured as the plane of idleness, he becomes, by means of these factors, enlightened about (discovers) how the course of the eye [understanding coupled with] quiet is onlooking-equanimity ; 2
Tena sā upekkhā tassa bojjhaṅgassa aṅganti karitvā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgoti vuccate.
hence, taking it that it is on this account that the onlooking-equanimity is a factor of that enlightenment,3 it is called (g) the Onlooking-Equanimity Enlightenment Factor.
Eso suttaniddeso.
This is the Thread-Demonstration.
93.Tattha katamā desanā?
756. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Asmiṃ sutte cattāri ariyasaccāni desitāni.
In this Thread the four noble Truths are taught.
Tattha katamo vicayo?
757. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Sīlavato avippaṭisāro yāva vimutti imissāya pucchāya minikimatthassamīti dve padāni pucchā dve padāni visajjanāni dvīhi padehi dve abhiññaṃ dvīhi ceva padehi visajjanā kiṃ pucchati nibbādhikaṃ kāyabhūmiṃ kammassa tathā hi patiṭṭhā ca asekkhe dhamme uppādeti.
[In the case of each clause from] "No virtuous man [has to choose how shall I have] no remorse? ' " down to "deliverance" (see § 732): he framed 1 [the reply] to the question" what is the aim of ...? " (§ 75),1 thus [each] asking having two terms [and each] answer two terms, the two terms by means of which there are the two instances of getting acquainted 2 are the very two terms by which the answer [is given]. What is he asking about? About a penetrative (? )bodily plane for action; 3 for it is accordingly that the standing-point (? ) arouses the ideas that belong to the Adept.
Tattha katamā yutti?
758. (3) Herein, what is the Construing?
Sīlavato avippaṭisāro bhavati kiṃ nicchandassa ca virāgo atthi esā yutti.
One who is virtuous has no remorse (§ 732). How? He is without wilfulness 1 and has fading of lust. There is this construing.
Tattha katamaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ?
759. (4) Herein, what are the Footings?
Vīriyaṃ vīriyindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Energy is the footing for the energy faculty,
Samādhi samādhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
concentration is the footing tor the concentration faculty,
Paññā paññindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
understanding is the footing for the understanding faculty.
Vīriyaṃ adosassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Energy is the footing for non-hate,
Samādhi alobhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
concentration is the footing for non-greed,
Paññā amohassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
understanding is the footing for non-delusion.
Vīriyindriyaṃ tiṇṇaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sammāvācāya sammākammantassa sammāājīvassa.
The energy faculty is the footing for three path-factors, for right effort,1 right action, and right livelihood ;
Samādhindriyaṃ tiṇṇaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvācāya sammāsamādhino.
the concentration faculty is the footing for three path-factors, for right intention, right speech, and right concentration ;
Paññindriyaṃ dvinnaṃ maggaṅgānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sammāsatiyā sammādiṭṭhiyā ca.
the understanding faculty is the footing for two path-factors, for right mindfulness, and right view.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
760. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Sīlakkhandhe vutte sabbe tayo khandhā vuttā bhavanti, sīlameva hi selopamatā yathā selo sabbapaccatthikehi akaraṇīyo evaṃ taṃ cittaṃ sabbakilesehi na kampatīti, ayaṃ amoho.
When the virtue category is stated all the categories are stated.1 " Whose cognizance is kept in being, like this, How shall suffering come to him 1 " (§ 76) : 3 because virtue (sila) is itself like a rock (sela). Just as a rock cannot be made to shudder 4 by any kind of opposition at all, so too such cognizance does not "shudder" with any defilement at all : this is non-delusion.
Virattaṃ [passa udā. 34 udānapāḷiyaṃ] rajanīyesūti ayaṃ alobho.
That it is " free from lust for lust-provoking things " is non-greed. 5
Kopaneyye na kuppatīti ayaṃ adoso.
That it is" untroubled too by any trouble" is non-hate.
Tattha paññā amoho kusalamūlaṃ, alobho alobhoyeva, adoso adosoyeva.
775. Herein, the profitable root non-delusion is understanding, the non-greed is simply non-greed, and the non-hate is simply non-hate.
Imehi tīhi kusalamūlehi sekkhabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito asekkhamaggaṃ uppādeti.
One steadied in the Initiate's plane by these three profitable roots arouses the Adept's path.
Sekkhabhūmi sampattikammadhamme uppādeti, sā ca sammāvimutti, yañca vimuttirasañāṇadassanaṃ ime dasa asekkhānaṃ arahattaṃ dhammā.
He arouses ideas that surmount the Initiate's plane,1 and these are the ten ideas belonging to Arahantship, namely [the Adept's right view, ... down to ... his right concentration,] right deliverance, and knowing and seeing of the taste 2 of deliverance (see A. v, 221).
Tattha aṭṭhaṅgikena maggena catubbidhā bhāvanāpi labbhati.
776. Herein, with the eight-factored path the fourfold keeping-in- being is also obtained,
Sīlabhāvanā kāyabhāvanā cittabhāvanā paññābhāvanā ca.
namely keeping virtue in being, keeping the body in being, keeping cognizance in being, and keeping understanding in being (see S. iv, 111; A. i, 249).
Tattha sammākammantena sammāājīvena ca kāyo bhāvito.
Herein, the body is kept in being by right action and right livelihood,
Sammāvācāya sammāvāyāmena ca sīlaṃ bhāvitaṃ.
virtue is kept in being by right speech and right effort,
Sammāsaṅkappena sammāsamādhinā ca cittaṃ bhāvitaṃ.
cognizance is kept in being by right intention and right concentration,
Sammādiṭṭhiyā sammāsatiyā ca paññā bhāvitā.
and understanding is kept in being by right view and right mindfulness.
Imāya catubbidhāya bhāvanāya dve dhammā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti cittaṃ paññañca.
777. With this fourfold keeping-in-being two ideas come to fulfilment through keeping in being,1 namely cognizance 2 and understanding.
Cittaṃ bhāvanāya samatho, paññā bhāvanāya vipassanā.
Through the keeping-in-being the cognizance becomes Quiet, and through the keeping-in-being the understanding becomes Insight.
Tattha paññā avijjāpahānena cittaṃ upakkilesehi amissīkatanti.
778. Herein, cognizance is made unadulterated 1 by imperfections with the abandoning of ignorance that is owed to understanding.2
Paññā bhāvanāya cittabhāvanaṃyeva paripūreti.
The keeping of cognizance in being is itself brought to [complete] fulfilment by the keeping of [the Arahant's] understanding in being.
Evaṃ yassa subhāvitaṃ cittaṃ kuto taṃ dukkhamessatīti.
When his cognizance is well " kept in being, like this, How shall suffering come to him 1 ".
Api ca kho pana tassa āyasmato abyāpādadhātu adhimuttā, na so petaṃ samāpanno tassa saṅkhāpahāraṃ deti, saṅkhāvitakkite sarīre dukkhaṃ na vediyati, ayaṃ suttattho.
779. Furthermore, that venerable one 1 believed in the element of non-ill-will, and also he had entered upon [a higher attainment] when the spirit 2 gave him the blow, [so] no pain was felt in his physical frame when attacked 2 by the spirit. This is the Thread-meaning.
94.Tattha katamā desanā?
780. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Imamhi sutte dasa asekkhā arahattadhammā desitā appamāṇā ca sammā vibhāvanā.
In this Thread the ten ideas of Arahantship belonging to the Adept(§ 775) are taught, and keeping of measureless 1 concentration in being.
Tattha katamo vicayo?
781. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Selopamatā ye ye dhammā vedanīyasukhadukkhopagatā, te sabbe nirūpaṃ vānupassantānaṃ vūpagatā kāyato vedayitaparikkhāro appavattito dukkhaṃ na vediyati.
The state of being like a rock : whatever ideas are included in what can be felt as pleasure and pain 1 have all been left behind for those who contemplate only the unformed. The requisite for what is felt as a body not being made to occur, he does not feel pain.
Tattha katamā yutti, yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ kuto taṃ [naṃ (ka.)] dukkhamessatīti.
782. (3) Herein, what is the Construing? " Whose cognizance is thus kept in being, How shall suffering come to him?" (§ 76).
Tīsu bhāvanāsu dukkhaṃ nakkhamati cittaṃ cittabhāvanāya ca.
There are three kinds of keeping-in-being in which cognizance does not suffer pain,
Nirodhabhāvanāya ca ānantarikā samādhibhāvanāya ca.
namely in keeping cognizance 1 in being [which is the Meditations], in keeping Cessation in being [which is the Paths], and in keeping straight-resulting concentration (Sn.226) in being [which is the Paths' Fruits].
Iti yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittanti samādhi phalassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
783. (4) So" Whose cognizance is thus kept in being", this is the footing for the fruit of the concentration.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
784. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ [passa udā. 34 udānapāḷiyaṃ] cittanti cittāni bhāvitāni yathā paṭhamaṃ niddiṭṭhāni paññā sīlaṃ kāyo cittaṃ, sīlampi subhāvitaṃ kāyikacetasikañca ṭhitattā nānupakampatīti vedanāpi tathā saññāpi saṅkhārāpi.
" Whose cognizance is thus kept in being " is the four 1 kinds of what is kept in being demonstrated above (§ 776), namely understanding, virtue, body, and cognizance. Virtue is well kept in being, and because he is bodily and mentally " steady " (§ 76) he does not " shudder " (§ 76), and so also feeling and perception and determinations."
Kuto taṃ dukkhamessatīti sukhampi nānugacchati, adukkhamasukhampi nāgatanti.
How shall suffering come to him?" : also no pleasure follows after him, and no neither-pain-nor-pleasure comes.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
785. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold -Array?
Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport here?
Ye dukkhena adhikā bhavissanti, te evarūpāhi samāpattīhi virahissanti.
It is that those who are beyond suffering abide in such attainments [as these].
Ayamettha bhagavato adhippāyo.
This is the Blessed One's purport here.
Ye ca appasannā, te hi bhavissanti, pasannānañca pītipāmojjaṃ bhavissati, ayaṃ tattha bhagavato adhippāyo.
And it is that those with no confidence will become confident, and when they are confident 1 they will have happiness and gladness. This is the Blessed One's purport here.
Āvaṭṭoti natthi āvaṭṭanassa bhūmi.
786. (7) Conversion? there is no plane of conversion here.
Vibhattīti yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ kuto taṃ dukkhamessatīti duvidho niddeso – dukkhahetuniddeso ca paṭipakkhaniddeso ca.
787. (8) Analysis 1 As to" Whose cognizance is thus kept in being, How shall suffering come to him?", the demonstration is twofold as demonstration of the cause of suffering and as demonstration of the opposite.
Ko so dukkhahetu?
What is the cause of suffering?
Yato dukkhaṃ āgacchati paṭipakkhe vutte sesadhammānaṃ sīlaṃ hetu ca paccayo ca, te sabbe dhammā vuttā honti.
When virtue 2 is stated, since virtue is the cause and condition for all the remaining [ten] ideas [in this Thread], all those ideas are stated too.
Ekabodhipakkhiye dhamme vutte sabbe bodhagamanīyā dhammā vuttā bhavanti.
When one idea siding with enlightenment is stated all the ideas that arrive at enlightenment are stated.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
761. (6) Herein, what is the mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Imamhi sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport in this Thread?
Ye avippaṭisārena chandikā, te sīlapāripūrī bhavanti pāmojjachandikā avippaṭisārīpāripūrī, ayamettha bhagavato adhippāyo - pe - ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
It is that those with will for non-remorse are fulfillers of virtue, those with will for gladness are fulfillers of non-remorse, ... and so on.... This is the Blessed One's purport here. This is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo?
762. (7) Herein, what is the Conversion?
Idaṃ suttaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ.
This Thread is one dealing with penetration.
Yo nibbedho, ayaṃ nirodho.
Penetration is Cessation,
Yena nibbijjhati, so maggo.
that whereby he finds dispassion is the Path,
Yaṃ nibbijjhati, taṃ dukkhaṃ.
that which ceases is Suffering, and that which is abandoned by the path leading to penetration is Origin.
Yaṃ nibbedhagāminā maggena pahīyati, samudayoyaṃ vutto.
This is the Conversion.1
Tattha katamā vibhatti?
763. (8) Herein, what is the Analysis?
Sīlavato avippaṭisāroti vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ, parāmasantassa natthi avippaṭisāro yāva dosakataṃ kāyena vā vācāya vā akusalaṃ ārabhati.
" The virtuous man has no remorse " (§ 732) is a statement declarable after analysis. For (One who misapprehends [his virtue] does not have no remorse, ... down to ... he instigates what is unprofitable done out of hate by body or by speech ) ( ) ;
Kiñcipissa evaṃ hoti "sukatametaṃ sucaritametaṃ no cassa tena avippaṭisārena pāmojjaṃ jāyati yāva vimutti, tassa sīlavato avippaṭisāro"ti vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ, ayaṃ vibhattihāro.
so although that is so nevertheless even when such good conduct [misapprehended] is well done, still he has no gladness due to non-remorse ... down to deliverance. [So the statement] "The virtuous man has no remorse" is one declarable after analysis. This is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis..,
Tattha katamā parivattanā?
764. (9) Herein, what is the Reversal?
Imehi sattahi upanisāsampattīhi ekādasa upanisā vibhattiyaṃ pajahānaṃ pajahanti, ayaṃ parivattanā.
By means of these seven excellences in the stipulate 1 (see A. iv, 99) when abandoning abandon the eleven failures 2 in the stipulate. This is the Reversal.
Tattha katamā vevacanā?
765. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Imesaṃ ariyadhammānaṃ balabojjhaṅgavimokkhasamādhisamāpattīnaṃ imāni vevacanāni.
These are synonyms for the following noble ideas, namely the Powers, Enlightenment Factors, Liberations, Concentrations, and Excellences.
Tattha katamā paññatti?
766. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Sīlavato avippaṭisāroti sīlakkhandhe nekkhammapaññattiyā paññattaṃ, nisajjapaññatti ca evaṃ dasa aṅgāni dvīhi dvīhi aṅgehi paññattāni.
"The virtuous man has no remorse " is described under the Virtue Category by a description in terms of renunciation and by a description in terms of relinquishment. Thus there are ten factors each described by two factors.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
767. (12) Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Idaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyasuttaṃ pañcasu otiṇṇaṃ yathā yaṃ paṭhamaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ evamindriyādikhandhadhātuāyatanesu niddisitabbāni.
This as a Thread dealing with penetration provides a way of entry in the five [faculties (?)] : just as 1 was demonstrated above 1 (§§ 735-755 (?)) with(?) faculties, etc., so too they can be demonstrated in categories, elements, and bases.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
768. (13} Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Sīlavato avippaṭisāroti na tāva suddho ārambho avippaṭisārino pāmojjanti na tāva suddho ārambho yāni ekādasa padāni desitāni yadā tadā suddho ārambho, ayaṃ sodhano.
[When] " The virtuous man has no remorse " [is said] the instigation 1 is not yet cleared up, [and when] "he who has no remorse is glad" [is said] the instigation is not yet cleared up, [but] when the eleven terms have been taught then the instigation is cleared up. This is the Clearing Up.
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno?
769. (14) Herein, what are the Terms of Expression?
Sīlavemattatāya paññattaṃ evaṃ dasa padāni sabbāni sīlakkhandhassa ānisaṃso, te ca patirūpadesavāso ca paccayo attasammāpaṇidhānañca hetu, samādhikkhandhassa sukhaṃ hetu passaddhi paccayo, yena jhānasahajāti ca ṭhānanti jhānaṅgā aparo pariyāyo kāmesu ādīnavānupassanā samādhino paccayo nekkhamme ānisaṃsadassāvitā hetu.
It is described in terms of diversity of virtue. Thus the ten [remaining] terms 1 are all the reward of the virtue category. 770. (15) [Requisites? ] And for these 1 ( liiving in befitting places) (A. ii, 32) is the condition and (Right disposition in self-guidance 2 ) the cause. For the concentration category the "pleasure" is the cause and the " tranquillity " the condition, on which account, there being also conascence with meditation, in that jnstance 3 they are meditation factors. 771. Another way : For concentration, contemplation of disappointment in sensual desires is the condition and the state of seeing reward in renunciation is the cause.
Tattha katamā samāropanā?
772. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Yaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ, so sīlakkhandho.
The energy faculty is the virtue category.
Yaṃ sīlaṃ, te cattāro dhammā padhānā.
The virtue consists in the four ideas that are basic [for the meditations], 1
Yaṃ dhammānudhammapaṭipatti, so pātimokkhasaṃvaro.
any practice of ideas in accordance with the True Idea being restraint by Patimokkha-Rule.
95.Yassa selopamaṃ cittanti gāthā [passa udā. 34 udāne], selopamanti upamā yathā selo vātena na kampati na uṇhena na sītena saṃkampati.
773. The verse : ( Whose cognizance is steady as a rock, ... )(§76). 774. [The Thread's Meaning.] As to the simile 1 "as a rock" : just as a rock neither shudders with the wind nor wavers with heat or with cold,
Yathā anekā acetanā, te uṇhena milāyanti, sītena avasussanti, vātena bhajanti.
as do many choiceless [inanimate things]; while they wither with heat, shrivel with cold and flгtter with the wind, not so a rock.
Na evaṃ selo virattaṃ rajanīyesu dosanīye na dussatīti kāraṇaṃ dosanīye domanassantaṃ, na duṭṭhena vā kampati uṇhena vā, so milāyati sītena vā avasussati, evaṃ cittaṃ rāgena nānussati sītena kampatīti.
" Is free from lust for lust-provoking things, Untroubled too by trouble " (§ 76) : 2 cognizance thus free from lust for lust- provoking things through fading-of-lust 2 is untroubled by trouble.2
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Virattaṃ rajanīyesu dosanīye na dussati.
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
Dosanīye panassanti na dussati, aduṭṭhaṃ taṃ na kosissanti, tena kuppanīye na kuppati, yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ kuto taṃ dukkhaniddeso ca kuto evarūpassa dukkhaṃ āgamissatīti niddiṭṭhaṃ.
No grief 2 about what is hate-provoking 2 makes it hate ; not hating, it will not be troubled ; hence it is untroubled by trouble. It is that from which suffering comes. And as to the demonstration of the opposite,1 it is demonstrated thus : " How will suffering come to one such as this 1"
Parivattanāti kuto taṃ dukkhamessatīti yaṃ cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ anupādisesā ayaṃ natthi sopādisesā ayaṃ atthi.
788. (9) Reversal? as to " How shall suffering come to him 1 ", there is no mental pleasure in the [case of the extinction element] without trace left,1[but] there is in the [case of that] with trace left.1
Puna evamāhaṃsu taṃ khaṇaṃ taṃ muhuttaṃ ubhayameva avedayitaṃ sopādisesaṃ yañca anupādisesaṃ yañca taṃ khaṇaṃ taṃ muhuttaṃ anupādisesaṃ yañca sopādisesaṃ ca avedayitaṃ.
