4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸🏛️ only 1 way‍    🔝
 1: “I teach only one thing…”
    only 1 way‍ 1.1
4: Four Noble Truths
    only 1 way‍ 4.1 ... only 1 way‍ 4.4
7: Seven awakening factors
    only 1 way‍ 7.1 ...only 1 way‍ 7.7
8: Noble eightfold path
    only 1 way‍ 8.1 ... only 1 way‍ 8.8
Notable chapters
    only 1 way‍ 24.99 lucid24.org user manual
    only 1 way‍ 24.100 Epilogue: There’s only one way, to rock

TOC in more detail

4: Four Noble Truths
only 1 way‍ 4.1 – Dukkha 💩: Pain-(&-Suffering) 苦
only 1 way‍ 4.2 – Dukkha-samudayaṃ 💩🐣: Pain-(& Suffering)'s-origination 集
only 1 way‍ 4.3 - Dukkha- 💩🚫nirodhaṃ 滅: Pain-&-Suffering's-cessation
only 1 way‍ 4.4 – Dukkha-nirodha-gāminī paṭipadā 道: Pain-(&-Suffering)'s-cessation;-way (of) practice
7: Seven awakening factors
only 1 way‍ 7.1 - 🐘 sati-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: remembrance [of Dharma]
only 1 way‍ 7.2 - 💭🕵️ Dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Investigation of Dharma
only 1 way‍ 7.3 - ☀️ viriya sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Vigor
only 1 way‍ 7.4 - 😁Pīti sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Joy...Rapture
only 1 way‍ 7.5 - 🌊 passaddhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa: Pacification
only 1 way‍ 7.6 - 🌄 samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅga: Undistractible-lucidity
only 1 way‍ 7.7 – 🛆👁 upekkha sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ = equanimous-observation
8: Noble eightfold path
only 1 way‍ 8.1 - Sammā-diṭṭhi: right view 1👁
only 1 way‍ 8.2 - Sammā-saṅkappo: right resolve 2💭
only 1 way‍ 8.3 - Sammā-vācā: right speech 3💬
only 1 way‍ 8.4 - Sammā-kammanto: right action 4🏃
only 1 way‍ 8.5 - 👑 sammā-ājīvo: right livelihood 5👑
only 1 way‍ 8.6 - Sammā Vāyāmo: right effort 6🏹
only 1 way‍ 8.7 - Sammā-Sati: right remembering [and applying Dharma] 7🐘
only 1 way‍ 8.8 - 🌄 Sammā Samādhi: right undistractible-lucidity 8🌄

complete TOC

     o 1.1 – “I teach only one thing…”
    o 1.2 – only one way, but multiple entry points
                o 1.2.64 – MN 64 says four jhānas is the path that leads to nirvana!
    o 1.3 – upekkha, viveka, TITWOW syndrome
            o 1.3.7 – how can 7 factors lead to awakening if ‘upekkha’ is just ‘equanimity’?
o 4.1 – Dukkha 💩: Pain-(&-Suffering) 苦
o 4.2 – Dukkha-samudayaṃ 💩🐣: Pain-(& Suffering)'s-origination 集
            o 4.2.1 – kāma-taṇhā: craving for sensuality
            o 4.2.2 – bhava-taṇhā: craving for becoming
            o 4.2.3 –vi-bhava-tanha: craving for non-becoming
            o 4.2.10 – misc. topics on second noble truth
o 4.3 - Dukkha- 💩🚫nirodhaṃ 滅: Pain-&-Suffering's-cessation
            o 4.3.10 - misc. Dukkha Nirodha
                o 4.3.10.1 - self test for arahantship
                o 4.3.10.2 - Stream entry
                o 4.3.10.2.2 – once returner
                o 4.3.10.2.3 – non returner
                o 4.3.10.2.4 – arahant
                o 4.3.10.3 - The term 'nibbana' (nirvana)
                o 4.3.10.4 - difference between ceto and pañña vimutti
                o 4.3.10.5 - What is ubhato-bhāga-vimuttā: liberated both ways?
                o 4.3.10.50 - Relevant Suttas on third noble truth and nirvana
o 4.4 – Dukkha-nirodha-gāminī paṭipadā 道: Pain-(&-Suffering)'s-cessation;-way (of) practice
o 7.1 - 🐘 sati-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: remembrance [of Dharma]
o 7.2 - 💭🕵️ Dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Investigation of Dharma
o 7.3 - ☀️ viriya sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Vigor
o 7.4 - 😁Pīti sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Joy...Rapture
o 7.5 - 🌊 passaddhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa: Pacification
o 7.6 - 🌄 samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅga: Undistractible-lucidity
o 7.7 – 🛆👁 upekkha sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ = equanimous-observation
    o 7.7.2 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in the 🌖🌕Jhānas
    o 7.7.3 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀️
        o 7.7.3.10 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ leads to awakening, not passive indifference
            o 7.7.3.10.1 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ with Snp 5
    o 7.7.4 - 🛆👁 Upekkha as one of the ☮️4bv (brahma vihāra)
    o 7.7.5 - 🛆👁 Upekkha indriya, vedana
    o 7.7.6 - V&V💭 &U🛆👁
    o 7.7.7 - Upekkha🛆👁 without V&V💭 : manas-ān-upekkhitā
    o 7.7.8 – upekkha – Misc.
        o 7.7.8.1 – upekkha dictionary def.
        o 7.7.8.5 – adhi + upekkha: all search results for ‘ajjhupekkh’
o 8.1 - Sammā-diṭṭhi: right view 1👁
o 8.2 - Sammā-saṅkappo: right resolve 2💭
    o 8.2.1 - Renunciation-resolve
    o 8.2.2 - Non-ill-will-resolve
    o 8.2.3 - Non-harmfulness-resolve
o 8.3 - Sammā-vācā: right speech 3💬
    o 8.3.1 – lying; abstaining (from it)
    o 8.3.2 - Divisive-speech; abstaining (from it)
    o 8.3.3 – Abusive-speech; abstaining (from it)
    o 8.3.4 – Idle-chatter; abstaining (from it)
    o 8.3.10 - Sutta passages clarifying right speech
    o 8.3.20 – Misc.
        o 8.3.20.1 – Above all, don’t lie to yourself
        o 8.3.20.2 - 💎🐷 pearls before swine.
        o 8.3.20.3 – oral tradition
o 8.4 - Sammā-kammanto: right action 4🏃
    o 8.4.1 – (1) Pāṇā-atipātā: no killing
        o 8.4.1.6 – Killing in a just war? - Thanissaro essay 2022
    o 8.4.2 – (2) Adinnā-dānā: no stealing
    o 8.4.3 – (3) A-brahmacariya: celibacy
            o 8.4.3.100.1 – what does brahmacariya (celibacy) look like?
    o 8.4.4 – Karma and Rebirth
    o 8.4.5 – misc.
o 8.5 – sammā-ājīvo: right livelihood 5👑
            o 8.5.1 – micchā-ājīvo: what constitutes wrong livelihood
            o 8.5.2 – sammā-ājīvo: what constitutes right livelihood
o 8.6 - Sammā Vāyāmo: right effort 6🏹
o 8.7 - Sammā-Sati: right remembering [and applying Dharma] 7🐘
    o 8.7.1 – 4sp1
            o 31 body parts is preeminent
    o 8.7.2 – 4sp2
    o 8.7.3 – 4sp3
    o 8.7.4 – 4sp4
            o 8.7.10 – primer on ‘sati’
                o 8.7.10.1 – Two ways in which sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D.
            o 8.7.20 – sati is ON 24/7: from the Dharma you depart, break the Buddha's heart
            o 8.7.25 – Buddha arranges marriage for his daughter sati
o 8.8 – Sammā Samādhi: right undistractible-lucidity 8🌄
    o 8.8.1 - j1🌘 First Jhāna
    o 8.8.2 - j2🌗 Second Jhāna
    o 8.8.3 - j3🌖 Third Jhāna
    o 8.8.4 - j4🌕 Fourth Jhāna
o 24 -
    o 24.99 – lucid24.org user manual
    o 24.100 – Epilogue: There’s only one way, to rock
o 100 – commentary

☸Lucid 24: There’s only one way, to rock

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1.1 – “I teach only one thing…”



only 💩&🚫: "I Teach Only Suffering and the End of Suffering"

MN 22 'Pubbe cāhaṃ, bhikkhave, etarahi ca dukkhañc-eva paññāpemi, dukkhassa ca nirodhaṃ.'
'Previously and now, monks, I teach only dukkha and dukkha's cessation.'
There are two meanings of that statement:
1. The places in the suttas where that occurs, skeptics are asking about the soul, what happens after death, and is it annihilated. The Buddha's response says it's only dukkha that ceases, nothing about souls.
2. Closely related to HOL 🍂 principle. The Buddha only taught ☸Dharma for the realization of nirvana, did not get involved with unimportant Dharmas and dharmas of worldly matters and ultimately meaningless metaphysical questions.





HOL 🍂: Handful Of Leaves Principle

SN 56.31: The HOL principle is that the Buddha only taught ☸Dharma, a tiny subset of his vast knowledge of Dharmas and dharmas. He did not teach the rest because they weren’t essential to realizing nirvana.



1.2 – only one way, but multiple entry points



slurp🥤 : A key word or phrase that pulls in several principles

slurp (verb or noun): a loud sucking sound made while eating or drinking.
ex1: "she drank it down with a loud slurp"

slurp (in some computer programming languages): To read in a large file of data into a single named variable.



4👑☸ 4th truth slurps in noble eightfold path 👑8☸
1👁 right view slurps in 4 noble truths 4👑☸
sati, stealthily slurps in the 4 most important factors of noble eightfold path.
Sati = the 4sp🐘 satipaṭṭhāna formula.
The sampajāno, slurps in the pañña indriya wisdom factor, equivalent to right view.
ātāpi slurps in vīriya indriya equivalent to right effort
vineyya loke… clause is a reference to abandoning 5 hindrances 5niv⛅ , putting you right in the doorway of first jhāna, which is right samādhi undistractible-lucidity

1.2.64 – MN 64 says four jhānas is the path that leads to nirvana!
MN 64 is especially interesting, because at first glance four jhānas doesn’t seem to have an obvious recursion back to 4 noble truths, or noble eightfold path in the same direct way the previous example slurps.
So where is it slurping it in?
3rd and fourth jhāna, have sati, sampajāno, and upekkha
As we showed with sati, it slurps in the 4 most important factors of the noble eightfold path,
so that alone would show why 4 jhānas is a complete path to nirvana.
But there are other ways in.
In fourth jhāna, it says, ‘upekkha sati pāri-suddhim’:
That’s a reference to the hidden dragon, the 7 factors of awakening SN 46.1.
Sati is the first factor, upekkha is the 7th.
So 4th jhāna isn’t just saying the 1st and 7th factors are purified, it’s saying all 7 factors are purified, making your samādhi qualified to realize nirvana.
Another way in from 4 jhānas, is through viveka in first jhāna.
viveka, commonly mistranslated as ‘seclusion’, really means discernment/wisdom and seclusion.
So the joy of first jhāna is not just because you’re temporarily secluded from the 5 hindrances and especially sensuality.
The joy of viveka, the really important part, is that it’s because your right view and discernment have recognized that the bliss of choosing renunciation over the bliss of coarse sensual pleasures is surperior.
It’s this superior joy based on right view that launches you deeper into the higher samādhis sustainably.
A joy that’s strictly based on seclusion, is unstable. For example, someone meditates in a breath nimitta or earth kasina, and they enter a disembodied frozen stupor.
They’re blissed out because of excitement at attaining a difficult exercise in samatha kung fu, that very few people can do.
That’s not the joy of first jhāna the Buddha was talking about.
The true joy of viveka, is because you’ve developed the right view to see dukkha clearly enough that you prefer the jhānic joys of renunciation over the impermanent, unreliable unstable pleasures of the 5kg five cords of sensual pleasure, and even see the limitations of the joys of Vism.’s redefined “jhāna”.

Idhānanda, bhikkhu upadhi-vivekā akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānā sabbaso kāyaduṭṭhullānaṃ paṭippassaddhiyā vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
It’s when a monk—due to the judicious-seclusion from attachments, the giving up of unskillful Dharmas, and the complete settling of physical discomfort—quite judiciously-secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful Dharmas, enters and remains in the first jhāna, which has the rapture and pleasure born of judiscious-seclusion, while directing-thought and evaluation.

1.3 – upekkha, viveka, TITWOW syndrome

TITWOW Syndrome

1.3.7 – how can 7 factors lead to awakening if ‘upekkha’ is just ‘equanimity’?

studying this section carefully: only 1 way‍ 7.7.3.10 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ leads to awakening, not passive indifference
makes it clear upekkha is not a passive attitude of equanimity, but an active state of samādhi that discerns reality in a penetrating way, that can lead to nirvana, full awakening, full enlightenment.

studying viveka , especially in light of how MN 64 uses viveka in jhāna (only 1 way‍ 1.2.64),
will yield similar insights in regard to TITWOW syndrome.
It’s not just seclusion.
There are a number of passages where ‘viveka’ must include the pre-Buddhist ‘viveka’ definition of discernment/discrimination/understanding/wisdom.

so when the bojjhanga formula (7 factors of awakening)
refer to ‘viveka’, that can not be seclusion, or at least, not just seclusion devoid of penetrating insight that led one to consciously decide to seclude oneself from unskillful Dharmas.

upekkhā-
(the) Equanimous-Observation-
-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ
-***-awakening-factor;
bhāveti
Develop (that)!
Viveka-nissitaṃ
judicious-seclusion (is) necessary,
Vi-rāga-nissitaṃ
Dis-passion (is) necessary,
Nirodha-nissitaṃ
cessation (is) necessary,
Vossagga-pariṇāmiṃ, (synonym for nirvana here)
relinquishment (is what it) matures (into).
If we use bad one word translations people usually choose for viveka and upekkha
Then the same passage above, instead of depending on right-view, discernment faculty to exercise (viveka) judicious-seclusion that leads to the equanimous-observation (upekkha) factors that exercises vipassana to realize nirvana, we’d instead get:
depending on secluded isolation (viveka), that leads to the equanimity (of calm indifference).
Does that sound like enlightenment to you?
How do you get from indifference to awakening?
A jelly sandwich is not a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
viveka in the jhānas and 7 awakening factors is not just ‘seclusion’.
upekkha is not just ‘equanimity’.

4.1 – Dukkha 💩: Pain-(&-Suffering) 苦

SN 56.11 defines it as

Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave,
" this indeed, (and)-furthermore, monks,
dukkhaṃ ariya-saccaṃ—
(is) suffering, (as a) noble-truth:
jāti-pi dukkhā,
Birth is suffering,
jarā-pi dukkhā,
aging is suffering,
byādhi-pi dukkho,
disease is suffering,
maraṇam-pi dukkhaṃ,
death is suffering.
ap-piyehi sam-pa-yogo dukkho,
(the) un-beloved; association-(with-them is) suffering.
piyehi vip-pa-yogo dukkho,
(the) beloved; dis-association-(with-them is) suffering.
yamp-icchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ—
that-(which is)-wished-(for); not getting (it) also (is) suffering.
saṃkhittena pañc-upādānak-khandhā dukkhā.
In-short, (the) five-clinging-aggregates (are) suffering.
SN 56.11 : saṃkhittena pañc-upādānak-khandhā dukkhā.
In-short, (the) five-clinging-aggregates (are) suffering.

5uk = 💩

1. Rūpa (form)
2. Vedana (feelings/experienced-sensations)
3. Sañña (perceptions)
4. Saṅ-khārā (co-activities)
5. Viññāṇa (consciousness)

SN 56.14 first noble truth expressed as 6 internal sense bases
(instead of standard 5uk)
“katamañca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?
‘cha ajjhattikāni āyatanānī’ tissa vacanīyaṃ.
katamāni cha?
cakkh-āyatanaṃ, sot-āyatanaṃ, ghān-āyatanaṃ,
jivh-āyatanaṃ, kāy-āyatanaṃ, man-āyatanaṃ. —
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

AN 4.14 six sense bases operating
cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā | With-the-eye, [visible]-form (he) sees.
sotena saddaṃ sutvā | With-the-ear, sounds (he) hears.
ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā | With-the-nose, odors (he) smells.
jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā | With-the-tongue, flavors (he) tastes
kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā | With-the-body (kāya ), tactile-sensations (he) senses.
manasā dhammaṃ viññāya | With-the-mind, ideas (he) cognizes.



SN 56.11 The First Sermon, 1st NT has coventional aspects

SN 56.13 bare 4NT STED def, 1st NT just 5uk (pañc-upādānak-khandhā)

SN 56.14 same as 56.13, except 1st NT is 6 sense bases instead of 5uk

MN 13 - 🔗🔊 Mahā-dukkha-k-khandha: great {mass of} suffering: A thorough exploration of sensual pleasures:
There are ascetics and brahmins who don’t truly understand sensual pleasures’ gratification, drawback, and escape in this way for what they are. It’s impossible for them to completely understand sensual pleasures themselves, or to instruct another so that, practicing accordingly, they will completely understand sensual pleasures.

MN 14 Cūḷa­dukkha­k-khandha: Without ability to do jhānas, even Buddha and ariya would find sensual pleasures tempting.

relationship between dukkha and loka (world)
AN 4.46
“I say, friend, that by traveling one cannot know, see, or reach that end of the world where one is not born, does not grow old and die, does not pass away and get reborn. Yet I say that without having reached the end of the world there is no making an end of suffering. It is in this fathom-long body endowed with perception and mind that I proclaim (1) the world, (2) the origin of the world, (3) the cessation of the world, and (4) the way leading to the cessation of the world.” [49]

300The end of the world can never be reached

by means of traveling [across the world];

yet without reaching the world’s end

there is no release from suffering.

4.2 – Dukkha-samudayaṃ 💩🐣: Pain-(& Suffering)'s-origination 集

SN 56.11 defines it as

Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave,
" this indeed, (and)-furthermore, monks,
dukkha-samudayaṃ ariya-saccaṃ—
(is) suffering's-origination (as a) noble truth-
yāyaṃ taṇhā ponob-bhavikā
the craving (that makes for) further-becoming —
Nandi-rāga-sahagatā
delight-(and)-passion -accompanies (it),
tatra-tatrā-(a)bhi-nandinī,
[now] here,-[now]-there-,highly-delighting (in it),
seyyathidaṃ—
that is,
kāma-taṇhā,
sensual-pleasure; craving-for (it).
bhava-taṇhā,
becoming; craving-for (it).
vi-bhava-taṇhā.
non-becoming; craving-for (it).

4.2.1 – kāma-taṇhā: craving for sensuality

see kāma 💘💃‍

4.2.2 – bhava-taṇhā: craving for becoming

wanting particular states of becoming.
Both short (moment to moment) and long term (states of existence in far future, future lifetime rebirths, etc.)
Example, in the Buddha’s instruction on proper way to eat, one wishes to ‘become’ blameless and comfortable.

4.2.3 –vi-bhava-tanha: craving for non-becoming

craving for the various states of short and long term existence from previous section 4.2.2 to end.
For example you’re a butcher and you wish not to become a butcher anymore.
You’re hungry, you wish to become not hungry.
You’re bored, you wish to become not bored.

4.2.10 – misc. topics on second noble truth

SN 56.14

SN 12.43 the 12ps are origination of dukkha

SN 56: ☸4nt is the main subject in this samyutta
AN 8.83:
(1) all dhamma-[things] are rooted in desire (chanda-mūlakā).
(2) They come into being through attention.(manasi-kāra-sambhavā)
(3) They originate from contact.
(4) They converge upon feeling.
(5) They are headed by concentration. (6) Mindfulness exercises authority over them. (7) Wisdom is their supervisor. (8) Liberation is their core.’ 

4.3 - Dukkha- 💩🚫nirodhaṃ 滅: Pain-&-Suffering's-cessation

SN 56.11 defines it as

Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave,
" this indeed, (and)-furthermore, monks,
dukkha-nirodhaṃ ariya-saccaṃ—
is suffering's-cessation (as a) noble-truth:
yo tassā-yeva taṇhāya
that very craving;
A-sesa-virāga-nirodho
(its) non-remainder, fading, (and) cessation,
cāgo paṭi-nissaggo
renunciation, relinquishment,
mutti an-ālayo.
release, (and) un-attachment

4.3.10 - misc. Dukkha Nirodha

4.3.10.1 - self test for arahantship
SN 12.26 12 questions to self test for arahantship

similarly, SN 35.136 / SN 35.153. Is There a Method?

atthinukhopariyāyasuttaṃ (SN 35.136),
“Is there a method of exposition, bhikkhus, by means of which a bhikkhu—
apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned reflection, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it
can declare final knowledge thus:
‘Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being’?”

4.3.10.2 - Stream entry
AN 9.12: Buddha didn’t want to teach about stream entry to prevent opposite of assiduity/a-p-pamāda 🐘🐾‍ , but… “These nine persons, passing away with a residue remaining, are freed from hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world. Sāriputta, I had not been disposed to give this Dhamma exposition to the bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, male lay followers, and female lay followers. For what reason? I was concerned that on hearing this Dhamma exposition, they might take to the ways of heedlessness. However, I have spoken this Dhamma exposition for the purpose of answering your question.”

AN 10.63
AN 10.64
SN 55 whole chapter on stream entry

☸Dhamma-cakkhu: Dharma eye
attainment of which signals stream entry.
See 🔗essay by B. Thanissaro.

4.3.10.2.2 – once returner
4.3.10.2.3 – non returner
SN 12.68 someone as him if he’s an arahant, he’s says, “not yet”, using simile of someone who sees water at bottom of well, but can’t touch it yet, but knows with right wisdom there’s water there.

4.3.10.2.4 – arahant
4.3.10.3 - The term 'nibbana' (nirvana)
Ajahn Lee Cmy. on 4 path attainments
🔗Ajahn Lee, 'Craft of the Heart' ending chapters are his commentary on 4 path attainments (stream entry... arahant).
Epithets for Nirvana
List compiled by B.Ñānatusita
Nirvana described in more detail
etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ (this is peaceful, this is exquisite)
KN Ud 8.1 to KN Ud 8.4

4.3.10.4 - difference between ceto and pañña vimutti
AN 10.20
♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu suvimuttacitto hoti? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno rāgā cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti, dosā cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti, mohā cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu suvimuttacitto hoti.
(9) “And how is a bhikkhu well liberated in mind? Here, a bhikkhu’s mind is liberated from lust, hatred, and delusion. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is well liberated in mind.

♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘rāgo me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṃkato āyatiṃ anuppādadhammo’ti pajānāti, doso me pahīno ... pe ... ‘moho me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṃkato āyatiṃ anuppādadhammo’ti pajānāti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti.
150(10) “And how is a bhikkhu well liberated by wisdom? [32] Here, a bhikkhu understands: ‘I have abandoned lust, cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising; I have abandoned hatred … abandoned delusion, cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising.’ It is in this way that a bhikkhu is well liberated by wisdom.

4.3.10.5 - What is ubhato-bhāga-vimuttā: liberated both ways?
https://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2024/02/ubhato-bhaga-vimutta-liberated-both.html
short answer: An arahant who has not only 4 jhānas, but also formless attainments.
An arahant who is only wisdom liberated (pañña vimutti) only has 4 jhānas.

comprehensive answer:
MN 64 categorically states arhantship or nonreturner not possible without 4 jhānas
    MN 64.7 - (Seven paths for cutting 5 lower fetters are the 4 jhānas, and first 3 formless attainments)
    MN 64.8 - (difference between ceto-vimutti and pañña vimutti)

all the suttas (10) that talk about 'liberated' both ways
ubhato-bhāga-vimuttā: liberated both ways (10 suttas)

AN 2.48 just talks about assemblies with true Dharma and spirituality and those without
AN 7.56 talks about how arahant after death can't be seen by humans or gods
AN 8.22 just list of 7, when gods tell Buddha about type of assembly
AN 9.47 need all 9 attainments to be freed both ways in "definitive sense"
The first 8 attainments only "qualified sense"
DN 15 liberated both ways must have all 8 vimokkha (which includes formless)
DN 28 just named as part of list of 7
DN 33 just named as part of list of 7 persons worthy of a religious donation
MN 65 doesn't shed any light
MN 70 explicit in saying they have to have formless attainments
Katamo ca, bhikkhave, puggalo ubhatobhāgavimutto?  
And what person is freed both ways?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te kāyena phusitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti.  
It’s a person who has direct meditative experience of the peaceful liberations that are formless, transcending form. And, having seen with wisdom, their defilements have come to an end.
MN 70 peaceful liberations (santā vimokkhā, or vihāra) is a synonym for formless attainmnents, not 4 jhānas)
MN 70 pañña vimutti liberated by wisdom doesn't have formless attainment
Katamo ca, bhikkhave, puggalo paññāvimutto?  
And what person is freed by wisdom?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā te na kāyena phusitvā viharati, paññāya cassa disvā āsavā parikkhīṇā honti.  
It’s a person who does not have direct meditative experience of the peaceful liberations that are formless, transcending form. Nevertheless, having seen with wisdom, their defilements have come to an end.
From other suttas like MN 64, we know 4 jhānas are non negotiable requiremnets for arahantship

SN 8.7 of 500 arahants, 60 freed both ways
“There is nothing, Sāriputta, that these five hundred monks have done by way of body or speech that I would criticize.
Imesañhi, sāriputta, pañcannaṁ bhikkhusatānaṁ saṭṭhi bhikkhū tevijjā, saṭṭhi bhikkhū chaḷabhiññā, saṭṭhi bhikkhū ubhatobhāgavimuttā, atha itare paññāvimuttā”ti.  
For of these five hundred monks,
sixty have the three knowledges,
sixty have the six direct knowledges,
sixty are freed both ways,
and the rest are freed by wisdom.”

4.3.10.50 - Relevant Suttas on third noble truth and nirvana
MN 38, MN 39: shorter and longer discourses on tanha ending khaya
Why is samma sambuddha called that?
What is the difference between Buddhas and Arahants?
see SN 22.58 Sammāsambuddha Sutta 

Immeasurability and Ineffability

Dhp 92-93 hard to trace path of birds in sky
Dhp 179 buddha has no tracks
Dhp 216 ish: without no craving no grief or fear
KN Snp‍ 1.12 qualities of arahant sage
MN 22, MN 72, MN 98, AN 3.115, SN 44.1 cannot trace tathagata/arahant even while alive
SN 22.86
AN 11.9, SN 22.79 can't trace the arahant's jhana
SN 6.7-8
MN 116 past parinibbuto buddhas are limitless
KN Ud 2.10
SN 4.19 [last verse line]

More on the ineffability side but hard to sort exactly:

AN 4.173-4 something else nor nothing else exists after parinibbana, cannot be described and any
attempt is papanca.
KN Snp‍ 5.7 Don't exist in a state of eternal wellness, nor do they not exist, nothing can be said when
all things cease.
SN 36.12 cannot reckon arahant when the body breaks up
SN 44.11
DN 15
KN Ud 8.10 very clear parallel to the fire simile and very clearly contradicts some of the common
interpretations

Cataphatic Descriptions of Nibbana

Cataphatic = in postive terms, what nirvana “is”
Apophatic = in negative terms, what nirvana “is not”

KN Thag 3.16, KN Ud 8.10 acalam sukham
KN Snp‍ 1.11, KN Snp‍ 5.9, theragatha opening verse, KN Thag 2.46, KN Thig 5.7, SN 22.95, Dhp 225 padamaccutam
SN 45 list of names for nibbana, many are cataphatic.
KN Iti 2.43 dhuva (stable/permanent), atakkavacara (beyond scope of reason)
KN Ud 1.10 both cataphatic and apophatic
AN 3.47 both cataphatic and apophatic. Cataphatic in that it asserts the asankhata can be 'seen'
AN 11.16 and many others-Nibbana as the supreme sanctuary from the burden/yoke.
KN Ud 8.1, 8.3 both cataphatic and apophatic. Cataphatic in it asserts that nibbana is.

Nibbana and Vinnana

KN Snp‍ 3.12 (search for parinibbuto)
KN Snp‍ 5.14
AN 10.81 tathagata's mind is above all like a lotus including consciousness
SN 12.38-40
SN 12.64
SN 22.53-55
KN Ud 8.9
AN 3.90 vinnana ceases, but citta is said to be freed. Hard to reconcile with citta being implied
to cease in a few of the below suttas.
AN 12.61-62 Here mano=citta=vinnana. Which means where vinnana ceases, so does citta. However this
equation actually wreaks havoc on many suttas, so maybe shouldn't be assumed to apply beyond
this sutta? Could be speaking about how people talk about mind colloquially?
SN 47.42 Citta ceases where namarupa ceases, much stronger implied equation of vinnana and citta.
At the very least, nama rupa ceasing at nibbana implies citta ceases. So if we accept this
sutta then there goes the eternal mind of some thai forest practitioners.

Experience of Nibbāna in present moment (before death of arahant)

AN 3.32 similar to AN 10.6 “this is peaceful, exquisite, the setlling of all activities…”, but does not explain how ordinary jhānas and samādhi can experience that nirvana
AN 9.36 while doing 4 jhānas or first 7 perception attainments, one can realize nirvana

amatāya dhātuyā cittaṃ upasaṃharati
citta touching the deathless property,
AN 10.6 nirvana experienced via a samādhi and perception
* not a samādhi that perceives 4 elements, or 4 formless attainments,…
* Buddha perceives nirvana as “peaceful, exquisite, all activities setlled…”
AN 10.7 Sāriputta gives slightly different explanation than Buddha in AN 10.6
AN 11.7 same as AN 10.6 but one more item added
* (11) And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, cognized, attained, sought, or explored by the mind.
* Sariputta also gives same answer as Buddha in AN 10.6, instead of his unique answer in AN 10.7
AN 11.8 essentially same as AN 11.7, but now gives the key words paying attention (manasi karoti) the same lattitude as the sañña/perception there (to experience nirvana).
* also adds a 12th category to list of exclusion, the 5 sense organs of body and their 5 objects.
AN 11.9 as AN 11.8 added term manasi karoti to samādhi related terms that can perceive Nirvana, this sutta adds “jhāna” and verb jhāyati (do jhāna).
AN 11.18 same as AN 11.7 just different speaker and audience
AN 11.19 same as AN 11.7 just different speaker and audience
AN 11.20 same as AN 11.7 just different speaker and audience
AN 11.21 same as AN 11.7 just different speaker and audience
The point of AN 11.18-21 is to show it’s a common thing for many monks to ask for more detail on the experience of nirvana, and the “this is peaceful…” along with the list of 12 exclusion of what nirvana isn’t, is pretty much the standard accepted answer.

KN Iti 44 nibbāna dhātu with remainder (5 senses) and without remainder

KN Ud 8.1 nirvana called “āyatana” dimension, referring to the same characteristics as AN 10.6
KN Ud 8.4 (Quoted in MN 144 and SN 35.87, similar passage in SN 12.40 as well)

MN 64 same as AN 9.36 but without the archer simile


also see:
etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ (this is peaceful, this is exquisite)
anidassana : unclear if viññāna anidassana is exactly the same as the nirvana that can be perceived by a samādhi in the present moment in the suttas above, or is reserved for nirvana after death of an arahant. In MN 49.9.7 not clear if the Buddha used anidassana as the place where Brahma couldn’t find him, because he used psychic powers to project voice to say to Brahma “you can’t see me.” He could have gone to anidassana, and then switched into a more mundane samādhi with psychic power, or only entered a mundane samādhi to escape from Brahma.
AN 9.37.4.4 uncertain if the special kind of samādhi here is perception of nirvana


million dollar question: is the perception of nirvana from a samādhi in the present moment exactly the same as the experience of nirvana for an arahant after their physical death?
The suttas above make it absolutely clear the present moment nirvana is not just ordinary jhāna doing ordinary vitakka or paying attention to ordinary perceptions of being free of greed, hatred, delusion.
(see the exhaustive lists from AN 11 and AN 10 what what perception of nirvana is NOT)

4.4 – Dukkha-nirodha-gāminī paṭipadā 道: Pain-(&-Suffering)'s-cessation;-way (of) practice

SN 56.11 defines it as

Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave,
" this indeed, (and)-furthermore, monks,
dukkha-nirodha-
(is) suffering's-cessation-,
-gāminī paṭipadā
-leading-to-(it), (the) way-of-practice,
ariya-saccaṃ—
(as a) noble-truth:
Ayameva ariyo aṭṭh-aṅgiko maggo,
Precisely-this Noble Eight-fold Path,
seyyathidaṃ—
as follows-
sammā-diṭṭhi sammā-saṅkappo
Right view, right resolve,
sammā-vācā sammā-kammanto sammā-ājīvo
right speech, right action, right livelihood,
sammā-vāyāmo sammā-sati sammā-samādhi.
right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.
see:
only 1 way‍ 8.1 👁 Sammā-diṭṭhi: right view
only 1 way‍ 8.2 💭 Sammā-saṅkappo: right resolve
only 1 way‍ 8.3 💬 Sammā-vācā: right speech
only 1 way‍ 8.4 🏃 Sammā-kammanto: right action
only 1 way‍ 8.5 👑 sammā-ājīvo: right livelihood
only 1 way‍ 8.6 🏹 Sammā Vāyāmo: right effort
only 1 way‍ 8.7 🐘Sammā-Sati: right remembering [of Dharma]
only 1 way‍ 8.8 🌄 Sammā Samādhi: right undistractible-lucidity

7.1 - 🐘 sati-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: remembrance [of Dharma]

7.2 - 💭🕵️ Dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Investigation of Dharma

7.3 - ☀️ viriya sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Vigor

7.4 - 😁Pīti sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ: Joy...Rapture

7.5 - 🌊 passaddhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa: Pacification

7.6 - 🌄 samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅga: Undistractible-lucidity

7.7 – 🛆👁 upekkha sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ = equanimous-observation

o 7.7 – 🛆👁 upekkha sam bojjh-aṅgaṃ = equanimous-observation
    o 7.7.2 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in the 🌖🌕Jhānas
    o 7.7.3 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀️
        o 7.7.3.10 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ leads to awakening, not passive indifference
            o 7.7.3.10.1 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ with Snp 5
    o 7.7.4 - 🛆👁 Upekkha as one of the ☮️4bv (brahma vihāra)
    o 7.7.5 - 🛆👁 Upekkha indriya, vedana
    o 7.7.6 - V&V💭 &U🛆👁
    o 7.7.7 - Upekkha🛆👁 without V&V💭 : manas-ān-upekkhitā
    o 7.7.8 – upekkha – Misc.
        o 7.7.8.1 – upekkha dictionary def.
        o 7.7.8.5 – adhi + upekkha: all search results for ‘ajjhupekkh’



🛆👁 Upekkha = equanimous-observation

✅ Upekkha has an equanimity aspect, but more importantly, vipassana capability to realize awakening.
It's basically Dhamma-vicaya-bojjhanga supercharged with samādhi-sam-bojjhanga (aka four jhānas) + right view.
⛔ Upekkha is not just 'equanimity'. It's equanimous-observation. Upekkha = upa + ikkhati (👁 looking upon [with right view]).
Just as a peanut butter sandwich ≠ is not a peanut butter AND JELLY sandwich. Two different things.

1. as awakening factor 7🛆👁 : doing vipassana to awaken (SN 46.3), is exactly the same as (#2) upekkha in 4 jhānas.
2. in four jhānas (4j🌕 ) doing vipassana (AN 3.102).
  2a. MN 137.5.1 - (upekkha based on diversity/nanatta are 3rd and 4th jhāna) with 5 senses ON.
  2b. MN 137.5.2 - (upekkha based on unity/ekatta are 4 a-rūpa attainments)
3. in 5👑abi️ as in MN 152, one can infer, is also the same as the above,
since for one to be an awakened noble, one would need a minimum of first jhāna, obtained via 7sb☀️ .
4. in brahma-vihāra 4bv☮️ , for an ariya, would share attributes with all of the above.
As part of 4bv, one would energetically pervade in all directions (of desired radius).
upekkha that could be sensed by other beings as a palpable peaceful radiation,
similar to how seeing someone smile can make you smile.
5. upekkha of 5 indriya/vedana (SN 48.37) only shares emotional tone (equanimity) of 3rd and 4th jhāna, not vipassana capability.
The 4 jhānas are the progressive pacification (passaddhi-sambojjhanga)
of these 5 indriya/vedana (SN 36.11).
6. Upekkha of unawakened ordinary person = equanimous-boredom when indulging in 5kg , see MN 137.3.5 and SN 36.31.3.1.

7🛆👁 upekkha awakening factor ≡ exactly equal to upekkha in 4j🌕 jhāna.
7🛆👁 ≡ also identical to 5👑abi️ : as part of the 5th noble one's developed faculties.
4.🛆👁️ as the 4th brahma-vihāra ≤ can overlap with 7🛆👁 if 4bv done by one with right view.
upekkha of 5 indriya/vedana (SN 48.37) ≠ not equal to 7🛆👁 and jhāna upekkha. More of just the a-dukkham-a-sukham sensation feeling tone.



Upekkha in the 4th jhana, and upekkha-sambojjhanga (7th awakening factor) are the same.
upekkha, frequently translated as 'equanimity', is more properly translated as equanimous-observation.
upekkha = upa + ikkhati. The ikkhati is looking upon.
Along with S&S, Upekkha does vipassana while one is in the 4 jhanas.

🛆👁 Upekkha in the 🌖🌕Jhānas
AN 3.102 Nimittasutta
AN 5.28 After 4 jhanas+similes, Reviewing-sign
AN 5.26: uses samadhi nimitta from AN 5.28 to enter jhāna and onwards
AN 7.38 seems to overlap with AN 46.2 dhamma-vicaya-bojjhanga
AN 7.39 same as AN 7.38
AN 7.61 Moggallana fighting drowsiness
(2. Recall dhamma using V&V, thinking and evaluation, and upekkha)
MN 140 upekkha of 4th jhana tightly coupled with luminous mind
🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀️
AN 10.1AN 10.5 upekkha => yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassane
🛆👁 Upekkha as one of the ☮️4bv (brahma vihāra)
AN 6.13 upekkha is escape from rāga
🛆👁 Upekkha indriya, vedana
SN 36.31 nir-āmisa-suttaṃ (SN 36 is focused on vedana)
SN 36.22 five kinds of vedana
SN 48.36 upekkha-indriya covers both bodily and mental
SN 48.37 mapping between indriya and vedana

7.7.2 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in the 🌖🌕Jhānas

.
Upekkha appears explicitly in 🌖3rd and 🌕 4th jhāna. For the first two jhānas, perhaps pīti and sukha as a vedana are too dominant and “loud” for upekkha to be a noticable or practical.

The traditional interpretation of upekkha is one of passive attitude of equanimity, but a number of passages upekkha has a more investigative, insightful function.

AN 3.102 balancing viriya, samadhi, and upekkha
AN 7.61 working with S&S in vipassana role
MN 138.1 (Buddha says in brief: use upekkha to see consciousness not scattered externally or stuck internally)
MN 140.10 - (only equanimous-observation remains, goldsmith simile like AN 3.102 or formless attainments)

SN 46.3 as upekkha-sambojjhanga, “looking upon the concentrated mind”
SN 36.31 section 3, examined under the vedana+indriya chapter, matches

AN 3.102 Nimittasutta
When this sutta is studied, in conjunction with AN 3.101,
it's clear, given this part precedes 6ab (superpowers) in both suttas,
it's talking about upekkha of 4th jhana, and how to tune it for realizing nirvana.
Here, mentioning that too much upekkha might upset the balance of samadhi, amounts to saying we need more pacification and calmness and less vipassana investigation.

Sace, bhikkhave, adhi-cittam-anuyutto bhikkhu ekantaṃ paggaha-nimittaṃyeva manasi kareyya,
If he were to attend solely to the theme of uplifted energy,
ṭhānaṃ taṃ cittaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvatteyya.
it’s possible that his mind would tend to restlessness.
Sace, bhikkhave, adhi-cittam-anuyutto bhikkhu ekantaṃ upekkhā-nimittaṃyeva manasi kareyya,
If he were to attend solely to the theme of equanimity,
ṭhānaṃ taṃ cittaṃ na sammā samādhiyeyya āsavānaṃ khayāya.
it’s possible that his mind would not be rightly concentrated for the ending of the effluents.

AN 5.28 After 4 jhanas+similes, Reviewing-sign
.
.
upekkha and “paccavekkha” both have the verb “ikkhati” in there, which means “to look at”.

Puna ca-paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno
Again, and-furthermore, *********, ********
pacca­vek­kha­ṇā­-nimittaṃ sug-gahitaṃ hoti
(the) reviewing-sign {has been} well-grasped ****,
su-manasikataṃ sū-(u)padhāritaṃ sup-paṭividdhaṃ paññāya.
well-attended, well-sustained, well-penetrated (by) wisdom.
simile grasped object well
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave,
just-as, ********,
aññova aññaṃ paccavekkheyya,
one [person] {may-review} another {**************},
ṭhito vā nisinnaṃ paccavekkheyya,
{or} (as) one-standing ** {may-review} one-sitting-down {**************},
nisinno vā nipannaṃ paccavekkheyya.
{or} (as) one-sitting-down ** {may-review} one-lying-down {**************},
Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno
Even-so, monks, *********
pacca­vek­kha­ṇā­-nimittaṃ sug-gahitaṃ hoti
(the) reviewing-sign {has been} well-grasped ****,
su-manasikataṃ sū-(u)padhāritaṃ sup-paṭividdhaṃ paññāya.
well-attended, well-sustained, well-penetrated (by) wisdom.
Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañc-aṅgikassa sammā-­samā­dhissa
(of the) Noble, ********, five-factored right-concentration,
ayaṃ pañcamā bhāvanā. (5)
this (is the) fifth development.
(suitable basis refrain)
Evaṃ bhāvite kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
thus developed ***, *********, *******
ariye pañcaṅgike sammā­-samā­dhimhi
(the) noble five-factored right-concentration
evaṃ bahulīkate
thus pursued,
yassa yassa abhiñ­ñā­-sacchi­karaṇī­yassa dhammassa
whatever such direct-knowledge-fit-to-be-realized state,
cittaṃ abhi-ninnāmeti abhiñ­ñā­sacchi­kiriyāya,
(if his) mind ****-inclines-toward-that (then that) direct-knowledge-is-realized,
tatra tatreva sak­khi­-bhabba­taṃ pāpuṇāti
(if) there in-that-place before-one's-eyes--(the)-capability to-attain
sati sati āyatane.
has suitable basis.
AN 5.26: uses samadhi nimitta from AN 5.28 to enter jhāna and onwards
♦ “puna ca-paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno
“Again, and-furthermore,
(...instead of using the previous methods described…)
(...instead of using the previous methods described…)
api ca khvassa
but he has
aññataraṃ samādhi-nimittaṃ sug-gahitaṃ hoti
(a) certain concentration-sign well-grapsped ****,
su-manasi-kataṃ s-ūpadhāritaṃ sup-paṭividdhaṃ paññāya
well-attended-to, well-sustained, well-penetrated (with) wisdom

(refrain: 7sb → jhāna → arahantship)

tathā tathā so tasmiṃ
like-that, accordingly, he ******
(… refrain: 7sb → jhāna → arahantship ... )
(… refrain: 7sb → jhāna → arahantship ... )
An-anuppattaṃ vā an-uttaraṃ yogak-khemaṃ
(the) un-reached un-surpassed security-from-the-yoke
Anu-pāpuṇāti.
(he) reaches.”
AN 7.38 seems to overlap with AN 46.2 dhamma-vicaya-bojjhanga
AN 7.38 paṭhama-paṭisambhidā-suttaṃ
AN 7.38 first-analytical-knowledges-discourse
“sattahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi
"[with] seven-of-these, *********, things,
samannāgato bhikkhu na-cirasseva
possessed (by a) monk, (in) no-long-time
catasso paṭisambhidā sayaṃ
four analytical-knowledges, *****
abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyya.
(with) direct-knowledge (he) realizes (and) abides.
katamehi sattahi?
Which seven?
idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
“Here, monks, a monk [does the following]
(1) ‘idaṃ me cetaso līnattan’ti
(1) a bhikkhu understands as it really is:
yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti;
‘This is mental sluggishness in me.’
(2) ajjhattaṃ saṃkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ
(2) Or when the mind is constricted internally,
‘ajjhattaṃ me saṃkhittaṃ cittan’ti
he understands as it really is:
yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti;
‘My mind is constricted internally.’
(3) bahiddhā vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ
(3) Or when his mind is distracted externally,
‘bahiddhā me vikkhittaṃ cittan’ti
he understands as it really is:
yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti;
‘My mind is distracted externally.’
(4) tassa viditā vedanā uppajjanti,
(4) He knows feelings as they arise,
viditā upaṭṭhahanti,
as they remain present,
viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti;
as they disappear;
(5)viditā saññā uppajjanti,
(5) he knows perceptions as they arise,
viditā upaṭṭhahanti,
as they remain present,
viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti;
as they disappear;
(6)viditā vitakkā uppajjanti,
(6) he knows thoughts as they arise,
viditā upaṭṭhahanti,
as they remain present,
viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti;
as they disappear.
(7) sappāyāsappāyesu kho panassa dhammesu hīnappaṇītesu kaṇhasukkasappatibhāgesu nimittaṃ suggahitaṃ hoti sumanasikataṃ sūpadhāritaṃ suppaṭividdhaṃ paññāya.
(7) Then, among qualities suitable and unsuitable,
inferior and superior,
imehi kho, bhikkhave,
dark and bright along with their counterparts,
sattahi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu
he has grasped the mark well,
nacirasseva catasso paṭisambhidā sayaṃ
attended to it well,
abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyyā”ti.
reflected upon it well,
sattamaṃ.
and penetrated it well with wisdom.
When he possesses these seven qualities,
a bhikkhu might soon realize for himself with direct knowledge the four analytical knowledges and acquire mastery over them.”
AN 7.39 same as AN 7.38
except instead of “a monk”, protaganist is sariputta

AN 7.61 Moggallana fighting drowsiness
Moggallana, master of 4ip, 4 jhanas, is probably drowsy in 4th jhāna, and needs to “downshift” into first jhana to raise the energy of the body. Note how “upekkha” is used, it has a vipassana role, not a passive equanimity.