Again [at the same time, however,] they have said 2 thus: "At that moment, at that period, in both cases it is not felt in [that] with trace left 3 nor in [that] without trace left.3
Sukhamāpannassa anāvattikanti ayamettha viseso parivattanā.
The pleasure that one who has entered upon [the attainment of cessation of perception and feeling] has does not belong to the [actual] occasion."4 This distinction is the Reversal here.
Tattha katamo vevacano?
789. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Yassevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ vā bhāvitaṃ subhāvitaṃ anuṭṭhitaṃ vatthukataṃ susamāraddhaṃ.
" Whose cognizance is thus kept in being " : kept in being, well kept in being, established, made the basis, well instigated (see A. iv, 300).
Cittanti mano viññāṇaṃ manindriyaṃ manoviññāṇadhātu.
" Cognizance " : mind,1 consciousness, mind faculty, mind-consciousness element.
Tattha katamā paññatti?
790. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Cittaṃ mano saṅkhārā vūpasamapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
Cognizance is described by a description in terms of pacification of mind- determinations.1
Samādhi asekkhapaññattiyā paññatto.
Concentration is described 2 by a description in terms of the Adept.
Dukkhaṃ ucchinnapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
Suffering is described by a description in terms of what is annihilated.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
791. (12) Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Citte niddiṭṭhe pañcakkhandhā niddiṭṭhā honti, ayaṃ khandhesu otaraṇo, manoviññāṇadhātuyā niddiṭṭhāya aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo niddiṭṭhā honti, ayaṃ dhātūsu otaraṇo.
When cognizance is demonstrated the five categories are demonstrated; this is the way of entry in the case of the categories. When the mind- consciousness element is demonstrated the eighteen elements are demonstrated; this is the way of entry in the case of the elements.
Manāyatane niddiṭṭhe sabbāni āyatanāni niddiṭṭhāni honti.
When the mind base is demonstrated all the bases are demonstrated.
Tattha manāyatanaṃ nāmarūpassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Herein, the mind base [as consciousness]1 is the footing for name- and-form;
Nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ.
with name-and-form as condition, the sixfold base; ...
Tathā paṭiccasamuppāde.
so in the case of dependent arising
Ayaṃ otaraṇo.
this is the way of entry.
Tattha katamo sodhano suddhoyeva ārambho.
792. (13) Herein, what is the Clearing up? The instigation is already cleared up.
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno?
793. (14) Herein, what are the Terms of Expression?
Chaḷindriyaṃ bhāvanā ekattāyaṃ paññatti chaṭṭhitena kāyo ekattāya paññatto.
The keeping of the sixth 1 faculty in being is described 1 by a unity, through being based on the sixth 1 the body is described by a unity.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
794. (15) Herein what is the Requisite?
Cittassa pubbahetu samuppādāya manasikāro ca tappoṇatā ca yaṃ asamāhitabhūmiyaṃ ca visesadhammānaṃ abhāvitattā cittasatataṃ gacchati, sace samādhino sukhaṃ hetu avippaṭisāro paccayo, ayaṃ hetu ayaṃ paccayo parikkhāro.
The prior cause for the arising of cognizance is attention and a leaning thereto (cf. M. i, 302) since it is owing to not keeping ideas partaking of distinction in being that cognizance goes on continuously in the unconcentrated plane.1 The cause of concentration is pleasure and its condition is non-remorse (cf. § 770). This 2 is the Requisite..
Tattha katamā samāropanā?
795. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Yassevaṃ bhāvitanti tassa dhammā samāropayitabbā.
"Whose [cognizance] is thus kept in being" : the ideas to be coordinated with that [are as follows] :
Kāyo sīlaṃ paññā bhāvitacittanti anabhirataṃ anapaṇataṃ anekaṃ anutaṃ anāpajjāsattaṃ ayaṃ samaññāyatanā na tassa sekkhassa sammāsamādhi sabbe asekkhā dasa arahantadhammā niddiṭṭhā honti.
the body, the virtue, the understanding, and the cognizance, kept in being. They being each uninflected,1 undefiected,1 unsuperfiuous,1 undeficient,1 their attainability unclungto, this is the right concentration that belongs to the [Adept] Monk's State,1 not to that of the Initiate. [So] all the Adept's ten Arahant-ideas have been demonstrated.
Asekkhabhāgiyāni suttāni.
The type of Thread dealing with the Adept.
96.Yassa nūna, bhante, kāyagatāsati abhāvitā, ayaṃ so aññataraṃ sabrahmacāriṃ [sabrahmacārīnaṃ (ka.)] āsajja samāpajja appaṭinisajja janapadacārikaṃ pakkameyya, so āyasmā imasmiṃ vippaṭijānāti dve pajāni paṭijānāti cittabhāvanāyañca diṭṭhiyā pahānaṃ, kāyabhāvanāyañca diṭṭhippahānaṃ, kāyabhāvanāyañca taṇhāpahānaṃ, yaṃ paṭhamaṃ upamaṃ karoti.
796. (Surely, venerable sir, it is one who failed to keep Mindfulness Occupied with the Body in being who might go wandering in the country after insulting a certain companion in the divine life 2 without apologising) (§ 76). In this [Thread 3 there are two terms] 3 this venerable one disclaims and two terms he claims : they are abandonment of craving in keeping cognizance in being and abandonment of views in keeping the body in being.3 The first simile he gives is thus : (
Asucināpi sucināpi pathavī neva aṭṭiyati na jigucchati na pītipāmojjaṃ paṭilabhati, evameva hi pathavīsamena so cetasā anvayena appakena averena abyāpajjena viharāmīti.
Earth is neither distressed nor disgusted with the impure and the pure nor does it gain happiness and gladness therefrom ; so too I 4 abide with an abundant 6 measureless 6 heart without risk and ill will) (cf. A. iv, 374).
Iti so āyasmā kiṃ paṭijānāti, kāyabhāvanāya sukhindriyapahānaṃ paṭijānāti, cittabhāvanāya somanassindriyapahānaṃ paṭijānāti.
797. [Demonstration of the Thread.] What is it that the venerable-one claims? He claims abandoning of the [bodily-]pleasure faculty through keeping the body in being [i.e. contemplation of the body as a body] and he claims abandoning of the [mental] joy faculty through keeying cognizance in being [i.e. contemplation of cognizance as cognizance].
Kāyikā vedanā rāgānusayamanugatānaṃ sukhindriyaṃ paṭikkhipati.
Bodily [pleasant] feeling is underlain 1 by the underlying tendency to lust and that kind of pleasure faculty he rejects,
Na hi vedanākkhandhaṃ yā cetasikā sukhavedanā tattha ayaṃ paṭilābhapaccayā uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ.
[but] not the [whole] feeling category.2 Any mental pleasant feeling that arises there [does so] with the obtaining [of the concentration attainment] as condition;
Sotaṃ paṭikkhipati, na hi manosamphassajaṃ vedanaṃ.
he rejects the joy that is [the mental] pleasure, [but] not [all] feeling born of mind-contact.2
Tattha catūsu mahābhūtesu rūpakkhandhassa anusayapaṭighapahānaṃ bhaṇati.
798. Herein, under the four Great Entities 1 he mentions the abandoning of approval 2 and resistance in regard to the form category ;
Kāme rūpañca tañca asekkhabhūmiyaṃ.
and the sensual desires as well as the form, and that too in the Adept's plane.
Kāye kāyānupassanā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārañca.
And while the contemplation of the body as a pleasant abiding here and now,3
Balena ca ussāhena ca sabbaṃ manasi katattānaṃ pahānaṃ medaṃ katālikāya ca purisena ca maṇḍanakajātikena ca, etehi imassa mātāpitusambhūtaṃ paccavekkhaṇaṃ, so kāyena ca kāyānupassanāya ca cittena ca cittānupassanāya ca dve dhamme dhāreti.
it is through power and through activity, 4 that there is abandoning of all kinds of attention.4 799. With [the similes of] the Grease-Pot 1 and the Man Fond of Ornaments,2 [there is shown] his reviewing of [this body] given its being by a mother and a father. 3 800. With the body and with contemplation of the body, and with cognizance and with contemplation of cognizance, he remembers two ideas:
Kāyakilesavatthuṃ cittena ca cittasannissaye cittena subhāvitena sattannaṃ ca samāpattīnaṃ viharituṃ paṭijānāti.
with the body the ground 1 for defilement,1 and with cognizance cognizance's dependence [i.e. the body]. With cognizance well kept in being he claims to abide in the seven attainments.2
Gahapatiputtopamatāya ca yathā gahapatiputtassa nānāraṅgānaṃ vatthakaraṇḍako puṇṇo bhaveyya, so yaṃ yadeva vatthayugaṃ pubbaṇhasamaye ākaṅkhati, pubbaṇhasamaye nibbāpeti, evaṃ majjhanhikasamaye, sāyanhasamaye, evameva so āyasmā cittassa subhāvitattā yathārūpena vihārena ākaṅkhati pubbaṇhasamayaṃ viharituṃ, tathārūpena [yathārūpena (pī. ka.)] pubbaṇhasamayaṃ viharati, majjhanhikasamaye, sāyanhasamaye.
802. */And 1 in the simile of the Householder (see M. i, 215), just as, were a householder's son to have a clothes-chest full of variously dyed [clothes, then] whatever pair of clothes he wanted in the morning he would put on 2 in the morning, and similarly at noon and in the evening, so too, because this venerable one's cognizance is well kept in being, whatever kind of abiding he wants to abide in in the morning, such he abides in in the morning, [and similarly] at noon and in the evening.
Tena vesa āyasmatā upamāya me āsitāya pathavī vā anuttarā indriyabhāvanā bhāvitacittena.
With this 3 simile there is stated by that same venerable one the following fivefold 3 unsurpassed Keeping of Faculties in Being (see, e.g. M. _iii, 301). /* 1
Tena so āyasmā idaṃ aṭṭhavidhaṃ bhāvanaṃ paṭijānāti catūsu mahābhūtesu, kāyabhāvanaṃ upakacaṇḍālaṃ purisametakaṃ bhavatalākāsu cittabhāvanaṃ, imāhi bhāvanāhi tāya bhāvanāya ca samathā pāripūrimantehi.
801. *//* 1 With cognizance kept in being that venerable one claims this eightfold keeping in being, namely the keeping of the body in being in [the similes of] the four Great Entities (.A. iv, 374-5, similes 1-4) and the keeping of cognizance in being in [the similes of] the bull,1 the savage, the man, and the grease-pot,1 (.A. iv, 376, similes 7, 6, 8, 9 respectively), [doing so] in virtue of these kinds of keeping in being.1 With the former kind of keeping in being he implies fulfilment of quiet,1
Imehi catūhi paññāpāripūrimantehi.
and with the latter four he implies the fulfilment of understanding.
97.Kathaṃ upakacaṇḍālaṃ paṭikūlesu dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
803. (i) How does he 1 abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive ideas?
Kāyo pakatiyā appaṭikūlaṃ kāye uddhumātakasaññā saṃkhittena nava saññā ime paṭikūlā dhammā ceso āyasmā paṭikūlato ajigucchito kāyagatāsatiyā bhāvanānuyogamanuyutto viharati, na hi tassa jigucchappahāya cittaṃ paṭikūlati.
The body is by nature repulsive. 2 Perception of the bloated [corpse-stage] in the body, [etc.,] in brief, the nine [corpse-stage] perceptions (see D. ii, 293 ff.), these are repulsive ideas. And this venerable one, undisgusted with the repulsive, abides devoted to the pursuit of keeping in being Mindfulness Occupied with the Body ; for his cognizance has no repulsion through his having abandoned disgust.
Kathaṃ appaṭikūlesu dhammesu paṭikūlasaññī viharatīti?
804. (ii) How does he abide percipient of the repulsive in unrepulsive ideas?
Kāyo sabbalokassa appaṭikūlo taṃ so āyasmā asubhasaññāya viharati.
To all the world the body is unrepulsive. This venerable one abides with perception of it as ugly.
Evaṃ appaṭikūlesu dhammesu paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
That is how he abides percipient of the repulsive in unrepulsive ideas.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlasaññī viharatīti api sabboyaṃ lokassa yamidaṃ muṇḍo pattapāṇī kulesu piṇḍāya vicarati, tena ca so āyasmā suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇena appaṭikūlasaññī cittena ca kāyena nibbidāsahagatena appaṭikūlasaññī, evaṃ paṭikūlesu appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati.
805. (iii) How does he abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive [ideas]? It is repulsive 1 to all the world 1 that 1 shaven and with bowl in hand there wanders for alms among the clans this venerable one with golden-coloured 1 unrepulsive 1 body. Therein 1 he is percipient of the unrepulsive with cognizance accompanied by dispassion.1 That is how he abides percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive ideas.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
806. (iv) How does he abide percipient of the repulsive 1 in [unrepulsive-and-]repulsive ideas?
Paṭikūlesu ca dhammesu subhasaññino itthirūpe paṭikūlesu ca jigucchino vinīlakavipubbake tattha so āyasmā paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
In [the case of] ideas such as the female form that are un-repulsive 2 to one percipient of beauty [therein], and [in the case of] ideas such as the discoloured and festering [corpse-stages] that are repulsive to one disgusted [by them], therein this vene,able one abides percipient of the repulsive.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu dhammesu tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā upekkhako viharati sato ca sampajāno ca?
807. (v) How does he avoid both the repulsive and unrepulsive and abide in onlooking-equarumity mindful and aware 1 1 In [the case of] ideas such as the female form that are unrepulsive to one percipient of beauty [therein],
Appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu subhasaññino itthirūpe paṭikūlesu ca jigucchino vinīlakavipubbake tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā 'netaṃ mama''nesohamasmi''neso me' attāti viharati.
and in [the case of] ideas such as the discoloured and festering [corpse-stages] that are repulsive to one disgusted [by them], avoiding both these, he abides [seeing them thus]: (This is not mine, this is not I, this is not my self) (see 111. i, 139).
Evaṃ tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno.
That is how he avoids both and abides in onlooking- equanimity mindful and aware.
Aparo pariyāyo.
808. Another way.
Tedhātuko lokasannivāso sabbabālaputhujjanānaṃ appaṭikūlasaññā.
(iia) All foolish ordinary men have perception of the unrepulsive in life-in-a-world in the triple element 1 [of existence].
Tattha ca āyasmā sāriputto appaṭikūlasaññī viharati.
Herein, the venerable Sariputta abides percipient of the repulsive.2
Evaṃ appaṭikūlesu dhammesu paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
That is how he abides percipient of the repulsive in unrepulsive ideas.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
809. (ia) How does he abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive ideas?
Paṭikūlasaññino sabbasekkhā idha kā tedhātuke sabbaloke.
All Initiates are percipient of here-where ? 1- in the triple element, in all the world.
Tattha katamo bhūmippatto samādhiphale sacchikato appaṭikūlasaññī viharati ?
With regard to that [world] one who has reached the plane of Him Who Has Done 2 and has verified the fruits of concentration abides percipient of the unrepulsive.
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Na hi taṃ atthi yassa lokassa pahānāya paṭikūlasaññī uppādeyya.
Because there is no [longer] any [reason why] he should arouse perception of the repulsive 3 for the purpose of abandoning any world [since that has been completed by him].
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu paṭikūlasaññī viharati?
810. (iva) How does he abide percipient of the repulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive 1 ideas?
Tedhātuke lokasannivāse yāva kāmalokabhūmatā hi rāgānaṃ vītarāgānaṃ paṭikūlasamatā rūpārūpadhātuṃ appaṭikūlasamatā.
In the [case of] life-in-a-world in the triple element there is that constancy of repulsion which 2 [Non-Returners] without lust for the plane of the sensual-desire world 2 have [towards that world, and] constancy of unrepulsion [they have towards] the form-element and formless element:
Tattha ca āyasmā sāriputto paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
and as to that the venerable Sariputta abides percipient of the repulsive.
Evaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
That is how he abides percipient of the repulsive in repulsive-and- unrepulsive 1 ideas.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
811. (iiia) How does he abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive ideas?
Yaṃ kiñci parato duruttānaṃ durāgatānaṃ vacanapathānaṃ taṃ vacanaṃ appaṭikūlaṃ yāvatā vācaso appatirūpā tathā janassa appaṭikūlasaññā.
Whatever there is from another of verbal modes 1 ill-spoken 1 and unwelcome (see M.i, 10), that speech is repulsive 1 [to the ordinary hearer (? )] but as to the speaker,1 with regard to such 1 [speech] such a person has perception of the unrepulsive.
Tattha āyasmā sāriputto abhiññāya sacchikato appaṭikūlasaññī viharati, evaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati.
With regard to that [kind of speech] the venerable Sariputta, having verified it by direct acquaintanceship, abides percipient of the unrepulsive. That is how he abides percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive ideas.
98.Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno?
812. (va) How does he avoid both the repulsive and the unrepulsive 1 and abide in onlooking-equanimity mindful and aware?
Yañca nesaṃ samanupassati ye dhammā duccaritā, te dhammā appaṭikūlā.
When someone does not see ideas consisting in misconduct as such,2 those are unrepulsive 2 [to him].
Tattha āyasmā sāriputto iti paṭisañcikkhati ye dhammā duccaritā, te dhammā aniṭṭhavipākā.
Herein, the venerable Sariputta considers thus: "Ideas consisting in misconduct have unwished-for ripening ;
Ye dhammā sucaritā, te ācayagāmino.
ideas consisting in good conduct lead to amassing,"
So ca sucaritaṃ ācayagāminiṃ karitvā duccaritaṃ aniṭṭhavipākaṃ karitvā tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā upekkhako viharati.
but after taking good conduct to lead to dispersal 3 and by taking misconduct to have unwished-for ripening, avoiding both these, he abides in onlooking-equanimity.
Atha paṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlesu ca paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
813. Then again: 1 (ivb) he abides percipient of the repulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive ideas.
Taṇhā paṭikūladhammā kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
Craving is a repulsive idea. What is the reason?
Taṇhāvasena hi sattā dvīhi dhammehi sattā, kabaḷīkāre āhāre rasataṇhāya sattā, phasse sukhasaññāya sattā.
It is because creatures (satta) are clung (satta) by two ideas : they are clung to physical nutriment by craving for taste, and they are clung to contact (presence) by perception of pleasure.
Tatthāyasmā sāriputto kabaḷīkāre ca āhāre paṭikūlasaññī viharati, phasse ca dukkhasaññī viharati.
Herein, the venerable Sariputta abides percipient of the repulsive in physical nutriment and he abides percipient of pain in contact (presence).
Evaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca paṭikūlasaññī viharati.
That is how he abides percipient of the repulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive [ideas].
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
814. (ib) How does he abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive ideas? 1
Taṇhākkhayaṃ anuttaraṃ nibbānaṃ tathā bālaputhujjanānaṃ paṭikūlasaññā pahatasaññā ca.
Exhaustion of craving is the unsurpassed extinction: therein 2 foolish ordinary men have perception of repulsiveness and perception of being killed.
Tatthāyasmato sāriputtassa appaṭikūlasaññā abyāpādasaññā ca sāmaṃ paññāya passitvā evaṃ paṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati.
Herein the venerable Sariputta has perception of unrepulsiveness 3 and perception of non-ill-will, having seen for himself 4 with understanding. That is how he abides percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive ideas.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlesu ca appaṭikūlesu ca dhammesu appaṭikūlasaññī viharati?
815. (iiib) How does he abide percipient of the unrepulsive in repulsive-and-unrepulsive ideas?
Tatiye ca nibbāne paṭikūlasaññino yasena ca kittini ca appaṭikūlasaññino.
There are those who 1 are percipient of the repulsive in extinction and are percipient of the unrepulsive in fame and renown.2
Tatthāyasmā sāriputto assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṃ sammāpaññāya paṭijānanto paṭikūlañca appaṭikūlañca dhammaṃ tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā appaṭikūlasaññī viharati.
The venerable Sariputta, who understands 3 with right understanding of how the gratification, the disappointment, and the escape come to be, herein abides *//* 4 percipient of the unrepulsive.
Kathaṃ paṭikūlaṃ appaṭikūlañca dhammaṃ tadubhayaṃ abhinivajjayitvā upekkhako viharati?
816. (vb) How does he avoid both the repulsive and the unrepulsive 1 and abide in onlooking-equanimity
Sato ca sampajāno ca, yañca samanupassati anunayo appaṭikūlo dhammo paṭigho ca paṭikūlo dhammo, tatthāyasmā sāriputto anunayassa paṭighappahīnattā upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno ca.
mindful and aware? According as he sees it, approval is an unrepulsive idea, +/ 2 and according as he sees it, /+ 2 resistance is a repulsive idea ; herein the venerable Sariputta, owing to his abandoning of approval and resistance,3 */ 4 avoiding both the repulsive and the unrepulsive, /* 4 abides in onlooking-equanimity mindful and aware.
Yañcassa samanupassati ayaṃ pañcavidhā anuttarā indriyabhāvanā.
817. +//+ 1 This is the fivefold unsurpassed Keeping of the Faculties in Being (see §802).
Ayaṃ suttaniddeso.
This is the Thread-Demonstration.
99.Tattha katamo desanāhāro?
818. (1) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a teaching?
Imamhi sutte kiṃ desitabbaṃ?
What is taught 1 in this Thread?
Tattha vuccate, imamhi sutte diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāro desito, tathā vimuttaṃ cittaṃ paccavekkhaṇā ca adhipaññādhammaṃ desitaṃ.
Herein, it can be stated that a pleasant abiding here and now is taught, likewise liberated cognizance and reviewing, and the idea of the higher understanding 2 is taught.
Tattha katamo vicayo?
819. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Ye kāye kāyānupassino viharanti, tesaṃ cittaṃ anunayappaṭighena na viharati anunayappaṭighena cābhiramamānassa cittaṃ samaggataṃ bhavissatīti bhāvanāya balametaṃ, ayaṃ vicayo hāro.
When [people] abide contemplating the body, their cognizance does not abide with approval 1 and resistance, and when someone does not 2 delight in approval and resistance his cognizance will become even (1),3 so this is the power of keeping in being. This is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation.
Tattha katamo yuttihāro?
820. (3) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Construing?
Kāyabhāvanāya ca cittabhāvanāya ca na kiñci sabrahmacārī atimaññissatīti.
Owing to keeping the body in being and owing to keeping cognizance in being he will not slight (cf. Sn. 148) companions in the divine life 1 at all.
Atthi esā yutti, ayaṃ yuttihāro.
There is this construing. This is the Mode of Conveying a Construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hāro?
821. (4) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Footings?
Kāyabhāvanāya paṭhamassa sati upaṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Keeping the body in being 1 is the footing for the first Foundation of Mindfulness.2
Yā pathavīsamacittatā, sā aniccānupassanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
Cognizance's being as even as earth 3 is the footing for the contemplation of impermanence.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
822. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Yaṃ pathavīsamena cetasā viharati attānupassī pathavīsamena gihī viharati.
In that he abides with cognizance as even as earth, he abides also 1 contemplating himself as even as earth.
Ko attho pathavīsamenāti?
What does "as even as earth" mean?
Yathā ye ca selopamatāya akammayuttā evameva pathavīsamo ayaṃ hiriyatāya.
Like those unassociated with shuddering 2 owing to resemblance to a rock(§§ 773 ff.), so, too, this [venerable one] is as even as earth owing to ashamedness [of this body].8
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo.
This is the Characteristic.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
823. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Imamhi byākaraṇe ko tassa āyasmato adhippāyo?
What is the venerable one's Purport in this prose-exposition?
Ye keci arahantā indriyabhāvanaṃ ākaṅkhiyanti, te pathavīsamataṃ uppādayissantīti.
It is that all Arahants who wish for the keeping of the Faculties in Being (see §§ 802-817) will arouse earth(-like) evenness.
Ayaṃ adhippāyo.
This is the purport.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭoti?
824. (7) Herein, what is the Conversion?
Natthi āvaṭṭassa bhūmi.
There is no plane of conversion.
Tattha katamo vibhatti?
825. (8) Herein, what is the Analysis?
Yo kāyānupassī viharati, so pathavīsamacittataṃ paṭilabhissatīti na ekaṃsena.
That he who abides contemplating the body will obtain cognizance as even as earth is unilaterally [always so].
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Ye khaṇḍakādichinnakādino, na te pathavīsamacittataṃ paṭilabhanti.
Those who have [their virtue] tom, etc., rent, etc.,1 do not obtain cognizance as even as earth;
Sabbā kāyagatāsati sekkhabhāvanāya nibbānaṃ phalaṃ, ayaṃ vibhatti.
but all mindfulness occupied with the body [ends in (?)] extinction and the fruit [of the Path] in the Initiate's keeping-in- being. This is the Analysis.
Tattha katamo parivattano hāro?
826. (9) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal?
Ye kāyānupassino viharissanti, tesaṃyeva kāyapaccayā uppajjeyya āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, ayaṃ parivattano hāro.
Those who will abide contemplating the body, for them too may arise taints and fever of distress with the body as condition (cf. A. ii, 197). This is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
827. (12) Herein,1 what are the Ways of Entry?
Pañcakkhandhā [sattesu ca pañcakkhandhā (pī.)] avitiṇṇā [avatiṇṇā (pī.)] bāvīsatindriyāni, tathā yaṃ manindriyaṃ, taṃ manodhātu manāyatanañca.
In the case of creatures 2 the five categories are made ways of entry, and the twenty-two 2 faculties likewise.
Yaṃ samādhindriyaṃ, taṃ dhammadhātu dhammāyatanañca.
The mind faculty is the mind element and mind base ; the concentration faculty is the idea element and the idea base.
Ayaṃ otaraṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
828. (13) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Ye ca manasā cattāro bhāvetabbā, te sabbe bhāvitā yaṃ taṃ manena pahīne pattabbataṃ sabbattha etassa ca atthāya ārambho, so attho suddho.
The four that should be kept in being by the mind have all been kept in being. That which can be reached 1 by the mind in abandoning has all been reached, 2 and since the instigation was for the purpose of that, 2 that purpose has been cleared up.
Ayaṃ sodhano hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up.
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno?
829. (14) Herein, what are the Terms of Expression?
Ayaṃ samādhi ekattatāya paññatto, cha kāyā ekattatāya paññattā.
This concentration is described by a unity. The six bodies are described by a unity;
Pañcindriyāni rūpīni rūpakāyo.
[for] the five faculties with form [beginning with the eye] are the form-body,
Cha vedanākāyā vedanākāyo.
the six bodies of feeling are the feeling-body,
Cha saññākāyā saññākāyo.
the six bodies of perception are the perception-body,
Cha cetanākāyā cetanākāyo.
the six bodies of choice are the choice-body,
Cha viññāṇakāyā viññāṇakāyo.
and the six bodies of consciousness are the consciousness-body;
Sabbepi ete dhammā dhammakāyotiyeva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti.
and all these are the "idea-body" as it is called.
Ayaṃ adhiṭṭhāno.
These are the Terms of Expression.
Parikkhāroti samāpattikosallañca vīthikosallañca [dhītikosallañca (pī.)] hetu.
830. (15) Requisite? skill in attainment and skill in steadiness 1 are the cause,
Yañca gocarakosallaṃ yañca kallaṃ taṃ kosallaṃ paccayo.
and skill in resort and skill in health are the condition ;
Vodānakosallaṃ hetu, kallaṃ paccayo.
skill in emerging 2 is the cause and the health the condition.
Sukhaṃ hetu, abyāpajjaṃ paccayo.
Pleasure is the cause and non-affliction the condition.3
Ayaṃ parikkhāro.
This is the Requisite.
Tattha katamo samāropanoti?
831. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Yathā pathavī sucimpi nikkhīpante asucimpi nikkhitte tādiseyeva evaṃ kāyo manāpikehipi phassehi amanāpikehipi phassehi tādisoyeva paṭighasamphassena vā sukhāya vedanāya tādisaṃ yo cittaṃ.
As earth remains indifferent whether what is pure is thrown [on it] or whether what is impure is thrown [on it], so the body remains indifferent to both agreeable contacts (presences) and disagreeable contacts (presences), and so cognizance remains indifferent to resistance-contact 1 or to pleasant feeling.
Idaṃ suttaṃ vibhattaṃ saopammaṃ ugghaṭitaññussa puggalassa vibhāgena.
This Thread is analysed with its similes 2 by an analysis(?) for a person who gains knowledge from what is condensed.
Tattha samāropanāya avakāso natthi.
Herein, there is no opportunity for a coordination.
100.Tattha katamaṃ suttaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ?
832. Herein, what is the type of Thread dealing with corruption and dealing with morality?1
Yato ca kusalehi dhammehi na virodhati, na vaḍḍhati, imaṃ ādīnavaṃ bhagavā deseti, tasmā channaṃ vivareyya, vivaṭaṃ nātivassati, tato ādīnavato vivareyyāti taṃ tīhi dhammehi nābhidhaṃsitāti asubhasaññāya rāgena nābhidhaṃsiyati.
How one does not grow, 2 does not increase, in profitable ideas, this disappointment the Blessed One teaches [with the] words ( Rain soddens what is covered up ) But then [What is open it soddens not,] 3 (So open out 4 what is covered up That rain may never sodden you) (§ 77), so one should open out so as to [be safe] from that disappointment. 833. It is in virtue of three ideas that there is no rain-soddening : 1 in virtue of perception of ugliness one is not rain-soddened 2 by lust,
Mettāya dosena nābhidhaṃsiyati.
in virtue of lovingkindness one is not rain-soddened 2 by hate,
Vipassanā mohena nābhidhaṃsiyati.
in virtue of insight one is not rain-soddened 2 by delusion.
Evañcassa yo yo dhammo paṭipakkho tamhi tamhi dhamme paripūrissati.
In this way, whatever idea is the opposite of that [unprofit], in such ideas one will reach fullfilment,
Yo tassa dhammassa akusalo dhammo paṭipakkho, tena nādhivāsiyati.
and any unprofitable idea which is the opposite of that idea, by that one will not be rain-soddened.2
Aparo pariyāyo.
834. Another way.
Ye ime dhammā attanā na sakkoti vuṭṭhānaṃ, te ete dhammā desitā.
It is the ideas where emergence [from transgression] is not possible by oneself 1 that are taught [by the phrase]
Channamativassatīti tehi vitakkaṃ yena ca sakkā puna desitaṃ cittaṃ vibhāvetuṃ pariyodāpetuṃ vivekaninnassa vivekapoṇassa vivekapabbhārassa vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ āpajjati kusalesu dhammesu, seyyathāpi nāma uppalaṃ vā kumudaṃ vā padumaṃ vā udake sukkapakkhe cando yāvaratti yāvadivaso āgacchati, tassa vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhitabbā, na parihāni, evaṃvidhaṃ taṃ cittaṃ nābhidhaṃsiyati.
"Rain soddens what is covered up", though they have that [means] 2 whereby they can [be emerged from]. Again, [in the second part of the verse] it is taught how also to keep in being,3 to purify, the cognizance of one who tends, leans and inclines to seclusion [from defilement so that] he enters upon maturity, growth, and abundance in profitable ideas. Like a blue or a white or a red lotus in water [when (?)] the moon comes in the bright half [then (?)] through the day or through the night only its increase is to be expected, not its diminution; in suchwise is this kind of cognizance not rain-soddened.4
Aparopettha yo akūṭo asaṭho amāyāvī uju puriso yathābhūtaṃ attānaṃ āvikaroti.
835. Another here also. An uncheating, unfraudulent, undeceitful, straight, man reveals himself as he is.
Tattha yo chādeti tassa akusalā dhammā cittaṃ anudhāvanti.
Herein, it is when someone conceals unprofitable ideas that overrun his cognizance
Channamativassatīti yo pana hoti asaṭho akūṭo amāyāvī uju puriso yathābhūtaṃ attānaṃ āvikaroti.
that "rain soddens what is covered up ". But when one who is an unfraudulent, uncheating, undeceitful, straight man reveals himself as he is,
Tassa cittaṃ akusalehi dhammehi na viddhaṃsiyati, ayaṃ suttattho.
his cognizance is not rain-soddened 1 by unprofitable ideas. This is the Thread's meaning.
101.Tattha katamā desanā?
836. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Idha desitā dasa akusalakammapathā adhivassanatāya dasa kusalakammapathā anadhivassanatāya akusalehi na visujjhati.
Here the ten unprofitable courses of action are taught in rain-soddening 1 and the ten profitable courses of action in non-rain-soddening. 2 For one is not purified by unprofitable [ideas],
Yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā "cittasaṃkilesā, bhikkhave, sattā saṃkilissantī"ti.
according as was said by the Blessed One ( Bkikkkus, it is by defilement of cognizance that creatures are defiled,) (S. iii, 151 ).
Tattha katamo vicayo?
837. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Yassevaṃ cittaṃ adhivāsiyati, tassa bujjhitassa yaṃ bhaveyya kūṭeyya, taṃ ānantariyenapi satthari vā guṇānukampanatāya, ayaṃ vicayo.
Whose cognizance is thus rain-soddened,1 that would be an ordinary man's (? ); 1 but one who has the straight-resulting concentration(? ) 1 would open it? up (? ) 1 for the purpose of emergence therefrom again (? ).1 This is the Investigation.
Tattha katamā yuttīti?
838. (3) Herein, what is the Construing?
Evaṃ anadhivasiyantaṃ cittaṃ vuṭṭhāti.
Cognizance that is not being rain-soddened 1 thus emerges 2 [from the defilement],
Vuṭṭhitaṃ patiṭṭhahati kusalesu dhammesūti atthi esā yutti.
and being emerged, it becomes established in profitable ideas. There is this construing.
Padaṭṭhānanti channamativassatīti channaṃ asaṃvarānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti achannaṃ saṃvaraṇānaṃ.
839. (4) Footings? "Rain soddens what is covered up: " the covered up is the footing for the kinds of non-restraint. " But what is open it soddens not: " the uncovered-up is the footing for the kinds of restraint.
Tasmā channaṃ vivareyya vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti desanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
" So open out what is covered up That rain may never sodden you: " is the footing for confession.1
Lakkhaṇoti channamativassatīti ye keci vicittena channena ekalakkhaṇā dhammā sabbe te aviddhaṃsiyanti.
840. (5) Characteristics?" Rain soddens what is covered up : " whatever ideas have a single characteristic with the covered-up cognizance are all rain-soddened.1
Tasmā channaṃ vivareyya.
Vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti ye keci tena acchannena ekalakkhaṇā dhammā sabbe te nātivassantīti lakkhaṇo hāro.
"But what is open it soddens not: " whatever ideas have a single characteristic with the uncovered are all not rain-soddened. This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
841. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Imamhi sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport in this Thread?
Yesaṃ kesañci cittaṃ akusalā dhammā adhipaṭidesitā te yathādhammaṃ paṭikarissantīti ayaṃ tattha bhagavato adhippāyo.
Those who have confessed 1 unprofitable ideas in their cognizance will make amends according to the True Idea. This is the Blessed One's purport herein.
Ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
This is the Fourfold Array.
Āvaṭṭoti yaṃ channaṃ taṃ duvidhaṃ kampamānaṃ samucchitabbo.
842. (7) Conversion? What is covered up is of two kinds : [it is that in the case] of the negligent 1 [i.e. ordinary men and] of those incapable 1 of concealment 1 through their having
Ānantariyasamādhīnaṃ.
the straight- resulting concentration 1 [i.e. Initiates] (?).
Tattha passaddhiyañca māno āsave vaḍḍheti, assaddhiyena ca pamādaṃ gacchati, pamādena onamati, unnaḷabhāvaṃ gacchati.
Herein, [when there is] lack of faith 2 conceit increases taints. And through lack of faith one comes to negligence. Through negligence one despises and comes to pride.
Vuttaṃ cetaṃ bhagavatā "unnaḷānaṃ pamattānaṃ tesaṃ vaḍḍhanti āsavā"ti cattāri tāni upādānāni, yāni cattāri upādānāni, te pañcupādānakkhandhā bhavanti.
And this is said by the Blessed One ([And] for the proud, the negligent, [While they are such] their taints increase ) (§ 336). [Now] these are the four assumings and the four assumings are the five categories of assuming :
Imāni saccāni dukkhañca samudayo ca.
These are the truths of Suffering and Origin.
Tasmā channaṃ vivareyyāti yena hetunā, te āsavā vaḍḍhanti.
That is why one should "open what is covered up ". of the 3 cause by which the taints increase
Tesaṃ pahīnattā āsavā pahīyante.
with the abandoning (it) the taints are abandoned.
Tattha appamādena assaddhiyaṃ pahīyati uddhaccakukkuccappahānena oḷārikatā tassa dve dhammā na samatho ca bhāvanā ca pāripūriṃ gacchanti.
Herein, lack of faith is abandoned through diligence, and pride 4 through the abandoning of agitation-and- worry. In him two ideas, namely quiet and insight, come 6 to fulfilment: [this is the Path.]
Yo tesaṃ āsavānaṃ khayo, ayaṃ nirodho.
The exhaustion of those taints is Cessation.
Imāni cattāri saccāni, ayaṃ āvaṭṭo.
These are the four Truths. This is the Conversion.
Tattha katamo vibhatti hāro?
843. (8) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis?
Channamativassatīti na ekaṃso.
" Rain soddens what is covered up" is not unilaterally [always so].1
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Yassa assā nivattanā yathāpi sekkhānaṃ.