(2. Recall dhamma using V&V, thinking and evaluation, and upekkha)

♦ “no ce te evaṃ viharato
“But if by doing this
taṃ middhaṃ pahīyetha,
That drowsiness (is) {not} removed,
tato tvaṃ, moggallāna,
Then ****, *********,
yathā-sutaṃ yathā-pariyattaṃ dhammaṃ
{with the Dhamma} as-heard (and) as-memorized *******,
cetasā anu-vitakkeyyāsi anu-vicāreyyāsi,
mentally re-think (and) re-examine (that),
manasā an-upekkheyyāsi.
(in your) mind consider-it-carefully.
ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ vijjati yaṃ te evaṃ viharato
"It’s possible that by doing this
taṃ middhaṃ pahīyetha.
that drowsiness (is) removed. "
MN 140 upekkha of 4th jhana tightly coupled with luminous mind
MN 140 upekkha described here like j4🌕 āneñja⚡ and the aloka sanna of AN 6.29.

7.7.3 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀️

Upekkha in the 4th jhana, and upekkha-sambojjhanga (7th awakening factor) are the same.

AN 10.1 – AN 10.5 upekkha => yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassane

AN 10.1AN 10.5

The slot in the 7sb following samadhi, where upekkha normally goes, has yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassane, seeing reality according to how it has become for knowledge and vision.
Then the process for arahantship follows that : disenchantment, dispassion… etc.
so you can see upekkha is not just a passive attitude of equanimity as most people translate it.
Upekkha = “equanimous-observation”, I.e. vipassana that leads to liberation. This is the upekkha of 3rd jhana, 4th jhana, equivalent to upekkha-sambojjhanga awakening factor.

7.7.3.10 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ leads to awakening, not passive indifference

7.7.3.10.1 - 🛆👁 Upekkha in 7sb☀ with Snp 5

http://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2023/03/upekkha-equanimous-observation-in-kn.html
also see JST🥪 5

JST🥪 and Upekkha (equanimous-observation) in KN Snp 5 pārāyana is about 16 brahman jhāna meditators
KN Snp 5 pārāyana is about 16 brahman jhāna meditators, asking the Buddha the way to nirvana.

They could do jhāna, and some of them the formless attainments, before meeting the Buddha.

(There goes Ajahn Brahm's unfounded idea that the Buddha invented jhāna)

KN Snp is all verse.

And in verse, sometimes they'll use a slight variant of a word.

Because Snp 5 context is 16 jhāna meditators asking about nirvana, we can establish these variants for upekkha are equivalent in meaning.

Upekkha equivalents in jhāna context
upekkha = upa + √ikkh

√ikkh = looking at: root. √ikkh・1 a (see, mark)

upekkhā (3rd + 4th jhāna context, 4th brahma-vihāra, upekkha as 7th awakening factor)
fem. looking on; mental poise; mental balance; equanimity; equipoise; non-reactivity; composure [upa + √ikkh + ā] ✓

upekkha (ordinary non-jhāna context)
adj. disinterested, unaffected ✗

avekkhanta
prp. (+acc) seeing; regarding; viewing; considering; lit. looking down [ava + √ikkh + a + nta] ✓

samavekkhiya
ger. (+acc) considering; reflecting (on); lit. looking down together [saṃ + ava + √ikkh + iya] ✓

pekkhamāna
prp. (+acc) seeing; observing [pa + √ikkh + a + māna] ✓

KN Snp‍ 5.7 UPASĪVA-MĀṆAVA-PUCCHĀ: THE QUESTIONS OF UPASIVA
(2022 SP-FLUENT translation by frankk‍ derived from B. Sujato‍)

Upasīva-māṇava-pucchā
5.7 The Questions of Upasiva
“Eko ahaṁ sakka mahantamoghaṁ,
“Alone and independent, O Sakyan,”
(iccāyasmā upasīvo)
(said Venerable Upasiva,)
Anissito no visahāmi tārituṁ;
“I am not able to cross the great flood.
Ārammaṇaṁ brūhi samantacakkhu,
Tell me a support, All-seer,
Yaṁ nissito oghamimaṁ tareyyaṁ”.
depending on which I may cross this flood.”
“Ākiñcaññaṁ pekkhamāno satimā,
“[In the dimension of] nothingness, equanimously-observing and remembering [the Dharma],”
(upasīvāti bhagavā)
(replied the Buddha,)
... upekkha is a factor in all 7 perception attainments (4 jhānas + first 3 formless), see MN 111.

KN Snp‍ 5.13 Bhadrāvudhamāṇavapucchā: The Questions of Bhadrāvudha

“Ādānataṇhaṁ vinayetha sabbaṁ,
“Dispel all acquisitive craving,”
(bhadrāvudhāti bhagavā
replied the Buddha,
Uddhaṁ adho tiriyañcāpi majjhe;
“above, below, all round, between.
Yaṁ yañhi lokasmimupādiyanti,
For Māra pursues a person
Teneva māro anveti jantuṁ.
using whatever they grasp in the world.
Tasmā pajānaṁ na upādiyetha,
So let a rememberful monk who understands
Bhikkhu sato kiñcanaṁ sabbaloke;
not grasp anything in all the world,
Ādānasatte iti pekkhamāno,
observing that these people who cling to the domain of death Norman’s suggestion to read ādānasatte (against Niddesa) as locative singular would be tempting were it not that at snp5.13:4.3 and thag19.1:20.3 iti pekkhamāno qualifies the former part of the line.
Pajaṁ imaṁ maccudheyye visattan”ti.
are clinging to attachment.”

KN Snp‍ 5.14 Udaya-māṇava-pucchā: The Questions of Udaya

Kukkuccānaṁ nivāraṇaṁ.
regrets being warded off. [These are referencing the five hindrances]
Upekkhā-sati-saṁ-suddhaṁ,
[fourth jhāna is] equanimous observation & [Dharma] remembrance purified,
dhammatakkapurejavaṁ;
with ☸Dharma-thoughts [of first jhāna] preceding that.

KN Snp‍ 5.16 Mogharājamāṇavapucchā: The Questions of Mogharājā

Evaṁ abhikkantadassāviṁ,
So I’ve come in need with a question
atthi pañhena āgamaṁ;
to the one of excellent vision.
Kathaṁ lokaṁ avekkhantaṁ,
How to look upon the world
maccurājā na passati”.
so the King of Death won’t see you?”
“Suññato lokaṁ avekkhassu,
“Look upon the world as empty,
Mogharāja sadā sato;
Mogharājā, ever rememberful.
Attānudiṭṭhiṁ ūhacca,
Having uprooted the view of self,
Evaṁ maccutaro siyā;
you may thus cross over death.
Evaṁ lokaṁ avekkhantaṁ,
That’s how to look upon the world
Maccurājā na passatī”ti.
so the King of Death won’t see you.”

KN Snp‍ 5.17 Piṅgiya-māṇava-pucchā: The Questions of Piṅgiya

“Taṇhādhipanne manuje pekkhamāno,
“Observing people sunk in craving,”
(piṅgiyāti bhagavā)
replied the Buddha,
Santāpajāte jarasā parete;
“tormented, mired in old age;
Tasmā tuvaṁ piṅgiya appamatto,
therefore, Piṅgiya, being assiduous,
Jahassu taṇhaṁ apunabbhavāyā”ti.
give up craving so as not to be reborn.”

KN Snp‍ 1.6 Parābhava: Downfalls

Not in Snp 5 pārāyana chapter, but this context of 'noble person' obviously means a jhāna context, hence upekkha of the jhānas.

Ete parābhave loke,
Seeing these downfalls in the world,
Paṇḍito samavekkhiya;
an astute and noble person,
Ariyo dassanasampanno,
accomplished in vision,
Sa lokaṁ bhajate sivan”ti.
will enjoy a world of grace.”

7.7.4 - 🛆👁 Upekkha as one of the ☮️4bv (brahma vihāra)

AN 6.13 upekkha is escape from rāga
1265This text uses the word rāga, which in this context probably means personal bias rather than sensual desire. Interestingly, at MN I 424,33–34, upekkhā is opposed to paṭigha, aversion, the polar opposite of rāga. Given that upekkhā is a state of inner poise beyond both attraction and repulsion, it is not surprising to find it offered as the antidote to the two opposed qualities.

7.7.5 - 🛆👁 Upekkha indriya, vedana

.
.
SN 36.31 nir-āmisa-suttaṃ (SN 36 is focused on vedana)
(3 types of pīti)
(3 types of sukha)
(3 types of upekkha)
(3 types of vimokkho / liberation)

(3 types of upekkha
(3.1 s'-āmisā upekkha / of the flesh upekkha)
arises based on 5kg = pañca kāmaguṇā, five sensuality-strings.
(3.2 nirāmisaṃ upekkha / not of the flesh equanimity)
STED 4th jhana formula given here.
(3.3 nir-āmisā nir-āmisatarā upekkha / surpassing spiritual equanimity)
Connection to paccavekkhati, and nails the quality of 4th jhana from 3.2 did to get 3.3

SN 36.22 five kinds of vedana
Katamā ca, bhikkhave, pañca vedanā?
And what are the five feelings?
Sukhindriyaṃ, dukkhindriyaṃ, somanassindriyaṃ, domanassindriyaṃ, upekkhindriyaṃ—
The faculties of pleasure, pain, happiness, sadness, and equanimity. …
SN 48.36 upekkha-indriya covers both bodily and mental
“katamañca, bhikkhave, upekkh’-indriyaṃ?
“what, ************, (is the) equanimity-faculty?
yaṃ kho, bhikkhave,
Whatever ***, ************,
kāyikaṃ vā cetasikaṃ vā
bodily or mental **
n’eva-sātaṃ n’ā-sātaṃ vedayitaṃ —
Neither-satisfying nor-non-satisfying-feeling –
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, upekkh'-indriyaṃ.
that (is) called, *********, equanimity-faculty.
imāni kho, bhikkhave, pañc’-indriyānī”ti.
these indeed, ***********, [are the] five-faculties.”

SN 48.37 mapping between indriya and vedana
(sukha indriya = physical pleasure)
(dukkha indriya = physical pain)
(so-manssa indriya = mental happiness)
(do-manssa indriya = mental un-happiness)
(upekkha indriya = both physical and mental equanimity)
(sukha vedana = sukha indriya + so-manssa indriya,. Similar for dukkha)

7.7.6 - V&V💭 &U🛆👁

.
.
VVU together: anu-vitakka, anu-vicara, anu-upekkha
https://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2019/03/v-anu-vitakka-anu-vicara-anu-upekkha.html
jhana factors that do vipassana
Here are all the suttas that mentions these 3 factors together V&V💭 and 🛆👁 Upekkha

vimuttāyatanasuttaṃ (AN 5.26)
paṭhamadhammavihārīsuttaṃ (AN 5.73)
dutiyadhammavihārīsuttaṃ (AN 5.74)
dutiyasaddhammasammosasuttaṃ (AN 5.155)
ānandasuttaṃ (AN 6.51), para. 4
phaggunasuttaṃ (AN 6.56), para. 14 ⇒
pacalāyamānasuttaṃ (AN 7.61), para. 3 ⇒
DN 33
DN 34

AN 5.26 V&V&U occur in #4,
but also look at 1,2,3, and notice that samadhi and first jhana are closely involved in hearing Dhamma, teaching, speaking Dhamma to teach others, V&V thinking and Upekkha (equanimous observation) of Dhamma. This is why SN 36.11 it's said that speech ceases in first jhana. It's exactly this kind of context, and sets a boundary condition where the energy required to speak, vibrate vocal cords and flap lips energetically is too intensive to give a sufficient kaya-passaddhi to maintain a first jhana.
(hyperlinks here to click)
AN 5.26 (Concise version with ellisions)
(1) First jhāna possible while hearing live dhamma talk
(2) Giving a dhamma talk leads to himself getting jhāna
(3) Reciting memorized dhamma passage leads to jhāna
(4) first jhāna possible while thinking and pondering memorized dhamma
(5) No V&V, undirected samādhi into 2nd jhāna or higher
(conclusion)

AN 5.73:
this is is clear that the samatha, V&V&U are all factors in the context of jhana
4. Not Dhamma-dweller: no samatha, excessive V&V)
4. ♦ “puna caparaṃ, bhikkhu, bhikkhu
4. “Then there is the case where a monk
yathā-sutaṃ
takes the Dhamma as he has heard
yathā-pariyattaṃ dhammaṃ
& studied it
cetasā anu-vitakketi anu-vicāreti
and thinks about it, evaluates it,
manas-ān-upekkhati.
and examines it with his intellect.
so tehi dhamma-vitakkehi divasaṃ atināmeti,
He spends the day in Dhamma-thinking.
riñcati paṭisallānaṃ,
He neglects seclusion.
nānuyuñjati ajjhattaṃ ceto-samathaṃ.
He doesn’t commit himself to internal tranquility of awareness.
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhu —
This is called
‘bhikkhu vitakka-bahulo,
a monk who is keen on thinking,
no dhammavihārī’”.
not one who dwells in the Dhamma.
...
(5. Dhamma-dweller: has samatha, memorized dhamma but not too much V&V)
...
anuyuñjati ajjhattaṃ cetosamathaṃ.
He commits himself to internal tranquility of awareness.
evaṃ kho, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammavihārī hoti.
This is called a monk who dwells in the Dhamma.
(conclusion: do jhāna!)
♦ “iti kho, bhikkhu, desito mayā pariyattibahulo, desito paññattibahulo, desito sajjhāyabahulo, desito vitakkabahulo, desito dhammavihārī.
“Now, monk, I have taught you the person who is keen on study, the one who is keen on description, the one who is keen on recitation, the one who is keen on thinking, and the one who dwells in the Dhamma.
yaṃ kho, bhikkhu VAR, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā.
Whatever a teacher should do—seeking the welfare of his disciples, out of sympathy for them—that have I done for you.
etāni, bhikkhu, rukkhamūlāni,
Over there are the roots of trees;
etāni suññāgārāni.
over there, empty dwellings.
jhāyatha, bhikkhu, mā pamādattha,
Practice jhāna, monk. Don’t be heedless.
mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha.
Don’t later fall into regret.
ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti.
This is our message to you.”

AN 5.74 (sequel to above)
explains the difference between V&V&U outside of four jhanas,
to the V&V&U within 4 jhanas (ceto-samatha).
Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhu, bhikkhu yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti manasānupekkhati, uttari cassa paññāya atthaṃ nappajānāti.
Furthermore, a monk thinks about and considers the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind as they learned and memorized it. But they don’t understand the higher meaning.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhu: ‘bhikkhu vitakkabahulo, no dhammavihārī’.
That monk is called one who thinks a lot, not one who lives by the teaching.

Idha, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāti—
Take a monk who memorizes the teaching—
suttaṃ, geyyaṃ, veyyākaraṇaṃ, gāthaṃ, udānaṃ, itivuttakaṃ, jātakaṃ, abbhutadhammaṃ, vedallaṃ;
statements, songs, discussions, verses, inspired sayings, legends, stories of past lives, amazing stories, and analyses.
uttari cassa paññāya atthaṃ pajānāti.
And they do understand the higher meaning.
Evaṃ kho, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammavihārī hoti.
That’s how a monk is one who lives by the teaching.

AN 5.155 not doing V&V&U leads to decline of Dhamma

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ na cetasā anuvitakkenti anuvicārenti manasānupekkhanti.
Furthermore, the monks don’t think about and consider the teaching in their hearts, examining it with their minds as they learned and memorized it.
Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, pañcamo dhammo saddhammassa sammosāya antaradhānāya saṃvattati.
This is the fifth thing that leads to the decline and disappearance of the true teaching.

AN 6.51 again V&V&U in oral tradition learning context
this sutta gives nice detail of how learning and memorizing, finding teachers to ask right questions, works in the oral tradition. And makes it absolutely clear why V&V has to mean thinking and evaluation - not a frozen trance for first jhana.
“Idhāvuso sāriputta, bhikkhu dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāti—
“Reverend Sāriputta, take a monk who memorizes the teaching—
suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthaṃ udānaṃ itivuttakaṃ jātakaṃ abbhutadhammaṃ vedallaṃ.
statements, songs, discussions, verses, inspired sayings, legends, stories of past lives, amazing stories, and analyses.
So yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena paresaṃ deseti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena paresaṃ vāceti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena sajjhāyaṃ karoti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti manasānupekkhati.
Then, just as they learned and memorized it, they teach others in detail, make them recite in detail, practice reciting in detail, and think about and consider the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind.

AN 6.56 jhana not explicitly mentioned, but...
do you seriously think V&V&U is occuring in ordinary thinking, outside of four jhanas, to attain arahantship?
(hyperlinks to click here)
AN 6.56 Phagguna
(all 6 scenarios refer to time of death, hearing Dhamma, using V&V)
(1. Has 5 lower fetters → after Buddha talk → rid of 5 lower fetters )
(2. Has 5 lower fetters → after Buddha’s disciple talk → rid of 5 lower fetters )
(3. Has 5 lower fetters → after using V&V&U on memorized dhamma → rid of 5 lower fetters )
(4. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after Buddha talk → becomes arahant )
(5. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after Buddha’s disciple talk → becomes arahant )
(6. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after using V&V&U on memorized dhamma → becomes arahant )

AN 7.61 Doesn't explicitly mention 4 jhanas here, but...
Moggallana attained arahantship in 2 weeks time, not too long after meeting Buddha, is the poster child for the 4ip (iddhipada, basically synonymous of mastery of 4th jhana). This sutta is about ways to overcome drowsiness. Knowing all this about moggallana, when is ever not in 4th jhana quality of mind? When he's tired and needs sleep, or food coma.

AN 7.61 Pacalāyana
(1. don’t attend to the perception that made you drowsy)
(2. Recall dhamma using V&V, thinking and evaluation, and upekkha)
(3. Recite that dhamma out loud, vocally)
(4. Pull your earlobes and rub your limbs)
(5. Stand up, wash eyes with water, look at stars in sky)
(6. STED ASMK: luminosity perception all day all night)
(7. Start walking meditation)
(Lie down in lion posture as last resort)
(don’t sociaize with lay people too much, causes restlessness)
(don’t say confrontational things)
(Buddha praises secluded meditation areas)
(conclusion: brief summary of path to arahantship)

DN 33 same passage as AN 5.26
DN 33 basically is a giant sutta composed of smaller suttas including AN 5.26

DN 34
not sure where the V&V&U are, might be elided out of some editions

7.7.7 - Upekkha🛆👁 without V&V💭 : manas-ān-upekkhitā

Very similar to the V&V&U scenario, it’s an oral tradition, requiring samadhi to hear, memorize with sati, think about with upekkha.

STED ☸Dhamma beautiful in beginning, middle, end
Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu
"Furthermore, friends, a monk
bahu-s-suto hoti
{is one who has} {heard & learned}-much,
suta-dharo
(that which he has) heard-(he)-remembers,
suta-sannicayo.
(that which he has) heard-(he)-accumulates.
Ye te ☸dhammā
Those ☸Dhamma-[teachings]
ādi-kalyāṇā
(in the) beginning - (they are) - beautiful,
majjhe-kalyāṇā
(in the) middle - (they are) - beautiful,
pariyosāna-kalyāṇā
(in the) end - (they are) - beautiful,
s-ātthā sabyañjanā
meaningful (and) well-phrased,
kevala-paripuṇṇaṃ pari-suddhaṃ
{describing a} perfectly-complete, entirely-pure
brahma-cariyaṃ abhi-vadanti,
holy-life {**********},
tathārūpāssa ☸dhammā
(in) such ☸Dhamma-[teachings]
bahus-sutā honti
(which they've) {heard & learned}-much,
dhātā
remembering (them),
vacasā paricitā
(through) vocal-recitation practiced,
manas-ān-upekkhitā
mentally-scrutizing (them),
diṭṭhiyā su-p-paṭividdhā.
(and by) view well-penetrated."

manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā (29 occurrrences)

saṅgītisuttaṃ, dasakaṃ (DN 33.13), para. 3 ⇒
dasuttarasuttaṃ, aṭṭha dhammā (DN 34.9), para. 6 ⇒
sekhasuttaṃ (MN 53.1), para. 7 ⇒
gopakamoggallānasuttaṃ (MN 108.1), para. 11 ⇒
mahāsuññatasuttaṃ (MN 122.1), para. 14 ⇒
sīlavantasuttaṃ (AN 5.87), para. 1 ⇒
therasuttaṃ (AN 5.88), para. 2 ⇒
therasuttaṃ (AN 5.88), para. 4 ⇒
sutadharasuttaṃ (AN 5.96), para. 1 ⇒
cātuddisasuttaṃ (AN 5.109), para. 1 ⇒
yassaṃdisaṃsuttaṃ (AN 5.134), para. 3 ⇒
dutiyapatthanāsuttaṃ (AN 5.136), para. 4 ⇒
piyasuttaṃ (AN 5.232), para. 2 ⇒
vitthatadhanasuttaṃ (AN 7.6), para. 6 ⇒
paññāsuttaṃ (AN 8.2), para. 5 ⇒
paññāsuttaṃ (AN 8.2), para. 13 ⇒
paṭhamanāthasuttaṃ (AN 10.17), para. 2 ⇒
dutiyanāthasuttaṃ (AN 10.18), para. 3 ⇒
ubbāhikāsuttaṃ (AN 10.33), para. 1 ⇒
upasampadāsuttaṃ (AN 10.34), para. 1 ⇒
kusinārasuttaṃ (AN 10.44), para. 5 ⇒
bhaṇḍanasuttaṃ (AN 10.50), para. 5 ⇒
adhimānasuttaṃ (AN 10.86), para. 8 ⇒
āhuneyyasuttaṃ (AN 10.97), para. 3 ⇒
subhūtisuttaṃ (AN 11.14), para. 5 ⇒
subhūtisuttaṃ (AN 11.14), para. 17 ⇒

KN Nidd II, khaggavisāṇasutto, tatiyavaggo, para. 36 ⇒
bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ bhajethāti bahussuto hoti mitto sutadharo sutasannicayo. ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ abhivadanti, tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. dhammadharanti dhammaṃ dhārentaṃ — suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthaṃ udānaṃ itivuttakaṃ jātakaṃ abbhutadhammaṃ vedallaṃ. bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ bhajethāti bahussutañca dhammadharañca mittaṃ bhajeyya saṃbhajeyya seveyya niseveyya saṃseveyya paṭiseveyyāti — bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ bhajetha.

KN Nidd II, khaggavisāṇasutto, catutthavaggo, para. 61 ⇒
aneḷamūgo sutavā satīmāti. aneḷamūgoti so paccekasambuddho paṇḍito paññavā buddhimā ñāṇī vibhāvī medhāvī. sutavāti so paccekasambuddho bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasanniccayo. ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ abhivadanti, tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. satīmāti so paccekasambuddho satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgatattā cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritāti — aneḷamūgo sutavā satīmā.

KN Peṭ, 2. sāsanapaṭṭhānadutiyabhūmi, , para. 48 ⇒
sotānugatesu dhammesu vacasā paricitesu manasānupekkhitesu diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhesu pañcānisaṃsā pāṭikaṅkhā. idhekaccassa bahussutā dhammā honti dhātā apamuṭṭhā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā, so yuñjanto ghaṭento vāyamanto diṭṭheva dhamme visesaṃ pappoti. no ce diṭṭheva dhamme visesaṃ pappoti, gilāno pappoti. no ce gilāno pappoti, maraṇakālasamaye pappoti. no ce maraṇakālasamaye pappoti, devabhūto pāpuṇāti. no ce devabhūto pāpuṇāti, tena dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā paccekabodhiṃ pāpuṇāti.