Someone may have stopped,2 as in the Initiates' case,
Yathāvuttaṃ bhagavatā –
according as is said by the Blessed One :
"Kiñcāpi sekkho pakareyya pāpaṃ, kāyena vācāya uda cetasā vā;
(Although the Initiate can still do evil By body or by speech or by the mind,
Abhabbo hi tassa pariguhanāya, abhabbatā diṭṭhapadassa hotī"ti.
Yet he can never hide it, and this fact Is of one who has seen the State [of Peace] (cf.Sn.232).8
Kiñcāpi tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ cittaṃ hoti.
Although his 4 [i.e. the Initiate's] cognizance may be affected by hindrances through these [evil acts],
Api tu appaccayā samāye ca te niddisitabbā, ayaṃ vibhattihāro.
yet that can be demonstrated as not a condition for rain-soddening [in his case].4 This is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis.
Tattha katamo parivattano hāro.
844. (9) Herein, the Reversal?
Channamativassatīti yassa ye dhammā sabbaṃ anavivaṭaṃ ativassiyati, vivaṭaṃ nātivassati, avaguṇantaṃ nātivassati.
" Rain soddens what is covered up : " [when] someone has any [such (?)] ideas, all that are not opened up 1 are rain-soddened. " But what is open it soddens not : " rain does not sodden what is uncovered.2
Ayaṃ parivattano hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal.
Tattha katamo vevacano hāro.
845. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Channanti āvutaṃ nivutaṃ pihitaṃ paṭikujjitaṃ sañchannaṃ parodhaṃ, vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti yassa te dhammā pabbajjitā vinodaṃ nādhivassitā vantikatāti, ayaṃ vevacano hāro.
The " covered up " is the shut in, shut off, sealed off, closed off, covered over, buried away (?).1 " But what is open it soddens not : " he who has abandoned these ideas has removed them, 2 not endured them, made an end of them. This is the Mode of Conveying Synonyms.
Tattha katamo paññatti hāro.
846. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Channamativassatīti kilesabhāgiyapaññattaṃ vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti sadhammakiccaṃ yaṃ paṭipadā paññattiyā paññattaṃ, tasmā hi channaṃ vivareyyāti anusāsanapaññattiyā paññattaṃ, vivaṭaṃ nātivassatīti niddhānapaññattiyā paññattaṃ, ayaṃ paññatti hāro.
"Rain soddens what is covered up " is described in terms of what deals with corruption. " But what is open it soddens not" is any function connected with the True Idea described by a description in ter1ns of the way.1 " So open out what is covered up " is described by a description in terms of instruction. " That rain may never sodden you " 2 is described by a description in terms of source (?).3 This is the Mode of Conveying Descriptions.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo hāro?
847. (12) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry?
Channamativassatīti tayo kilesā rāgo doso moho, te khandhesu saṅkhārakkhandho - pe - te purā yathā niddiṭṭhaṃ khandhadhātuāyatanesu, ayaṃ otaraṇo hāro.
" Rain soddens what is covered up : " There are three defilements, namely lust, hate, and delusion. In the case of the categories these are the deter1ninations category, ... etc.... ; these are as demonstrated earlier in the cases of the categories, elements, and bases. This is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry.
Tattha katamo sodhano hāro?
848. (13) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing Up?
Yenārambhena idaṃ suttaṃ bhāsati so ārambho niyutto.
The instigation with which this Thread was uttered has been completed.
Adhiṭṭhānoti channamativassatīti ekattatāya paññattaṃ.
849. (14) Terms of Expression 1 "Rain soddens what is covered up" is described by a unity.
Kiṃkāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Idaṃ hi ativassatīti imassa ca ativassati evañca ativassatīti ayaṃ vemattatāya yā suṇasādhāraṇehi lakkhaṇehi paññāpiyati, sā ekattapaññatti.
Since this diversity,1 namely that rain soddens, and for him it rain-soddens and thus it rain-soddens, is described by characteristics that are qualities 2 shared in common, the description is in terns of a unity.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
850. (15) Herein, what are the Requisites?
Yañca taṃ ativassiyanti, tassa dve hetū dve paccayā akusalapasuteva vācakattābhirati ca.
There are two causes and two conditions 1 for its being rain-soddened : concern with what is unprofitable, and delight in having oneself [well (1)] spoken of.2
Ime dve ayonisomanasikāro ca kusalā dhammā vopasaggā ca, ime dve paccayā.
These are the two causes ; and unreasoned attention, and relinquishment 8 of profitable ideas, these are the two conditions.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
851. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Channamativassatīti vemati passatīti channaṃ yaṃ pariggahituṃ yaṃ adesituṃ appassutaṃ yaṃ kathaṃkathā vibhūtena akusalamūlena yaṃ taṇhāya ca te vaḍḍhati dosāti sannitvā te appasakkhayena saṅkhārā.
" Rain soddens what is covered up:" he sees indecision in whether [not] to accept that not to confess the covered-up is of no concern.1 [Now] with the unprofitable root [delusion thus] unevident, owing to wondering, 2 and with craving, these defects 3 increase. So interpreting it thus, these are determinations consisting in determinative-acts.5
Saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇaṃ, ayaṃ samāropano.
With determinations as condition, consciousness ; ... down to ... ageing-and-death. This is the coordination.
Yaṃ puna tathā desanā, tasseva akusalā dhammā vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullatamāpajjati tassa saṅkhārā nirodhā, ayaṃ samāropano.
And 6 again, while with the teaching thus [in the form of Arising] his unprofitable ideas attain maturity, growth, and abundance, [nevertheless] with Cessation of his determinations [...] This is the Coordination.6
102.Cattāro puggalā [passa a. ni. 4.85] tamo tamaparāyanoti - pe - tattha katamo vuccate tamo nāma?
852. ( (i) Four types of persons: the dark with a dark supreme value, ... ) (§ 77). 853. [The Thread's Meaning.] (i) Herein, what is " dark "?
Yo tamo andhakāro, yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā "yathā andhakāre tasmiṃ bhayānake sakampidhātupuriso na passati, evameva aññāṇato tamopanandhakāro pāpakasakammasavipākaṃ na saddho hoti.
" Dark " is gloom, as stated by the Blessed One ( Just as in gloom [so] fearful that a man does not see his own element (? ), so too, as to unknowing there is dark as gloom; there one has no faith about evil with its action and its ripening ) ( ).
Iti evaṃ lakkhaṇatā aññāṇaṃ tamo avijjā moho, yena sattā yathābhūtaṃ nappajānanti, iti vuccati tamoti.
So it is any thus-characterized unknowing, dark, ignorance, delusion, whereby creatures 1 do not understand 1 how it is. So it is called "dark".
So tiṇṇaṃ cakkhūnaṃ tamo maṃsacakkhuno dibbacakkhuno paññācakkhuno, imesaṃ cakkhūnaṃ idha tamo niddisiyati aññāṇanti.
[And] that is dark for the three eyes, namely for the fleshly eye, for the heavenly eye, and for the eye of understanding: for these three eyes. Here dark is demonstrated as unknowing.
Tattha katamaṃ aññāṇaṃ adassanaṃ?
854. Herein, what is unknowing? It is unseeing
Atha nissaye yaṃ pubbante aññāṇaṃ aparante aññāṇaṃ pubbantāparante aññāṇaṃ hetumhi aññāṇaṃ paccayamhi aññāṇaṃ tassa aññāṇino samādhibhūtassa eso nissando.
in the eight 1 instances, namely unknowing [about the four Noble Truths,] unknowing about past finiteness, unknowing about future finiteness, unknowing about past-and-future finiwness, unknowing about [specific conditionality in the forms of unknowing about] cause and unknowing about condition.1
Yaṃ na jānāti idaṃ sevitabbaṃ idaṃ na manasikātabbanti.
When someone is possessed 2 of this unknowing, the outcome is this : that he does not know " This should be cultivated, ... [for filling out see § 857) ... this should not be given attention ".
So tena tamena niddisiyati tamopi yathā vuccati.
It is by that kind of dark that he is demonstrated as " dark " ;
Mūḷhoti evaṃ cetanā.
just as he is called " deluded ", so this (?).3
Tena tamena so puggalo vuccati.
[Now] the dark by which that type of person is called
Tamoti so tena tamena asamūhatena asamucchinnena tapparamo bhavati tapparāyano, ayaṃ vuccati puggalo tamo tamaparāyanoti.
" dark " is the dark by which, when uneradicated, when unsevered, he comes to have that for the ultimate, has that for his supreme value, which is why this type of person is called " dark with a dark supreme value " (§ 77).
Parāyanoyeva dhammo manasikātabbo so tamo dahati aññacittaṃ upaṭṭhapeti.
/* 1 The True Idea is the only supreme value 2 to be given attention (? ). [Hearing it] he gives ear,3 prepares his cognizance for knowledge.
Te cassa dhammā nijjhānakkhamanti.
And he likes pondering those ideas.
So sutamayāya paññāya samanupassati.
He sees with understanding-consisting-in-what-is-heard.
Tattha katamo tamo jotiparāyano?
855. (ii) */ Herein what is the " dark with a bright supreme value "?
So tena paññāvasena iriyati evaṃ tasseva iriyantassa parāyano bhavati.
*//* 1 He comports himself in that kind of understanding. When he comports himself thus, he has that for his supreme value."5
Ayaṃ vuccate puggalo tamo jotiparāyano.
This type of person is called " dark with a bright supreme value ". 6.
Tattha katamo puggalo joti jotiparāyano [jotiparāyano (pī.)] ?
856. Herein, how does that type of person have a " bright supreme value"?1
Tattha vuccati joti nāma yaṃ tassa ce tamassa paṭipakkhena ye ca dhamme antamaso ñāṇāloko, so suṇadhammo puggalo tamo jotiparāyano, tattha vuccate, yoyaṃ puggalo tamo jotiparāyano, so yadi tathārūpaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ paṭilabhati, yo naṃ akusalato ca nivāreti bhāvitakusalatāva bhāvī niyojetīti.
Herein, the light of knowledge that is inseparable from the idea of one willing to hear 2 about an idea that is a guide-line of the opposite kind to that same dark 3 is what is called " bright ". This 3 is the type of person that is " dark with a bright supreme value " (see § 859). 857. Herein, it may be stated [as follows] : This 1 type of person, who is " dark with a bright supreme value ", if he obtains a good friend such as will keep him from unprofit and encourage him in only keeping what is profitable in being,2
Evañca saddhammaṃ deseti.
and teach him the true object of faith thus :
Ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā akusalā.
" These ideas are profitable, these ideas are unprofitable ;
Ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā anavajjā.
these ideas are blameworthy, these ideas are blameless ;
Ime dhammā sevitabbā, ime dhammā na sevitabbā.
these ideas are to be cultivated, these ideas are not to be cultivated ;
Ime dhammā bhajitabbā, ime dhammā na bhajitabbā.
these ideas are to be kept in being,3 these ideas are not to be kept in being ; 3
Ime dhammā upasampajja vihātabbā, ime dhammā na upasampajja vihātabbā.
these ideas should be entered upon and abode in, these ideas should not be entered upon and abode in;
Ime dhammā manasikātabbā, ime dhammā na manasikātabbāti.
these ideas should be given attention, these ideas should not be given attention";
Paccate saññāya yathā saññāyati satindriyāni, so evaṃ pajānāti.
and when the mindfulness faculty 4 ripens with perception according as [this] this is perceived [to be so], then he understands thus : "
Ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā akusalā.
These ideas are profitable, these ideas are unprofitable ;
Ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā anavajjā.
these ideas are blameworthy, these ideas are blameless ;
Ime dhammā sevitabbā, ime dhammā na sevitabbā.
these ideas are to be cultivated, these ideas are not to be cultivated ;
Ime dhammā bhāvetabbā, ime dhammā na bhāvetabbā.
these ideas are to be kept in being, these ideas are not to be kept in being ;
Ime dhammā upasampajja vihātabbā, ime dhammā na upasampajja vihātabbā.
these ideas should be entered upon and abode in, these ideas should not be entered upon and abode in ;
Ime dhammā manasikātabbā, ime dhammā na manasikātabbāti.
these ideas should be given attention, these ideas should not be given attention."
So te dhamme susuyyati, sotaṃ odahati, aññaṃ cittaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, te cassa dhammā nijjhānakkhamanti, so sutamayāya paññāya samannāgato so tena paccayavasena iriyati evaṃ tasseva iriyanti tapparamo bhavati tapparāyano.
858. He is willing to hear those ideas,1 he gives ear, prepares his cognizance for knowledge, and he likes pondering 2 those ideas. Being possessed of understanding-consisting-in-what is heard, he 3 comports himself with that 3 kind of understanding. When he comports himself thus 3 he comes to have that as the ultimate, to have that for supreme value (§ 855).
Ayaṃ vuccate puggalo tamo tamaparāyano.
This is called the "dark person with a bright supreme value ".4
Tattha katamo puggalo joti tamaparāyano?
859. (iii) Herein, what is the " bright person with a dark supreme value "?
Joti nāma yā tasseva tamassa paṭipakkhena ye dhammā antamaso ñāṇāloko, so puna dhammo.
The light of knowledge that is inseparable from the idea of one willing to hear 1 about an idea that is a guide-line of the opposite kind to that same dark 2 is what is called " bright ".
Katamā uccate?
What is he called?
Paññāyato paṇḍitoti vuccate, so evaṃ pajānāti.
In regard to understanding, he is called" wise" : he understands thus : "
Ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā akusalā.
These ideas are profitable, these ideas are unprofitable ;
Ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā anavajjā.
these ideas are blameworthy, these ideas are blameless ;
Ime dhammā sevitabbā, ime dhammā na sevitabbā.
these ideas are to be cultivated, these ideas are not to be cultivated ;
Ime dhammā bhāvitabbā, ime dhammā na bhāvitabbā.
these ideas are to be kept in being, these ideas are not to be kept in being ;
Ime dhammā upasampajja vihātabbā, ime dhammā na upasampajja vihātabbā.
these ideas should be entered upon and abode in, these ideas should not be entered upon and abode in ;
Ime dhammā manasikātabbā, ime dhammā na manasikātabbā.
these ideas should be given attention, these ideas should not be given attention."
Idha pana pāpamittasaṃsevano pāpamittavasānugo akusale dhamme abhivaḍḍheti, kusale dhamme pajahati.
860. But here he cultivates evil friends, obeys the power of evil friends, he increases unprofitable ideas and abandons profitable ideas.
So tena pamādena paccayasaññā amanasikatvā assatiasampajaññaṃ āsevati.
Owing to this negligence, giving no attention to perception of conditions, he cultivates unmindfulness and unawareness.
Tayā yo paṭipakkho tamo, so pavaḍḍheti.
He increases the dark, which is the opposite [of that same light];
So tamābhibhūto parāyano tamaparamo ceva bhavati.
overcome (transcended) by dark, he has a dark supreme value, has dark as the ultimate.
Ayaṃ vuccati puggalo joti tamaparāyano.
This is called the type of person that is "bright with a dark supreme value".
103.Tattha katamo puggalo joti jotiparāyano?
861. (iv) Herein, what is the" bright person with a bright supreme value "?
Tattha vuccate soyaṃ puggalo kalyāṇamittassa sannissito bhavati sakkā saṃyogī kusalaṃ gavesī, so kalyāṇamitte upasaṅkamitvā paripucchati, paripañhayati?
Herein, it may be stated as follows : This 1 type of person, with a good friend for his support, is one who is an able 2 seeker after what is profitable.2 Approaching good friends, he asks, he questions 3 thus : "
Kiṃ kusalaṃ, kiṃ akusalaṃ?
What is profitable? What is unprofitable?
Kiṃ sāvajjaṃ, kiṃ anavajjaṃ?
What is blameworthy? What is blameless?
Kiṃ sevitabbaṃ, kiṃ na sevitabbaṃ?
What is to be cultivated? What is not to be cultivated?
Kiṃ bhāvitabbaṃ, kiṃ na bhāvitabbaṃ?
What is to be kept in being? What is not to be kept in being?
Kiṃ upasampajja vihātabbaṃ, kiṃ na upasampajja vihātabbaṃ?
What should be entered upon and abode in? What should not be entered upon and abode in?
Kiṃ manasikātabbaṃ, kiṃ na manasikātabbaṃ?
What should be given attention? What should not be given attention?
Kathaṃ saṃkileso hoti, kathaṃ vodānaṃ hoti?
How is there corruption? How is there cleansing?
Kathaṃ pavatti hoti, kathaṃ nivatti hoti?
How is there occurrence? How is there arising?
Kathaṃ bandho hoti, kathaṃ mokkho hoti?
How is there a tether [i.e. bond of responsibility for action]? How is there liberation?
Kathaṃ sakkāyasamudayo hoti, kathaṃ sakkāyanirodho hoti?
How is there an origin to embodiment? How is there a cessation to embodiment?
So ettha desitaṃ yathā upaṭṭhitaṃ tathā sampaṭipajjanto so evaṃ pajānāti.
", and it being taught how it appears established here, when he practises [rightly] accordingly, he understands thus: "
Ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā akusalā.
These ideas are profitable, these ideas are unprofitable ; ...
Evaṃ - pe - yāva kathaṃ sakkāyasamudayo hoti, kathaṃ sakkāyanirodho hotīti vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
and so on down to ... how there is an origin to embodiment ; how there is a cessation to embodiment" to be given in detail.
So te dhamme adhipāṭikaṅkhāti evaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ ñāṇaṃ vijjā ālokaṃ vaḍḍheti.
He [rightly] practises (?) 6 those ideas, and thus he increases vision (?), 1 knowledge, science, light.
So puggalo tapparamo bhavati tapparāyano, ayaṃ vuccate puggalo joti jotiparāyano.
That type of person comes to have that as the ultimate, that as supreme value. This is called the " bright person with a bright supreme value ".
Tattha katamo puggalo tamo tamaparāyano?
862. (ia) Herein, what is the "dark person with a dark supreme value "?
Yo akusalaṃ dhammaṃ dīpeti.
He is one who illustrates the unprofitable idea,
Taṃ bhāvanāya hīnāsu gatīsu upapattiṃ dasseti, tapparamo bhavati tapparāyano.
who, owing to keeping that in being, shows reappearance in inferior destinations. He comes to have that as the ultimate, that as supreme value.
Ayaṃ vuccate puggalo tamo tamaparāyano.
This is called the " dark person with a dark supreme value ".
Tattha yo puggalo tamo jotiparāyano?
(iia) Herein, the " dark person with a bright supreme value "?
So tamena akusalassa kammassa vipākaṃ dasseti.
By the dark he shows the ripening of unprofitable action,
Tameti yaṃ cakkhu kalyāṇamittassa yena akusale dhamme pajahati, kusale dhamme abhivaḍḍhati.
yet he 1 may have a good friend through whom he abandons unprofitable ideas and increases profitable ideas.
Tattha yo ca paṇītāsu gatīsu upapattiṃ dasseti, tapparamo tena vuccate tamo jotiparāyano.
Herein, since he shows reappearance in the superior destinations, having that as the ultimate, he is therefore said to have a " bright supreme value ".