MN 122 slight variation on above pericope

♦ 192. “na kho, ānanda, arahati sāvako satthāraṃ anubandhituṃ, yadidaṃ suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ tassa hetu VAR. taṃ kissa hetu? dīgharattassa VAR hi te, ānanda, dhammā sutā dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. yā ca kho ayaṃ, ānanda, kathā abhisallekhikā cetovinīvaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamā abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ — appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṃsaggakathā vīriyārambhakathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā — evarūpiyā kho, ānanda, kathāya hetu arahati sāvako satthāraṃ anubandhituṃ api paṇujjamāno.
“Ānanda, it’s not proper for a disciple to follow after the Teacher to hear discourses, verses, or catechisms. Why is that? For a long time, Ānanda, have you listened to the teachings, retained them, discussed them, accumulated them, examined them with your mind, and penetrated them well in terms of your views. But as for talk that is scrupulous, conducive to release of awareness, and leads exclusively to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, calm, direct knowledge, self-awakening, & unbinding—i.e., talk on modesty, contentment, seclusion, non-entanglement, arousing persistence, virtue, concentration, discernment, release, and the knowledge & vision of release: It’s for the sake of hearing talk of this sort that it is proper for a disciple to follow after the Teacher as if yoked to him.

7.7.8 – upekkha – Misc.

.
.
    MN 101.9 - (Equanimous-observation And how is exertion and striving fruitful?): Implied jhāna samādhi context.

upa-pari-kkha: near synonym for upekkha

KN Iti 94 upaparikkha sutta

References
good reference, dmytro’s pali term page
https://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?t=5939

Assaji cmy
Pali Term: Upekkhā

Post by Assaji » Mon Oct 11, 2010 8:18 pm
Hello Pali friends,

I feel I'm fond of upekkhā, but I'll try to deal with it equanimously.

There are several contexts of this term: upekkhha-indriya which is vedanaa, and upekkhaa as a factor of the fourth jhaana, the brahma-vihaara and a bojjhanga.

Upekkhha-indriya is a kind of vedanaa, 'neutral feeling', adukkham-asukha-vedanaa.

The other three contexts, in my opinion, point to almost identical meanings.

Argument 1. The sequence of four brahma viharas is consonant to the sequence of four jhanas.

According to Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, three frist of brahmaviharas
can lead to three first jhanas, and upekkhaa can lead to fourth one, which has upekkhaa factor as its hallmark.

In the description of Buddhist path Brahma-viharas occupy about the same place as four jhanas.

See, for example, Udumbarika sutta (DN 20) where Brahma-viharas are placed exactly where jhanas usually belong, between overcoming hindrances and 'abhinna'.

Both jhanas and brahma viharas are placed between overcoming hindrances and formless jhanas.

"Brethren, who is the brother that has reached deva consciousness ?
Herein a brother, aloof from sensual delights (and so forth), having
attained to the First Rapture, or the Second or the Third or the Fourth
Rapture abides therein.

"Verily, brethren, this is the brother who has attained to deva
consciousness.

"Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to Brahmaconsciousness?
Herein, a brother dwells diffusing one quarter with thoughts of loving
kindness, compassion, sympathy and 'upekkhaa'; likewise the second
quarter, likewise the third quarter, likewise the fourth quarter. So
above, below, around, everywhere, and in all respects thus diffusing the
whole world, and with a heart full of loving-kindness (and so forth),
developed, grown great, measureless, benevolent and kindly, so he dwells.

"Verily, brethren, this is the brother that has reached Brahma
consciousness.

"Brethren, who is the brother that has reached the Imperturbable ?
Brethren, herein a brother, having gone utterly beyond all perception of
form and without thinking, about the perception of opposition' and
unmindful of the idea of diversity, attains to and abides in the sphere
of unbounded space. Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of
unbounded space he attains to and abides in the sphere of infinity of
consciousness. Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of infinity
of consciousness, he attains to and abides in the sphere of nothingness.
Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of nothingness he attains
to and abides in the sphere of neither-pereeption-nor-non-perception.

"Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Imperturbable.

"Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to the Noble State?
Brethren, herein a brother knows as they really are This is Ill this is
Ill's cause ; this is Ill's cessation ; and this is the Path leading to
Ill's cessation.

Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Noble State."

http://awake.kiev.ua/dhamma/tipitaka/2S ... go-e2.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dham ... /loka.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Argument 2. The sequence of seven bojjhangas is illustrated in Dvedhavitakka sutta.
Last four bojjhangas (including upekkhaa) correspond to factors of jhanas.

So the meanings in these three contexts are almost identical.

What does 'upekkhaa' mean in these three contexts?

PED gives meanings like '"looking on", hedonic neutrality or indifference'.
Margaret Cone's dictionary continues this trend with 'disinteresedness'.

Is it truly the summit of Awakening factors, of Brahma-viharas, of jhanas - just plain indifference?

It turns out that these dictionary articles miss a lot.

In suttas 'upekkhaa' is indeed connected with 'looking on' (upa+ikkh), observation:

"And what is the still greater unworldly equanimity? When a taint-free monk looks upon his mind that is freed of greed, freed of hatred and freed of delusion, then there arises equanimity. This is called a 'still greater unworldly equanimity.'

"Now, O monks, what is worldly freedom? The freedom connected with the material. What is unworldly freedom? The freedom connected with the immaterial. And what is the still greater unworldly freedom? When a taint-free monk looks upon his mind that is freed of greed, freed of hatred, and freed of delusion, then there arises freedom."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 6-031.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

And what are the six kinds of renunciation 'upekkhaa'?
The 'upekkhaa' that arises when -- experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation -- one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change:
This 'upekkhaa' goes beyond form, which is why it is called renunciation 'upekkhaa'.
(Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... mn137.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Here 'upekkhā' is deep and wide seeing with discernment.

In the same sutta we read:

In this case the Tathagata is not satisfied nor is he sensitive to
satisfaction, yet he remains 'anavassuto', mindful, & alert.

Free from both satisfaction & dissatisfaction, he remains 'upekkhako',
mindful, & alert.

'upekkhako' is used interchangeably with 'anavassuto' - 'not leaking', 'free from lust and defilement'.

The jhanas are also described with a series of similes with calm and collected, non-dripping water.

Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman's apprentice would pour bath
powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again &
again with water, so that his ball of bath powder -- saturated,
moisture-laden, permeated within & without -- would nevertheless not
drip...

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... .html#lake" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

We can try to combine above two descriptions from Salayatana-vibhanga sutta (MN 137) in a kind of wide and stable presence, unruffled deep observation with wisdom, spanning high and wide.

This is confirmed by Dhatu-vibhanga sutta (MN 140):

"There remains only 'upekkhaa': pure & bright, pliant, malleable,
& luminous. Just as if a skilled goldsmith or goldsmith's apprentice
were to prepare a furnace, heat up a crucible, and, taking gold with a
pair of tongs, place it in the crucible: He would blow on it time &
again, sprinkle water on it time & again, examine it time & again, so
that the gold would become refined, well-refined, thoroughly refined,
flawless, free from dross, pliant, malleable, & luminous. Then whatever
sort of ornament he had in mind -- whether a belt, an earring, a
necklace, or a gold chain -- it would serve his purpose. In the same
way, there remains only 'upekkhaa': pure & bright, pliant, malleable, &
luminous.

One discerns that 'If I were to direct 'upekkhaa' as pure & bright as
this toward the sphere of the infinitude of space, I would develop the
mind along those lines, and thus this 'upekkhaa' of mine -- thus
supported, thus sustained -- would last for a long time. One discerns
that 'If I were to direct 'upekkhaa' as pure and bright as this toward
the sphere of the infinitude of consciousness...the sphere of
nothingness... the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, I
would develop the mind along those lines, and thus this 'upekkhaa' of
mine -- thus supported, thus sustained -- would last for a long time.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... mn140.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

This luminous serene unruffled presence, equanimous observation, can be spread far, high and wide. As a brahma vihara 'upekkhaa' is spread 'in all directions'.

...

Well, in commentaries 'upekkhaa' often means just 'majjhatta(taa)' - impartiality, indifference, neutrality. This is similar to explanation given in Vyasa's commentaries to Yoga-sutra.

Dr. Thynn Thynn answers:

Question: Doesn't upekkha mean detachment?

Sometimes it is translated as detachment, but that translation is very inadequate. You have to understand that upekkha transcends both detachment and attachment. When you are detached, you may also become indifferent if you are not careful. This indifference can lead to dissociation and subtle rejection. Upekkha transcends not only non-attachment, but also rejection. The mind is very tricky and has many nuances you have to be aware of.

The full essence of upekkha is to go beyond attachment and detachment, beyond likes and dislikes, to relate to things as they are.

Question: Will upekkha lead to inner silence?

Yes, the only way that will lead the mind to silence is upekkha. Upekkha is not just a product of meditation training. It is itself a tool in meditation. When you become proficient at looking with equanimity at your own mind, your thoughts and your emotions, then this upekkha approach will also spill over into other areas of life. You will begin to listen, look, feel and relate to everything with upekkha.

Just mindfulness and concentration do not constitute meditation; equanimity must be a constant ingredient.

Thanissaro Bhikkhu in 'Wings to Awakening' writes:

... even-mindedness of a fully awakened person is not an attitude of cold indifference, but rather of mental imperturbability. Such a person has found true happiness and would like others to share that happiness as well, but that happiness is not dependent on how others respond. This is the ideal state of mind for a person who truly works for the benefit of the world.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... ml#part3-g" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

All four contexts, mentioned in the beginning, are integrated. Seeing with wisdom the ups and downs of mind, feelings of pleasure and pain, one lets them go, and returns to serene observation:

He discerns that 'This agreeable thing has arisen in me, this disagreeable thing... this agreeable & disagreeable thing has arisen in me. And that is compounded, gross, dependently co-arisen. But this is peaceful, this is exquisite, i.e., 'upekkhaa'.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/ma ... mn152.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Metta,
Dmytro
Last edited by Assaji on Wed Nov 10, 2010 5:05 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Assaji
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Upekkhā purified by sati?
Post by Assaji » Mon Oct 11, 2010 8:24 pm
Ole Holten Pind wrote:

The term upekkhaasatipaarisuddhim is somewhat problematic. The commentators understand it to means that satipaarisuddhi.m is generated by upekkhaa. Now suttanipaata 1107 reads upekhaasatisa.msuddha.m which the Niddesa understands to mean purity of upekkhaa and sati (upekkhaa ca sati ca suddhaa honti). The two terms are evidently related It seems to me that this old understanding of the term - possibly older than the interpretation found in the Vibha.nga - should be taken into consideration, when discussing the nature of the mental state this term describes, it is, as we know, used in the context of the forth jhaana.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/9475" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

7.7.8.1 – upekkha dictionary def.

Critical Pali Dictionary

upe(k)khā, f. [sa. upekṣā]; often written upekhā: kakāralope upekhā, Sadd 332,17; looking on (in an uninterested way), disregard, equanimity, indifference...
http://cpd.uni-koeln.de/search?article_id=18384

PED

Upekkhā & Upekhā (f.) [fr. upa + īkṣ, cp. BSk. upekṣā Divy 483; Jtm 211. On spelling upekhā for upekkhā see Müller P. Gr. 16] "looking on", hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between joy & sorrow (Cpd. 66); disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity. Sometimes equivalent to adukkham -- asukha -- vedanā "feeling which is neither pain nor pleasure". ...
http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/p ... :4007.pali

Margaret Cone's dictionary

upekkhā (and, esp. in Ee, upekhā). f. [S., BHS upekṣā], disinteredness, unaffectedness (one of the brahmavihāras qv); lack of invlovement or reaction;...

ikkhati

Ikkhati [fr. īkṣ] to look J v.153; ThA 147; DhsA 172.

Upekkhati

Upekkhati [upa + īkṣ] to look on, to be disinterested or indifferent Sn 911; Nd1 328; J vi.294.

Ajjhupekkhati

[adhi + upa + ikṣ; cp. BSk. adhyupekṣati]
1. to look on A i.257; Miln 275.
2. to look on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A iv.45 (kaṭṭhɔaggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisaŋ colaŋ vā).
3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent to neglect Vin ii.78 = iii.162, cp. J i.147; M i.155 ii.223; A iii.194, 435; J v.229; DhA iv.125.

7.7.8.5 – adhi + upekkha: all search results for ‘ajjhupekkh’

AN 3.27 equanimously observe someone who is irritable and angry, don’t associate or attend to them
AN 3.102 goldsmith equanimously observes
AN 5.166 Ananda equanimously observing instead of acting with compassion
AN 6.85 like AN 3.102 sometimes apply vīriya, sometimes upekkha
AN 7.47 brahman’s wood fire sometimes fan, sometimes upekkha
Pe s607 four brahmavihāras context
MN 25 hunter equanimously observing deer
MN 101 exertion and upekkha leads to virāga
MN 118 fourth satipaṭṭhāna, upekkha observes abandoning hindrances
MN 118 upekkha as 7th awakening factor observing mind in samādhi
MN 140 goldsmith using upekkha, meditator using upekkha to enter formless attainment
SN 46.3 upekkha as 7th awakening factor observing mind in samādhi
SN 54.10 same as MN 118 fourth satipaṭṭhāna, upekkha observes abandoning hindrances
SN 54.13 same as MN 118, 4th satipaṭṭhāna and 7th awakening factor
SN 54.16 same as MN 118, 4th satipaṭṭhāna and 7th awakening factor
SN 56.34 clothes on fire, not paying attention with upekkha

peanut butter jelly sandwich. upekkha = equanimous-observation, not equanimity.

Sometimes, such as MN 152, equanimity, as an attitude, is the prominent characteristic we're focusing on.

But to translate upekkha as 'equanimity' is hugely problematic.

If you ordered a PBJ, a peanut butter and JELLY sandwich, and they gave you a peanut butter sandwich with no jelly, you would be upset. As you should.

You should be even more upset when translators give you 'equanimity' when you ordered 'equanimous-observation'.

It's the observation, the 'ikkhati' in upekkha, that does the vipassana that realizes nirvana.

You ever wondered, looking at the 7 awakening factors, how the 7th one, "equanimity" could actually lead to nirvana, to ‘awakening’?

The answer is equanimity can not.

Only equanimous-observation, can see the rise and fall of aggregates with the power of 3rd and 4th jhāna, see their true nature, and make the leap to nirvana.

'equanimity' does not observe/see (with right view, right discernment).

If the 7th awakening factor was 'equanimty', then it wouldn't be 7 factors of AWAKENING.

It would be 7 factors that lead to indifference (equanimity), to revolve in samsara being reborn again and again just like the rest of the unenlightened folks. For all eternity.

upekkha = equanimous-observation, not equanimity.

Results for:
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AN: 7
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ajjhupekkhanaṭṭhaṃ (1) ajjhupekkhitvā (7)
ajjhupekkhanaṭṭho (1) ajjhupekkhiya (2)
ajjhupekkhanā (3) ajjhupekkhissatha (1)
ajjhupekkhā (1) ajjhupekkheyya (3)
ajjhupekkhi (1) ajjhupekkheyyāmāti (1)
ajjhupekkhiṃsu (1) ajjhupekkhati (8)
ajjhupekkhitabbaṃ (2) ajjhupekkhatīti (1)
ajjhupekkhitabbo (3) ajjhupekkhato (2)

ajjhupekkhitā (12) tadajjhupekkhitvā (2)
DN
MN

AN 3.27 equanimously observe someone who is irritable and angry, don’t associate or attend to them

AN 3.27

evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave … pe …
In the same way, someone is prone to anger … and bitterness.
seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, gūthakūpo kaṭṭhena vā kaṭhalāya vā ghaṭṭito bhiyyoso mattāya duggandho hoti;
They’re like a sewer, which, when you stir it with a stick or a stone, stinks even more.
evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco puggalo kodhano hoti upāyāsabahulo,
In the same way, someone is irritable and bad-tempered.
appampi vutto samāno abhisajjati kuppati byāpajjati patitthīyati, kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti.
Even when lightly criticized they lose their temper, becoming annoyed, hostile, and hard-hearted, and they display annoyance, hate, and bitterness.
Evarūpo, bhikkhave, puggalo ajjhupekkhitabbo na sevitabbo na bhajitabbo na payirupāsitabbo.
You should regard such a person with equanimity, and you shouldn’t associate with, accompany, or attend them.
Taṃ kissa hetu?
Why is that?
Akkoseyyapi maṃ paribhāseyyapi maṃ anatthampi maṃ kareyyāti.
Thinking, ‘They might abuse or insult me, or do me harm.’
Tasmā evarūpo puggalo ajjhupekkhitabbo na sevitabbo na bhajitabbo na payirupāsitabbo.
That’s why you should regard such a person with equanimity, and you shouldn’t associate with, accompany, or attend them.
AN 3.102 goldsmith equanimously observes

AN 3.102

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, suvaṇṇakāro vā suvaṇṇakārantevāsī vā ukkaṃ bandheyya, ukkaṃ bandhitvā ukkāmukhaṃ ālimpeyya, ukkāmukhaṃ ālimpetvā saṇḍāsena jātarūpaṃ gahetvā ukkāmukhe pakkhipeyya, ukkāmukhe pakkhipitvā kālena kālaṃ abhidhamati, kālena kālaṃ udakena paripphoseti, kālena kālaṃ ajjhupekkhati.
It’s like when a goldsmith or a goldsmith’s apprentice prepares a forge, fires the crucible, picks up some gold with tongs and puts it in the crucible. From time to time they fan it, from time to time they sprinkle water on it, and from time to time they just watch over it.
AN 5.166 Ananda equanimously observing instead of acting with compassion

AN 5.166

AN 5, 4. catutthapaṇṇāsakaṃ, (17) 2. āghātavaggo, 6. nirodhasuttaṃ AN 5.166, para. 10 ⇒
Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi:
Then the Buddha said to Venerable Ānanda:
“atthi nāma, ānanda, theraṃ bhikkhuṃ vihesiyamānaṃ ajjhupekkhissatha.
“Ānanda! There’s a senior monk being harassed, and you just watch it happening.
Na hi nāma, ānanda, kāruññampi bhavissati theramhi bhikkhumhi vihesiyamānamhī”ti.
Don’t you have any compassion for a senior monk who is being harassed?”
AN 6.85 like AN 3.102 sometimes apply vīriya, sometimes upekkha

AN 6.85 , AN 3.102

Chahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu bhabbo anuttaraṃ sītibhāvaṃ sacchikātuṃ.
A monk with six qualities can realize supreme coolness.
Katamehi chahi?
What six?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggahetabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ niggaṇhāti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggahetabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ paggaṇhāti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃsitabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ sampahaṃseti, yasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhitabbaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, paṇītādhimuttiko ca hoti nibbānābhirato ca.
It’s when a monk keeps their mind in check when they should. They exert their mind when they should. They encourage the mind when they should. They watch over the mind with equanimity when they should. They are committed to the sublime. They love nirvana.
AN 7.47 brahman’s wood fire sometimes fan, sometimes upekkha

AN 7.47

Idha, brāhmaṇa, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā parappavādā paṭiviratā khantisoracce niviṭṭhā ekamattānaṃ damenti, ekamattānaṃ samenti, ekamattānaṃ parinibbāpenti, ayaṃ vuccati, brāhmaṇa, dakkhiṇeyyaggi.
The ascetics and brahmins who avoid intoxication and negligence, are settled in patience and gentleness, and who tame, calm, and extinguish themselves are called the fire of those worthy of a teacher’s offering.
Tasmāyaṃ dakkhiṇeyyaggi sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā sammā sukhaṃ parihātabbo.
So you should properly and happily take care of this fire, honoring, respecting, esteeming, and venerating it.
Ime kho, brāhmaṇa, tayo aggī sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā sammā sukhaṃ parihātabbā.
You should properly and happily take care of these three fires, honoring, respecting, esteeming, and venerating them.
Ayaṃ kho pana, brāhmaṇa, kaṭṭhaggi kālena kālaṃ ujjaletabbo, kālena kālaṃ ajjhupekkhitabbo, kālena kālaṃ nibbāpetabbo, kālena kālaṃ nikkhipitabbo”ti.
But the wood fire, brahmin, should, from time to time, be fanned, watched over with equanimity, nirvana'd, or put aside.”
KN 10.394

KN Ap.1, (paṭhamo bhāgo), 40. pilindavacchavaggo, 2. selattherāpadānaṃ KN 10.394, para. 192 ⇒

“‘ukkāsitañca khipitaṃ, ajjhupekkhiya māṇavā.

KN 12.1

KN B.v., 1. ratanacaṅkamanakaṇḍaṃ KN 12.1, para. 156 ⇒

ukkāsitañca khipitaṃ {ukkāsitañca khipitañca (syā. aṭṭha.)}, ajjhupekkhiya subbatā.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 323 ⇒

upekkhamārabbha samāhitattoti. upekkhāti yā catutthe jhāne upekkhā upekkhanā ajjhupekkhanā cittasamatā cittappassaddhatā majjhattatā cittassa. samāhitattoti yā cittassa ṭhiti saṇṭhiti avaṭṭhiti avisāhāro avikkhepo avisāhaṭamānasatā samatho samādhindriyaṃ samādhibalaṃ sammāsamādhi. upekkhamārabbha samāhitattoti. catutthe jhāne upekkhaṃ ārabbha ekaggacitto avikkhittacitto avisāhaṭamānasoti — upekkhamārabbha samāhitatto.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 374 ⇒

“ajjhupekkhati kālena, so yogī kālakovido.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 383 ⇒

samāhitacittamaññāya, ajjhupekkheyya tāvade.

KN Nidd II, pārāyanavaggo, pārāyanavagganiddeso, 13. udayamāṇavapucchāniddeso, para. 48 ⇒

upekkhāsatisaṃsuddhanti. upekkhāti yā catutthe jhāne upekkhā upekkhanā ajjhupekkhanā cittasamatā {cittasamatho (syā.) mahāni. 207} cittappassaddhatā majjhattatā cittassa. satīti yā catutthe jhāne upekkhaṃ ārabbha sati anussati. pe. sammāsati. upekkhāsatisaṃsuddhanti catutthe jhāne upekkhā ca sati ca suddhā honti visuddhā saṃsuddhā parisuddhā pariyodātā anaṅgaṇā vigatūpakkilesā mudubhūtā kammaniyā ṭhitā āneñjappattāti — upekkhāsatisaṃsuddhaṃ.