Tattha yo puggalo joti tamaparāyano?
(iiia) Herein, the "bright person with a dark supreme value"
Kusalassa kammavipākaṃ dasseti.
shows the ripening of profitable action.
Yaṃ cakkhu pāpamittasaṃsaggena pāpamittupasevena pāpamittavasānugo akusalaṃ dhammaṃ abhivaḍḍhati, taṃ bhāvanāya hīnāsu gatīsu upapattiṃ dasseti.
Yet 1 by association with bad friends, by waiting on bad friends, hy obeying the power of bad friends, he increases the unprofitable idea. Owing to the keeping of that in being he shows reappearance in inferior destinations,
Tapparamo tena vuccate joti tamaparāyano.
[he comes to have] that as the ultimate, hence he is called" bright with a dark supreme value ".
Tattha yo puggalo joti jotiparāyano so jotitā pabhātā [jotitabhāvatāya (pī.)] yāva paṇītāsu gatīsu upapattiṃ dasseti.
(iva) Herein, the " bright person with a bright supreme value "? Owing to brightenedness he shows reappearance in superior destinations, [he comes to have] that as the ultimate,
Tapparamo tenāha joti jotiparāyano.
hence they say that he is " bright with a bright supreme value ".
Jotitamaparāyanena dasa akusalānaṃ kammānaṃ udayaṃ dasseti.
Tamena puggalena akusalānaṃ kammānaṃ vipākaṃ dasseti.
863. (i-ivb) By 1 the "dark" person he shows the ripening of unprofitable kinds of action ;
Na akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ vipākaṃ dasseti.
by the " bright " 2 one he shows the ripening of profitable action.2
Tamena aṭṭha micchattāni dasseti.
By the "dark" he shows the eight wrongnesses,
Jotinā aṭṭha sammattāni dasseti.
by the " bright " he shows the eight rightnesses.
Jotinā tamaparāyanena dasa akusalakammapathe dasseti.
By the " bright with a dark supreme value " he shows the ten unprofitable courses of action ;
Jotinā paṇītattaṃ dasseti.
by the " bright with a bright supreme value " 3 he shows superiority ;
Tamena jotiparāyanena atapanīyaṃ dhammaṃ dasseti.
by the " dark with a bright supreme value " he shows the idea not to be mortified ;
Jotinā tamaparāyanena tapanīyaṃ dhammaṃ dasseti.
by the " dark 4 with a dark supreme value " he shows the idea to be mortified.
Ayaṃ suttattho.
This is the Thread-Meaning.
104.Tattha katamo desanā hāro?
864. (1) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching?
Imamhi sutte kiṃ desitaṃ?
What is taught in this Thread?
Tattha vuccate imamhi sutte kusalākusalā dhammā desitā.
Herein it may be stated that in this Thread profitable and unprofitable ideas (actions) are taught
Kusalākusalānañca dhammānaṃ vipāko desito.
and the ripening of profitable and unprofitable ideas (actions) is taught,
Hīnappaṇītānañca sattānaṃ gati nānākāraṇaṃ desitaṃ.
and the occasion for the difference in the destinations 1 of inferior and superior creatures is taught.
Ayaṃ desanā hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching.
Tattha katamo vicayo hāro?
865. (2)-(3) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an investigation?
Akusalassa kammassa yo vipākaṃ paccanubhoti.
He who exists coessentially with the ripening of unprofitable action
Tattha ṭhito akusale dhamme uppādiyati vicayantaṃ yujjati.
is steadied therein through having assumed unprofitable ideas : such investigation is construable.1
Kusalassa kammassa yo vipākaṃ paccanubhoti.
He who exists coessentially with the ripening of profitable action
Tattha ṭhito kusale dhamme uppādiyati vicayantaṃ yujjati.
is steadied therein through having assumed unprofitable ideas: such investigation is construable.1
Ayaṃ vicayo yutti ca.
This is the Investigation and the Construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hāro?
866. (4) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Footings?
Yo puggalo joti, so paccavekkhaṇāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
[By] the "bright" type of person [he shows] the footing for reviewing,
Yo puggalo tamo, so tamādinnaṃ vānupassanāya padaṭṭhānanti dasseti.
while [by] the " dark " type of person he shows the footing for non- contemplation of disappointment in dark.1
Tamena jotiparāyanena appamādassa padaṭṭhānaṃ dasseti, tamo avijjāya ca diṭṭhiyā ca padaṭṭhānaṃ dasseti.
By the "dark with a bright supreme value " he shows the footing for diligence. By the "dark" he shows the footing for ignorance and for [wrong] view.
Jotinā tamaparāyanena pamādassa ca diṭṭhiyā ca padaṭṭhānaṃ dasseti.
By the " bright with a dark supreme value " he shows the footing for negligence and [wrong] view.
Ayaṃ padaṭṭhāno.
These are the Footings.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
867. (5) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Tamena tamaparāyanena tamoti avijjāya niddiṭṭhāya sabbakilesadhammā niddiṭṭhā honti.
With the "dark with a dark supreme value", when cognizance is demonstrated as " dark " all defiling ideas are demonstrated.
Tamena jotiparāyanena jotivijjāya niddiṭṭhāya sabbe bodhipakkhiyadhammā niddiṭṭhā honti.
With the "bright 1 with a bright supreme value", when science is demonstrated all ideas siding with enlightenment are demonstrated.
Jotitamaparāyanena pamādo niddiṭṭho hoti.
By the " bright with a dark supreme value ", negligence is demonstrated.
Tamena jotiparāyanena appamādo niddiṭṭho hoti.
By the " dark with a bright supreme value ", diligence is demonstrated.
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
868. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Imamhi sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport in this Thread?
Ye sattā nīcakulino, na te imaṃ sutvā kusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti.
[It is this:] even 1 those creatures that belong to low-born clans, on hearing this will undertake and carry out profitable ideas,
Ye sattā uccakulino, te imaṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā bhiyyoso mattāya kusale dhamme samādāya vattissantīti.
and those creatures that belong to high-born clans, on hearing this teaching of the True Idea, will so much the more undertake and carry out profitable ideas.
Ayaṃ catubyūho hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array.
Bhūmiyaṃ upadeso.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro?
869. (7) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion?
Yā avijjāto pabhūti taṇhā, ayaṃ samudayo.
The craving given existence 1 by ignorance is the Origin [of Suffering].
Yo tamo tamaparāyano, idaṃ dukkhaṃ.
The " dark with a dark supreme value " is Suffering.
Imāni dve saccāni dukkhañca samudayo ca joti yena suttena dhammena paññāpiyati, so dhammo paññindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
These are two Truths, namely Suffering and Origin. Whatever Thread-idea the " bright " is described by, that idea is the footing for the understanding faculty.
Tena amohena tīṇi kusalamūlāni pāripūriṃ gacchanti saggassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
By means of such non-delusion the three profitable roots come to fulfilment, which is the footing for heaven.
Tattha katamā vibhatti?
870. (8) Herein, what is the Analysis?
Tamo tamaparāyanoti na ekaṃsena.
" Dark with a dark supreme value" is not unilaterally [always so].
Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ?
What is the reason?
Atthi tamo ca bhavo aparāpariyavedanīyena ca kusalena jotinā puggalena sahopattibhāve.
There is the "dark" kind, and [yet its] existence [is] in a state with future reappearance 1 as the "bright" type of person owing to profitable [action] to be felt in some future period ;
Atthi joti ca bhavo aparāpariyavedanīyena ca akusalena tamena puggalena sahopattibhāve parivattanā tamesu paṭipakkhoti jotinā tamaparāyano.
and there is the "bright" kind, and [yet its] existence [is] in a state with future rearising as the "dark" type of person owing to unprofitable [action] to be felt in some future period (cf.M. Sutta 136). 871. (9) Reversal? In the case of the " dark " types, the opposite is the " bright" types (?).1
Tattha katamo vevacano?
872. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Yo tamo, so evaṃ attabyāpādāya paṭipanno, so assaddhāya bālo akusalo abyatto anādīnavadassī.
He who is " dark " is thus practising for his own aflliction through lack of faith, is a fool, unskilled [in profit], unexpert, uncontemplating of disappointment.
Yo joti, so attahitāya paṭipanno paṇḍito kusalo byatto ādīnavadassī.
He who is " bright " is practising for his own welfare, is wise, skilled [in profit], expert, and a contemplator of disappointment.
Ayaṃ vevacano.
These are the Synonyms.
Tattha katamā paññatti?
873. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
So puggalo vipākapaññattiyā paññāpiyati, akusale pariyādinnatā paññāpiyati.
This [" dark"] person is described by a description in terms of ripening ; he is described by [a description in terms of] the state of being gripped in the unprofitable.
Jotikusaladhammupapattipaññattiyā paññāpiyati kusaladhammavipākapaññattiyā cāti.
The " bright " type is described by a description in terms of reappearance due to profitable ideas 1 and by a description in terms of ripening of profitable ideas.1
Otaraṇoti ye avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā yañca jarāmaraṇaṃ yā ca avijjā, taṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, niddesena vijjuppādo avijjānirodho yo yāva jarāmaraṇanirodho, ime dve dhammā saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpannā.
874. (12) Ways of Entry? With ignorance as condition, determinations; ... down to ... ageing-and-death; and ignorance is the footing by demonstration. With the arising of science, ... down to ... cessation of ageing-and-death : 1 [this is the way of entry by dependent arising.] And these two ideas are included in the determinations category.
Dhammadhātu dhammāyatanañca padaṭṭhānaṃ niddesena dhātūsu.
The idea element and the idea base are the footing, by demonstration, in the case of the elements, [etc.].
Tattha katamo sodhano?
875. (13) Herein, what is the Clearing Up?
Imassa suttassa desitassa ārambho.
It is the instigation of this Thread as taught.
Adhiṭṭhānoti tamoti bhagavā bravīti, na ekaṃ puggalaṃ deseti.
876. (14) Terms of Expression? When the Blessed One spoke of the" dark" type [for instance] he does not teach a single type of person;
Yāvatā sattānaṃ gati, tattha ye duccaritadhammena upapannā, te bahulādhivacanena tamo niddisati.
[but rather] in so far as creatures have destiriation he demonstrates as " dark " in the plural those who have reappeared there through an action (idea) consisting in misconduct.
Yā joti sabbasattesu kusaladhammopapatti sabbaṃ taṃ jotīti abhilapati ayamekatā paccayo yonisomanasikārapaññatti catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ puggalānaṃ.
" Bright " is reappearance due to profitable actions (ideas) in the case of all creatures, and all that is what he refers 1 to as " bright ". With this unity 2 as condition this is a description in terms of reasoned attention of the four persons as principal entity-types.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
877. (15) Herein, what are the Requisites?
Akusalassa pāpamittatā paccayo, ayoniso manasikāro hetu.
For unprofit having evil friends is the condition 1 and unreasoned attention the cause ;
Kusalassa kalyāṇamittatā paccayo, yoniso manasikāro hetu.
for profit having good friends is the condition 2 and reasoned attention the cause.
Tattha katamā samāropanāti?
878. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Idhekacco nīce kule paccājāto hotīti nīce kule paccājāto rūpesu saddesu gandhesu rasesu phassesu, so upapanno sabbamhi mānussake upabhogaparibhoge.
Here someone is born again 1 in a low-born clan. Being born again 1 in a low-born clan, he has reappeared among [inferior unprofitable] 2 forms, sounds, odours, flavours, and tangibles, and all human use of possessions.
Joti paṇītesu kusalesu upapanno sabbamhi mānussake upabhogaparibhoge upapannoti.
The " bright " type has reappeared among superior profitable kinds and all human use of possessions.
105.Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ ca suttaṃ?
879. Herein, what is the type of Thread dealing with corruption and dealing with penetration?
Na taṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrāti gāthā.
[An example is] the verse: ( The steadfast will never call that a strong bond ... )(§ 78).
Kena kāraṇena taṃ bandhanaṃ daḷhaṃ?
880. For what reason is that bond [not] 1 strong?
Catūhi kāraṇehi issariyena sakkā mocetuṃ dhanena vā aññena vā yācanāya vā parāyanena vā.
For four reasons: One can get free from it by [one's own] lordly position, or by riches, or else through another by petitioning, or by legal (? ) procedure.2
Yesu ca ayaṃ rāgo maṇikuṇḍalesu puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā, idamassa cetasikabandhanaṃ.
But as to [the bond consisting in] "lusting for jewels and gems And concern for a wife and for children as well " (§ 78), they are a mental bond for one,
Taṃ na sakkā issariyena vā dhanena vā aññena vā yācanāya vā parāyanena vā mocetuṃ.
from which one cannot get free by [one's own] lordly position or by riches or else through another by petitioning or by legal (?) procedure,2
Na ca tattha koci atthi pāṭibhogo.
and there is no agent,3
Iminā bandhanato mocayitthāti devo vā manusso vā tadidaṃ bandhanaṃ rāgānusayena ca chasu bāhiresu ca āyatanesu bandhati.
divine or human, [to whom one could say] "Get [me] free 4 from the bond with this ". 881. By means of the underlying tendency to lust, this bond binds one to the six external bases :
Rūpesu rūpataṇhā bandhati, yāva dhammesu dhammataṇhā.
craving for forms binds one to forms, ... down to 1 ... craving for ideas to ideas.
Yo idha loke bandho paralokasmiṃ bandho nīyati.
He who is bound here in the world [of this life] is guided 2 to the next world bound,
So bandho jāyati, bandho mīyati.
is born bound, dies bound,
Bandho asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ gacchati.
and goes from this world to the next bound.
Na sakkā mocetuṃ aññatra ariyamaggena imañca bandhanaṃ.
He can never get free except by way of the Noble Path. For it is through finding this bond 3
Maraṇabhāvañca upapattibhāvañca bhayato viditvā chandarāgaṃ pajahati.
and the state of dying and the state of reappearing to be fearful that he comes to abandon will and lust.
So imaṃ chandarāgaṃ pajahitvā atikkamati.
By abandoning will and lust he surmounts
Ayañca loko ito paraṃ dutiyo.
both this world and the other world that is its double.3
Tattha yaṃ bandhanāsaṅkhārānaṃ pahānaṃ idaṃ vuccati ubhayesu ṭhānesu vīriyaṃ, gandhaparivāto [ganthaparivaso (pī.) ganthaparivuto (ka.)] sumuni nopalimpati.
882. Herein, the abandoning of determinations that are due to bondage is [elsewhere] stated thus (Having put away will for both these extremes (Sn. 778) 1 ... With chattels a Stilled One [remains] unbesmirched) (Sn.779),1
Tatheva pariggahesu puttesu dāresu ca avūḷho salloti tasseva taṇhāya pahānaṃ dasseti.
since in regard to chattels consisting in children and wives he (has extracted the barb) (Sn.779); 2 [and one such as] this shows the abandoning of that same craving
Ayaṃ taṇhāmūlassa pahānā vare [ahanāvare (pī.), ahanāvaro (ka.)] appamattoti kāmo pamādavattati pahānāya nekkhammābhirato appamādavihārī bhavati.
with the abandoning of the craving's root.3 883. [He does so] ( Wandering diligent) (Sn. 779); 1 for it is owing to negligence that sensual desire occurs. He who delights in the renunciation due to their abandoning is one who abides diligent.
Tassa āsayaṃ pahānāya neva imaṃ lokaṃ āsīsati na paralokaṃ.
And it is with his abandoning of hope 2 [from these] that he hopes neither for this world nor for a next world.3
Na idhalokaṃ nissitaṃ, piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ ākaṅkhati.
He does not wish for anything endearing and gratifying that has this world for its support,4
Nāpi paralokaṃ nissitaṃ piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ ākaṅkhati, tena vuccate "nāsīsate lokamimaṃ paraṃ lokañcā"ti.
nor does he wish for anything endearing and gratifying that has another world for its support.4 Hence it is said that (He hopes for neither this world nor a next) (Sn.779).
Yaṃ tassa pahānaṃ taṃ chedanaṃ aṭṭhakavaggiyesu muni niddiṭṭho.
His abandoning is the " severance " (see § 884, verse quoted). 884. [Now] the " Stilled One" [thus] demonstrated in the Chapter of Octets (see Sn. refs.above)
So idha virodho aṭṭhakavaggiyesu nāsīsanaṃ idha anāthā.
is the " steadfast" one here (§ 879) ; 1 and the "non-hoping " demonstrated in the Chapter of Octets (§ 883) is the "unconcern " here (§ 78).
Tathāyaṃ taṇhāya tassa pariggahassa vatthukāmassa ekagāthāya ete sabbe kāmā dassitā.
So, since 1 all these sensual desires have been taught in the [first] verse alone with craving for the chattel as an objective sensual desire,
Tena bhagavā deseti "etampi chetvāna paribbajanti anapekkhino sabbakāme pahāyā"ti.
hence the Blessed One teaches [in the verse that follows] ( But that too they sever and wander [in freedom] Unconcerned, and all sensual desires foregone ) (§ 78).2
Imissā gāthāya dvidhā niddeso saṃsandananiddeso ca samayaniddeso ca, yathā ayaṃ gāthā saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca, evaṃ tāya gāthāya saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca visajjanā.
885. The demonstration of this 1 verse has been twofold : as demonstration by collation fwith another verse] (§§ 882-4) and demonstration by occasion (§§ 880-1). Just as this verse [as an answer to the question asked in the Sarpyutta] is the type [of Thread] dealing with corruption and dealing with penetration, so too the answer to [the question asked in] that verse [in the Chapter of Octets] is the type [of Thread] dealing with corruption and dealing with penetration.
Evaṃ gāthā sabbagāthāsu byākaraṇesu vā niddiṭṭhaṃ suttaṃ.
So in the case of all verses and prose- expositions (see § 38). The Thread has been demonstrated.
106.Tattha katamā desanā?
886. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Imaṃ suttaṃ kenādhippāyena desitaṃ.
With what purport is this Thread taught?
Ye rāgacaritā sattā, te kāme pajahissantīti ayaṃ tattha bhagavato adhippāyo.
Those creatures that are of lusting temperament will abandon sensual desires: this is the Blessed One's purport.1
Tattha katamo vicayo?
887. (2) Herein, what is the Investigation?
Yassa dasavatthukā kilesā uttiṇṇā vantā viditā.
He who had the ten- grounded 1 defilements has outstripped 2 them, rejected them, put them away.8
Katame dasavidhāti, kilesakāmā ca orambhāgiyauddhambhāgiyā ca saṃyojanā dasavatthukāni āyatanāni, ayaṃ vicayo.
How 8 are these 8 sensual desires as defilement tenfold? As hither-side and further-side fetters and as the ten-grounded bases [eye-cum-forms, ... body-cum-tangibles (?)]. This is the Investigation.
Tattha katamā yutti?
888. (3) Herein, what is the Construing?
Ye sārattā te gāḷhabandhanena bandhanti atthi esā yutti.
Those who lust are bound 1 by the strong bond. This is the construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno?
889. (4) Herein, what are the Footings?
Sāratto maṇikuṇḍalesu mamaṃkārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
[That someone] "lusts after jewels and gems ,,.is the footing for my-making.
Apekkhāti atītavatthussa sarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
"Concern" is the footing for lust for past things.
Etampi chetvāti bhāvanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.
" But that too they sever " is the footing for keeping in being.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
890. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Sārattacitto maṇikuṇḍalesu yo ahaṃkāre visatto mamaṃkāre visatto, yo puttadāre sāratto.
One whose cognizance lusts after jewels and gems is attached in regard to I-making, attached in regard to my-making, and also he who lusts after children and wives,
Khettavatthusmiṃ sāratto.
who lusts after fields and lands.
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro?
891. (6) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array?
Idha sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo.
What is the Blessed One's Purport here (cf.§ 886)?
Ye nibbānena chandikā bhavissanti, te puttadāre taṇhaṃ pajahissanti.
It is that those who have the will for extinction will abandon craving for children and wives.
Ayaṃ tattha bhagavato adhippāyo.
This is the Blessed One's purport.
Imāni cattāri saccāni.
*/ These are the four Truths /*.4
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo?
*//* 1 892. (7) Herein, what is the Conversion?
Yā puttadāre taṇhā, ayaṃ samudayo.
Craving for children and wives is Origin.
Ye upādinnakkhandhā, te ye ca bāhiresu rūpesu rūpapariggaho, idaṃ dukkhaṃ, yaṃ tattha chedanīyaṃ, ayaṃ nirodho.
As to categories assumed, these are simply 1 the form-chattels in external forms (? ) ; this is Suffering. The severance of craving 2 is Cessation.
Yena bhijjati, ayaṃ maggo.
That whereby it is severed 3 is the Path.
Vibhattīti natthi vibhattiyā bhūmi, parivattanoti paṭipakkho niddiṭṭho.
893. (8) Analysis? There is no plane of analysis. 894. (9) Reversal? The opposite has [already] been demonstrated. [in the two parts of the verse].
Tattha katamo vevacano?
895. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Niddiá¹­á¹­ho vevacano.
The synonyms have [already] been demonstrated..
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
896. (12) 1 Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Atthi taṇhā eko satto otiṇṇo tappaccayā viññāṇaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇaṃ.
Where 2 there is craving, there determinations 2 are made the way of entry.2 With that as condition, consciousness ; ... down to ... ageing-and-death.
Yā tattha vedanā, ayaṃ avijjā vijjuppādā avijjānirodho yāva jarāmaraṇanirodho.
What is not found (?) 2 is ignorance: with the arising of science, cessation of ignorance ; ... down to ... ageing-and-death.
Tattha katamo sodhano?
897. (13) Herein, what is the Clearing Up?
Suddho gāthāya ārambho.
The verse's instigation has already been cleared up.
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno?
898. (14) Herein, what are the Terms of Expression?.
Na taṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrāti ekattatāya paññattā, na vemattatāya.
"The steadfast will never call that a strong bond" is described by a unity, not by a diversity.
Cattāro rāgā kāmarāgo rūparāgo bhavarāgo diṭṭhirāgo cāti ekattatāya paññattā.
There are four kinds of lust, namely lust for sensual desires, lust for form, lust for being, and lust for views, which are described by a unity.
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
899. (15) Herein, what are the Requisites?
Yesaṃ rāgo maṇikuṇḍalesu tassa subhasaññā hetu, anubyañjanaso ca nimittaggāhitā paccayo.
When people have " lust for jewels and gems " the cause of that is perception of beauty, and apprehending of the sign [of beauty] through [personal] features 1 is its condition.
Yāya te chinnāni tassa asubhasaññā hetu, nimittaggahaṇaanubyañjanaggahaṇavinodanaṃ paccayo.
Perception of ugliness is the cause whereby they are severed, and removal of apprehension of signs is the condition.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
900. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Sāratto maṇikuṇḍalesu sammūḷhavidho duṭṭhātipi etampi [evampi (pī. ka.)] chetvāna paribbajantīti taṃ pariññātatthaṃ parivajjitatthaṃ pajahitā, ayaṃ samāropano.
Those "lusting after jewels and gems " (§ 78) are confused and affected by hate 1 as well. "But that too they sever and wander [in freedom]" : that is abandoned 2 because of its having being diagnosed and because of its having being avoided. 2 This is the Coordination.
107.Yaṃ cetasikaṃ yaṃ pakappitaṃ vitthārena paccayo, yaṃ vā cetasikaṃ kāyikaṃ cetasikaṃ kammaṃ.
901. (What is chosen, what is asserted, [what is allowed to have underlying tendency]) (§ 78) 1 indetail 1 [in the three paragraphs]. 902. As to " what is chosen ", this is a condition 1 for bodily and verbal action.
Kiṃkāraṇā?
What is the reason?
Cetasikā hi cetanā manokammāti vuccate, sā cetanākammaṃ, yaṃ cetasikaṃ imaṃ kāyikañca vācasikañca imāni tīṇi kammāni niddiṭṭhāni.
It is because what is chosen is choice, and that is called "mind-action". That choice as action is the mental kind, and that and the bodily and verbal kinds (see S. ii, 4) are the three kinds of action demonstrated.
Kāyakammaṃ vacīkammañca tāni kusalāni piyaṃ kāyena ca vācāya ca ārabhati parāmasati, ayaṃ vuccati sīlabbataparāmāso.
903. [Now] though the bodily action and the verbal action that one instigates may [in themselves] be profitable, when one misapprehends them this is what is called " misapprehension of virtue and duty".
Saṅkappanā te tividhā saṅkhārā puññamayā apuññamayā āneñjamayā, tappaccayā viññāṇaṃ te ārammaṇametaṃ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā.
904. "Asserting" 1 is the threefold determinations, namely those consisting in merit, those consisting in demerit, and those consisting in imperturbability (see S. ii, 82). With those as condition, consciousness: thus these are an "object whereby consciousness has a steadying-point " (§ 78).
Yā subhasaññā sukhasaññā attasaññā ca.
905. "Any perception of beauty, [perception of permanence,] perception of pleasure, and perception of self,
Idaṃ cetasikaṃ.
is what is chosen."1
Yaṃ rūpūpagaṃ viññāṇaṃ tiṭṭhati rūpārammaṇaṃ rūpapatiṭṭhitaṃ nandūpasecanaṃ vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullataṃ gacchati, ayaṃ saṅkappanā, iti yaṃ viññāṇaṭṭhitīsu ṭhitaṃ paṭhamābhinibbattiārammaṇavasena upādānaṃ, idaṃ vuccati cetasikanti.
906. That consciousness passing on 1 by means of form is steadied with form as its object, with form as its standing-point (cf. S.iii, 53), comes to growth, increase, and abundance through its being infected with relishing : this is " asserting ".2 907. When thus steadied in the steadying-points for consciousness, the first generating [of consciousness] is an assuming by way of an object ; that is what is called " chosen ".1
Tattha ṭhitassa arūpassa yā nikanti ajjhosānaṃ, idampi sakampitaṃ manāpikesu rūpesu piyarūpasātarūpesu ābhogo, idaṃ cetasikaṃ.
908. [Then] any attachment, cleaving to, [on the part of] the formless steadied thereon is what is called" asserted ".1 909. Concern for agreeable forms that are agreeable and pleasing is "what is chosen ".1
Yaṃ ceteti sattesu [sattasu (pī.)] manāpikesu abhijjhākāyagantho paṭighānusayesu byāpādakāyagantho sabbe cattāro ganthā, ayaṃ pañcasu kāmaguṇesu paṭhamābhinipāto cittassa yā cetanā yassa tattha assādānupassissa anekā pāpakā akusalā dhammā cittaṃ arūpavatiyo honti.
[For] (Whatever one chooses) (§ 78; S.ii, 65) among the wished-for 2 and agreeable is the Body-Tie of covetousness,3 and among those provocative 4 of resistance it is the Body-Tie of ill will, ... and so all four Body-Ties. 910. This is cognizance's first instance in the five strands of sensual desires. When someone is a contemplator of gratification therein [in those sensual desires] then owing to that choice of his 1 many evil unprofitable ideas have parallel occurrence 2 with his cognizance.
Puggalo rāgānubandhibhūto tehi kilesakāmehi yathā kāmakaraṇīyo, ayaṃ vuccate kāmesu pakappanā.
[For when] a person is bound by lust through sensual desire as defilement 3 he can be done with as [Mara] desires (cf. M. i, 156 f.). This is the "asserting" in [the case of the Flood of] Sensual Desires,
Evaṃ sabbe cattāro oghā.
and so with all four Floods.
Yaṃ tehi kāmehi saṃyutto viharati bhāvito ajjhosanno, ayaṃ cetanā.
911. In so far as he abides associated with these sensual desires, with them kept in being (1),1 cleaved to them, this is "choice".
Yassa tathāyaṃ avītarāgassa adhigatapemassa tassa vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā dukkhānuparivattitaṃ viññāṇaṃ hoti saritassa vayadhammasamuppādo cittaṃ pariyādiyati, idaṃ vuccati pakappitanti.
912. In so far likewise as,1 when someone is not without lust, has a propensity for loving, when any change and alteration arise for him, then with the sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief, and despair [consequent thereon in him], that consciousness of his has parallel occurrence with pain 2 as the [thought-]arising that what is remembered is inseparable from the idea of its subsidence grips his cognizance (cf. M. iii, 217) ; this is called " asserting".
Ekamekassa ceteti ca pakappeti ca viññāṇassa ṭhiti yā hoti, sā ca ṭhiti dvidhā ārammaṇaṭṭhiti ca āhāraṭṭhiti ca.
913. He " chooses " and " asserts " for each single 1 steadying-point for consciousness, and that steadying-point is twofold, namely steadying-point-as-object and steadying-point-as-nutriment.
Tattha yā ārammaṇaṭṭhiti, ayaṃ nāmarūpassa paccayo.
Herein, the steadying-point-as-object is a condition for name-and-form;
Yā āhāraṭṭhiti yā punabbhavābhinibbattikā ṭhiti yā ca ponobhavikā ṭhiti, ayaṃ vuccati ārammaṇaṃ.
and for the steadying-point-as-nutriment 2 and for any steadying-point for that generated renewal of being and for any steadying-point as renewal of being.2 Hence 3 it is said that [in the Thread] (That becomes the object
Taṃ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā tassa viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇañca ceteti, atha ca puna patthayate yato na ponobhavikā anāgatavatthumhi, ayaṃ paṭipakkho niddiṭṭho.
whereby consciousness has a steadying-point ) (§ 78; S.ii, 65).3 With that consciousness as condition, name-and- form ; ... down to ... ageing-and-death. 914. Again, he does not 1 choose and does not assert 1 in order that(?) [that steadying-point] may not give renewal of being in a future physical basis : this opposite is demonstrated as follows [in the Thread]:
Na ceteti na patthayati atha ca dūsetīti duvidho niddeso.
([If] he does not choose and [if] he does not assert,1 yet he lets tendencies underlie ) 1 (§ 78; S.ii, 65), the demonstration here being the second.1
Assa pubbe hoti taṃ cetasikaṃ taṃ pakappitaṃ asamūhataṃ tappaccayā, ayaṃ viññāṇassa ṭhiti hoti.
915. What he had formerly "chosen " 1 and had "asserted " is [still] uneradicated, and with that as condition there is [still] this steadying-point for consciousness.
108.Atha vā tassa anusayā āvibhavanti tappaccayā tassa punabbhavo nibbattati.
Or else his underlying tendencies reveal themselves, and with that as condition renewal of being is generated for him.
Atha vā naṃ saṃkiyate appetu āgāre vā, sukhumā vā santi vā na saṃkiyate kāme taṃ evaṃ niccesupi āgāresu jāto hoti.
916. Or else 1 he does not bother (? ) to assert (? ) [any preference for] houses with a refined (? ) living-standard (? ). Since he does not bother (? ) to assert (? ) it, he is thus [re-]born in houses of low standard (? ).
Taṃ nayati yaṃ no kappetuṃ evaṃ saṅkhārā cetitā pakappitā ca ārammaṇabhūtā honti, yā ca cetanā yā ca pakappanā yañca vatthu nibbattaṃ, ubhopi ete ārammaṇaṃ viññāṇassa tathā cetanāya ca saṅkappanāya ca patthanāya ca bhūtā sattā ceteti ca saṅkappeti ca.
That guides him to assert [preference]. Any such determinations chosen and asserted are objects, both the choice and the assertion for the purpose of(? ) generating a physical basis being an object for consciousness.1 917. As 1 by choice and by assertion 1 aspiring creatures " that already are" (that already have existence) choose 1 and assert,1
Yaṃ gavesanā na ca ceteti na ca saṅkappeti.
not so those "that yet seek to be" 1 (see Sn.146-7), who neither choose nor assert.
Katame ca sattā bhūtā?
What are the "creatures that already are"?
Ye ca tanujātaaṇḍajāpi aṇḍakā anubhinnā saṃsedajā na ca sambhinnā ime bhūtā.
They are those actually(?) born, and the egg-born 2 already broken out of the egg, and the moisture-born, [all] so long as they have not yet reached dissolution [of the body] ; it is these that " already are "
Katame sambhavesino gabbhagatā aṇḍagatā saṃsaranto ime na ceteti na pattheti na ca saṅkappeti.
What are those "that yet seek to be"? They are those traversing the roundabout while still in the womb or in the egg ; it is these latter that " neither choose nor assert " :
Anusaye na ca punabbhavo nibbattīti?
and yet their renewal of being is generated by underlying tendency.3
Ye bhūtā sattā ye sambhavesino, te thāvarā.
Those "that already are " are " frail ",4 while those " that yet seek to be " are " firm " (see Sn.146-7).
Ye vā sato cetenti patthenti ca ye thāvarā.
It is the" frail" that choose 5 and assert, 5
Te na ca cetenti, na ca patthenti, na ca saṅkappenti, anusayena ca saṃsaranti.
while the "firm" neither choose 6 nor assert; and yet they still pursue the roundabout owing to underlying tendency.6
Aparo pariyāyo.
918. Another way:
Ye ariyapuggalā sekkhā, tattha te na ca cetenti, na ca saṅkappenti, anusayena puna uppajjanti.
there are the Noble Persons who are Initiates. Herein, they neither choose nor assert,1 yet they appear again owing to underlying tendency (cf.§ 421).1
Aparo pariyāyo.
919. Another way:
Sukhumā pāṇā bhūmigatā udakagatā cakkhuno āpāthaṃ nāgacchanti, te na ca cetenti, na ca saṅkappenti, anusayena ca saṃsaranti.
there are subtle breathing things 1 in the soil and in water that do not come within the eye's horizon ; 2 and they neither choose nor assert,3 yet they pursue the roundabout owing to underlying tendency.3
Aparo pariyāyo.
920. Another way:
Bāhikā sabbe bhikkhū abhimānikā, te na ca cetenti, na ca patthayanti, anusayena ca saṃsaranti, na ca cetenti, na ca saṅkappenti, na ca anusenti.
all outsider (?) mendicants 1 are over- estimators (?). They neither choose nor assert, 2 and yet they pursue the roundabout owing to underlying tendency.2 921. ([If] one no more chooses, and no more asserts and no more lets tendencies underlie,1
Ārammaṇampetaṃ na hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā.
then there is no 2 object whereby consciousness might have a steadying- point) (§ 78 ; cf. S. ii, 65).
Na ca cetetīti pariyuṭṭhānasamugghātaṃ dasseti.
[With the words] "He no more chooses" he shows eradication of obsession,3
Na ca anusetīti anusayasamugghātaṃ dasseti.
and with "he no more lets tendencies underlie" he shows eradication of underlying tendencies.
Na ca cetetīti oḷārikānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ dasseti.
With " he no more chooses " he shows abandoning of gross defilements,
Na ca anusetīti sukhumānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ dasseti.
and with " he no more lets tendencies underlie " he shows abandoning of subtle defilements.
Na ca cetetīti yena bhūmi ca na ca patthayantīti sakadāgāmī anāgāmī, na ca anusetīti arahaṃ, na ca cetetīti sīlakkhandhassa paṭipakkhena pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca patthayatīti samādhikkhandhassa paṭipakkhena pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca anusayatīti paññākkhandhassa paṭipakkhena pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca cetetīti apuññamayānaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca patthayatīti puññamayānaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca anusetīti āneñjamayānaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ pahānaṃ dasseti, na ca cetetīti anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ, na ca patthayatīti aññindriyaṃ, na ca anusayatīti aññātāvino indriyaṃ.
With " he no more chooses" he shows the plane of seeing (?), 4 with "he no more asserts" 5 he shows the Once-Returner and the Non-Returner, and with "he no more lets tendencies underlie " the arahant. With " he no more chooses " he shows abandoning by means of the Virtue Category's opposition, with "he no more asserts" 6 he shows abandoning by means of the Concentration Category's opposition, and with " he no more lets tendencies underlie" he shows abandoning by means of the Understanding Category's opposition. With " he no more chooses " he shows abandoning of determinations consisting in demerit, with " he no more asserts " 6 he shows abandoning of determinations consisting in merit, and with " he no more lets tendencies underlie " he shows abandoning of determinations consisting in imperturbability. "He no more chooses" is the I-shall-come-to-know-finally-the- as-yet-not-finally-known faculty, "he no more asserts " 6 is the final-knowledge faculty, and " he no more lets tendencies underlie " is the final-knower faculty.
Na ca cetetīti mudukā indriyabhāvanā, na ca patthayatīti majjhaindriyabhāvanā, na ca anusetīti adhimattā indriyabhāvanā.
" He no more chooses " is a blunt 7 Keeping of Faculties in Being (see §§ 802 ff.), "he no more asserts" 6 is a medium Keeping of Faculties in Being, and " he no more lets tendencies underlie " is an outstanding Keeping of Faculties in Being.
Ayaṃ suttattho.
This is the Thread-meaning.
109.Tattha katamā desanā?
922. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Idha sutte cattāri saccāni desitāni.
Here the four Truths are taught in the Thread.
Yañca cetayitaṃ yañca pakappitaṃ atthi etaṃ ārammaṇaṃ cittaṃ patiṭṭhati vicinati [vicinayati (pī. ka.)] yujjati.
923. (2)-(3) (i) " What is chosen and what is asserted " : There is, [still] that object [Whereby] cognizance finds 1 a standing-point: such investigation 2 is construable.
Na ca cetetīti na ca patthayatīti atthi evaṃ ārammaṇaṃ anusaye viññāṇamiti viciniyati yujjati na ca ceteti na ca patthayati.
(ii) " He does not choose and does not assert " : 3 there is still that object in the underlying tendency whereby consciousness has 4 a standing-point : such investigation 2 is construable. (iii) "He no more chooses and no more asserts " : 3
Anusayappahānā viññāṇaṭṭhitiṃ na gavesanti, viciyantaṃ yujjati.
with the abandoning of underlying tendencies he does not seek 5 any steadying-point 6 for consciousness: such investigation is construable.