KN Nidd II, khaggavisāṇasutto, catutthavaggo, para. 28 ⇒

laddhānupekkhaṃ samathaṃ visuddhanti. upekkhāti yā catutthajjhāne upekkhā upekkhanā ajjhupekkhanā cittasamatā cittappassaddhatā {cittavisaṭatā (ka.) passa mahāni. 207} majjhattatā cittassa. samathoti yā cittassa ṭhiti saṇṭhiti avaṭṭhiti avisāhāro {avisaṃhāro (ka.) passa dha. sa. 11, 15} avikkhepo avisāhaṭamānasatā {avisaṃhaṭamānasatā (ka.)} samatho samādhindriyaṃ samādhibalaṃ sammāsamādhi; catutthajjhāne upekkhā ca samatho ca suddhā honti visuddhā pariyodātā anaṅgaṇā vigatūpakkilesā mudubhūtā kammaniyā ṭhitā āneñjappattā. laddhānupekkhaṃ samathaṃ visuddhanti catutthajjhānaṃ upekkhañca samathañca laddhā labhitvā vinditvā paṭilabhitvāti — laddhānupekkhaṃ samathaṃ visuddhaṃ, eko care khaggavisāṇakappo. tenāha so paccekasambuddho —

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 1. sutamayañāṇaniddeso, para. 55 ⇒

12. samathassa avikkhepaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; vipassanāya anupassanaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; samathavipassanānaṃ ekarasaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; yuganaddhassa anativattanaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; sikkhāya samādānaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; ārammaṇassa gocaraṭṭho abhiññeyyo; līnassa cittassa paggahaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; uddhatassa cittassa niggahaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; ubhovisuddhānaṃ ajjhupekkhanaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; visesādhigamaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; uttari paṭivedhaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; saccābhisamayaṭṭho abhiññeyyo; nirodhe patiṭṭhāpakaṭṭho abhiññeyyo.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 9. saṅkhārupekkhāñāṇaniddeso, para. 6 ⇒

uppādo saṅkhārā, te saṅkhāre ajjhupekkhatīti — saṅkhārupekkhā. ye ca saṅkhārā yā ca upekkhā ubhopete saṅkhārā, te saṅkhāre ajjhupekkhatīti — saṅkhārupekkhā. pavattaṃ saṅkhārā. pe. nimittaṃ saṅkhārā. āyūhanā saṅkhārā. paṭisandhi saṅkhārā. gati saṅkhārā. nibbatti saṅkhārā. upapatti saṅkhārā. jāti saṅkhārā. jarā saṅkhārā. byādhi saṅkhārā. maraṇaṃ saṅkhārā. soko saṅkhārā. paridevo saṅkhārā. pe. upāyāso saṅkhārā, te saṅkhāre ajjhupekkhatīti — saṅkhārupekkhā. ye ca saṅkhārā yā ca upekkhā ubhopete saṅkhārā, te saṅkhāre ajjhupekkhatīti — saṅkhārupekkhā.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 9. saṅkhārupekkhāñāṇaniddeso, para. 8 ⇒

puthujjanassa katamehi dvīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti? puthujjano saṅkhārupekkhaṃ abhinandati vā vipassati vā. puthujjanassa imehi dvīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti. sekkhassa katamehi tīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti? sekkho saṅkhārupekkhaṃ abhinandati vā vipassati vā paṭisaṅkhāya vā phalasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati. sekkhassa imehi tīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti. vītarāgassa katamehi tīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti? vītarāgo saṅkhārupekkhaṃ vipassati vā paṭisaṅkhāya vā phalasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati, tadajjhupekkhitvā suññatavihārena vā animittavihārena vā appaṇihitavihārena vā viharati. vītarāgassa imehi tīhākārehi saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro hoti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 9. saṅkhārupekkhāñāṇaniddeso, para. 15 ⇒

kathaṃ sekkhassa ca vītarāgassa ca saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro nānattaṃ hoti? sekkho saṅkhārupekkhaṃ abhinandati vā vipassati vā paṭisaṅkhāya vā phalasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati. vītarāgo saṅkhārupekkhaṃ vipassati vā paṭisaṅkhāya vā phalasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati, tadajjhupekkhitvā suññatavihārena vā animittavihārena vā appaṇihitavihārena vā viharati. evaṃ sekkhassa ca vītarāgassa ca saṅkhārupekkhāya cittassa abhinīhāro nānattaṃ hoti vihārasamāpattaṭṭhena.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 2 ⇒

nimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittā samāpatti. paṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitā samāpatti. abhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatā samāpatti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 3 ⇒

nimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittavihārasamāpatti. paṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitavihārasamāpatti. abhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatavihārasamāpatti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 5 ⇒

rūpanimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittā samāpatti. rūpapaṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitā samāpatti. rūpābhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatā samāpatti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 6 ⇒

rūpanimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittavihārasamāpatti. rūpapaṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitavihārasamāpatti. rūpābhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatavihārasamāpatti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 8 ⇒

jarāmaraṇanimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittā samāpatti. jarāmaraṇapaṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitā samāpatti. jarāmaraṇābhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatā samāpatti.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 1. ñāṇakathā, 29-31. ñāṇattayaniddeso, para. 9 ⇒

jarāmaraṇanimittaṃ bhayato sampassamāno animitte adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ animittaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — animittavihārasamāpatti. jarāmaraṇapaṇidhiṃ bhayato sampassamāno appaṇihite adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ appaṇihitaṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — appaṇihitavihārasamāpatti. jarāmaraṇābhinivesaṃ bhayato sampassamāno suññate adhimuttattā phussa phussa vayaṃ passati, pavattaṃ ajjhupekkhitvā nirodhaṃ nibbānaṃ suññataṃ āvajjitvā samāpajjati — suññatavihārasamāpatti. añño animitto vihāro, añño appaṇihito vihāro, añño suññato vihāro. aññā animittasamāpatti, aññā appaṇihitasamāpatti, aññā suññatasamāpatti. aññā animittā vihārasamāpatti, aññā appaṇihitā vihārasamāpatti, aññā suññatā vihārasamāpatti. taṃ ñātaṭṭhena ñāṇaṃ, pajānanaṭṭhena paññā. tena vuccati — “vihāranānatte paññā vihāraṭṭhe ñāṇaṃ, samāpattinānatte paññā samāpattaṭṭhe ñāṇaṃ, vihārasamāpattinānatte paññā vihārasamāpattaṭṭhe ñāṇaṃ”.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 3. ānāpānassatikathā, 4. vodānañāṇaniddeso, para. 4 ⇒

paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe. majjhassa kati lakkhaṇāni? majjhassa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni. visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati. yañca visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati — paṭhamassa jhānassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe. majjhassa imāni tīṇi lakkhaṇāni. tena vuccati — “paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ majjhekalyāṇañceva hoti lakkhaṇasampannañca”.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 3. ānāpānassatikathā, 4. vodānañāṇaniddeso, para. 12 ⇒

arahattamaggassa upekkhānubrūhanā majjhe. majjhassa kati lakkhaṇāni? majjhassa tīṇi lakkhaṇāni. visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati. yañca visuddhaṃ cittaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca samathapaṭipannaṃ ajjhupekkhati, yañca ekattupaṭṭhānaṃ ajjhupekkhati. tena vuccati — “arahattamaggo majjhekalyāṇo ceva hoti lakkhaṇasampanno ca”.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 4. indriyakathā, ga. adhimattaṭṭhaniddeso, para. 1 ⇒

201. kathaṃ adhimattaṭṭhena indriyāni daṭṭhabbāni? saddhindriyassa bhāvanāya chando uppajjati — chandavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. chandavasena pāmojjaṃ uppajjati — pāmojjavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. pāmojjavasena pīti uppajjati — pītivasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. pītivasena passaddhi uppajjati — passaddhivasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. passaddhivasena sukhaṃ uppajjati — sukhavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. sukhavasena obhāso uppajjati — obhāsavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. obhāsavasena saṃvego uppajjati — saṃvegavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. saṃvejetvā cittaṃ samādahati — samādhivasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. tathā samāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ paggaṇhāti — paggahavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. tathāpaggahitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhati — upekkhāvasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. upekkhāvasena nānattakilesehi cittaṃ vimuccati — vimokkhavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vimuttattā te dhammā ekarasā honti — ekarasaṭṭhena bhāvanāvasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. bhāvitattā tato paṇītatare vivaṭṭanti — vivaṭṭanāvasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vivaṭṭitattā tato vosajjati {vossajjati (syā. ka.)} — vosaggavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vosajjitattā tato nirujjhanti — nirodhavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. nirodhavasena dve vosaggā — pariccāgavosaggo ca, pakkhandanavosaggo ca. kilese ca khandhe ca pariccajatīti — pariccāgavosaggo. nirodhanibbānadhātuyā cittaṃ pakkhandatīti — pakkhandanavosaggo. nirodhavasena ime dve vosaggā.

KN Paṭis, 1. mahāvaggo, 4. indriyakathā, ga. adhimattaṭṭhaniddeso, para. 2 ⇒

assaddhiyassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. pe. assaddhiyapariḷāhassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. diṭṭhekaṭṭhānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. oḷārikānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. anusahagatānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati — chandavasena saddhāvasena saddhindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. pe. vīriyindriyassa bhāvanāya chando uppajjati. pe. kosajjassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. kosajjapariḷāhassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. diṭṭhekaṭṭhānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. pe. sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. satindriyassa bhāvanāya chando uppajjati. pe. pamādassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. pamādapariḷāhassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. pe. sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. samādhindriyassa bhāvanāya chando uppajjati. pe. uddhaccassa pahānāya chando uppajjati uddhaccapariḷāhassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. pe. sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. paññindriyassa bhāvanāya chando uppajjati. pe. avijjāya pahānāya chando uppajjati. avijjāpariḷāhassa pahānāya chando uppajjati. diṭṭhekaṭṭhānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. oḷārikānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. anusahagatānaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati. sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya chando uppajjati — chandavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. chandavasena pāmojjaṃ uppajjati — pāmojjavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. pāmojjavasena pīti uppajjati — pītivasena paññā vasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. pītivasena passaddhi uppajjati — passaddhivasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. passaddhivasena sukhaṃ uppajjati — sukhavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. sukhavasena obhāso uppajjati — obhāsavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. obhāsavasena saṃvego uppajjati — saṃvegavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. saṃvejetvā cittaṃ samādahati — samādhivasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ paggaṇhāti — paggahavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. tathāpaggahitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhati — upekkhāvasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. upekkhāvasena nānattakilesehi cittaṃ vimuccati — vimokkhavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vimuttattā te dhammā ekarasā honti — bhāvanāvasena {ekarasaṭṭhena bhāvanāvasena (syā. ka.) aṭṭhakathā oloketabbo} paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. bhāvitattā tato paṇītatare vivaṭṭanti — vivaṭṭanāvasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vivaṭṭitattā tato vosajjati — vosaggavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. vosajjitattā tato nirujjhanti — nirodhavasena paññāvasena paññindriyaṃ adhimattaṃ hoti. nirodhavasena dve vosaggā — pariccāgavosaggo ca, pakkhandanavosaggo ca. kilese ca khandhe ca pariccajatīti — pariccāgavosaggo. nirodhanibbānadhātuyā cittaṃ pakkhandatīti — pakkhandanavosaggo. nirodhavasena ime dve vosaggā. evaṃ adhimattaṭṭhena indriyāni daṭṭhabbāni.

KN Paṭis, 2. yuganaddhavaggo, 3. bojjhaṅgakathā, mūlamūlakādidasakaṃ, para. 15 ⇒

samathassa avikkhepaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. vipassanāya anupassanaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. samathavipassanānaṃ ekarasaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. yuganaddhassa anativattanaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. sikkhāya samādānaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. ārammaṇassa gocaraṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. līnassa cittassa paggahaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. uddhatassa cittassa niggahaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. ubhovisuddhānaṃ ajjhupekkhanaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. visesādhigamaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. uttari paṭivedhaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. saccābhisamayaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā. nirodhe patiṭṭhāpakaṭṭhaṃ bujjhantīti — bojjhaṅgā.

KN Mil, 5. anumānapañho, 3. vessantaravaggo, 1. vessantarapañho, para. 3 ⇒

“idampi dutiyaṃ dukkarato dukkarataraṃ, yaṃ so attano orase piye putte bālake taruṇake latāya bandhitvā tena brāhmaṇena latāya anumajjīyante disvā ajjhupekkhi.

KN Pe s607 four brahmavihāras context

Pe s607

KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 17 ⇒

Tattha katamā bhāvanā?
607. (vii) Herein, what is the keeping in being?
Mettāsevanā abyāpādavitakkabhāvanā.
Cultivation of lovingkindness is the keeping of non-ill-will thinking in being.
Karuṇāsevanā avihiṃsāvitakkabhāvanā.
Cultivation of compassion 1 is the keeping of non-cruelty thinking in being.
Muditābhāvanā pītisukhasampajaññā kāritā.
Keeping gladness in being is the state of one who acts with happiness, pleasure, and awareness.
upekkhābhāvanā passavatā upekkhābhāvanā apassavatā upekkhā ca ajjhupekkhā ca, asubhasaññābhāvanā dukkhāpaṭipadā dandhābhiññā bhavasandhābhiññā bhavasandhānaṃ, sā chabbidhā bhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā anuṭṭhitā vatthukatā yānīkatā paricitā susamāraddhā.
[There is(? )] keeping onlooking- equanimity in being as productivity(? ) 2 [and there is(? )] keeping onlooking-equanimity in being as unproductivity (? ), 2 [which are respectively(? )] onlooking-equanimity and looking on at. [There is(? )] keeping perception of ugliness 3 in being [which is(? )] the painful way with sluggish acquaintance, [such(? )] acquaintance being that tied to existence(? ) [belonging] to those tied to existence (1). 4 That keeping in being in the six ways 5 is kept in being, made much of, established, made the basis, made the vehicle, 6 consolidated, 6 and thoroughly well instigated. 6
MN 25 hunter equanimously observing deer

MN 25

Tatra, bhikkhave, nevāpikassa ca nevāpikaparisāya ca etadahosi:
So the trapper and his companions thought:
‘sace kho mayaṃ catutthe migajāte ghaṭṭessāma, te ghaṭṭitā aññe ghaṭṭissanti te ghaṭṭitā aññe ghaṭṭissanti.
‘If we disturb this fourth herd of deer, they’ll disturb others, who in turn will disturb even more.
Evaṃ imaṃ nivāpaṃ nivuttaṃ sabbaso migajātā parimuñcissanti.
Then all of the deer will be free from this bait we’ve cast.
Yannūna mayaṃ catutthe migajāte ajjhupekkheyyāmā’ti.
Why don’t we just keep an eye on that fourth herd?’
Ajjhupekkhiṃsu kho, bhikkhave, nevāpiko ca nevāpikaparisā ca catutthe migajāte.
And that’s just what they did.
Evañhi te, bhikkhave, catutthā migajātā parimucciṃsu nevāpikassa iddhānubhāvā.
And that’s how the fourth herd of deer got free from the trapper’s power.
Upamā kho me ayaṃ, bhikkhave, katā atthassa viññāpanāya.
I’ve made up this simile to make a point.
Ayaṃ cevettha attho—
And this is what it means.
nivāpoti kho, bhikkhave, pañcannetaṃ kāmaguṇānaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘Bait’ is a term for the five kinds of sensual stimulation.
Nevāpikoti kho, bhikkhave, mārassetaṃ pāpimato adhivacanaṃ.
‘Trapper’ is a term for Māra the Wicked.
Nevāpikaparisāti kho, bhikkhave, māraparisāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘Trapper’s companions’ is a term for Māra’s assembly.
Migajātāti kho, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
‘Deer’ is a term for ascetics and brahmins.
MN 101 exertion and upekkha leads to virāga

MN 101

Kathañca, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ?
And how is exertion and striving fruitful?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti, dhammikañca sukhaṃ na pariccajati, tasmiñca sukhe anadhimucchito hoti.
It’s when a monk doesn’t bring suffering upon themselves; and they don’t give up legitimate pleasure, but they’re not stupefied with that pleasure.
So evaṃ pajānāti:
They understand:
‘imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hotī’ti.
‘When I actively strive I become dispassionate towards this source of suffering. But when I develop equanimity I become dispassionate towards this other source of suffering.’
So yassa hi khvāssa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, saṅkhāraṃ tattha padahati.
So they either actively strive or develop equanimity as appropriate.
Yassa panassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti, upekkhaṃ tattha bhāveti.
Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti—
Through active striving they become dispassionate towards that specific source of suffering,
evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti.
and so that suffering is worn away.
Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti—
Through developing equanimity they become dispassionate towards that other source of suffering,
evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti.
and so that suffering is worn away.
MN 118 fourth satipaṭṭhāna, upekkha observes abandoning hindrances

MN 118

Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘aniccānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘aniccānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
Whenever a monk practices breathing while observing impermanence,
‘virāgānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘virāgānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
or observing fading away,
‘nirodhānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘nirodhānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
or observing cessation,
‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
or observing letting go—
dhammesu dhammānupassī, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
at that time they meditate observing an aspect of principles—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
So yaṃ taṃ abhijjhādomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ taṃ paññāya disvā sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti.
Having seen with wisdom the giving up of desire and aversion, they watch over closely with equanimity.
Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, dhammesu dhammānupassī tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. (4)
That’s why at that time a monk is meditating by observing an aspect of principles—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
Evaṃ bhāvitā kho, bhikkhave, ānāpānassati evaṃ bahulīkatā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti.
That’s how remembering of breathing, when developed and cultivated, fulfills the four kinds of remembering meditation.
MN 118 upekkha as 7th awakening factor observing mind in samādhi

MN 118

Passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.
When the body is pacified and they feel pleasure, the mind becomes undistractified-&-lucidified in samādhi.
Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati. (6)
At such a time, a monk has activated the awakening factor of undistractible-lucidity; they develop it and perfect it.
So tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti.
They closely watch over that mind undistractified-&-lucidified in samādhi.
Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati. (7)
At such a time, a monk has activated the awakening factor of equanimity; they develop it and perfect it.
MN 140 goldsmith using upekkha, meditator using upekkha to enter formless attainment

MN 140

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, dakkho suvaṇṇakāro vā suvaṇṇakārantevāsī vā
Suppose, bhikkhu, a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice
ukkaṃ bandheyya,
were to prepare a furnace,
ukkaṃ bandhitvā ukkāmukhaṃ ālimpeyya,
heat up the crucible,
ukkāmukhaṃ ālimpetvā saṇḍāsena jātarūpaṃ
take some gold with tongs,
gahetvā ukkāmukhe pakkhipeyya,
and put it into the crucible.
tamenaṃ kālena kālaṃ abhidhameyya,
From time to time he would blow on it,
kālena kālaṃ udakena paripphoseyya,
from time to time he would sprinkle water over it,
kālena kālaṃ ajjhupekkheyya,
and from time to time he would just look on.
taṃ hoti jātarūpaṃ" sudhantaṃ niddhantaṃ" nīhaṭaṃ ninnītakasāvaṃ mudu ca kammaññañca pabhassarañca,
That gold would become refined, well refined, completely refined, faultless, rid of dross, malleable, wieldy, and radiant.
yassā yassā ca piḷandhanavikatiyā ākaṅkhati—yadi paṭṭikāya yadi kuṇḍalāya yadi gīveyyakāya yadi suvaṇṇamālāya tañcassa atthaṃ anubhoti;
Then whatever kind of ornament he wished to make from it, whether a golden chain or earrings or a necklace or a golden garland, it would serve his purpose.
evameva kho, bhikkhu, athāparaṃ upekkhāyeva avasissati parisuddhā pariyodātā mudu ca kammaññā ca pabhassarā ca.
So too, bhikkhu, then there remains only equanimity, purified and bright, malleable, wieldy, and radiant.
direct equanitmity to 4 formless attainments
So evaṃ pajānāti:
“He understands thus:
‘imañce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃ parisuddhaṃ evaṃ pariyodātaṃ ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, tadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ.
‘If I were to direct this equanimity, so purified and bright, to the base of infinite space and to develop my mind accordingly,
Evaṃ me ayaṃ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ tiṭṭheyya.
then this equanimity of mine, supported by that base, clinging to it, would remain for a very long time.
Imañce ahaṃ upekkhaṃ evaṃ parisuddhaṃ evaṃ pariyodātaṃ viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasaṃhareyyaṃ, tadanudhammañca cittaṃ bhāveyyaṃ.
If I were to direct this equanimity, so purified and bright, to the base of infinite consciousness……
SN 46.3 upekkha as 7th awakening factor observing mind in samādhi

SN 46.3

So
"He,
tathā-samāhitaṃ cittaṃ
(of) such-undistractable-&-lucid mind
sādhukaṃ ajjh-upekkhitā hoti
thoroughly looks-on-with-equanimity ****
.
.
. Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
. On-the occasion, monks, a-monk
tathā-samāhitaṃ cittaṃ
(of) such-undistractable-&-lucid mind
sādhukaṃ ajjh-upekkhitā hoti
thoroughly looks-on-with-equanimity ****
,
,
upekkhā-sam-bojjh-aṅgo tasmiṃ samaye
equanimity-awakening-factor on-that occasion
bhikkhuno āraddho hoti;
(the) monk has-aroused;
upekkhā-sam-bojjh-aṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye
equanimity-awakening-factor on-that occasion
bhikkhu bhāveti;
(the) monk develops;
upekkhā-sam-bojjh-aṅgo tasmiṃ samaye
equanimity-awakening-factor on-that occasion
bhikkhuno bhāvanā-pāripūriṃ gacchati.
(the) monk has-developed-(and)-fulfilled *******.
SN 54.10 same as MN 118 fourth satipaṭṭhāna, upekkha observes abandoning hindrances

SN 54.10

nirodhānupassī …
They practice like this: ‘I’ll breathe in observing cessation.’ They practice like this: ‘I’ll breathe out observing cessation.’
‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati—
They practice like this: ‘I’ll breathe in observing letting go.’ They practice like this: ‘I’ll breathe out observing letting go.’
dhammesu dhammānupassī, ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
At such a time a monk is meditating by observing an aspect of principles—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
So yaṃ taṃ hoti abhijjhādomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ taṃ paññāya disvā sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti.
Having seen with wisdom the giving up of desire and aversion, they watch closely over with equanimity.
Tasmātihānanda, dhammesu dhammānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. (4)
Therefore, at such a time a monk is meditating by observing an aspect of principles—keen, aware, and rememberful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.
SN 54.13 same as MN 118, 4th satipaṭṭhāna and 7th awakening factor

SN 54.13, MN 118

SN 5, 10. ānāpānasaṃyuttaṃ, 2. dutiyavaggo, 3. paṭhamāanandasuttaṃ SN 54.13, para. 7 ⇒

“yasmiṃ samaye, ānanda, bhikkhu aniccānupassī. pe. virāgānupassī. pe. nirodhānupassī. pe. ‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati — dhammesu dhammānupassī, ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. so yaṃ taṃ hoti abhijjhādomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ taṃ paññāya disvā sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. tasmātihānanda, dhammesu dhammānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

SN 54.16 same as MN 118, 4th satipaṭṭhāna and 7th awakening factor

SN 54.16, SN 54.13, MN 118

SN 5, 10. ānāpānasaṃyuttaṃ, 2. dutiyavaggo, 6. dutiyabhikkhusuttaṃ SN 54.16, para. 7 ⇒

“yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu aniccānupassī. pe. virāgānupassī. pe. nirodhānupassī. pe. ‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati — dhammesu dhammānupassī, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. so yaṃ taṃ hoti abhijjhādomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ taṃ paññāya disvā sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. tasmātiha, bhikkhave, dhammesu dhammānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

SN 56.34 clothes on fire, not paying attention with upekkha

SN 56.34

“Āditte, bhante, cele vā sīse vā, tasseva celassa vā sīsassa vā nibbāpanāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañca karaṇīyan”ti.
“Sir, if our clothes or head were on fire, we’d apply intense enthusiasm, effort, zeal, vigor, perseverance, rememberfulness, and lucid-discerning in order to extinguish it.”
“Ādittaṃ, bhikkhave, celaṃ vā sīsaṃ vā ajjhupekkhitvā amanasikaritvā anabhisametānaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ abhisamayāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañca karaṇīyaṃ.
“monks, regarding your burning head or clothes with equanimity, not paying attention to them, you should apply intense enthusiasm, effort, zeal, vigor, perseverance, rememberfulness, and lucid-discerning to truly comprehending the four noble truths.
Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ?
What four?
Dukkhassa ariyasaccassa … pe … dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ariyasaccassa.
The noble truths of suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path.
(end of 7.7 upekkha ⏹️)

8.1 - Sammā-diṭṭhi: right view 1👁

8.2 - Sammā-saṅkappo: right resolve 2💭

And what is right resolve? (SN 45.8)

Nekkhamma-saṅkappo,
Renunciation-resolve,
A-byāpāda-saṅkappo,
Non-ill-will-resolve,
A-vihiṃsā-saṅkappo —
Non-harmfulness-resolve

sutta passaages clarifying right resolve

MN 8 effacement (list of 44 kinds of good thought)
MN 78 kusala and akusala sankappo, and where they cease in 4 jhānas
MN 19 right thoughts (vitakka) and wrong thoughts contrasted
MN 117 with Āsava‍ are the STED definition of renunciation, non ill will, non harm.
MN 117 without Āsava‍ are vitakka of first jhāna, see V&V💭
SN 14.12 sankappa position on food chain
SN 14.13 ditthi precedes vitakka on food chain
inferior cause leads to inferior results

SN 56.7 right thoughts = 4👑☸

sutta passaages not specifically about right resolve but relevant

SN 55.7 golden rule and silver rule (stream entry uses silver to purify action and speech)

misc. Notes

3x3 strategy:
At 3am, wake up to battle the 3am😈🌱 (3 akusala mula roughly parallels 3 parts of right-resolve)
using the 3 tools in AN 3.16 (guarding sense doors, proper eating, proper sleep schedule)

4x4 strategy:
attack formation of your 4pd army:
1. 4bv☮️ all close with statement abyapajja viharati, 4bv fits neatly under abyapajja-samkappo.
2. thoughts connected with 4👑☸ are fruit of right view → right intention (SN 56.7)
3. 4pd🏹️ constantly purify intention, AN 4.14 especially, and AN 4.12 in all 4 postures
4. 4ip 🌕⚡ is how 4pd purifies sammā samādhi's 4th jhāna to penetrate 4👑☸ .

8.2.1 - Renunciation-resolve

(Wrong-Resolve)
kāma 💘💃‍ Kāma-vitakka/sankappo
Public enemy #1. The opposite to nekkhamma-sankappo.
Closely related to kāma-chanda (of 5niv⛅ ),
Kāma-rāga, kāma-tanha (the cause of suffering in 4👑☸ ).
31asb🧟‍ (the primary antidote)

8.2.2 - Non-ill-will-resolve

The 4bv☮️ brahma-vihāra formula, is an especially nice form of non-ill will. Notice "A-byāpāda" appears in all 4 of the STED 4bv.

8.2.3 - Non-harmfulness-resolve

8.3 - Sammā-vācā: right speech 3💬

STED right speech

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right speech? ** *** *********
musāvādā veramaṇī,
lying; abstaining (from it)
pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī,
Divisive-speech; abstaining (from it)
pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī,
Abusive-speech; abstaining (from it)
samphappalāpā veramaṇī —
Idle-chatter; abstaining (from it)
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā.
This is called, *********, right speech.
only 1 way‍ 8.3 - Sammā-vācā: right speech 3💬
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.1 – lying; abstaining (from it)
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.2 - Divisive-speech; abstaining (from it)
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.3 – Abusive-speech; abstaining (from it)
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.4 – Idle-chatter; abstaining (from it)
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.10 - Sutta passages clarifying right speech
    only 1 way‍ 8.3.20 – Misc.
        only 1 way‍ 8.3.20.1 – Above all, don’t lie to yourself
        only 1 way‍ 8.3.20.2 - 💎🐷 pearls before swine.
        only 1 way‍ 8.3.20.3 – oral tradition

Sutta passages clarifying right speech

AN
AN 2.62 good people give and receive constructive criticism thankfully
AN 3.28 in court, knowing truth but lie that ‘I don’t know’
AN 4.3 criticizing what deserves criticism, karmic result
AN 4.100 right speech is not being silent when you witness a crime.
AN 4.149 su-carita: gives 4 opposites of wrong speech
AN 4.221 contains same info as AN 4.149, but also explicitly lists 4 wrong speeches
AN 5.159 five conditions before one teaching others
AN 5.160 once arisen, desire to speak out hard to get rid of
AN 5.198 5 factors of good speech: timely, true, gentle, beneficial, and friendly
AN 5.209 not proper to sing Dhamma recitation / chanting
KN
KN Iti 25 lying is slippery slope that leads to every kind of evil

MN
MN 61: right effort purifies right speech
MN 95 five types of truth preservation
SN
SN 17.11 So brutal are possessions, honor, and popularity, that good monk willing to lie

wrong speech

AN 4.149 su-carita: gives 4 opposites of wrong speech

AN 4.149
Saccavācā, apisuṇā vācā, saṇhā vācā, mantabhāsā—
Speech that’s true, harmonious, gentle, and thoughtful.
imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri vacīsucaritānī”ti.
These are the four kinds of good conduct by way of speech.”

AN 4.221 contains same info as AN 4.149, but also explicitly lists 4 wrong speeches

AN 4.221
“Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, vacīduccaritāni.
“monks, there are these four kinds of bad conduct by way of speech.
Katamāni cattāri?
What four?
Musāvādo, pisuṇā vācā, pharusā vācā, samphappalāpo—
Speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical.

8.3.1 – lying; abstaining (from it)

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right speech? ** *** *********
musāvādā veramaṇī,
lying; abstaining (from it)

KN Iti 25 lying is slippery slope that leads to every kind of evil

KN Iti 25

♦ “eka-dhammaṃ atītassa, bhikkhave, purisa-puggalassa
“one-thing transgressed, *********, (for a) person,
nāhaṃ tassa kiñci pāpa-kammaṃ a-karaṇīyanti
there is no evil-action not-(to be)-done.
vadāmi.
(this I) say.
katamaṃ eka-dhammaṃ?
Which one thing?
yadidaṃ bhikkhave, sampajāna-musā-vādo”ti.
just-this, monks: deliberate-lie-telling."
etam-atthaṃ bhagavā avoca.
this-(is the)-meaning (of what) the-blessed-one said.
tatth-etaṃ iti vuccati —
(with regard to)-that thus (was it) said.
(verse)

♦ “eka-dhammaṃ atītassa,
"one-thing transgressed,
musā-vādissa jantuno.
lying-speech (by a) person,
♦ vitiṇṇa-para-lokassa,
rejecting-[concern for the]-after-world,
natthi pāpaṃ a-kāriyan”ti.
(there is)-no evil (he will) not-do."

MN 61 never lie, even as a joke

MN 61

evameva kho, rāhula,
“In the same way, Rāhula,
yassa kassaci sampajāna-musā-vāde natthi lajjā,
when anyone feels no shame in telling a deliberate lie,
n-āhaṃ tassa kiñci pāpaṃ a-karaṇīyanti vadāmi.
there is no evil, I tell you, he will not do.
tasmātiha te, rāhula, ‘hassāpi na musā bhaṇissāmī’ti —
Thus, Rāhula, you should train yourself,
evañhi te, rāhula, sikkhitabbaṃ.
‘I will not tell a deliberate lie even in jest.’

AN 3.28 in court, knowing truth but lie that ‘I don’t know’

SN 17.11 So brutal are possessions, honor, and popularity, that good monk willing to lie

8.3.2 - Divisive-speech; abstaining (from it)

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right speech? ** *** *********
pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī,
Divisive-speech; abstaining (from it)

8.3.3 – Abusive-speech; abstaining (from it)

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right speech? ** *** *********
pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī,
Abusive-speech; abstaining (from it)

suttas that use strong speech, but are not ‘abusive’

AN 5.191 badly behaving brahmins and dogs
AN 6.29 Buddha calls monk a fool (mogha) for not knowing answer to a Dhamma question
AN 6.44 Buddha calls a woman “foolish incompetent matron, with an matron’s wit”, for asking a reasonable question

8.3.4 – Idle-chatter; abstaining (from it)

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammā-vācā? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right speech? ** *** *********
samphappalāpā veramaṇī —
Idle-chatter; abstaining (from it)

8.3.10 - Sutta passages clarifying right speech

.
.

AN

AN 2.62 good people give and receive constructive criticism thankfully

AN 2.62
Kathañca, bhikkhave, santasannivāso hoti, kathañca santo sannivasanti?
What is it like living with good people? How do good people live together?
Idha, bhikkhave, therassa bhikkhuno evaṃ hoti:
It’s when a senior monk thinks:
‘theropi maṃ vadeyya, majjhimopi maṃ vadeyya, navopi maṃ vadeyya;
‘Any monk, whether senior, middle, or junior, should admonish me;
therampāhaṃ vadeyyaṃ, majjhimampāhaṃ vadeyyaṃ, navampāhaṃ vadeyyaṃ.
and I should admonish any monk, whether senior, middle, or junior.
Thero cepi maṃ vadeyya hitānukampī maṃ vadeyya no ahitānukampī, sādhūti naṃ vadeyyaṃ na naṃ viheṭheyyaṃ passampissa paṭikareyyaṃ.
If a monk—whether senior, middle, or junior—were to admonish me, they’d be sympathetic, so I wouldn’t bother them, but say “Thank you!” And I’d deal with it when I saw what I did wrong.’

AN 4.3 criticizing what deserves criticism, karmic result

AN 4.3
Catūhi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato paṇḍito viyatto sappuriso akkhataṃ anupahataṃ attānaṃ pariharati, anavajjo ca hoti ananuvajjo ca viññūnaṃ, bahuñca puññaṃ pasavati.
When an astute, competent good person has four qualities they keep themselves healthy and whole. They don’t deserve to be blamed and criticized by sensible people, and they make much merit.
Katamehi catūhi?
What four?
Anuvicca pariyogāhetvā avaṇṇārahassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsati,
After examining and scrutinizing, they criticize those deserving of criticism,
anuvicca pariyogāhetvā vaṇṇārahassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati,
and they praise those deserving of praise.
anuvicca pariyogāhetvā appasādanīye ṭhāne appasādaṃ upadaṃseti,
They don’t arouse faith in things that are dubious,
anuvicca pariyogāhetvā pasādanīye ṭhāne pasādaṃ upadaṃseti—
and they do arouse faith in things that are inspiring.

also in AN 4.3, four types of wrong criticism have seriously bad karma

AN 4.100 right speech is not being silent when you witness a crime.

AN 4.100 right speech is not being silent when you witness a crime.
at the right time criticizing what deserves it, praising that which deserves it.
dhamma details section : Duty of Right Speech in revealing Counterfeit of True Dharma

AN 4.149 su-carita: gives 4 opposites of wrong speech

AN 4.149
Saccavācā, apisuṇā vācā, saṇhā vācā, mantabhāsā—
Speech that’s true, harmonious, gentle, and thoughtful.
imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri vacīsucaritānī”ti.
These are the four kinds of good conduct by way of speech.”

AN 4.221 contains same info as AN 4.149, but also explicitly lists 4 wrong speeches

AN 4.221
“Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, vacīduccaritāni.
“monks, there are these four kinds of bad conduct by way of speech.
Katamāni cattāri?
What four?
Musāvādo, pisuṇā vācā, pharusā vācā, samphappalāpo—
Speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical.

AN 5.159 five conditions before one teaching others

AN 5.159
“Na kho, ānanda, sukaraṃ paresaṃ dhammaṃ desetuṃ.
“Ānanda, it’s not easy to teach Dhamma to others.
Paresaṃ, ānanda, dhammaṃ desentena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṃ upaṭṭhāpetvā paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo.
You should establish five things in yourself before teaching Dhamma to others.
Katame pañca?
What five?
‘Anupubbiṃ kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo;
You should teach Dhamma to others thinking: ‘I will teach step by step.’ …
‘pariyāyadassāvī kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo;
‘I will talk explaining my methods.’ …
‘anuddayataṃ paṭicca kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo;
‘I will talk out of kindness.’ …
‘na āmisantaro kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo;
‘I will not talk while secretly hoping to profit.’ …
‘attānañca parañca anupahacca kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti paresaṃ dhammo desetabbo.
‘I will talk without hurting myself or others.’

AN 5.160 once arisen, desire to speak out hard to get rid of

AN 5.160

Uppanno rāgo duppaṭivinodayo, uppanno doso duppaṭivinodayo, uppanno moho duppaṭivinodayo, uppannaṃ paṭibhānaṃ duppaṭivinodayaṃ, uppannaṃ gamikacittaṃ duppaṭivinodayaṃ.
Greed, hate, delusion, the feeling of being inspired to speak out, and thoughts of traveling.
Ime kho, bhikkhave, pañca uppannā duppaṭivinodayā”ti.
These five things are hard to get rid of once they’ve arisen.”

AN 5.198 5 factors of good speech: timely, true, gentle, beneficial, and friendly

AN 5.198

“Pañcahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgatā vācā subhāsitā hoti, no dubbhāsitā, anavajjā ca ananuvajjā ca viññūnaṃ.
“monks, speech that has five factors is well spoken, not poorly spoken. It’s blameless and is not criticized by sensible people.
Katamehi pañcahi?
What five?
Kālena ca bhāsitā hoti, saccā ca bhāsitā hoti, saṇhā ca bhāsitā hoti, atthasaṃhitā ca bhāsitā hoti, mettacittena ca bhāsitā hoti.
It is speech that is timely, true, gentle, beneficial, and friendly.

AN 5.209 not proper to sing Dhamma recitation / chanting

AN 5.209

MN

MN 61: right effort purifies right speech

MN 61
(mirror verbal action, vācāya kammaṃ )
(before verbal action → consider consequence)
(before verbal action → if leads to bad, don’t do)
(before verbal action → if not lead to bad, do)
(during verbal action → consider consequence)
(during verbal action → if leads to bad, don’t do)
(during verbal action → if not lead to bad, do)
(after verbal action → consider consequence)
(after verbal action → if it led to bad, confess and don’t do again)
(after verbal action → if not lead to bad, rejoice pīti-pāmojja)

MN 95 five types of truth preservation

MN 95

Pañca kho ime, bhāradvāja, dhammā diṭṭheva dhamme dvedhā vipākā.
These five things can be seen to turn out in two different ways.
Katame pañca?
What five?
Saddhā, ruci, anussavo, ākāraparivitakko, diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti—
Faith, personal preference, oral tradition, reasoned contemplation, and acceptance of a view after consideration.
ime kho, bhāradvāja, pañca dhammā diṭṭheva dhamme dvedhā vipākā.
Api ca, bhāradvāja, susaddahitaṃyeva hoti, tañca hoti rittaṃ tucchaṃ musā;
Even though you have full faith in something, it may be void, hollow, and false.
no cepi susaddahitaṃ hoti, tañca hoti bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ anaññathā.
And even if you don’t have full faith in something, it may be true and real, not otherwise.
Api ca, bhāradvāja, surucitaṃyeva hoti … pe …
Even though you have a strong preference for something …
svānussutaṃyeva hoti … pe …
something may be accurately transmitted …
suparivitakkitaṃyeva hoti … pe …
something may be well contemplated …
sunijjhāyitaṃyeva hoti, tañca hoti rittaṃ tucchaṃ musā;
something may be well considered, it may be void, hollow, and false.
no cepi sunijjhāyitaṃ hoti, tañca hoti bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ anaññathā.
And even if something is not well considered, it may be true and real, not otherwise.
Saccamanurakkhatā, bhāradvāja, viññunā purisena nālamettha ekaṃsena niṭṭhaṃ gantuṃ:
For a sensible person who is preserving truth this is not sufficient to come to the definite conclusion:
‘idameva saccaṃ, moghamaññan’”ti.
‘This is the only truth, other ideas are stupid.’”

preservation of truth

“Kittāvatā pana, bho gotama, saccānurakkhaṇā hoti, kittāvatā saccamanurakkhati?
“But Master Gotama, how do you define the preservation of truth?”
Saccānurakkhaṇaṃ mayaṃ bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ pucchāmā”ti.
“Saddhā cepi, bhāradvāja, purisassa hoti;
“If a person has faith,
‘evaṃ me saddhā’ti—
they preserve truth by saying, ‘Such is my faith.’
iti vadaṃ saccamanurakkhati, na tveva tāva ekaṃsena niṭṭhaṃ gacchati:
But they don’t yet come to the definite conclusion:
‘idameva saccaṃ, moghamaññan’ti ().
‘This is the only truth, other ideas are stupid.’
Ruci cepi, bhāradvāja, purisassa hoti … pe …
If a person has a preference …
anussavo cepi, bhāradvāja, purisassa hoti … pe …
or has received an oral transmission …
ākāraparivitakko cepi, bhāradvāja, purisassa hoti … pe …
or has a reasoned reflection about something …
diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti cepi, bhāradvāja, purisassa hoti;
or has accepted a view after contemplation,
‘evaṃ me diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantī’ti—
they preserve truth by saying, ‘Such is the view I have accepted after contemplation.’
iti vadaṃ saccamanurakkhati, na tveva tāva ekaṃsena niṭṭhaṃ gacchati:
But they don’t yet come to the definite conclusion:
‘idameva saccaṃ, moghamaññan’ti.
‘This is the only truth, other ideas are stupid.’
Ettāvatā kho, bhāradvāja, saccānurakkhaṇā hoti, ettāvatā saccamanurakkhati, ettāvatā ca mayaṃ saccānurakkhaṇaṃ paññapema;
That’s how the preservation of truth is defined, Bhāradvāja. I describe the preservation of truth as defined in this way.
na tveva tāva saccānubodho hotī”ti.
But this is not yet the awakening to the truth.”
“Ettāvatā, bho gotama, saccānurakkhaṇā hoti, ettāvatā saccamanurakkhati, ettāvatā ca mayaṃ saccānurakkhaṇaṃ pekkhāma.
“That’s how the preservation of truth is defined, Master Gotama. We regard the preservation of truth as defined in this way.
Kittāvatā pana, bho gotama, saccānubodho hoti, kittāvatā saccamanubujjhati?
But Master Gotama, how do you define awakening to the truth?”

8.3.20 – Misc.

8.3.20.1 – Above all, don’t lie to yourself

(from mae chee kaew’s biography) https://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2019/02/you-can-lie-to-entire-world-if-you-like.html
Don’t be resentful of criticism or prideful of praise. Simply stay focused on your meditation practice from dawn to dusk. Develop spiritual virtue day and night, and always speak the truth. Self-honesty is the basis of moral virtue. Know yourself, accept your faults and work to overcome them. Hide nothing from yourself. Above all, don’t lie to yourself. Lying to yourself is a fundamental breach of moral virtue. You can lie to the entire world if you like, but you must never lie to yourself.

my comment: That quote really struck me, because living in a secular world, most professions you can't survive without lying, or at the very least, intentionally withholding truths. Being too open, transparent and forthcoming will cause you to fail tasks, lose clients, and ultimately your job, in most real world professions. So it's very refreshing to hear Mae Chee Kaew acknowledge the harsh reality most people face, of not being able to maintain 100% honesty at all times. But as long we remain internally honest, as long as we never lie to ourselves, then that keeps us in touch with our conscience and keeps the possibility of rehabilitation and redemption alive. If we lie to the world and lie to ourselves, we're doomed. For (hopefully) obvious reasons.

8.3.20.2 - 💎🐷 pearls before swine.

This popular saying is similar to the principle of "speaking at right time",
when there's good reason to believe the audience is capable of understanding.

“Cast not pearls before swine.”
Jesus appears to be warning his disciples to preach only before receptive audiences.
from Jesus' sermon on the mount: Matthew 7:6 —
“Do not give what is holy to dogs,
and do not throw your pearls before swine,
or they will trample them under their feet,
and turn and tear you to pieces.



8.3.20.3 – oral tradition

oral tradition

8.4 - Sammā-kammanto: right action 4🏃

STED from SN 45.8

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto? yā kho, bhikkhave,
What **, *********, is right action?
Pāṇā-atipātā veramaṇī,
Life-attacking(, killing); abstaining (from it)
Adinnā-dānā veramaṇī,
stealing; abstaining (from it)
A-brahmacariyā veramaṇī —
Un-chastity; abstaining (from it)
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto.
This is called, *********, right action.

8.4.1 – (1) Pāṇā-atipātā: no killing

Pāṇā-atipātā veramaṇī,
Life-attacking(, killing); abstaining (from it)

8.4.1.6 – Killing in a just war? - Thanissaro essay 2022

At War with the Dhamma
by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2022-09)
https://www.dhammatalks.org/books/uncollected/War.html

There’s a depressing pattern in human behavior that Mark Twain noted more than a century ago, and it’s with us still:
The powers-that-be want a war.
Politicians and the media start beating the drum, denouncing the evil intentions of the enemy and calling for all patriotic citizens to attack them.
At first, people are reluctant to go along, but then religious leaders jump on the bandwagon, telling their followers that it’s their sacred moral duty to support the war machine.
Soon the whole country is aflame with the moral need to fight the enemy.
Those few who question this need are branded as traitors.

Young men march off to battle, only to find how ghastly war actually is.
They realize that they were duped, and that their side is not as virtuous as they had been led to believe.
Many of them are killed.
Those lucky enough to return home tell their families and neighbors:
Never again will they be tricked into going to war ever again.

But then, after a while, the powers-that-be want another war.
Politicians and the media start beating the drum.
If the arguments for the last war no longer work, they find new ways of raising the emotional pitch of their rhetoric so that soon the whole country is swept up in war fever all over again.

The only way to keep yourself from getting sucked into this pattern is to have strong principles against killing, principles you hold to no matter what.
This is one of the reasons why the Buddha formulated the precept against killing in the most uncompromising way:
Don’t intentionally kill anything or anyone.
Ever. Don’t tell other people to kill.
And don’t condone the act of killing.
When asked if there were anything at all whose killing he would approve of, the Buddha answered with just one thing:
anger (SN 1.71).

That’s as clear-cut and absolute as you can get, and it’s clear-cut for a reason:
Clear-cut rules are easy to remember even when your emotional level is high—and that’s precisely when you need them most.

If you approach every argument for war with this precept in mind, then no matter what reasons people might cite for supporting the war, always putting the precept first will protect you.
If you leave room in your mind for exceptions to the precept, someone will find a way to exploit those exceptions, and you’ll be back where you were before you had the precept, fooled into supporting another war.

The precepts are like a fence around your property.
If there’s a gap in the fence, anything that can fit into the gap—or enlarge it by wriggling through—will be able to get in.
It’ll be as if there weren’t a fence there at all.