Ayaṃ yuttivicayo.
This is the Investigation and the Construing.
Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno?
924. (4) Herein, what are the Footings?
Cetanā pariyuṭṭhānaṃ cetanāpariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The [previous] obsession of choice is the footing for the [subsequent] obsession of choice.
Saṅkappanaṃ upādānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The asserting 1 is the footing for assuming.
Anusayo pariyuṭṭhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
The underlying tendency is the footing for obsession.
Tesaṃ chandarāgavināsāya bhāvanā bhavarāgassa pahānaṃ.
The keeping in being of destruction of will and lust for these is the [footing for the] abandoning of lust for being.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo?
925. (5) Herein, what are the Characteristics?
Yaṃ cetasikanti vedayitaṃ pakappitaṃ uggahitaṃ viññātaṃ tabbiññāṇaṃ ārammaṇampi paccayopi.
"What is chosen" (§ 78) 1 is what is felt (? ), " what is asserted" (§ 78) is what is taken up, cognized,2 the consciousness of that, also the object, also the condition.
Tattha katamo catubyūho?
926. (6) Herein, what is the Fourfold Array?
Idha sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
Here in the Thread what is the Blessed One's Purport?
Ye punabbhavaṃ na icchanti, te na cetayissanti na ca patthayissantīti, ayaṃ adhippāyo.
It is that those who do not wish for renewal of being will not choose and will not assert. 1 This is the purport.
Āvaṭṭoti yā ca cetanā patthanā ca anusayo ca viññāṇaṭṭhitipahānā ca, imāni dve saccāni.
927. (7) Conversion? The choosing, the asserting,1 and the underlying tendency [on the one hand], and the abandoning of the steadying-points for consciousness 2 [on the other] are two Truths, [respectively Origin and Path].
Vibhattīti natthi vibhattiyā bhūmi.
928. (8) Analysis? There is no plane of Analysis.
Parivattanā pana paṭipakkhaṃ suttaṃ.
929. (9) Reversal, however, is the Thread with the opposition [contained in its three paragraphs].
Tattha katamo vevacano?
930. (10) Herein, what are the Synonyms?
Cetanā rūpasañcetanā yāvadhammasañcetanā.
The Choice is mind- choice of forms down to 1 mind-choice of ideas (S. ii, 247).
Yo anusayo, te satta anusayā.
" Underlying tendency" is the seven underlying tendencies (D. iii, 254).
Paññattīti cetanāpariyuṭṭhānaṃ paññattiyā paññattā.
931. (11) Descriptions? " Choice" I is described by a description in terms of obsession.1
Saṅkappanaṃ upādānapaññattiyā paññattaṃ.
"Asserting" 2 is described 2 by a description in terms of assuming.
Anusayo hetupaññattiyā paññatto.
"Underlying tendency" is described by a description in terms of cause.
Viññāṇaṭṭhiti upapattihetupaññattiyā paññattā.
"Steadying-point for consciousness " is described by a description in terms of cause-of-rearising.3
Cetanā saṅkappanā anusayo samucchedo chandarāgavinayapaññattiyā paññatto.
The severance 4 of the choice and assertion and underlying tendency is described by a description in terms of the outguiding of will and lust.
Paṭhame keci dvīhi parivattakehi paṭiccasamuppādo idappaccayatāya majjhapaññatti.
With the first 6 two paragraphs 6 [of the three in this Thread] dependent origination [and] specific conditionality [are described respectively]; by the last one, stopping.7
Otaraṇoti dvīhi parivattakehi dukkhañca samudayo ca majjhimakehi maggo ca nirodho ca.
932. (12) Ways of Entry? With the [first] two paragraphs there are Suffering and Origin.1 With the last one,2 the Path and Cessation.
Sodhanoti sutte suttassa ārambho.
933. (13) Clearing Up? The Thread's instigation is cleared up 1 [already].
Adhiṭṭhānoti yañcetayitaṃ sabbaṃ adhiṭṭhānena ekattāya paññattaṃ.
934. (14) Terms of Expression? As expression (? ), "what is chosen " is all described by a unity.
Saṅkappitanti upādānekattāya paññattaṃ.
As assuming, " what is asserted " 1 is described by a unity.
Viññāṇaṃ ekattāya paññattaṃ.
"Consciousness " is described by a unity.
Parikkhāroti subhañca ārammaṇaṃ ayoniso manasikāro cetanā hetupaccayatāya paccayo.
935. (15) Requisites? A beautiful 1 object and unreasoned attention [given to it] are a condition by cause-conditionality for the choice.2
Viññāṇassa patiṭṭhāno dhammo ārammaṇapaccayatāya paccayo.
For consciousness the idea that is its steadying-point is a condition by object-conditionality,
Tassa manasikāro hetupaccayatāya paccayo.
while attention is a condition for it by cause-conditionality.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
936. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Idaṃ suttaṃ saññitaṃ tattha ceteti visajjanā iti niddisitabbā.
This Thread deals with what is perceived (?).1 Herein, "he chooses..can be demonstrated as cognizing.2
Tassa diṭṭhiyā viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ yāva jarāmaraṇaṃ, ayaṃ samāropano.
Then owing to its having a steadying-point,3 with consciousness as condition, name-and-form; ... down to ... ageing-and-death. This is the coordination.
Ārammaṇametaṃ na hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho, nāmarūpanirodhā yāva jarāmaraṇanirodho.
937. As to" there is no object whereby consciousness might have a steadying-point " it can be demonstrated thus : With cessation of consciousness, cessation of name-and-form; ... down to ... cessation of ageing-and-death.
110.Tattha katamaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca asekkhabhāgiyañca suttaṃ?
938. Herein, what is the type of Thread dealing with corruption, dealing with penetration, and dealing with the Adept?
Ayaṃ loko [passa udā. 30 udāne] santāpajāto yāva ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā bhavena bhavassa vippamokkhamāhaṃsu.
[The words] (This world is born to anguish, ... down to ... whoever have declared liberation from being [to come about] through [some kind of] being) (§ 79) 1
Saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ upadhiṃ hi paṭicca dukkhamidaṃ sambhoti, yā tā pana taṇhā pahīyanti, bhavaṃ nābhinandatīti nibbedhassa nibbutassa [niccutassa (pī. ka.)] bhikkhuno anupādāya punabbhavo na hoti.
deal with corruption. [The words]
Upaccagā sabbabhavāni tādīti asekkhabhāgiyaṃ.
[down to] ... one such as this outstrips all kinds of being)(§ 79) deal with the Adept.
Tattha santāpajātoti rāgajo santāpo dosajo mohajoti.
939. Herein, " born to anguish " : the anguish is that it is born to lust, born to hate, and born to delusion,
Tesaṃ sattānaṃ ṭhānaṃ dasseti.
and thus [with the words] " the world is born to anguish " he shows how these creatures stand.
Loko santāpajātoti phasso tividho sukhavedanīyo dukkhavedanīyo adukkhamasukhavedanīyo.
940. The " contact " (§ 79) is threefold, namely to be felt as pleasure, to be felt as pain, and to be felt as neither-pain-nor- pleasure.
Tattha sukhavedanīyo phasso rāgasantāpo, dukkhavedanīyo dosasantāpo, adukkhamasukhavedanīyo mohasantāpo.
Herein, contact to be felt as pleasure brings the anguish of lust, that to be felt as pain brings the anguish of hate, and that to be felt as neither-pain-nor-pleasure brings the anguish of delusion.
Yathā ca bhagavā āha paṭhamakassa valāhakassa gomagge [komagge (pī. ka.) passa a. ni. 3.35] yehi gahapatiputta rāgajehi dosajehi mohajehi santāpehi dukkhaṃ supati, te mama santāpā na santi.
And according as the Blessed One said to Hatthaka Alavaka 1 in the Anguttara 2 ( Householder's son,3 such kinds of lust-born, hate-born, and delusion-born anguish as those whereby one sleeps 4 in pain are absent in me) (cf. A.i, 137).
Rogaṃ vadati attatoti tehi santāpehi santāpito tividhaṃ vipallāsaṃ paṭilabhati saññāvipallāsaṃ cittavipallāsaṃ diṭṭhivipallāsaṃ.
941. "It is sickness that it calls self" 1 : he who is anguished by these kinds of anguish obtains the threefold perversion, namely (1) perversion of perception, (2) perversion of cognizance, and (3) perversion of view.
Tattha asubhe subhanti saññāvipallāso.
Herein, (1) perversion of perception is that there is beauty in the ugly,
Dukkhe sukhanti cittavipallāso.
(2) perversion of cognizance is that there is pleasure in the painful, and
Anicce niccanti anattani attāti diṭṭhivipallāso.
(3) perversion of view is that there is permanence in the impermanent and that there is self in the not-self.
Yathā cittassa vipallāso saññādiṭṭhite tividhā vitakkā – cittavitakko vipallāso saññāvitakko vipallāso diṭṭhivitakko vipallāsopi.
942. Similarly, the perversion of cognizance [and those of] perception and view, these are the threefold [logical (l)] thinking: (a) thinking based on [the affective state of] cognizance is a perversion, (b) thinking based on perception is a perversion, and (c) thinking based on view is a perversion, too.
Tattha avijjā vipallāso gocarā gatipateyyabhūmi, yathā hi taṃ sañjānāti yathā vijānāti yathā sañjānāti ca vijānāti ca.
943. Herein, the plane for the perversions' province of predominance is ignorance; 1 for according as [ignorance (?)] perceives it, according as it cognizes, according as it perceives and cognizes,
Yathā khanti ceteti ime cattāro vipallāsā sattā yehi catubbidhaṃ attabhāvavatthuṃ rogabhūtaṃ gaṇḍabhūtaṃ "attā"ti vadanti.
and according as liking 2 chooses, these four as the [three] perversions whereby creatures call " self" the fourfold ground for selfhood that is [in fact] a sickness [and] a boil.
Rogaṃ vadati attatoti ayaṃ āvaṭṭo.
Thus the words "it is sickness that it calls self" are a conversion [to the opposite];
Yena yena hi maññati tato taṃ hoti aññathāti subhanti maññati na tathā hoti.
for" however it conceives [it] 'Tis [ever] otherwise than that" (§ 79), it conceives that there is beauty, which is not so,3 and likewise pleasure, permanence, and self.
Evaṃ sukhanti niccaṃ attāti so aññathā bhavameva santaṃ anāgataṃ bhavaṃ patthayati, tena vuccati "bhavarāgo"ti.
"Maintaining its being otherwise [than it conceives]:" ' while being, it aspires to future being; hence it is said [here] that it " clings to being ".5
Bhavamevābhinandati, yaṃ abhinandati, taṃ dukkhanti pañcakkhandhe niddisiyati.
944. " Expectantly relishes only being, but what it relishes brings fear : " 1 [by this] he demonstrates 2 the five categories ;
Yañca tappaccayā sokaparidevadukkhaṃ tassa hi bhāvessati.
for sorrow, lamentation and pain with that fear as condition will be kept in being 3 for him.
Ettāvatā saṃkileso hoti.
Up to this point corruption.
Pahānatthaṃ kho pana brahmacariyaṃ vussati.
945. "Now this divine life is lived in order to abandon being " (§ 79) :
Tiṇṇaṃ santāpānaṃ chandarāgavinayo hoti.
The outguiding of will and lust is the abandoning of the three [kinds of being].
Upadhiṃ hi paṭicca dukkhamidaṃ bhavatīti ye bhavamevābhinandanti yassa bhāvessati, taṃ dukkhaṃ tassa dukkhassa pahānamāha.
while " it is [by depending on] 1 the essentials of existence that this suffering has actual being" (§ 79), since that pain will be kept in being for anyone who relishes being, he stated the abandoning of that pain thus "
Sabbaso upādānañca yaṃ natthi dukkhassa sambhavoti cattāro vipallāsā yathā niddiṭṭhaupādānamāha.
With the exhaustion 2 of all kinds of assumption suffering has no actual being " (§ 79) : what he calls " assumption " as demonstrated here is the four perversions.
Tassa paṭhamo vipallāso kāmupādānaṃ, dutiyaṃ diṭṭhupādānaṃ, tatiyaṃ sīlabbatupādānaṃ, catutthaṃ attavādupādānaṃ, tesaṃ yo khayo natthi dukkhassa sambhavo upadhi nidānaṃ dukkhanirodhamāha.
Of that the first perversion is sensual-desire assumption, the second is view-assumption, while the third is virtue-and-duty assumption and self-theory assumption. Their exhaustion is pain's having no more actual being, [and with this] he states the cessation of pain that has the essentials of existence for its source.3
Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya passato vibhavataṇhā na hoti.
"So when a man thus sees with right understanding how this is, [his] ... " (§ 79) : he has no craving for being.4
Vibhavaṃ nābhinandatīti dassanabhūmiṃ manteti sabbaso taṇhakkhayaṃ nibbānanti dve vimuttiyo katheti rāgavirāgañca avijjāvirāgañca.
By " He no more expectantly relishes non-being " (§ 79) he alludes to the plane of seeing. By " That is the utter exhaustion 6 ... extinction " (§ 79) he explains two deliverances : fading of lust and fading of ignorance.
Tassa bhikkhunoti anupādisesanibbānadhātuṃ manteti.
946. By "That bhikkhu ... [no more] his ... " (§ 79) he alludes to the extinction element without trace left.
Ayaṃ suttassa atthaniddeso.
This is the demonstration of the Thread's meaning.
111.Tattha katamo vicayo?
947. (2)-(3) Herein,1 what is the Investigation?
Yassa yattha pariḷāheti tassa pariḍayhantassa so yathābhūtaṃ natthi nibbindati ca, ayaṃ vicayo ca yutti ca.
When someone has a fever 2 then while he is feverish he has no seeing 3 how it is and finds no dispassion. This is the Investigation and the Construing.
Padaṭṭhāno rāgajo pariḷāho sukhindriyassa domanassindriyassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
948. (4) Footings 1 lust-born 1 fever is the footing for the pleasure faculty and for the joy 2 faculty,
Dosajo pariḷāho sukhindriyassa domanassindriyassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
hate-born fever is the footing for the pain 8 faculty and for the grief faculty,
Mohajo pariḷāho upekkhindriyassa domanassindriyassa ca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
delusion-born fever is the footing for the onlooking-equanimity faculty and for the grief faculty.
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
949. (5) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Phassapareto vedanāpareto saññāparetopi saṅkhāraparetopi yena yena maññati yadi subhanimittena yadi sukhanimittena yadi niccanimittena yadi attanimittena asubhe subhanti maññati, evaṃ sabbaṃ rāgaje pariḷāhe vutte cattāro pariḷāhā vuttā bhavanti.
"Subject to [painful] contact" [implies also] subject to feeling and subject to perception and subject to determinations. "For however it conceives [it]" : 1 whether by the sign of beauty, or by the sign of pleasure, or by the sign of permanence, or by the sign of self, it conceives that there is beauty in the ugly, and all [the rest]. 2 When lust-born fever 3 is stated [all] the four fevers are stated,
Rāgajo dosajo mohajo diṭṭhijo ca rāgaṃ vadāmīti attato vadati.
namely the lust-born, the hate-born, the delusion-born, and the view-born. " It is sickness that it calls self" :4
Sabbāni pannarasa padāni aniccaṃ dukkhanti.
it calls all the fifty terms - impermanent, painful, and so on - [self].5
Tattha katamo catubyūho?
950. (6) Herein, what is the Fourfold Array?
Idha sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport in the Thread here?
Ye pariḷāhena na acchanti te bhavaṃ nābhinandanti.
Those who do not 1 remain 1 with fever do not expectantly relish being ; 1
Ye bhavaṃ nābhinandanti, te parinibbāyissanti.
those who do not expectantly relish being 1 will attain extinction.
Ayaṃ adhippāyo.
This is the Purport.
Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo?
951. (7) Herein, what is the Conversion?
Saṃkilesabhāgiyena dukkhañca samudayañca niddisati.
With the [section) dealing with corruption he demonstrates Suffering and Origin.
Nibbedhabhāgiyena maggañca nirodhañca.
With that dealing with penetration, the Path and Cessation (see § 938).
Tattha katamā vibhatti?
952. (8) Herein, what is the Analysis?
Santāpajāto rogajāto rogaṃ vadati attato taṃ na ekaṃsena hoti amanasikārā santāpajāto kho na ca rogaṃ attato vadati.
" Born to anguish ", born to sickness, " it is sickness that it ca~ 1 self" : that is not uni1aterally [always so] ; for there may be one who is born to anguish (is anguished) through inattention yet he does not call the sickness self.2
Tattha katamo parivattano?
953. (9) Herein, what is the Reversal?
Pakkhapaṭipakkhanidassanatthaṃ bhūmi parivattanāya.
It is with the reversal of plane 1 for the purpose of showing the proposition and its opposite.
Tattha katamo vevacano hāro?
954. (10) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Synonyms?
Rogañca attato vadati sallaṃ attato vadati.
"It is sickness that it calls self" : it is a barb that it calls self, ...
Pannarasa padāni sabbāni vattabbāni.
and all the fifty terms can be cited (see§ 949).
Tattha katamā paññatti?
955. (11) Herein, what are the Descriptions?
Santāpajātoti domanassapadaṭṭhānaṃ.
"Born to anguish" is the footing for grief ;
Sabbe vacanapaññattiyā paññapeti.
he describes all that by a description in terms of synonyms.1
Rogaṃ vadati attato vipallāso saṃkilesapaññattiyā paññapeti.
" It is sickness that it calls self" : he describes the perversions 2 by a description in terms of defilement.
Yaṃ nābhinandati, taṃ dukkhanti vipallāsanikkhepapaññattiyā paññattā.
" What it expectantly relishes brings fear " : 3 the perversions 4 are described by a description in terms of presentation.5
Te akatasattā lokā majjhena vemattatāya paññattā.
Tattha katamo otaraṇo?
956. (12) Herein, what are the Ways of Entry?
Santāpajātoti tīṇi akusalamūlāni, te saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpannā, dhātūsu dhammadhātu, āyatanesu dhammāyatanaṃ.
" Born to anguish " is the three unprofitable roots. They, being determinations, are included in the determinations category; in the case of the elements, the idea element ; in the case of the bases, the idea base ;
Indriyesu itthindriyaṃ purisindriyañca padaṭṭhānaṃ.
in the case of the faculties, the femininity faculty and masculinity faculty.1
Tattha katamo sodhano?
957. (13) Herein, what is the Clearing Up?
Suddho suttassa ārambho.
The Thread's instigation has been cleared up already.
Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno hāro?
958. (14) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression?
Pariḷāhoti ye sattā lokā ekattapaññattiyā paññattā, te akatasattā lokā majjhena vemattatāya paññattā.
Fever : 1 Those worlds described [fust] by a description in tenns of a unity as "clinging [to being]" are the worlds described in the middle by a description in terms of a diversity, doing without the clinging(? ).
Tattha katamo parikkhāro?
959. (15) Herein, what are the Requisites?
Santāpajātoti ayoniso manasikāro hetu, vipallāsañca paccayo.
"Born to anguish" : unreasoned attention is the cause and the perversions are the condition.
Tattha dvīhi dhammehi attā abhiniviṭṭhā cittañca cetasikañca dhamme ubhayāni tassa viparītena parāmasato.
Herein, self is insisted upon by way of two kinds of ideas : namely cognizance and cognizance-concomitant ideas for one who is misapprehending both 1 distortedly.
Aparo pariyāyo, cetasikehi dhammehi attasaññā anattasaññā samugghāteti.
Another way: perception of not-self eradicates perception of self 2 [conceived] by means of cognizance-concomitant ideas.
Aparo pariyāyo.
Another way :
Aniccasaññā cetasikesu dhammesu, na tu attasaññā.
there is perception of impermanence by means of cognizance-concomitant ideas but no perception of not-self 3 thus :
Idaṃ vuccati cittanti vā manoti vā viññāṇanti vā idaṃ dīgharattaṃ abbhuggataṃ etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attāti.
( This is called " cognizance " and " mind " and " consciousness " ) down to 4 ( For 'long has this been cleaved to5 thus : This is mine, this is I, this is my self) (S.ii, 94).
Tattha cetasikā dhammānupassanā esāpi dhammasaññā.
Herein, such (?) seeing (?) 6 is perception of self.6
Tassa ko hetu, ko paccayo?
What is the cause, what the condition,
Ahaṃkāro hetu, mamaṃkāro paccayo.
for that t I-making is the cause, my-making is the condition.
Tattha katamo samāropano?
960. (16) Herein, what is the Coordination?
Ayaṃ loko santāpajātoti akusalaṃ manteti viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpassa paccayo yāva jarāmaraṇanti, ayaṃ samāropano.
By " this world is born to anguish " the unprofitable consciousness he alludes to is the condition for name-and-form; ... down to ... ageing-and-death. This is the coordination.
112.Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ, sammappaññāya passati akusalamūlānaṃ pahānaṃ.
"So when he sees with right understanding how it is, [his] ..... 1 is the abandoning of the unprofitable.
Tattha avijjānirodho avijjānirodhā yāva jarāmaraṇanirodho, ayaṃ samāropano.
Herein, there is cessation of ignorance ; with cessation of ignorance, ... down to ... cessation of ageing-and-death. This is the coordination.
Cattāro puggalā [passa a. ni. 4.5] – anusotagāmī paṭisotagāmī ṭhitatto, tiṇṇo pāraṅgato thale tiṭṭhati brāhmaṇoti.
961. (Four kinds of person: (i) one who goes with the stream, (ii) one who goes against the stream, (iii) one who has steadied himself, and (iv) one who has crossed over, gone to the further shore, and stands on firm ground as one divine ) (§ 79).
Tattha yo anusotagāmī ayaṃ kāme sevati.
962. Herein, (i) he who goes with the stream ( cultivates sensual desires
Pāpañca kammaṃ karoti yāva kāme paṭisevati.
and does evil actions) (§ 79 ; A. ii, 5). In so far as he cultivates sensual desires
Idaṃ lobho akusalamūlaṃ, so yeva taṇhā, so tehi kāmehi vuyhati anusotagāmīti vuccati.
this is the unprofitable root, greed. And it is since he is swept along by sensual desires, which are the streams of craving,1 that he is called one who " goes with the stream ".
Yo puggalo tāhi gamito tappaccayā tassa hetu akusalakammaṃ karoti kāyena ca vācāya ca, ayaṃ vuccati pāpakammaṃ karotīti.
Any person who, because of his going with that [stream], with that as condition, with that as cause, does unprofitable action by body and speech is called one who " does evil action ".
Tassa tīṇi sotāni sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchā sīlabbataparāmāso.
He has three streams : embodiment-view, uncertainty, and misapprehension of virtue and duty.
Imehi tīhi sotehi tividhadhātuyaṃ uppajjati kāmadhātuyaṃ rūpadhātuyaṃ arūpadhātuyaṃ.
In virtue of these three streams he reappears in the triple element [of existence]: in the sensual-desire element, in the form element, in the formless element.
Tena paṭipakkhena yo kāme na paṭisevati.
963. In the opposite sense, (ii)-(iv) he who Does not 1 (cultivate sensual desires) (§ 79; A.ii, 5)
Yo sīlavataṃ na parāmasati.
does not misapprehend virtue and duty,
Yo sakkāyadiṭṭhīnaṃ pahānāya kāmesu yathābhūtaṃ ādīnavaṃ passati.
with the abandoning of the embodiment-view he sees how there is disappointment in sensual desires.
Yena ca te dhamme paá¹­isevati.
Since he [instead] cultivates these ideas [of renunciation]
Yañca tappaccayā tiṭṭhati brāhmaṇoti arahaṃ kira.
and since, with that as condition he "stands as one divine", as it were, 2 an Arahant,
Tattha arahaṃ tassa pāraṅgato hoti, pāraṅgatassa thale tiṭṭhati sopādisesā nibbānadhātu.
accordingly 3 it is the Arahant who has" gone to the further shore" of that [stream]. One" gone to the further shore", who "stands on firm ground ", has the extinction element with trace left.
Anusotagāminīti dassanappahātabbānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ appahānamāha.
964. With (i) " one who goes with the stream " he states the non- abandoning of the fetters to be abandoned by seeing.
Paṭisotagāminīti phale diṭṭhekaṭṭhānañca kilesānaṃ pahānamāha, ṭhitattena pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānamāha.
With (ii)" one who goes against the stream " he states the abandoning, in the fruit of Stream-Entry, the defilements coefficient with wrong view (see § 127). With (iii) " one who has steadied himself" he states the abandoning of the five hitherside fetters.
Tattha anusotagāminā maggarūpimāha.
965. Herein, with (i) "one who goes with the stream" he states one who is confused 1 about the path,
Paṭisotagāminā ṭhitattena ca maggamitimāha.
with (ii) " one who goes against the stream " and with (iii) " one who has steadied himself" he states one who is wise 2 owing to the path,
Pāraṅgatena sāvakā asekkhā ca sammāsambuddhā ca vuttā.
and with (iv) " one gone to the further shore " it is those hearers (229] who are Adepts and also Fully Enlightened Ones 3 that are stated.
Anusotagāminā sakkāyasamudayagāminiṃ paṭipadamāha.
966. With (i) " one who goes with the stream " he states the way leading to the origin of embodiment,
Paṭisotagāminā ṭhitattena sakkāyanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadamāha.
with (ii) "one who goes against the stream " and with (iii) " one who has steadied himself " he states the way leading to cessation of embodiment,
Pāraṅgatena dasa asekkhā arahantā dhammā vuttā.
and with (iv) "one gone to the further shore" it is the Adept-Arahant ideas (A.v, 221) that are stated.
Ayaṃ suttattho.
This is the Thread-meaning.
113.Tattha katamā desanā?
967. (1) Herein, what is the Teaching?
Imasmiṃ hi sutte cattāri ariyasaccāni desitāni.
In this Thread the four Noble Truths are taught,
Tedhātukalokasamatikkamanañca.
and the surmounting of the worlds of the triple element.
Tattha katamo vicayo hāro?
968. (2) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation?
Yo kāme paṭisevati pāpaṃ [pāpakaṃ (pī.)] kareyyāti yo ca kāme na paṭisevati so pāpakammaṃ na kareyyāti yo ca imehi dvīhi bhūmīhi uttiṇṇo pāraṅgatoti yā vīmaṃsā ayaṃ vicayo.
He who cultivates sensual desires would do evil, he who does not 1 cultivate sensual desires would not do evil, and it is he who has crossed beyond both these planes who has " gone to the further shore " : any such inquiry is the Investigation.
Yuttīti yujjati suttesu, nāyujjatīti yā vīmaṃsāya, ayaṃ yutti.
969. (3) Construing? Any inquiry into whether this construes in the Threads or does not construe is the Construing.
Padaṭṭhānoti anusotagāminā sattannaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
970. (4) Footings? With one who "goes with the stream" there is the footing for the seven 1 fetters.
Akusalassa kiriyā akusalassa mūlānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.
For the doing 2 of what is unprofitable the footing is the roots of the unprofitable.
Paṭisotagāminā yathābhūtadassanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
With one who " goes against the stream " there is the footing for seeing how things are.
Ṭhitattena asaṃhāriyāya [asahāriyāya (pī.)] padaṭṭhānaṃ.
With one who has " steadied himself" there is the footing for invincibility.3
Pāraṅgatoti kadāci bhūmiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
"Gone to the further shore" : there is the footing for the plane of Him Who Has Done.4
Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro?
971. (5) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics?
Yo anusotaṃ gacchati taṇhāvasena.
He who " goes with the stream " owing to craving
Sabbesampi kilesānaṃ vasena gacchati.
also goes owing to all defilements.
Yo paṭisotaṃ vāyamati.
He who makes efforts " against the stream "
Taṇhāya sabbesampi so kilesānaṃ vāyamati paṭisotaṃ.
of craving also makes efforts against the stream of defilements.
Yo attanā ṭhito kāyenapi so ṭhito vācācittenapi so ṭhito.
He who has " steadied hlmself " is also steadied bodily and also steadied verbally and mentally.
Ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro.
This is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics.
Tattha katamo catubyūho?
972. (6) Herein, what is the Fourfold Array?
Idha sutte bhagavato ko adhippāyo?
What is the Blessed One's Purport here in the Thread?
Ye anusotagāminiyā paṭipadāya nābhiramissanti, te paṭisotaṃ vāyamissantīti yāva kadāci bhūmiyaṃ, ayaṃ adhippāyo.
It is that those who will not delight in the way leading to going with the stream will make efforts for that going against the stream ... down to ... in the plane of Him Who Has Done.1
Āvaṭṭoti idha sutte cattāri suttāni desitāni.
973. (7) Conversion? The four Truths are taught in the Thread here.
Tattha katamo vibhatti hāro?
974. (8) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis?
Yo kāme paṭisevati pāpañca kammaṃ karoti.
That " he who cultivates sensual desires and he who does evil actions
So anusotagāmīti na ekaṃsena sotāpannopi kāme paṭisevati.
is one who goes with the stream" is not unilaterally [always so]; for also a Stream-Enteeer may cultivate sensual desires
Taṃ bhāgiyañca pāpakammaṃ karoti.
and may do evil actions connected therewith (cf.Sn.232);
Kiñcāpi sekkhopi kareyya pāpaṃ yathā sutte niddiṭṭho na ca so anusotagāmī, idaṃ vibhajjabyākaraṇīyaṃ.
but although the Initiate thus also may do such evil actions as demonstrated in the Thread 1 yet he is not one " going with the stream ". [So] This is declarable [only] after analysis.
Na ca kāme paṭisevati na ca pāpakammaṃ karoti paṭisotagāmī na ca ekaṃsena sabbe bāhirako kāmesu vītarāgo na ca kāme paṭisevati, tena ca pāpakammaṃ karoti anusotagāmī paṭisotagāmī, ayaṃ vibhatti.
" And he does not cultivate sensual desires and he does no evil action and he is one who goes against the stream " is not unilaterally [always so]. All those outside [the Dispensation] 2who are lust-free 3 with regard to sensual desires do not cultivate sensual desires and they do no evil yet they go with the stream, they do not 5 go against the stream. This is the analysis.
Tattha katamo parivattano hāro?
975. (9) Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal?
Niddiá¹­á¹­ho paá¹­ipakkho.
It is the opposition demonstrated.
Vevacanoti kāmesu vatthukāmāpi kilesakāmāpi rūpasaddagandharasaphassaputtadāradāsakammakaraporisañca pariggahā.
976. (10) Synonyms? In the case of sensual desires they are sensual desires as things and sensual desires as defilement (see Nd1. 1), and they are forms, sounds, odours, flavours, and touches,1 and they are chattels consisting of children, wives, bondsmen, and workmen.1
Paññattīti sabbe puthujjanā ekattāya paññattā.
977. (11) Descriptions?*//* 1 */[By "one going with the stream ".] All ordinary men are described by a unity./* 1
Anusotagāmīti kilesasamudācārapaññattiyā paññattā.
Those " going with the stream ", are described by a description in terms of defilement's taking place.
Ye pana sekkhā puggalā, te nibbānapaññattiyā [niṭṭhānapaññattiyā (ka.)] paññattā.
Initiate persons are described by a description in terms of penetration.2
Ye pana anāgāmī, te asaṃhāriya paññattiyā paññattā, ayaṃ paññatti.
Non-Returners are described by a description in terms of invincibility (see § 970). These are the descriptions.
Otaraṇoti yo anusotagāmī, so dukkhaṃ.
978. (12) Ways of Entry? The one who " goes with the stream " is Suffering.
Ye tassa dhammā, te dukkhassa samudayo.
His ideas are Suffering's Origin.
Yaṃ rūpaṃ, ayaṃ rūpakkhandho, evaṃ pañcapi khandhā paṭiccasamuppādo, te kilesā saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpannā dhammāyatanaṃ dhammadhātu indriyesu ca paññattā.
Any form is the form category; so too the [rest of the] five categories; [and] dependent arising. These defilements, included in the determinations category, are described in the idea base, the idea element, and the faculties.1
Sodhanoti yenārambhena idaṃ suttaṃ desitaṃ, so ārambho sabbo suddho.
979. (13) Clearing Up? The instigation whereby this Thread is taught is cleared up.
Adhiṭṭhānoti paṭisotagāminā sabbe sotāpannā ekattena vā niddiṭṭhā rāgānusayapaṭisotagāmino sekkhāva maggo ca sekkho ca puggalo ṭhitattoti.
980. (14) Terms of Expression? By " one going against the stream" all Stream-Enterers are demonstrated by a unity. But there are those who " go against the stream " of the underlying tendency to lust who are Initiates too ; the foremost 2 is the person who has "steadied himself", and they [under him]
Vītarāgo ekattāya paññatto.
as the Lust-Free [Non-Returner] (see § 545), are described by a unity.
Pāraṅgatoti sabbe arahanto sabbe paccekabuddhā sammāsambuddhā ca ekattāya paññattā.
He who has "gone to the further shore " is all Arahants, all Hermit Enlightened Ones, and all Fully Enlightened Ones, described by. a unity.
Parikkhāroti anusotagāmino pāpamittapaccayo kāmapariyuṭṭhānaṃ hetu.
981. (15) Requisites? For him who "goes with the stream" bad friends 1 are the condition, obsession by sensual desire is the cause.
Paṭisotagāmino dve hetū dve paccayā ca yāva sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāyadiṭṭhi [upādāyadiṭṭhi (pī.)], tassa paṭiladdhamaggo hetu ārambho paccayo kāyiko cetasikassa koṭṭhāso ca.
One who" goes against the stream " : for him .c there are two causes and two conditions for the arising of ... down to ... right view " (§ 1). For him who has "steadied himself" 2 the obtained path is the cause and the instigation is the condition, bodily and a portion of the cognizance-concomitant (? ).
Samāropanoti vibhatti idaṃ suttaṃ natthi samāropanāya bhūmi.
982. (16) Coordination? This Thread being an analysis, there is no plane of coordination.
114.Pañcānisaṃsā sotānugatānaṃ dhammānaṃ [passa a. ni. 4.191] yāva diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhānaṃ suttaṃ vitthārena kātabbaṃ.
1012. [231, line 13] (Five 1 rewards can be expected of ideas that have entered the ear 2 when they are... down to... well penetrated by [right] view) (§ 80) this Thread can be quoted in detail.
Yuñjato ghaṭentassa vāyamato gilāno maraṇakāle devabhūto paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇāti.
When he "devotes himself" and " strives" and "makes efforts" 3 [he (reaches distinction (i) here and now] ... (ii) when ill... (iii) the time of death... (iv) when a god... (v) [he reaches] Hermit Enlightenment ) (§ 80).
Sotānugatāti saddhammassavanena kataṃ hoti.
1013. " Entered the ear " : this is done by hearing the true object of faith ;
Na ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāya tassa cittaṃ tasitaṃ hoti, na ca anibbiddhattaṃ, idaṃ ca suttaṃ pañcannaṃ puggalānaṃ desitaṃ, saddhānusārino mudindriyassa tikkhindriyassa ca dhammānusārino tikkhindriyassa mudindriyassa ca.
and his cognizance is not yet thirsty for the insight into ideas that consists in the higher understanding 1 or for complete breaking-out.2 1014. And this Thread is taught of the five kinds of persons: there are the Followers by Faith (1) with blunt faculties and (2) with keen faculties and the followers by Ideas (3) with blunt faculties and (4) with keen facuities (see §§ 86 ff.);
Yo pana mohacarito puggalo na sakkoti yuñjituṃ ghaṭituṃ vāyamituṃ yathābhūtaṃ yathāsamādhikā vimutti taṃ khaṇaṃ taṃ layaṃ taṃ muhuttaṃ phalaṃ dasseti.
but 1 (v) since a person of deluded temperament cannot devote himself, strive, or make efforts, the deliverance, according as it comes to be, 2 according to the concentration it has (?), shows its (?) fruit at that moment, at that instant, in that period;
Sādhu parihāyati paro taṃ duyhati, no tu sukhaavipākinī bhavati.
and even if the devotee falls away or another (?) corrupts (? ) 3 him (?), that [deliverance (?)] is still not without its pleasant ripening for him
Tassa diṭṭhe yeva ca dhamme upapajjaaparāpariyavedanīyaṃ.
either here and now or on reappearance or in some future period.
Tattha yo puggalo dhammānusārī tassa yadi sotānugatā dhammā honti so yuñjanto pāpuṇāti.
1015. Herein, if (2) the kind of person who is a Follower by Ideas [with keen faculties] has such ideas entered by the ear, then when he devotes himself he (i) reaches [distinction here and now];
Yo dhammānusārī mudindriyo, so gilāno pāpuṇāti.
but (1) the Follower by Ideas with blunt faculties reaches it (ii) when he is ill.
Yo saddhānusārī tikkhindriyo, so maraṇakālasamaye pāpuṇāti.
(4) The Follower by Faith with keen faculties reaches it (iii) on the occasion of the time of death,
Yo mudindriyo, so devabhūto pāpuṇāti.
and (3) he with blunt faculties reaches it (iv) when he is a god ;
Yadā devabhūto na pāpuṇāti, na so teneva dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇāti.
but when he does not reach it as a god, then with that same lust for the True Idea, with that relish for the True Idea, (v) he [eventually] reaches 1 Hermit Enlightenment.
Yo sotānugatesu yuñjati ghaṭeti vāyamati, so pubbāpannena visesaṃ sañjānāti, sañjānanto pāpuṇāti.
1016. (i) He who devotes himself, strives, makes efforts