Now, it’s important to remember that the Buddha never forced the precepts on anyone.
Instead of calling them obligations, he called them training rules, and the training is something you take on voluntarily.
Your moral behavior is a voluntary gift of safety to the world.
If you can make that gift universal, with no exceptions, you can have a share in universal safety as well (AN 8.39).
If you actually break a precept, the safe course of action is not to try to redesign the training to justify what you’ve done.
Instead, you honestly admit that your training has lapsed, and do your best to get back on course.

Given that the texts are so clear and unequivocal on the issue of killing, it’s hard to conceive that anyone would even think of trying to formulate a Buddhist theory of just war.
Yet there have been such attempts in the past, and they’re with us again now.
If we have any concern for the Dhamma at all, it’s important to reject these theories outright.
Otherwise, we find ourselves quibbling over when and where it’s right to issue a Buddhist license to kill.
And no matter how strictly we try to restrict the license, it’s like running a tank through the back of our fence and putting up a sign next to the resulting hole, saying that only those thieves and bears who promise to behave themselves nicely will be allowed to enter, and then leaving them to police themselves.

Because the early texts rule out killing in all circumstances, attempts to formulate a Buddhist just-war theory ultimately have to fall back on one basic assertion:
There’s something wrong with the texts.
Because this assertion can take many forms, it’s useful to examine a few of them, to see how misleading they can be.
That way, we won’t fall for them.

The big one is this:

• The moral ideals expressed in the early texts may be inspiring, but they offer no practical guidance for dealing with the complexities of real life.
Real life presents situations in which holding strictly to the precepts would entail loss.
Real life contains conflicting moral claims.
The texts recognize none of these issues.
They teach us no way of dealing with evil aggressors, aside from passivity and appeasement, hoping that our loving-kindness meditation will inspire in the aggressors a change of heart.
So on this issue, we can’t trust that following the texts will protect us.

Actually, the early texts are not silent on issues of moral complexity.
They do answer questions about the losses that can come from holding to the precepts and about the desire to meet obligations at odds with the precepts.
It’s just that their answers aren’t the ones we might want to hear.

Of course, these answers are based on the teaching of karma and its effect on rebirth, teachings that many modern Buddhists view with skepticism.
But the Buddha dealt with skeptics in his own day.
As he told them, no one can really know the truth of these teachings until awakening, but if you take them on as working hypotheses in the meantime, you’ll be more likely to be careful in your behavior than if you didn’t (MN 60).
If it turns out that they’re not true, at least you can die with a clear conscience, knowing that you’ve lived a pure life free from hostility or ill will.
When you discover that they are true, you’ll be glad that you kept yourself safe (AN 3.66).

The Buddha readily acknowledged that there are times when following the precepts will put you at a disadvantage in terms of the world.
You might lose your wealth, your health, or even your relatives.
But those losses, he says, are minor in the long run.
Major loss would be to lose your virtue or to lose right view.
Those losses could harm you for many lifetimes to come.
Here the lesson is obvious:
For the sake of your long-term benefit, be willing to suffer the lesser losses to keep from suffering the major ones (AN 5.130).

At the same time, there are many occasions when breaking a precept brings short-term rewards in this world, but from that fact, the Buddha never drew the conclusion that those rewards justified breaking the precept (SN 42.13).

As for conflicting obligations, the texts tell of the case of a person who, finding that he’s about to be thrown into hell for breaking the precepts, pleads with the hell wardens for leniency:
He broke the precepts because of his social obligations to family, friends, or king.
Does he get any leniency?
No. The hell wardens throw him into hell even as he’s making his plea (MN 97).

The Buddha said that if you want to help others, you can provide them with food, clothing, shelter, or medicine as needed.
Better yet, you get them to follow the precepts, too (AN 4.99).
By this token, if you tell others that there are times when it’s their moral duty to break the precepts, you’re actually working for their harm.
If they act on your recommendation and are thrown into hell, will you be on hand to plead their case?
And will the hell wardens give you a hearing?

So when the texts tell us to stick with the precepts in all cases, they’re actually teaching us how to protect our long-term well-being.

This doesn’t mean that the precepts leave you totally defenseless against an enemy, just that they force you to think outside the box.
If you’re determined not to kill under any circumstances, that determination forces you to think in more creative ways to keep an adversary from taking advantage of you.
You learn methods of self-defense that fall short of killing.
You put more store in diplomacy and don’t look down on intelligent compromise.

• The ideals of the texts are for those who want to go straight to liberation undeterred:
They are the ones who should hold to the precepts no matter what, even being willing to die rather than to kill.
However, there has to be guidance for those who want to take the longer road to liberation, through many lifetimes, at the same time fulfilling their social obligations, such as the duty to kill in defense of their country.

Actually, the early texts do describe a slow route to liberation, and a prime feature of that route is holding to the precepts in all situations (AN 8.54).
Don’t do anything that would land you in the lower realms.

By this standard, it’s hard to see how an even slower route, one that allowed for theories of just war, would count as a route to liberation at all.
As the Buddha pointed out, if you’re in battle with the enemy, trying to kill them, your mind is immersed in ill will.
If you get killed at that point, your mind-state would take you to hell.
If you have the wrong view that what you’re doing is virtuous, you can go either to hell or to rebirth as an animal (SN 42.3).
Neither of these destinations lies in the direction of nibbāna.
It would be like flying from Las Vegas to San Diego via Yemen, with a long layover in Afghanistan, during which you’d probably forget where you were going to begin with.

• The texts are obsessed with the letter of the precepts, but it’s important not to let the letter get in the way of their spirit, which is to cause the least harm for the greatest number of people.
Sometimes you have to kill people to prevent them from doing greater harm.

This “spirit” is never expressed in the texts, and for good reason.
It assumes that there’s a clear way of calculating when doing a lesser evil will prevent a greater evil, but what clear boundary determines what does and doesn’t go into the calculus?
Can you discount the retaliation that will come from people who want to avenge your “lesser evil”?
Can you discount the people who take you as an example in committing their own ideas of what constitutes a lesser evil?
How many generations or lifetimes do you take into account?
You can’t really control the indirect effects of your action once it’s done;
you can’t tell for sure whether the killing you do will result in more or less killing than what you’re trying to prevent.
But what is for sure is that you’ve used your own body or your own speech in giving orders—things over which you do have control—to kill.

A principle that’s actually closer to the precepts, and allows for no misapplication, is that you never use other people’s misbehavior as justification for your own.
No matter what other people do, you stick to the precepts.

• Maybe the texts are hiding something.
Maybe the Buddha didn’t intend the precepts to be taken as absolutes.
There must have been times when kings came to consult with him on when war might be morally justified, but for some reason the texts never tell us what he said.

This conspiracy theory is probably the most dangerous argument of all.
Once it’s admitted as valid, you can turn the Dhamma into anything you want.
I personally find it hard to believe that, after painting the picture of the soldier destined for hell when dying in battle, the Buddha would have privately discussed with King Pasenadi the grounds on which, for reasons of state, he could rightly send people into that situation.

The texts tell us that he once told Pasenadi that if you break the precepts, then no matter how large your army, you leave yourself unprotected.
If you keep the precepts, then even if you have no army at all, you’re well protected from within (SN 3.5).
Was this teaching meant just for public consumption?
Are we to assume that the Buddha was a two-faced Buddha who taught a secret doctrine to kings so completely at odds with what he taught in public?

The Buddha had so many chances to make exceptions to the precept against killing, but he always stuck by his principles:
No intentional taking of life.
Period.
When you try to cast doubt on these principles, you’re working for the harm of many, leaving them unprotected when they try to determine what should and shouldn’t be done (AN 3.62).

That’s much worse than leaving them without a license to kill an aggressor, no matter how bad. ⏹️

8.4.2 – (2) Adinnā-dānā: no stealing

Adinnā-dānā veramaṇī,
stealing; abstaining (from it)

8.4.3 – (3) A-brahmacariya: celibacy

A-brahmacariyā veramaṇī —
Un-chastity; abstaining (from it)
AN 3.107 Ruṇṇa: wailing: in ariya's vinaya, singing=wailing, dancing=madness, laughing excessively = childish behavior
AN 5.210 five benefits of sleeping with S&S (sati and sampajano)
prevent emission of semen
MN 41 expands a little bit on these 3 fold right action.

For lay people, instead of A-brahmacariya, Kāmesu-micchā-cāraṃ pahāya

MN 41: They don’t have sexual relations with women who have their mother, father, both mother and father, brother, sister, relatives, or clan as guardian. They don’t have sexual relations with a woman who is protected on principle, or who has a husband, or whose violation is punishable by law, or even one who has been garlanded as a token of betrothal.

8.4.3.100.1 – what does brahmacariya (celibacy) look like?

article derived from
https://www.reddit.com/r/EarlyBuddhismMeditati/comments/15elqzm/what_does_brahmacariya_celibacy_look_like/

I have some other thoughts that may be helpful to those doing or hoping to do this practice.

* use the 3rd iddhi pāda, citta samādhi padhāna sankhāra samannagatam:
the power of citta, making up your mind to do something and do it,
without even entertaining any alternative to not doing it.
For example, there are things most of us won't do:
kill, steal, be a drug dealer, cocaine addict, etc.
Make up your citta/mind, that you're going to be celibate for 30 days, 90 days, whatever,
and then put it in that same box of things you won't do.
You've gone 30 or 90 days without killing anyone right?
Put celibacy in that same box, you're going to be celibate and not break celibacy for X amount of time.

* building on above idea:
frequently (every time you pee at minimum) imagine you have no penis, no sexual organ.
Sounds like a small thing, but the biological imperative is a very powerful force,
so you're always looking to fortify your defenses.

* living in a supportive community of other celibates is very helpful.
For example, I lived 4 years in a monastery keeping 8 precepts.
I was happier during that 4 years than the life outside that time
with so called "freedom" to indulge in sensual pleasures and sexual pleasures.
So you build up a base of experience where you know there is a better happiness than sexual pleasure,
and then you can build on that and always have that memory to recall that you were indeed happier celibate than not.

* fully understand sukha indriya, the physical pleasure faculty, the biological imperative FIB .
Whether it's from scratching a rash, eating delicious food, having sex, or masturbating,
all it ends up being is pleasure chemicals in the brain: seratonin, endorphines, etc.
Think of the time, energy, all of the investment needed to achieve 3 seconds of sukha indriya orgasm?
It's like 20 hours of hard labor findng an attractive partner, wining and dining them, etc.,
for just 3 seconds of fickle happiness.

* a very helpful thought experiment:
imagine there was no sukha indrya, no pleasure faculty, no pleasure chemical in the brain to drive you to seek pleasure.
In other words, food is gives neutral feelings/sensations,
sex and orgasm just yields 3 seconds of neutral sensation.
How would that change your life?
How interesting would sex and dating be if it didn't culminate in an orgasm?
Wouldn't you just be platonic friends then?
Wouldn't you just use a food processor and blender to make nutritional smoothies and porridge to get optimal nutrients into your body quickly and efficiently, instead of wasting so much seeking emotional comfort and sensual stimulation from interesting foods?

* having hobbies that are enjoyable:
I like studying suttas, hiking, doing yoga, doing taiji, doing jhāna.
All of those activites get a much higher pīti (mental joy) and sukha indriya (physical pleasure) return on investment of time and energy than sex and food ever could.
Compare to earlier item of 'box of things you wouldn't do' like killing, breaking celibacy for X number of days.
Here you have a much bigger and enticing box of things you are allowed to do,
and indulge as much as you want because they're all healthy for you.

* Understand the heavy cost of indulging in sex and sensual pleasures, but especially sexual activities.
Most people don't understand the 🌟PIE (precious internal energy) it takes for sexual activity.
You don't get it back after just a few days of eating more and sleeping more.
Reproduction takes the best of your nerve cells, and your brain, memory cognitive capability, ability to think critically and understand Dhamma and anything is greatly diminished the more sexual activity you have.
That heavy energy expenditure also compromises your immune system, and just overall is a big drag on your physical and mental health.
You won't truly understand it unless you've compared a good sample size, for example 100 days of pure celibacy vs. 100 days of indulging in sex and sensual pleasures.
The more you understand the energetic cost of every activity, not just sensual pleasures,
the more you're disinclined to waste your precious energy on even talking unncessarily,
thinking unncessarily, doing frivious things or wasting time talking about nonsense with your best friends.
If you really see suffering and want out, you put all your money, time, energy, resources into ending dukkha and realizing nirvana.

* understanding insatiability of desire, sensual desire, sexual desire.
A frequent rationale people use to break celibacy, or any other addiction is, "I'm going to do this, but this is the last time".
It doesn't work.
What's the success rate of that? Zero %?
And what is the success rate of the mini victories of sexual orgasms that only last 3 seconds?
You're satiated for 20 minutes and then you want to go again?
Again that's a zero % success rate when taking a longer term view.

* cutting out the middle man:
For myself, I know that even if I encountered the perfect situation, having a harem with the most beautiful women in the world, no marriage, no kids, no diseases, no money, no liabilities, no committment, I'd still get bored after a few months, or 2 years tops and want to go back to looking for a way out of dukkha full time.
So why bother with all that hassle if I know I'm just going for nirvana?
Cut out the middle man.
Just be celibate now and go for nirvana full time, full effort.

* You need to truly understand the subha nimitta (sign of beauty/attractiveness):
I chant this sutta everyday, SN 46.2.

If you don't understand why you have strong lust and why it's hard to get rid of,
then you don't understand subha nimitta.
If you're not an arahant or a non-returner, you still don't really understand or truly know what it is to be immune from subha nimitta.
It takes me just a few seconds to chant this part, since I've been chanting this for over 10 years:

(1. 💑 Kāma-c-chanda ← subha-nimittaṃ)

Ko ca, bhikkhave,
“{And} what, monks, [is the]
āhāro an-uppannassa vā
nutriment (for) un-arisen
kāma-c-chandassa uppādāya,
sensual-desire's arising,
uppannassa vā kāma-c-chandassa
(and) arisen sensual-desire's
bhiyyo-bhāvāya vepullāya?
growth,-development (and) abundance?
Atthi, bhikkhave,
There-is, monks,
subha-nimittaṃ.
(the) beautful-sign.
Tattha a-yoniso-manasi-kāra-bahulī-kāro—
(To) that-there, un-wise-mental-production-frequently-done,
ayam-āhāro an-uppannassa vā
is-the-nutriment (for) un-arisen
kāma-c-chandassa uppādāya,
sensual-desire's arising,
uppannassa vā kāma-c-chandassa
(and) arisen sensual-desire's
bhiyyo-bhāvāya vepullāya.
growth,-development (and) abundance.
The key when you chant it, is you use vitakka, vicāra, and upekkha, pausing between words and taking as long as you need

vitakka is the mental recitation of the memorized passage, and some superficial understanding of what you're chanting.

vicāra explores the meaning of the passage more thoroughly on intellectual level.

upekkha (equanimous observation) is Dhamma investigation powered by the samādhi of four jhānas,
so that the theoretical understanding penetrates deeply into personal realization.
You understand lust, subha nimitta on a level that affects your behavior, view, attitude towards sex, lust, sensual desire,
and any desire for the 5 cords of sensual pleasure.

* another kind of asubha-nimitta:
The usual EBT standard antidote for subha nimitta is the a-subha 🧟‍ nimitta (unattractive or repulsive sign).
That would usually be your 31asb🧟‍ .
Another type of asubha you should add to your arsenal,
is focus your attention and follow the sign (nimitta) of what happens right AFTER you indulge in sex and sensual pleasures,
and really immerse yourself in those asubha (unattractive) perceptions.

Many adults probably have tens of thousands of experiences to draw from.

(visualize and relive the emotions, feelings, physical sensations from past experiences:) So right after sex, or masturbation, you have an orgasm.
3 seconds of pleasure. Then it's gone.
Then you probably feel guilty because you know you've just wasted precious energy that's going to lower your jhāna ceiling, weaken your immune system, weaken your sati and memory, weaken your ability to think clearly, etc.
Then you feel the insatiable itch to indulge in sex again after 20 minutes, or 60 minutes, whatever.
Then you say, "this is the last time I binge on sex."
And then your brain and body feel awful afterwards.
Then you resolve never to do it again.
Then you remember this is like the 50th time you resolved never to do it again.
Then you wish to be free of all addictions, cigarettes, cocaine, sex, gambling, video games, whatever other vices you have.
It's just an insatiable endless cycle and downward spiral until your brain fog and physical and mental health decline to badly that you die, and then are reborn in the realm of animals, hell, or ghosts.
That's where it leads.
Unless you have restraint of your cravings to avoid heavy collateral damage.
Like functional alcoholics, or functional recreational cocaine users, or people who moderate their sexual activitiy to once or twice a week.
All of this is also a healthy kind of asubha nimitta (sign of unattractiveness).
If you follow these kind of healthy signs, pay attention to these kind of healthy perceptions,
then your desire for subha nimitta and the 5kg diminishes right on the spot.
⏹️

8.4.4 – Karma and Rebirth

karma : kamma and rebirth
MN 129 Bāla-paṇḍita: the fool & the pundit: what type of karma leads to animal, insect, hell rebirth, or wheel turning monarch, heaven, etc.
MN 130 King Yama and divine messengers
MN 135 basic workings of karma
MN 136 more detailed and nuanced workings of karma

Fortune favors the virtuous

Fortune favors the virtuous :: True stories of karma, rebirth, illustrating karmic fruit ripening, often in dramatic and extraordinary fashion.

8.4.5 – misc.

SN 55.7 🔗does Buddhism have a golden rule, silver rule, or neither?

🔗Which is worse karmic consequence? Knowingly doing something evil, or unknowingly doing something evil?

AN 6.57 Chaḷābhijāti: 6 classes: the type of kamma and rebirth for 6 classes of people
AN 6.59 Dārukammika: (name of householder): donating to worthy sangha members leads to rebirth in deva world

b.than 2018 karma q&a
https://www.dhammatalks.org/Archive/Writings/Ebooks/KarmaQAndA_181215.pdf

AN 4.77 one can go mad pondering kamma vipaka

made an effort to find the spots in the system of intentional action where the laws
within the system allow for escape from intentional action: what he called the
kamma that puts an end to kamma (AN 4.237).

8.5 – sammā-ājīvo: right livelihood 5👑

STED from SN 45.8

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo?
And what, monks, is right livelihood?
Idha, bhikkhave, ariya-sāvako
Here, monks, a noble-one’s-disciple:
Micchā-ājīvaṃ pahāya
Having abandoned Wrong-livehihood;
Sammā-ājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti —
Lives according to Right-livelihood
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo.
This is called right livelihood.

8.5.1 – micchā-ājīvo: what constitutes wrong livelihood

MN 117

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, micchāājīvo?
And what is wrong livelihood?
Kuhanā, lapanā, nemittikatā, nippesikatā, lābhena lābhaṃ nijigīsanatā—
Deception, flattery, hinting, and belittling, and using material possessions to pursue other material possessions.
MA 189 agama || MN 117
What is right livelihood?
If there is no seeking [requisites] with a dissatisfied mind,
not having recourse to various inappropriate types of spells, not making a living by wrong forms of livelihood; if one seeks robes and blankets with what is in accordance with the Dharma, by means of the Dharma, seeks beverages and food, beds and couches, medicine [or] any [other] requisites of life with what is in accordance with the Dharma, by means of the Dharma.

AN 5.177 for laypeople (the term used is ‘trade’, not ‘livelihood’)

“Pañcimā, bhikkhave, vaṇijjā upāsakena akaraṇīyā.
“monks, a lay follower should not engage in these five trades.
Katamā pañca?
What five?
Satthavaṇijjā, sattavaṇijjā, maṃsavaṇijjā, majjavaṇijjā, visavaṇijjā—
Trade in weapons, living creatures, meat, intoxicants, and poisons.

8.5.2 – sammā-ājīvo: what constitutes right livelihood

SN 4.5 arahants teach others Dhamma (The term ‘right livelihood’ not used)

Caratha, bhikkhave, cārikaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ.
Wander forth, monks, for the welfare and happiness of the people, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans.
Mā ekena dve agamittha.
Let not two go by one road.
Desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṃ ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetha.
Teach the Dhamma that’s good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased. And reveal a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure.

misc. Right livelihood

On the Path 8.5 Thanissaro nice summary

8.6 - Sammā Vāyāmo: right effort 6🏹

8.7 - Sammā-Sati: right remembering [and applying Dharma] 7🐘

elephant and bodhi tree SN 47.2 defines 'sati' (mindfulness ) as doing this all the time (24/7 samādhi ):
kāye kāyā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing the body as a body [as it truly is].
vedanāsu vedanā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing sensations as sensations [as it truly is].
citte cittā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing a mind as a mind [as it truly is].
dhammesu dhammā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing ☸Dharma as ☸Dharma [as it truly is].
(… elided refrain from each way…)
[in each of the 4 ways of remembering]:
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.


8.7.1 – 4sp1

kāye kāyā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing the body as a body [as it truly is].
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.


what that means:

continuously seeing the body, as just a body [as it actually is according to reality],
rather than a distorted fantasy we identify with and become entangled in.
The #1 recommend exercise for doing that is 31asb🧟‍ .

satipaṭṭhāna sutta is overrated

Any ☸Dhamma teaching that leads to seeing the body as it actually is, is applicable here.
One should not make the mistake assuming the popular suttas MN 10 or DN 22 give a comprehensive list of possibilities.

31 body parts is preeminent

31asb🧟‍ has a preeminent place in EBT .
The Buddha emphasized and praised this practice repeatedly.
Even when scores of monks committed suicide from practicing 31asb incorrectly Bu Vb‍ 1.3,
he didn't stop praising and pushing this as one of the key practices.
Ab Vb 7.1.1 Abhidhamma Vibhanga preserves an earlier version of satipaṭṭhāna sutta that only had 31 body parts as the exercises in kāyaanupassana.

kāyagata is synonym for kāya-anu-passana

See kāya-gatā-sati 🏃‍ , MN 119
MN 119 has the same kāya exercises as satipaṭṭhāna sutta kāya exercises DN 221,
except that MN 119 tells you to do each exercise concurrently with 4 jhānas.

(end of 8.7.1 kāya anu passana⏹️)

8.7.2 – 4sp2

vedanāsu vedanā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing sensations as sensations [as it truly is].
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.


what that means:

SN 36 is your best bet for detailed and comprehensive understanding of vedana.
DN 222 vedana anu passana

(end of 8.7.2 vedana anu passana⏹️)

8.7.3 – 4sp3

citte cittā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing a mind as a mind [as it truly is].
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.

what that means:

6 abhiñña #3, 3⚡💭, the power of mind reading, is what MN 10's citta-anu-passana is based on.
AN 10.51 sa-citta: good gloss of 4sp3, and how to purify citta, with simile of mirror.

🔗distinction between Kāya and citta

🔗(non EBT) distinction between Kāya and citta

(end of 8.7.3 citta anu passana⏹️)

8.7.4 – 4sp4

dhammesu dhammā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing ☸Dharma as ☸Dharma [as it truly is].
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.

what that means:

☸Dhamma = Buddha's teaching that leads to virāga ... nirvana. ☸Dhamma in this context,
as well as in ☸Dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga,
is commonly mistranslated as "phenomena", "mental qualities", etc.

The oral tradition works together holistically with Sati, dhamma-vicaya, memorization.
It requires Dhamma=specialized Teaching, not "phenomena".

🔗what does it mean to see Dhamma as Dhamma?

(end of 8.7.4 Dhamma anu passana⏹️)

8.7.10 – primer on ‘sati’

8.7.10.1 – Two ways in which sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D.
http://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2022/12/two-ways-in-which-sati-mindfulness-is.html

Britannica Dictionary definition of RAD
rad /ˈræd/ adjective
radder; raddest
[also more rad; most rad] US slang
rad = very appealing or good
example: The party was totally rad. [=awesome, cool]

Two ways in which sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D.
Here's a mnemonic I came up with to help you remember a correct definition of "mindfulness", which is usually taught in a form that's watered down, distorted, or just completely wrong.

Why is it taught wrong?
1. 'sati' is a loaded word. No single word is going translate and convey the full meaning. You will only know the meaning from studying many suttas on the subject. Similar to how "be good" is a vague and not very helpful teaching on its own. "Mindfulness" is similarly vague and not helpful.

R.A.D. = (R)emembers to (A)pply the (D)harma.
sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D.

What is the Dharma? The Buddha's teaching that leads to nirvana.
Unless a specific Dharma is given in context, the default value of "Dharma", is the 4 frames of satipaṭṭhāna, as defined in SN 47.2

🐘Sammā-Sati: right remembering [of Dharma]
kāye kāyā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing the body as a body [as it truly is].
vedanāsu vedanā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing sensations as sensations [as it truly is].
citte cittā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing a mind as a mind [as it truly is].
dhammesu dhammā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing ☸Dharma as ☸Dharma [as it truly is].
(… elided refrain from each way…)
[in each of the 4 ways of remembering]:
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.

When is Sati applied? All the time, all postures, all activities
If you don't have the 'sati' switch flipped on all the time, you're in grave danger.

SN 47.6 - 🔗🔊 6m, Sakuṇagghi: 🐦 (the) quail:
always stay in 4sp🐘, to avoid death

SN 47.7 - 🔗🔊 6m, Makkaṭa: 🐒 (the) monkey:
always stay in 4sp🐘, to avoid death

Another way in which sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D.
sati ("mindfulness") is R.A.D

RAD definition #1: R.A.D. = (R)emembers to (A)pply the (D)harma.
RAD definition #2: R.A.D. = (R)adical (A)lignment with the (D)harma

The second definition of RAD works in to the fourth frame of satipaṭṭhāna:

4sp4
dhammesu dhammā-(a)nu-passī viharati
He lives continuously seeing ☸Dharma as ☸Dharma [as it truly is].
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
he is ardent 🏹, he has lucid discerning 👁, he remembers 🐘 [to apply relevant ☸Dharma].
vineyya loke abhijjhā-do-manassaṃ;
he should remove greed and distress regarding the world.

This means you bring your behavior, how you see, think, act, speak, in radical alignment with Dharma, which leads to peace, happiness, nirvana.

Instead of doing what most people usually do, acting in ways in disharmony with Dharma that leads to fake happiness which is actually suffering, the obvious kinds of suffering, and endless rounds of rebirth.

Dhp 84 – (never wish for success by non-Dharmic means)
♦ 84.
♦ na atta-hetu na parassa hetu,
Not for your own sake or that of another
na puttam-icche na dhanaṃ na raṭṭhaṃ.
desiring children, wealth, or nation,
♦ na iccheyya VAR a-dhammena samiddhim-attano,
Never wish for success by non-Dharmic [unjust] means,
sa sīlavā paññavā dhammiko siyā.
rather, be virtuous, wise, and act [justly] in accordance with Dharma.

Dhp 86 -
♦ 86.
♦ ye ca kho sammadakkhāte,
But those who act
dhamme dhammā-(a)nu-vattino.
according to the perfectly taught Dhamma
♦ te janā pāramessanti,
will cross the realm of Death,
maccudheyyaṃ suduttaraṃ.
so difficult to cross.

8.7.20 – sati is ON 24/7: from the Dharma you depart, break the Buddha's heart

step on a crack break your momma's back
“Step on a crack, break your momma's back” is a phrase said mostly by children in groups which acts a game.
Group members, while walking on sidewalks or roads, must avoid stepping on cracks in the ground.
A mistaken step might result in insults from the group or personal feelings of dishonoring one's mother.

What is the origin of the superstition stepping on cracks?
It's believed in the U.S. that stepping on a crack in the ground is considered bad luck.
This superstition stems from one variation of an old children's rhyme that goes
"step on a crack, break your momma's back."
So if you don't want to break your mother's back, don't step on a crack!

what is: from the Dharma you depart, break the Buddha's heart
What is this?
It's a game for all ages.
It's just another way to say "do satipaṭṭhāna. all the time!", as the Buddha instructed.
But many people aren't compelled by cold hard rationality, so
from the Dharma you depart, break the Buddha's heart
adds some emotional stakes to the same instruction.
You wouldn't want to disappoint the Buddha, the arahants, and the noble sangha who kept a pure Dharma alive for 2500 years would you?

”Sati” should be “always on”, no off switch position
Anytime you don’t have the “sati” switch flipped in the “on” position, you are in grave danger.
explicit reference to “grave danger”

SN 47.6 Sakuṇagghi: simile of quail: always stay in 4sp (satipatthana), to avoid death
SN 47.7 Makkaṭa: simile of monkey: always stay in 4sp, to avoid death

Look at the 10 min. video for “how to find water in the desert with a monkey”.
It is reminiscnent of SN 47.7.
Is there a closer monkey simile in other suttas?

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1-xQ-dmllWHsfScuHNE_P7Jze3uneu0w1?ogsrc=32 3

SN 47.20 Janapada-kalyāṇī: world beauty queen, man with sword, balance bowl of oil

strongly implicit reference to “grave danger”
AN 7.67 sati is the wise gate keeper. If he lets in the bad guys, danger and death!

milder implicit sutta references to “grave danger”
SN 46.53 Anytime is the right time for sati (sutta on balancing 7sb to counter 5niv)
satiñca khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sabbatthikaṃ vadāmī”ti.
“As for mindfulness, I tell you, that serves every purpose.”

4sp = 4 sati-(u)patthana, i.e. 4 remembrance establishings.
“Establishing” means the sati switch should always be flipped in the “on” position,
never in the off posiiton.
The word satipatthana appears in countless places,
and sammā-sati, “right-remembering”, is often defined as 4sp.

marana-sati closely related, but not the same
marana-sati (death-remembering) is closely related, but many of those suttas dealing with marana-sati not quite making the point of immanent danger the moment sati is neglected.

_x0001_ Look at the 10 min. video for “how to find water in the desert with a monkey”. It is reminiscnent of SN 47.7. Is there a closer monkey simile in other suttas?
🔗🎦

maranasati is more like the “life is short” video (about 30 seconds long).
The instructions at the end of that video “play hard” is a translation for
“appamādena bhikkhave, sampādetha” (the last words of the buddha).

the “jeep grim reaper” 30 second video commercial is a sublime rendition of how most people actually practice marana-sati.
Death is coming?
Who cares?
Serve me up some more bhava-tanha and kāma-tanha!

reference:
https://notesonthedhamma.blogspot.com/2023/03/from-dharma-you-depart-break-buddhas.html

from the Dharma you depart, long term cases
DN 212.1 former servant girl reborn in heaven of 33, while former monks she served born in gandhabba realm serving the gods of 33. She reminds those former monks of Dharma, and they reform.

8.7.25 – Buddha arranges marriage for his daughter sati

(work in progress)
sati is clever, pretty, and known for her great memory.
She can easily recall things and done long ago.
Sati is of an age to marry, and she narrowed down her suitors to two:
Andy is very handsome and charismatic: His life style philosphy is “choiceless non judgmental awareness. Living in the present moment and never thinking about the past or future.”
Pan is average looking: His life style philosphy is discerning the cause of things, equanimously observing the rise and fall of aggregates.

(end of 8.7 - 🐘Sammā-Sati⏹️)

8.8 – Sammā Samādhi: right undistractible-lucidity 8🌄

Most often defined as 4 jhānas, such as in SN 45.8

8.8.1 - j1🌘 First Jhāna

🚫💑 vivicc’eva kāmehi
Judiciously-secluded from desire for five cords of sensual pleasures,
🚫😠 vivicca a-kusalehi dhammehi
Judiciously-secluded from unskillful ☸Dharmas,
(V&V💭) sa-vitakkaṃ sa-vicāraṃ
with directed-thought and evaluation [of those verbal ☸Dharma thoughts],
😁🙂 viveka-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
with [mental] rapture and [physical] pleasure born from judicious-seclusion,
🌘 paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in first jhāna.



TOC for details on first Jhāna in book Goldcraft

        Goldcraft 4.3.1 j1🌘 First Jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.1 vivicceva kāmehi = judicious-seclusion from sensual pleasures
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.1.5 viveka = judicious-seclusion, discriminative separation
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.1.6 kāma = desire for sensual pleasure
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.2 vivicca a-kusalehi dhammehi = judicious-seclusion from unskillful Dharmas
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.3 sa-vitakkaṃ sa-vicāraṃ =with directed-thought and evaluation
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.4 viveka-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ = rapture and pleasure born from judicious-seclusion
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.5 paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati = he attains and lives in first jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.6 MN 78 right effort purifying first jhana
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.7 AN 4.14 right effort part 2, removes “wrong” version of right-resolve
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.8 physical body in bliss
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.9 KN Iti 72: escape from kāma is nekkhamma (right resolve’s renunciation)
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.12 first jhāna is easy! holistic, easily accessible, gradual samādhi
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.13 Speech ceasing in first jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.1.15 Ekaggata jhāna factor allows “hearing” in jhāna



Essence of j1🌘 First Jhāna

From studying every reference to STED 4j🌕 formula, and examining what happens right before first jhāna, we can see the pattern.

Before one has mastered the skill of stopping internal dialogue at will, entering the 👑😶 noble silence of 2nd jhāna where V&V💭 are shut off and replaced by subverbal awareness and investigation of S&S🐘💭 , one first has to:

0. Understand and memorize the 7sb☀️ awakening factors. Especially SN 46.3. Every meditation technique, including those that use V&V skillfully in first jhana, rely on that as the underlying structure. The 4 jhānas are the 6th factor, samādhi-sambojjhanga, shown clearly in DN 2.

1. Understand the danger, the dukkha, and disadvantages of 5kg and 5niv⛅ . V&V💭 has a large role in accomplishing this, so one should not be too greedy and shoot for 4th jhāna or 2nd jhāna before mastering first jhāna and how to use first jhāna's V&V💭 skillfully.

2. Before one can completely shut off internal dialogue of V&V💭 , one first has to learn how to replace askusala/unskillful v&v with skillful v&v, and then attenuate the v&v so it doesn't block passaddhi/pacification awakening factor and the pīti & sukha (rapture and pleasure) of first jhāna. See MN 19 and vitakka & vicāra in first jhāna.

2b. Remember what 'gradual' means. You have to walk before you can run, and you have to first get rid of akusala vitakka and replace them right away with kusala vitakka (section 2). There's even samādhi in 3 ways to describe an intermediate stage between first and second jhāna for how vicāra is used before being dropped (or more accurately, sublimated). Living beings spent entire lifetimes thinking all the time, the Buddha designed a gradual training system, and he doesn't expect you completely eliminate v&v all at once.

3. The way to stabilize and prolong first jhāna, is by learning how to use V&V💭 skillfully to direct the mind to inspiring themes to stoke the fire of first jhāna and keep it burning. Suttas such as MN 20, SN 47.8, SN 47.10, SN 46.3, AN 6.10, AN 8.30 are a few such examples.

4. How do you know if you are on the right track for first jhāna? The most important part of first jhāna is not samatha kung fu, but the correct understanding of section #1 (seeing dukkha in 5kg...). The internal test to verify oneself (MN 14), do you genuinely reject 5kg 5 cords of sensual pleasure because rapture & pleasure of first jhāna is much more enticing not just because of the bliss, but because you truly see it doesn't have the drawbacks of 5kg? A samatha kung fu expert who can sit for 5 hours straight and blank their mind out, but then they still lust after sex and 5 cords of sense pleasure, they completely miss the essence of genuine first jhāna. Samatha and Vipassana need to be conjoined and balanced. Genuine EBT jhāna does this.

5. This is why you should be very wary of following non EBT samādhi systems that falsely claim to be genuine jhāna, but tends to segregate samatha from vipassana and overly emphasize samatha kung fu for first jhāna. V&V💭 has an important role to play in this stage of development, and cutting off v&v (by redefining it as 'placing the mind' or 'initial application') is cutting off one's fuel for jhāna (see section 3). How self defeating is that?

Physical side of first jhāna

The above summarises the essentials on the mental side of things.
As far as the physical side, how to pacify (kāya-passaddhi) the body to induce sukha and samādhi-sambojjhanga of first jhāna, see 5🌊, 16🌬️😤‍ especially steps 3 and 4.
Read Jhāna-constipation ⛜🌊 for brutally effective ways to cure jhāna-constipation.



8.8.2 - j2🌗 Second Jhāna

Vitakka-vicārānaṃ vūpasamā
with the subsiding of directed-thought and evaluation [of those verbal ☸Dharma thoughts],
ajjhattaṃ sam-pasādanaṃ
with internal purity and self-confidence,
🌄 cetaso ekodi-bhāvaṃ
his mind becomes singular in focus.
🚫(V&V💭) a-vitakkaṃ a-vicāraṃ
Without directed-thought and evaluation, [mental processing is now subverbal,]
🌄😁🙂 samādhi-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
[mental] rapture and [physical] pleasure is born from undistractible-lucidity,
🌗 dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in second jhāna.



TOC for details on Second Jhāna in book Goldcraft

        Goldcraft 4.3.2 j2🌗 Second Jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.1 vitakka + vicāra = directed-thought and evaluation
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.2 vūpasamā = subsiding
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.3 ajjhattaṃ sam-pasādanaṃ = with internal purity and self-confidence
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.4 cetaso ekodi-bhāvaṃ = his mind becomes singular in focus
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.6 a-vitakkaṃ a-vicāraṃ = without directed-thought and evaluation
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.7 samādhi-jaṃ pīti-sukham = [mental] rapture and [physical] pleasure
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.8 dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati = he attains and lives in second jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.40 👑😶 Noble Silence, ariyo vā tuṇhī-bhāvo
            Goldcraft 4.3.2.50 2nd jhāna misc.



Essence of j2🌗 Second Jhāna

* Compared to first jhāna, which still involves linguistic verbal mental talk of V&V💭 ,
* in second jhāna that V&V is sublimated into the subverbal mental processing of S&S🐘💭 .
* That subverbal S&S can either passively enjoy this pleasant abiding, or engage in subverbal Dharma investigation, for example seeing dukkha, seeing cause of dukkha, etc.
* As MN 20 says, starting with second jhāna, one starts to become a master of thinking what one wants to think, and not thinking what one doesn't want to think. In contrast, the first jhāna accomplishment was that one hasn't learned the art of 👑😶 noble silence yet, but one at least prefers thinking skillful Dharma related thoughts over unskillful worldly Dharmas.



8.8.3 - j3🌖 Third Jhāna

🚫😁 pītiyā ca virāgā
With [mental] rapture fading,
👁 upekkhako ca viharati
he lives equanimously observing [☸Dharmas with subverbal mental processing].
(S&S🐘💭) sato ca sam-pajāno,
remembering [and applying relevant ☸Dharma], he lucidly discerns.
🙂🚶 sukhañca kāyena paṭi-saṃ-vedeti,
He experiences pleasure with the [physical] body.
yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti —
The Noble Ones praise this [stage of jhāna in particular because they expect this to be the normal state of the average monk in all postures at all times]:
‘upekkhako satimā sukha-vihārī’ti
"He lives happily with pleasure, Equanimously observing and remembering [to engage in relevant ☸Dharma]."
🌖 tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
he attains and lives in third jhāna.



TOC for details on third Jhāna in book Goldcraft

        Goldcraft 4.3.3 j3🌖 Third Jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.1 pītiyā ca virāgā = With [mental] rapture fading
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.2 👁upekkhako ca viharati = he lives equanimously observing
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.3 sato ca sam-pajāno = he is a rememberer and lucid discerner
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.4 sukhañca kāyena paṭi-saṃ-vedeti = senses pleasure with body
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.5 yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti = the noble ones praise this
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.6 ‘upekkhako satimā sukha-vihārī’ = "He lives happily.…"
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.7 tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati = he attains and lives in third jhāna.
            Goldcraft 4.3.3.22 3rd jhāna misc.



Essence of j3🌖 third Jhāna

* When one is first learning jhānas, first and second jhāna can have strong emotional thrill and excitement.
* On the mental development side of third jhāna, compared to second, we focus on the skill of dispassion (virāga) towards pīti (mental joy).
* Why? Pīti requires an energetic expenditure to fabricate intentions to produce mental joy.
When one already knows how to flip the switch to enter jhāna that is born of samādhi (second jhāna or higher),
one need not expend extraneous energy getting excited about it.
Just like an elite athlete who scores winning plays doesn’t need wild emotional energy expending overt displays of celebration, he calmly goes on in a state of upekkha.
Making winning plays is just expected and normal for him, so he saves his energy for more important Dharmas.
* upekkha, equanimous-observation, becomes prominent in third jhāna. In passive mode, upekkha and sampajāno equanimously observes the experience of pleasant abiding.
In dynamic mode, upekkha and sampajāno investigates the Dharma, for example seeing dukkha and its cause.



8.8.4 - j4🌕 Fourth Jhāna

sukhassa ca pahānā
With the abandoning of [physical] pleasure
dukkhassa ca pahānā
and pain,
pubbeva so-manassa-do-manassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
with the previous abandoning of elated and distressed mental states,
A-dukkham-a-sukhaṃ
experiencing [physical] sensations of neither pain nor pleasure,
👁🐘 Upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ
his equanimous observation and his remembering [and application of relevant ☸Dharma] is purified.
🌕 catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati
he attains and lives in fourth jhāna.



TOC for details on fourth Jhāna in book Goldcraft

        Goldcraft 4.3.4 j4🌕 Fourth Jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.1 SN 48.37 informs whether sensation is physical or mental
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.2 sukhassa ca pahānā = abandoning pleasure
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.3 dukkhassa ca pahānā = abandoning pain
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.4 pubbeva so-manassa-do-manassānaṃ atthaṅgamā = previous abandoning of elated and distress...
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.5 A-dukkham-a-sukhaṃ = neither pain nor pleasure
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.6 👁🐘 Upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ =  equanimous observation and remembering purified
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.7 catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati = lives in fourth jhāna
            Goldcraft 4.3.4.22 fourth jhāna misc.
                Goldcraft 4.3.4.22.1 breathing stops in 4th jhāna
                Goldcraft 4.3.4.22.3 4th jhāna is prerequisite for arahant?



Essence of j4🌕 fourth Jhāna

* work on imperturbability (aneñja), as exemplified in MN 125 with the war elephant in battle doing his job fearlessly despite being assaulted on all fronts.
* the quintessential quality of sammā samādhi, righteous undistractible lucidity, is khanti, patient-endurance: The ability to bear the onslaught of dukkha arising at all six doors of the senses.
* You can see how upekkha, equanimous-observation, becomes purified in fourth jhāna, with patient-endurance and imperturbability coming into prominence.



(end of 8.8 - 🌄 Sammā Samādhi⏹️)

24 -

24.99 – lucid24.org user manual

1. you should be able to get to any sutta you want, directly to any important section of a sutta, within a few seconds.

quick link (from lucid24.org home page)

🔗❔ℹ️ Detailed quick link guide (external article on web)

AN (1-11) = Aṅguttara Nikāya: numbered collection
DA (1-30) = Dīrgh'-āgama
Dhp (1-423) = Dhamma-pada
DN‍ (1-34) : Dīgha Nikāya
EA (1.# – 52.#): Ekottarik'-Āgama
G (#) = Goldcraft, the perfection of Samādhi
Iti (1-112) = Iti-vuttaka: Thus (was it) said
Kp (1-9) = Pāṭha, Khuddaka-pāṭha: short-reading
MA (1-222) = Madhyam-āgama 中阿含經
mab (1-222) BDK english translation of MA
MN‍ (1-152): Majjhima Nikāya
O (#) = Only one way, to Rock
Q (#) = Qigong Gorilla
SA (1-1362) = Saṃyukt-āgama 雜阿含經
SN (1-56) = Saṃyutta Nikāya: connected group
Snp (1.1 - 5.18) = Sutta Nipāta: discourse - section, falling down, descending
Thag (1.1 - 21.1) = Thera-gāthā: Elder [monk] - verses
Thig (1.1 – 16.#) = Therī-gāthā: Elder [nun] - verses
Ud (1.1 – 8.#) = Udāna: [inspired] Utterances
Vb (1-13): Abhidhamma Vibhanga.

examples

MN 19 → loads sutta #19 from Majjhima Nikāya (MN) Middle (length) collection (of suttas)
mn19 → same thing, note use of lower case and no need for space between ‘mn’ and ‘19’ (easier to type)

Lost in the matrix, no more!
One of the goals, only about 20% complete so far in MN, is to have detailed massively bookmarked table of contexts that:
1. not only serve as table of contents, but gives a concise summary of entire sutta
2. numbered and balanced as a tree in such a way it’s easy to know very quickly where you are in the matrix.
See for example MN 46. If you had been dropped in randomly in any location of a plain sutta translation, there are so many repetitions you’d have no idea where you were.

24.100 – Epilogue: There’s only one way, to rock

Dhp 273

♦ maggān-aṭṭh-aṅgiko seṭṭho,
(Of all) paths,-(the)-Eight-fold [Path] (is) supreme;
saccānaṃ caturo padā.
(of all) truths (the) Four [Noble Truths] (are) {supreme};
♦ virāgo seṭṭho dhammānaṃ,
Dis-passion (is the) supreme Dharma:
Dvi-padānañca cakkhumā.
(among) two-footed [beings], [the Buddha,] (the) one-who-sees (is) supreme.
Dhp 274

♦ ese-’va maggo n’atth-añño,
This-(is the)-only path; there-is-no-other,
dassanassa visuddhiyā.
(for) vision’s purification.
♦ etañ-hi tumhe paṭipajjatha,
Tread this path,
māras-setaṃ pa-mohanaṃ.
(and) Māra [the evil one] (will be) profoundly-mystified.

Lucid24.org mantra

♦ ese-’va maggo
There’s only one way
♦ ese-’va maggo
There’s only one way
♦ ese-’va maggo, Dīpe!
There’s only one way, to Rock!
Rock (noun, place)
Corregidor, an island in the Philippines also known as "The Rock"
Jamaica, an island in the Caribbean is locally referred to as the "Rock"
Niue, an island near Tonga referred to as the "Rock" by residents
Rock of Gibraltar, a British overseas territory near the southernmost tip of Spain
"Rock" (Dīpa), an island that some yogis paddling their rafts are dead set on reaching.

Rock (colloquial verb, adjective, adverb)
To excel, to be awesome, inspirational, outstanding, to perfect.

100 – commentary

Acknowledgments

I borrowed the phrase ‘There’s only one way, to Rock!’ (ese-’va maggo, Dīpe!) from Sammy Hagar, the accidental pāḷi translator.


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